Sample records for neutron quality factor

  1. Neutron quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

  2. Important Water Quality Factors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

  3. Factors affecting supplier quality performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Forker

    1997-01-01

    The interest among practitioners and researchers in quality management and other factors that may affect quality performance reflects the understanding that a firm's output (i.e., performance) can be only as good as the quality of its inputs. However, studies of the quality management-quality performance relationship have led to mixed results regarding the existence of a positive correlation between the two.

  4. The magnetic form factor of the neutron

    E-print Network

    E. E. W. Bruins

    1996-11-16

    A review of neutron form factor measurements is given. We focus on recent measurements of the neutron magnetic form factor $G_M^n$, and discuss in detail our measurements of this quantity at momentum transfers Q^2=0.1-0.6 (GeV/c)^2.

  5. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  6. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-05-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

  7. Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Häkkinen, Jukka; Nyman, Göte

    2007-02-01

    Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 60 participants after a subjective audiovisual quality evaluation experiment. The assessment compared several, relatively low audio-video bitrate ratios with five different television contents on mobile device. In the analysis, methodological triangulation (grounded theory, Bayesian networks and correspondence analysis) was applied to approach the qualitative quality. The results showed that the most important evaluation criteria were the factors of visual quality, contents, factors of audio quality, usefulness - followability and audiovisual interaction. Several relations between the quality factors and the similarities between the contents were identified. As a research methodological recommendation, the focus on content and usage related factors need to be further examined to improve the quality evaluation experiments.

  8. Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

    2007-10-01

    Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

  9. Establishing local workplace field correction factors for neutron personal dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa

    2014-10-01

    The present personal neutron dosemeters still need local correction factors to be able to provide accuracy comparable with photon dosemeters. Characterisation of the local neutron field is an indispensable part of neutron dosimetry to obtain such correction factors. It is often overlooked that besides characterisation in the neutron energy also the directional distribution of neutrons plays a crucial part in this characterisation. The authors have done such characterisation in the energy and angle for four workplace fields in Paks NPP. For this a relatively simple approximation method was used using the Nprobe for the energy distribution and measurements on the six sides of the slab phantom with personal dosemeters for the directional distribution. This allowed one to estimate a reference neutron Hp(10) rate and to compare it with the response of several neutron personal dosemeters. PMID:24962515

  10. Quality factor control for micromechanical resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T.-C. Nguyen; R. T. Howe

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of very high Q microelectromechanical filters, constructed of spring-coupled or parallel resonators, requires strict control over the quality factor of the constituent resonators. This report details electrostatic feedback techniques which allow precise control of the quality factor of a micromechanical resonator device, independent of the ambient operating pressure of the micromechanical system. Theoretical formulas governing Q-control are derived

  11. BNCT beam quality sensitivity to a source neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Vujic, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ludewigt, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    It has been shown that the clinical quality of the neutron beam available for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends strongly on the design of the beam shaping assembly (BSA). The same study showed that a neutron source based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction, which is induced by protons accelerated to 2.5 MeV, could provide treatment beams having better depth-dose characteristics than those attainable using existing reactor sources. The neutron flux spectrum from the former source peaks closer to the optimal treatment energy and has a narrower distribution. This poses a question: Is the superior shape of the treatment flux spectrum from the accelerator-based source mainly due to its softer source spectrum-its maximum neutron energy is below 800 keV-or to nonoptimal design of the BSA for the reactor-based source?

  12. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6? standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  13. Seismic Quality Factors Estimation From Spectral Correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senlin Yang; Jinghuai Gao

    2008-01-01

    This letter describes a method for estimating seismic quality (Q) factors from spectral correlation (SC). For a linear frequency attenuation model, the SC coefficient is examined between the amplitude spectrum of a reference pulse multiplied by an absorption filter and that of a target pulse, and then, the Q factor can be determined from the absorption filter which yields the

  14. A study of neutron radiation quality with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter for a low-energy accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Waker, A J

    2011-02-01

    The accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility at McMaster University has been used successfully for the measurement of several minor and trace elements in human hand bones due to their importance to health. Most of these in vivo measurements have been conducted at a proton beam energy (E(p)) of 2.00 MeV to optimise the activation of the selected element of interest with an effective dose of the same order as that received in chest X rays. However, measurement of other elements at the same facility requires beam energies other than 2.00 MeV. The range of energy of neutrons produced at these proton beam energies comes under the region where tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are known to experience difficulty in assessing the quality factor and dose equivalent. In this study, the response of TEPCs was investigated to determine the quality factor of neutron fields generated via the (7)Li(p, n)(7)Be reaction as a function of E(p) in the range 1.884-2.56 MeV at the position of hand irradiation in the facility. An interesting trend has been observed in the quality factor based on ICRP 60, Q(ICRP60), such that the maximum value was observed at E(p)=1.884 MeV (E(n)=33±16 keV) and then continued to decline with increasing E(p) until achieving a minimum value at E(p)=2.0 MeV despite a continuous increase in the mean neutron energy with E(p). This observation is contrary to what has been observed with direct fast neutrons where the quality factor was found to increase continuously with an increase in E(p) (i.e. increasing E(n)). The series of measurements conducted with thermal and fast neutron fields demonstrate that the (14)N(n, p)(14)C produced 580 keV protons in the detector play an important role in the response of the counter under 2.0 MeV proton energy (E(n) ? 250 keV). In contrast to the lower response of TEPCs to low-energy neutrons, the quality factor is overestimated in the range 1-2 depending on beam energy <2.0 MeV. This study provides an insight to understanding the response of TEPCs in low-energy neutron fields where the neutrons are moderated using a polyethylene moderator. PMID:21183541

  15. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  16. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  17. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30 St, P.O.BOX MG-6,Magurele, cod 077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  18. The Magnetic Form Factor of the Neutron, G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, Pete Edward Christopher

    We measured the d(e,e^' n)p cross-section at three values of Q^2 : 0.255, 0.176 and 0.109 (GeV/c)^2 . The electrons were detected with the OHIPS magnetic spectrometer, and the neutrons were detected in a liquid mineral oil scintillator array. The measurement were made at a fixed neutron angle of theta_ {n} = 57^circ; the Q^2 values were obtained by varying the incident electron energy and the scattering angle. These cross sections are sensitive primarily to the neutron magnetic form factor at these quasifree kinematics. The efficiency of the neutron detector was determined by the associated particle technique with the d(gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. The value of G_sp{M} {n} extracted from the cross sections are consistent with the dipole parametrization at the two higher momentum transfers; at the lowest momentum transfer the value of G_sp{M}{n} is 10% higher than the dipole model. This enhancement at low momentum transfer is consistent with previous measurements.

  19. Pressure Dependence of MEMS Oscillator Quality Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joshua; Geiger, Sarah; Gonzalez, Miguel; Zheng, Pan; Lee, Yoonseok

    2013-03-01

    This paper details a study in which the pressure dependence of the quality factor and resonance frequency of a micro-electro-mechanical device is examined. The results obtained will aid in the understanding of the effects of slide film damping in various gasses on oscillators operating at micrometer length scales. The device utilized was a capacitively driven plate oscillator positioned 1.25 ?m above a silicon substrate. The dominant damping mechanism for this geometry is slide film damping from the gaseous film between the oscillating plate and substrate. The mechanical resonance of the device was characterized as a function of pressure from 6 mTorr to 1 atm in air. We observed three distinct damping regimes in the quality factor. In addition to the characterization performed in air, pressure dependences in helium and argon were also examined at pressure ranges of 6.5 mTorr to 5 Torr and 750mTorr to 760 Torr, respectively. This paper details a study in which the pressure dependence of the quality factor and resonance frequency of a micro-electro-mechanical device is examined. The results obtained will aid in the understanding of the effects of slide film damping in various gasses on oscillators operating at micrometer length scales. The device utilized was a capacitively driven plate oscillator positioned 1.25 ?m above a silicon substrate. The dominant damping mechanism for this geometry is slide film damping from the gaseous film between the oscillating plate and substrate. The mechanical resonance of the device was characterized as a function of pressure from 6 mTorr to 1 atm in air. We observed three distinct damping regimes in the quality factor. In addition to the characterization performed in air, pressure dependences in helium and argon were also examined at pressure ranges of 6.5 mTorr to 5 Torr and 750mTorr to 760 Torr, respectively. This work is supported by NSF under DMR-1205891 and DMR-01156737 (SJG).

  20. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  1. The Neutron Charge Form Factor at Low Q^2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Eugene

    2007-04-01

    At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the neutron charge form factor GE^n has been measured by means of quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from vector-polarized deuterium ^2H(e,e^'n)p. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized, stored electron beam of the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly polarized internal deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements have been carried out with the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector with enhanced neutron detection capability. From the beam-target double polarization asymmetry with the target spin oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer the form factor GE^n is extracted over a range of four-momentum transfer, Q^2, between 0.1 and 0.55 (GeV/c)^2 with minimized systematic errors.

  2. Neutron Electromagnetic Form Factors Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave.,

    E-print Network

    Neutron Electromagnetic Form Factors H. Gao Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts probing the neutron electromagnetic structure. In this talk, I review the experimental status of the neutron electromagnetic form factor studies. The recently completed Je erson Lab experiment E95

  3. Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

  4. Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

  5. Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Alan; Ni, Benwen; Anderson, Brian; Flanders, Bruce; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Hyde, Charles; Manley, D.; Tieger, Daniel; Barkhuff, David; Keane, Declan; Dodson, George; Arenhovel, Hartmuth; Kelly, James; Mougey, Jean; Cameron, John; Dow, Karen; Beard, Kevin; Weinstein, Lawrence; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Spraker, Mark; Finn, Michael; Rutt, Paul; Ulmer, Paul; Markowitz, Pete; Pella, Peter; Whitney, R.; Madey, Richard; Lourie, Robert; Van Verst, Scott; Kowalski, Stanley; Eden, Thomas; Payerle, Thomas; Reichelt, Tilmann; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Bertozzi, William; Turchinetz, William; Watson, William; Korsch, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The 2H(e,e'n)1H quasielastic cross section was measured at Q2 values of 0.109, 0.176, and 0.255 (GeV/c)2. The neutron detection efficiency was determined by the associated particle technique with the 2H( gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. These 2H(e,e'n) measurements of the coincidence cross sections are the first at low Q2. The cross sections are sensitive primarily to the neutron magnetic form factor GnM at these kinematics. The extracted GnM values have smaller uncertainties than previous data and are consistent with the dipole parametrization at the two higher momentum transfers; at the lowest momentum transfer, the value of GnM is ~10% higher than t

  6. Influence of Management Factors on Silage Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making high quality silage starts by harvesting the crop at optimum quality. However, silage quality also depends on silo management. All of the silage management principles focus on one issue: eliminating or minimizing the exposure of the crop to oxygen. The reason for this goes back to what silage...

  7. Quality Factor Identification for Stacks in Resonant Thermoacoustic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunping Zhang; Fangzhong Guo; Xiaoqing Zhang; Wei Liu; Feng Wu

    2009-01-01

    In thermoacoustic systems, stacks with different matrix geometry and material coupled with different acoustic systems present different heat dynamic performances, which have influences on the efficiency of energy conversion. Then the quality factor is used to evaluate the performance of each matrix and verified experimentally in thermoacoustic system. It is showed that the pin-array matrix has the best quality factor

  8. Critical Success Factors of Supplier Quality Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-Ki Yeung; Kwai-Sang Chin

    2004-01-01

    Supplier quality management (SQM) is considered as a proactive approach in the buyers’ perspective to seek for continuous supply quality improvement and collaborative ongoing alliance between buyers and suppliers. Therefore, it is important for the buyers to understand their circumstances for managing their suppliers, and thereby to search for an improved way to rectify managerial deficiencies, if any. This paper

  9. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  10. Factors Affecting the Eating Quality of Pork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania M. Ngapo; Claude Gariépy

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade studies with the specific objective of improving the sensory quality of pork have come to the forefront of meat research, likely a result of consumer complaints of blandness levelled against modern lean meat and the frequent reference to the more strongly flavored meat that was available years ago. Regardless of the lack of scientific evidence to

  11. Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pen-Nan

    1991-01-01

    Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

  12. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

  13. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

  14. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

  15. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

  16. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

  17. A Measurement Quality Factor for Swath Bathymetry Sounders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Lurton; Jean-Marie Augustin

    2010-01-01

    The quality estimation associated with individual soundings measured and computed by swath bathymetry sonars is a paramount issue which is most often imperfectly addressed today by sonar manufacturers. In this paper, a unified definition is proposed for a quality factor usable for all swath bathymetry sonars; the depth-relative error is directly estimated from the signal characteristics used in the sounding

  18. Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R. T. [AREVA NP Inc., 6399 San Ignacio Ave., San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

  19. Moments of the neutron charge form factor and the N->Delta quadrupole transition

    E-print Network

    P. Grabmayr; A. J. Buchmann

    2001-04-20

    Recent data allow a new parametrization of the neutron charge form factor G_En. A parameter-free quark model relation between G_En and the N->Delta quadrupole form factor is used to predict the latter from the G_En data. In particular, the neutron charge radius is related to N->Delta quadrupole moment, while the fourth moment of G_En connects to the N->Delta quadrupole transition radius. From the latter we derive an experimental value for the charge radius of the light constituent quarks. Finally, the C2/M1 ratio in pion electroproduction is predicted from the elastic neutron form factor data.

  20. Quality factor concept in piezoceramic transformer performance description.

    PubMed

    Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2006-02-01

    A new general approach based on the quality factor concept to piezoceramic transformer (PT) performance description is proposed. The system's quality factor, material elastic anisotropy, and coupling factors of the input and output sections of an electrically excited and electrically loaded PT fully characterize its resonance and near-resonance behavior. The PT efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output power were analytically analyzed and simulated as functions of the load and frequency for the simplest classical Langevin-type and Rosen-type PT designs. A new formulation of the electrical input impedance allows one to separate the power consumed by PT from the power transferred into the load. The system's PT quality factor takes into account losses in each PT "input-output-load" functional components. The loading process is changing PT input electrical impedance on the way that under loading the minimum series impedance is increasing and the maximum parallel impedance is decreasing coincidentally. The quality-factors ratio, between the states of fully loaded and nonloaded PT, is one of the best measures of PTs dynamic performance--practically, the lower the ratio is, the better PT efficiency. A simple and effective method for the loaded PT quality factor determination is proposed. As was found, a piezoceramic with low piezoelectric anisotropy is required to provide maximum PT efficiency and higher corresponding voltage gain. Limitations on the PT output voltage and power, caused by nonlinear effects in piezoceramics, were established. PMID:16529118

  1. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster

    2004-02-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

  2. Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors 

    E-print Network

    Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are calculated for three types of finger and wrist extremity phantoms: (1) the polymethyl methacrylate models specified by the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program...

  3. Comment on ``Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, F. C.

    1997-12-01

    The procedure proposed by Mohr et al. [Phys. Rev. C 55, 1591 (1997)] for extracting the spectroscopic factor for a bound s-wave neutron state from the scattering length appears to be of doubtful validity and accuracy.

  4. Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

  5. Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, comfort and realism

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    quality. Keywords: 3D quality, stereoscopic quality, subjective evaluation, 3D database classification 1Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, there are many discussions on controlling and improving the 3D quality. But what does this notion represent

  6. Basic concept and characteristics of beam quality indicator for continuum neutron spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisao Kobayashi; Yoshiaki Kiyanagi

    1996-01-01

    Characteristics of a beam quality indicator (BQI), which has been recently developed to determine an effective energy of neutron beams with continuum spectra, are studied by means of a simplified calculation. The effective energy is defined with respect to a thickness ratio corresponding to the ratio of two energy dependent cross sections. The thickness ratio is defined such that the

  7. Factors Affecting the Quality of Southern Short Cure Cheddar Cheese.

    E-print Network

    Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendel Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

    1944-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 646 FEBRUARY 1944 FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. HANSON, W. S. ARBUCKLE and C. N. SHEPARDSON... AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. Hanson,' W. S. Arbuckle,' and C. N. Shepardson" Cheddar cheese has been made for many years, but no work was at- tempted to scientifically explain the ripening of cheese until fifty years...

  8. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalari, G.; Maissen, C.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.; Faist, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  9. High quality factor, fully switchable THz superconducting metasurface

    E-print Network

    Scalari, Giacomo; Cibella, Sara; Leoni, Roberto; Faist, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q=54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with an high Q and inductive elements with an high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  10. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P

    2014-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  11. Exploiting environmental resonances to enhance qubit quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleff, Silvia; Kehrein, Stefan; von Delft, Jan

    2004-07-01

    We discuss dephasing times for a two-level system (including bias) coupled to a damped harmonic oscillator. This system is realized in measurements on solid-state Josephson qubits. It can be mapped to a spin-boson model with a spectral function with an approximately Lorentzian resonance. We diagonalize the model by means of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations) and calculate correlation functions, dephasing rates, and qubit quality factors. We find that these depend strongly on the environmental resonance frequency ? ; in particular, quality factors can be enhanced significantly by tuning ? to lie below the qubit frequency ? .

  12. Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

  13. The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.

  14. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and classification performance still has room for improvement, but the extraction results are applicable to more detailed analysis. Further analysis of the extracted information reveals that there are differences in the details of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals according to the regions in Korea, and the patterns of change seem to accurately reflect social events (eg, influenza epidemics). Conclusions These findings could be used to provide timely information to caregivers, hospital officials, and medical officials for health care policies. PMID:25855612

  15. Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Baldwin; Benwen Ni; Brian Anderson; Bruce Flanders; C. Chang; Charles Hyde; D. Manley; Daniel Tieger; David Barkhuff; Declan Keane; George Dodson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; James Kelly; Jean Mougey; John Cameron; Karen Dow; Kevin Beard; Lawrence Weinstein; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Mark Spraker; Michael Finn; Paul Rutt; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Pella; R. Whitney; Richard Madey; Robert Lourie; Scott Van Verst; Stanley Kowalski; Thomas Eden; Thomas Payerle; Tilmann Reichelt; W. Jiang; Wei-Ming Zhang; William Bertozzi; William Turchinetz; William Watson; Wolfgang Korsch

    1992-01-01

    The 2<\\/sup>H(e,e'<\\/scr>n)1<\\/sup>H quasielastic cross section was measured at Q2<\\/sup> values of 0.109, 0.176, and 0.255 (GeV\\/c)2<\\/sup>. The neutron detection efficiency was determined by the associated particle technique with the 2<\\/sup>H( gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. These 2<\\/sup>H(e,e'<\\/scr>n) measurements of the coincidence cross sections are the first at low Q2<\\/sup>. The cross sections are sensitive

  16. Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

    1984-01-01

    Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

  17. FOXO transcription factors: key regulators of cellular quality control

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ashley E.; Brunet, Anne

    2014-01-01

    FOXO transcription factors are conserved regulators of longevity downstream of insulin signaling. These transcription factors integrate signals emanating from nutrient deprivation and stress stimuli to coordinate programs of genes involved in cellular metabolism and resistance to oxidative stress. Here we discuss emerging evidence for a pivotal role of FOXO factors in promoting the expression of genes involved in autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system – two cell clearance processes that are essential for maintaining organelle and protein homeostasis (proteostasis). The ability of FOXO to maintain cellular quality control appears to be critical in processes and pathologies where damaged proteins and organelles accumulate, including aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24630600

  18. Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients’ compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised. PMID:23424015

  19. Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths

    E-print Network

    P. Mohr; H. Herndl; H. Oberhummer

    1996-12-18

    A simple and model-independent method is described to derive neutron single-particle spectroscopic factors of bound s-wave states in $^{A+1}Z = ^{A}Z \\otimes n$ nuclei from neutron scattering lengths. Spectroscopic factors for the nuclei ^{13}C, ^{14}C, ^{16}N, ^{17}O, ^{19}O, ^{23}Ne, ^{37}Ar, and ^{41}Ar are compared to results derived from transfer experiments using the well-known DWBA analysis and to shell model calculations. The scattering length of ^{14}C is calculated from the ^{15}C_{g.s.} spectroscopic factor.

  20. Neutron Electric Form Factor Measurement via d(e,e'n)p at Jefferson Lab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongguo Zhu

    2002-01-01

    We determined the neutron electric form factor (G_E^n) by scattering a longitudinally polarized electron beam from a polarized deuterated ammonia target in late 2001 in Jefferson Lab. The quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron and the spin-dependent part of the cross section was measured. The data was analyzed in terms of spin-correlation parameter (A_ed^V) and

  1. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  2. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  3. Photon attenuation and neutron moderation correction factors for the inspection of cargo containers with tagged neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Perot, B.; Viesti, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bottosso, C.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.

    2007-11-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the D(T,n ?) reaction to detect explosives in cargo containers. Fast-neutron-induced reactions inside the container produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle. The definition of the neutron path and the time-of-flight measurement allow positioning the source of the gamma ray inside the container, while the chemical composition of the target material is correlated with the energy spectrum of the coincident gamma rays. However, in case of dense cargo, neutron moderation and photon attenuation inside the container make difficult the reconstruction of the material composition from the measured gamma-ray energy spectrum. An analytical method has been developed and validated against experimental data, which allows obtaining the chemical carbon-to-oxygen and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of the inspected items from the gamma-ray energy spectra. The principle of the method is presented along with validation tests.

  4. Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

  5. Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875

  6. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes.

    PubMed

    Burda, O; Sato, T; Wissmann, F

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown. PMID:23480894

  7. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, O.; Sato, T.; Wissmann, F.

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown.

  8. Crop management factors influencing yield and quality of crop residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. S Reddy; P Sanjana Reddy; F Bidinger; M Blümmel

    2003-01-01

    In the semi-arid tropics, over two-third’s of the world’s people depend on agriculture within which livestock play a major role in building rural livelihoods. Crop residues (fodder\\/stover) are important feed resources for ruminants. This review was undertaken with the objective of improving understanding of the role of various crop management factors in affecting the productivity and quality of crop residues.

  9. Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality

    E-print Network

    Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-7-5 Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality Qing-hai Luo Ze-hua Liu Jun Xiong Doc., Associate Prof. Professor Associate Prof. College... IAQ and operating efficiency. Liu et al [6] introduced special cleaning equipments and cleaning process for HAVC system. Table 1 presents the comparison between data of supply air, return air and bacteria in two guest rooms of a hotel before...

  10. Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Burek, Michael J; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

    2014-12-15

    Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~10(5), realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W(-1). PMID:25607041

  11. Exact limiting relation between the structure factors in neutron and x-ray scattering

    E-print Network

    V. B. Bobrov; S. A. Trigger; S. N. Skovorod'ko

    2010-07-11

    The ratio of the static matter structure factor measured in experiments on coherent X-ray scattering to the static structure factor measured in experiments on neutron scattering is considered. It is shown theoretically that this ratio in the long-wavelength limit is equal to the nucleus charge at arbitrary thermodynamic parameters of a pure substance (the system of nuclei and electrons, where interaction between particles is pure Coulomb) in a disordered equilibrium state. This result is the exact relation of the quantum statistical mechanics. The experimental verification of this relation can be done in the long wavelength X-ray and neutron experiments.

  12. Relationship factors and quality among mixed-orientation couples.

    PubMed

    Kays, Jill L; Yarhouse, Mark A; Ripley, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-orientation couples are defined as a heterosexual couple in which 1 partner experiences same-sex attraction and the other does not. Despite the fact that there is a sizable number of mixed-orientation couples in the U.S. adult population, few researchers have studied this population, and thus, there is limited understanding of these relationships. The authors examined the degree to which relationship commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values were associated with relationship quality, and how these variables predicted relationship quality. The total sample (N = 265) consisted of 2 independent samples-105 sexual minorities (i.e., the spouse who experiences same-sex attraction) and 160 heterosexual spouses. The data were not dyadic. Together, commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values accounted for roughly 43% of the variance in relationship quality. Relationship commitment was found to be the largest single predictor of relationship quality, followed by partner-focused forgivingness. Research and clinical implications are discussed. This study significantly adds to the current research base by quantitatively measuring various variables in these relationships, as well as expanding our understanding of relationship quality in mixed-orientation couples and factors that may play a role. PMID:24328786

  13. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well

    E-print Network

    The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water-Quality: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality By Sandra M. Eberts, Mary Ann Thomas

  14. Model for water factor measurements with fission-neutron logging tools. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, C. J.

    1983-05-01

    During 1977 and 1978, a Fission Neutron Water Factor Model was designed and constructed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Grand Junction facility. This model features seven water-filled boreholes with different diameters. All of these boreholes penetrate, in order from the top of the model, a 5-foot-thick (1.52 m), uniform, concrete upper ''barren zone''; a 6-foot-thick (1.83 m), uniform, uranium-enriched, concrete ''ore zone''; and a 4-foot-thick (1.22 m), uniform, concrete lower ''barren zone''. The response of a fission neutron logging tool in a water-filled borehole is affected by variations in the borehole diameter. This diameter-dependent effect can be deduced from logs run in several different boreholes of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model. This report describes the construction of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model and also presents values for model parameters which are of interest in fission-neutron logging.

  15. Neutron Electric Form Factor Measurement via d(e,e'n)p at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongguo

    2002-10-01

    We determined the neutron electric form factor (G_E^n) by scattering a longitudinally polarized electron beam from a polarized deuterated ammonia target in late 2001 in Jefferson Lab. The quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron and the spin-dependent part of the cross section was measured. The data was analyzed in terms of spin-correlation parameter (A_ed^V) and the neutron electric form factor was determined at four momentum transfer squared of 0.5 (GeV/c)^2. Our preliminary result is consistent with data from existing experiment and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of G_E^n.

  16. Recent and Future Measurements of the Neutron Electric Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, Andrei [University of Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    I review recently conducted measurements of G{sub E}{sup n} as well as precision form factor experiments at high momentum transfer that will be performed with the 11 GeV electron beam at Jefferson Lab.

  17. Polarization in projectile fragmentation and g -factor measurements for neutron-rich nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Okuno; K. Asahi; H. Ueno; H. Sato; M. Adachi; T. Kubo; T. Nakamura; N. Inabe; A. Yoshida; Y. Ohkubo; T. Ichihara; M. Ishihara; T. Shimoda; H. Miyatake; N. Takahashi

    1993-01-01

    A method to produce beams of polarized unstable nuclei was developed, which fully exploits the advantageous features of the projectile fragmentation reaction. The method was applied tog-factor measurements of several neutron-rich nuclei. We present experimental results so far obtained and discuss capabilities and limitations the present polarization method has.

  18. Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')

    SciTech Connect

    Dipangkar Dutta

    2000-12-12

    A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

  19. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  20. Survey of ground state neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Li to Cr isotopes

    E-print Network

    M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; W. G. Lynch

    2005-09-09

    The ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 have been extracted by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions from (d,p) and (p,d) reactions. We demonstrate an approach that provides systematic and consistent values with minimum assumptions. For the 61 nuclei that have been described by large-basis shell-model calculations, most experimental spectroscopic factors are reproduced to within 20%.

  1. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  2. Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality factor or Q. This term describes the photon lifetime (?o) within the resonator, which is directly related to the resonator's optical losses. Therefore, an optical resonator with a high Q factor has low optical losses, long photon lifetimes, and very low photon decay rates (1/?o). As a result of the long photon lifetimes, it is possible to build-up extremely large circulating optical field intensities in these devices. This very unique property has allowed these devices to be used as laser sources and integrated biosensors.10 A unique sub-class of resonators is the whispering gallery mode optical microcavity. In these devices, the light is confined in circular orbits at the periphery. Therefore, the field is not completely confined within the device, but evanesces into the environment. Whispering gallery mode optical cavities have demonstrated some of the highest quality factors of any optical resonant cavity to date.9,11 Therefore, these devices are used throughout science and engineering, including in fundamental physics studies and in telecommunications as well as in biodetection experiments. 3-7,12 Optical microcavities can be fabricated from a wide range of materials and in a wide variety of geometries. A few examples include silica and silicon microtoroids, silicon, silicon nitride, and silica microdisks, micropillars, and silica and polymer microrings.13-17 The range in quality factor (Q) varies as dramatically as the geometry. Although both geometry and high Q are important considerations in any field, in many applications, there is far greater leverage in boosting device performance through Q enhancement. Among the numerous options detailed previously, the silica microsphere and the silica microtoroid resonator have achieved some of the highest Q factors to date.1,9 Additionally, as a result of the extremely low optical loss of silica from the visible through the near-IR, both microspheres and microtoroids are able to maintain their Q factors over a wide range of testing wavelengths.18 Finally, because silica is inherently biocompatible,

  3. Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data…

  4. Variation of groundwater quality in seawater intrusion area using cluster and multivariate factor analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Chu Huang; Chou-Ping Yang; Yu-Chun Lee; Ping-Kuei Tang; Wen-Ming Hsu; Tien-Nien Wu

    2010-01-01

    Numerous monitoring data and water quality index obtained from 76 regional shallow-layer monitoring wells are simplified and classified by applying the multivariate statistical methods such as factor and cluster analysis to search for the interrelation between the water quality parameters, factors representing the characteristics as well as possible pollution sources of groundwater quality in Pingtung Champaign, Taiwan. Four principal factors

  5. Bulk H analysis using neutrons for routine quality control of cassava and products.

    PubMed

    Jonah, S A; Okunade, I O; Abolude, O; Onyike, E; Inuwa, I M

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear and related techniques are useful in addressing the issues of food security and safety facing the world today, via quality control of raw materials and products. In this work, experimental investigations were performed to assess the use of total hydrogen content in cassava and products as a quality control indicator of starch and cyanide contents. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Cassava samples and products were obtained from retail outlets of Ibadan, Umudike and Zaria, representing three major regions of Nigeria. In general, data obtained indicate a total hydrogen content range of 4.47±0.11-10.71±0.27wt% for the various samples, including raw, dry and processed cassava. Results show that samples having low hydrogen content are generally rich in cyanide compounds and demonstrate an inverse relationship between hydrogen content and cyanide content. The implication of this is that the neutron reflection facility can be used as a quality control setup for routine determination of hydrogen as an indicator of the cyanide content in cassava and products. PMID:21463948

  6. Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-12-01

    We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ˜ P-1 behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ˜ Pc with c ? 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ˜ 1.

  7. Carbon nanotubes as ultrahigh quality factor mechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Hüttel, Andreas K; Steele, Gary A; Witkamp, Benoit; Poot, Menno; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2009-07-01

    We have observed the transversal vibration mode of suspended carbon nanotubes at millikelvin temperatures by measuring the single-electron tunneling current. The suspended nanotubes are actuated contact-free by the radio frequency electric field of a nearby antenna; the mechanical resonance is detected in the time-averaged current through the nanotube. Sharp, gate-tunable resonances due to the bending mode of the nanotube are observed, combining resonance frequencies of up to nu(0) = 350 MHz with quality factors above Q = 10(5), much higher than previously reported results on suspended carbon nanotube resonators. The measured magnitude and temperature dependence of the Q factor shows a remarkable agreement with the intrinsic damping predicted for a suspended carbon nanotube. By adjusting the radio frequency power on the antenna, we find that the nanotube resonator can easily be driven into the nonlinear regime. PMID:19492820

  8. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300?M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20?M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p?=?0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p?=?0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p?=?0.01, p?=?0.05, and p?=?0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p?=?0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p?=?0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p?=?0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p?=?0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  9. Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Cossairt, J Donald; Vaziri, Kamran

    2009-06-01

    In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection regulation Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the context of the amended regulation and contemporary guidance of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. Also, a set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision and of recent ICRP publications are found to be of moderate significance. PMID:19430214

  10. Temperature dependence of the Westcott g-factor for neutron capture reactions in ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Westcott g-factors, which allow the user to determine reaction rates for nuclear reactions taking place at various temperatures, have been calculated using data from the Evaluated Neutron Nuclear Data library, ENDF-VI. The nuclides chosen have g-factors which are significantly different from unity and result in different reaction rates compared to nuclides whose neutron capture cross section varies as the reciprocal of the neutron`s velocity. Values are presented as a function of temperature up to 400{degrees}C.

  11. Rating educational quality: factors in the erosion of professional standards.

    PubMed

    Albanese, M

    1999-06-01

    Changes in the health care environment are putting increasing pressure on medical schools to make faculty accountable and to document the quality of the medical education they provide. Faculty's ratings of students' performances and students' ratings of faculty's teaching are important elements in these efforts to document educational quality. This article discusses selected research related to factors affecting raters' judgments, analyzes how changes in the health care environment are influencing such judgments, and links these influences to the system that upholds professional standards. Ratings are known to have a positive bias (generosity error), provide limited discrimination, and often fail to document serious deficits. The potential sources of these problems relate to the mechanics of the rating task, the system used to obtain ratings, and factors affecting rater judgment. As managed care demands reduce the time faculty have for teaching, as system-wide disincentives to provide negative ratings proliferate, and as social engineering challenges, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, impose differential standards for students, the natural tendency to avoid giving negative ratings becomes even harder to resist. Ultimately, these forces compromise the capability of faculty to uphold the standards of the profession. The author calls for a national effort to stem the erosion of those standards. PMID:10386091

  12. Some Aspects of Quality Assurance and Quality Control in Neutron Activation Analysis of Airborne Particles

    SciTech Connect

    S. Landsberger; P. K. Hopke; S. Biegalski

    1998-12-31

    It is possible to learn a considerable amount about the quality of a data set by examining the data itself. Data validation methods can be used to identify potential problem points that require further examination. These points can arise because of unusual events that produce very high or very low values. It may be that these samples should be excluded from further analysis because they do not represent the normally observed situation. They also may be present because of errors in the sampling and analysis process, and examination may permit identification of problems. If the data permit, new values can be calculated after the process has been fixed. Alternatively, it may only be possible to ensure that future data do not include such errors. The key point is that the data should be examined for quality before being used for other purposes such as receptor modeling so that time is not spent in analyzing problematic data.

  13. Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

    2011-10-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

  14. Three-dimensionally confined modes in micropost microcavities: quality factors and Purcell factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Pelton; J. Vukovic; G. S. Solomon; Axel Scherer; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2002-01-01

    We present detailed calculations of the mode struc- ture of distributed-Bragg-reflector micropost microcavities. Two methods are used: a first-principles, finite-difference time-domain model, and an approximate, heuristic model based on the sepa- ration of variables. We calculate modal quality factors, as well as enhancement of spontaneous emission rates, from single quantum dots in the microcavities. Both ideal and realistic post shapes

  15. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

    2014-05-21

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small. PMID:24778349

  16. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

    2014-05-01

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  17. Charge and matter distributions and form factors of light, medium and heavy neutron-rich nuclei

    E-print Network

    A. N. Antonov; D. N. Kadrev; M. K. Gaidarov; E. Moya de Guerra; P. Sarriguren; J. M. Udias; V. K. Lukyanov; E. V. Zemlyanaya; G. Z. Krumova

    2005-09-09

    Results of charge form factors calculations for several unstable neutron-rich isotopes of light, medium and heavy nuclei (He, Li, Ni, Kr, Sn) are presented and compared to those of stable isotopes in the same isotopic chain. For the lighter isotopes (He and Li) the proton and neutron densities are obtained within a microscopic large-scale shell-model, while for heavier ones Ni, Kr and Sn the densities are calculated in deformed self-consistent mean-field Skyrme HF+BCS method. We also compare proton densities to matter densities together with their rms radii and diffuseness parameter values. Whenever possible comparison of form factors, densities and rms radii with available experimental data is also performed. Calculations of form factors are carried out both in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) and in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA). These form factors are suggested as predictions for the future experiments on the electron-radioactive beam colliders where the effect of the neutron halo or skin on the proton distributions in exotic nuclei is planned to be studied and thereby the various theoretical models of exotic nuclei will be tested.

  18. Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Glazier

    2007-09-30

    Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

  19. Anomalous Behavior of High Quality Factor Planar Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, Ben; Dunsworth, Andrew; Quintana, Chris; Campbell, Brooks; Kelly, Julian; Barends, Rami; Chen, Yu; Jeffrey, Evan; Mutus, Josh; Neill, Charles; O'Malley, Peter; Sank, Daniel; Vainsencher, Amit; Wenner, Jim; White, Ted; Bochmann, Jorg; Hoi, Iochun; Palmstrom, Christopher; Martinis, John; Cleland, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have proven to be invaluable tools in studying some of the decoherence mechanisms found in superconducting qubits. Surface two-level states tend to dominate decoherence at temperatures below Tc/10 and at very low microwave powers, assuming loss through other channels (e.g. quasiparticles, vortices, and radiation loss) has been mitigated through proper shielding and design. I will present recent measurements of resonators whose behavior diverges significantly from the standard two-level state model at low temperatures and low excitation energies, resulting in startling behavior of the internal quality factor. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  20. Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

    2005-05-01

    The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

  1. Charge density distributions and related form factors in neutron-rich light exotic nuclei

    E-print Network

    A. N. Antonov; M. K. Gaidarov; D. N. Kadrev; P. E. Hodgson; E. Moya de Guerra

    2004-01-28

    Charge form factors corresponding to proton density distributions in exotic nuclei, such as $^{6,8}$He, $^{11}$Li, $^{17,19}$B and $^{14}$Be are calculated and compared. The results can be used as tests of various theoretical models for the exotic nuclei structure in possible future experiments using a colliding electron-exotic nucleus storage ring. The result of such a comparison would show the effect of the neutron halo or skin on the proton distributions in exotic nuclei.

  2. Survey of excited state neutron spectroscopic factors for Z=8-28 nuclei

    E-print Network

    M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; S. C. Su; J. Y. Dai; M. Horoi; H. Liu; W. G. Lynch; S. Warren

    2009-01-14

    We have extracted 565 neutron spectroscopic factors of sd and fp shell nuclei by systematically analyzing more than 2000 measured (d,p) angular distributions. We are able to compare 125 of the extracted spectroscopic factors to values predicted by large-basis shell-model calculations and evaluate the accuracies of spectroscopic factors predicted by different shell-model interactions in these regions. We find that the spectroscopic factors predicted for most excited states of sd-shell nuclei using the latest USDB or USDA interactions agree with the experimental values. For fp shell nuclei, the inability of the current models to account for the core excitation and fragmentation of the states leads to considerable discrepancies. In particular, the agreement between data and shell-model predictions for Ni isotopes is not better than a factor of two using either the GXPF1A or the XT interaction.

  3. Quality Management Dimensions, Contextual Factors and Performance: An Empirical Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bishnu Sharma

    2006-01-01

    In an assessment of the status of quality management dimensions in Queensland businesses, this study has used Powell's (1995) framework of quality management. A mail survey approach was used to collect the information on various dimensions of quality management considered in this study. The results suggest that implementation of quality management practices in Queensland businesses has begun but not much

  4. A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded

    E-print Network

    High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum) spectroscopy. The PL measurements show a large number of high Q factor (Q) resonant modes on the whole spectrum report a considerable improvement of the Q factor which reflect the etching quality and the relatively

  6. Indoor Air Quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building John D. Spengler

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be used routinely. CFD will be integrated into air quality and risk. 2000. "Indoor air quality factors in designing a healthy building," Annual Review of Energy

  7. SICANE: a detector array for the measurement of nuclear recoil quenching factors using a monoenergetic neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, E.; Bergé, L.; Broniatowski, A.; Bouvier, R.; Chambon, B.; de Jésus, M.; Drain, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Gascon, J.; Hadjout, J.-P.; Juillard, A.; Martineau, O.; Pastor, C.; Stern, M.; Vagneron, L.

    2003-07-01

    SICANE is a neutron scattering multidetector facility for the determination of the quenching factor (ratio of the response to nuclear recoils and to electrons) of cryogenic detectors used in direct WIMP searches. Well-collimated monoenergetic neutron beams are obtained with inverse /(p,n) reactions. The facility is described, and results obtained for the quenching factors of scintillation in NaI(Tl) and of heat and ionization in Ge are presented.

  8. Effects of extended storage on egg quality factors.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2005-11-01

    Eggs were collected from a single inline processing facility weekly for 3 wk (replicates). The eggs were stored at 4 degrees C and 80% RH. Sampling began the day after collection and continued each week for 10 wk. During analysis, 24 eggs were examined for egg weight, albumen height, Haugh units (HU), shell strength, and vitelline membrane strength for each replicate. Egg weight decreased (P < 0.0001) from approximately 61 to 57 g after 10 wk of storage. Eggs from the second replicate were significantly (P < 0.0001) heavier than the other replicates by an average of 3 g. On average, albumen height decreased with extended storage (P < 0.0001) from 7.05 to 4.85 mm. Albumen height was approximately 0.2 mm higher for the eggs in replicate 2 compared with the other replicates (P < 0.01). Haugh unit values decreased during cold storage from 82.59 to 67.43 (P < 0.0001). There were no differences between replicates for HU values. No differences were detected for shell strength between replicates or during extended storage. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in detectable vitelline membrane strength between replicates, but this difference was less than 0.05 g. The elasticity of the vitelline membrane decreased during storage (P < 0.01) remaining low after 6 wk. Extended cold storage led to decreases in egg weight, albumen height, and HU. However, average HU values were still within the range for grade A. Shell strength was not affected by extended storage. Vitelline membrane elasticity also decreased, which could lead to yolks more easily rupturing as consumers crack the eggs. The results indicated that although the physical quality factors monitored in this study decreased during storage, egg quality was still acceptable beyond current recommended shelf life guidelines. PMID:16463976

  9. A technique for continuous measurement of the quality factor of mechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicolás D.

    2015-05-01

    Thermal noise is a limit to precision measurement in many fields. The relationship of the quality factor of mechanical systems to the thermal noise has compelled many researchers to search for materials with low mechanical losses. Typical measurements of mechanical quality factor involve exciting a mechanical resonator and observing the exponential decay of the amplitude under free oscillations. Estimation of the decay time allows one to infer the quality factor. In this article, we describe an alternative technique in which the resonator is forced to oscillate at constant amplitude, and the quality factor is estimated by measuring the drive amplitude required to maintain constant oscillation amplitude. A straightforward method for calibration of the quality factor is presented, along with an analysis of the propagation of measurement uncertainties. Such a technique allows the quality factor to be measured continuously in real time and at constant signal to noise ratio.

  10. A technique for continuous measurement of the quality factor of mechanical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicolás D

    2015-05-01

    Thermal noise is a limit to precision measurement in many fields. The relationship of the quality factor of mechanical systems to the thermal noise has compelled many researchers to search for materials with low mechanical losses. Typical measurements of mechanical quality factor involve exciting a mechanical resonator and observing the exponential decay of the amplitude under free oscillations. Estimation of the decay time allows one to infer the quality factor. In this article, we describe an alternative technique in which the resonator is forced to oscillate at constant amplitude, and the quality factor is estimated by measuring the drive amplitude required to maintain constant oscillation amplitude. A straightforward method for calibration of the quality factor is presented, along with an analysis of the propagation of measurement uncertainties. Such a technique allows the quality factor to be measured continuously in real time and at constant signal to noise ratio. PMID:26026536

  11. A measurement of the neutron electric form factor in D meson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongguo

    The form factors of the neutron give information on fundamental properties of the nucleons and provide a critical testing ground for models based on QCD. In late 1998, Jefferson Lab (JLAB) experiment E93-026 measured the spin-dependent part of the exclusive (e, e'n) scattering cross section from a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND 3) target at four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered from the polarized target and the quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron. The data have been analyzed in terms of the spin-correlation parameter, or the electron-deuteron vector asymmetry (AVed) , of (e, e'n) to determine the neutron electric form factor GnE . The result is consistent with data from existing experiments and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of GnE within experimental uncertainty.

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  13. Impact of the neutron detector choice on Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor for subcriticality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Cao, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2012-03-01

    In subcritical assemblies, the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used to correct the measured reactivity from different detector positions. In addition to the measuring position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the detector material, the detector size, and the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons. The effective multiplication factor calculated by computer codes in criticality mode slightly differs from the average value obtained from the measurements in the different experimental channels of the subcritical assembly, which are corrected by the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor. Generally, this difference is due to (1) neutron counting errors; (2) geometrical imperfections, which are not simulated in the calculational model, and (3) quantities and distributions of material impurities, which are missing from the material definitions. This work examines these issues and it focuses on the detector choice and the calculation methodologies. The work investigated the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly of Belarus, which has been operated with three different fuel enrichments in the fast zone either: high (90%) and medium (36%), medium (36%), or low (21%) enriched uranium fuel.

  14. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, J. M.; the" post="">ATLAS Tile Calorimeter System, Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measurement for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measurement has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measurement to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superimposed information, and the QF may be used again as signal acceptance criterion. In this work, a new QF measurement is introduced. It is based on divergence statistics, which measures the similarity of probability density functions.

  15. The NE11 experiment at SLAC and the neutron form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, L.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lung, A.; Bosted, P.E. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1993-05-01

    The neutron electromagnetic form factors G{sub En} and G{sub Mn}, which reflect the charge and magnetization distributions within the neutron, are of fundamental importance for understanding nucleon structure, and are necessary for calculations of processes involving the electromagnetic interaction with complex nuclei. These quantities are functions of Q{sup 2}, the four-momentum transfer squared. SLAC experiment NE11 has measured these form factors out to a Q{sup 2} of 4.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} with high precision, and the results have been recently published. This paper provides some additional details on the extraction of G{sub Mn} and G{sub En} from the NE11 measurements. Several formalisms have been developed over the years which attempt to understand the nucleon form factors using basic physical principles. Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) models are based on superpositions of photon couplings to various vector mesons. These models generally involve free parameters which are fit to form factor data at low Q{sup 2}, and are not expected to be valid at high Q{sup 2}. For asymptotically large Q{sup 2}, dimensional scaling methods and perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD) predict form factor behavior at large Q{sup 2}, but they do not make absolute magnitude predictions. To describe the form factor behavior at intermediate values of Q{sup 2}, a hybrid model by Gari and Kruempelmann (GK) uses VMD constraints at low Q{sub 2} and pQCD constraints at high Q{sup 2}. Free parameters in the model are adjusted to fit existing form factor data. Other approaches include the use of QCD sum rules to make absolute predictions, diquark models, and relativistic constituent quark models.

  16. Quadrupole moments and g factors for high-spin neutron isomers in {sup 193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Bucurescu, D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Balabanski, D.L. [IKS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Chmel, S.; Baldsiefen, G.; Goergen, A.; Huebel, H. [Helmholtz-Institute fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Neyens, G.; Vyvey, K. [IKS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Menegazzo, R.; Pavan, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Danchev, M. [Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); De Poli, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Georgiev, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Haas, H. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Bereich Festkorperphysik, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ilie, G. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    2004-09-01

    The g factors and quadrupole moments of the 21/2{sup -} and 33/2{sup +} isomers in {sup 193}Pb have been measured by the time-differential perturbed {gamma}-ray angular distribution method as g(21/2{sup -})=-0.059(11), |Q(21/2{sup -})|=0.22(2) eb and g(33/2{sup +})=-0.171(9), |Q(33/2{sup +})|=0.45(4) eb. The results support the three-neutron configurations (1i{sub 13/2}){sub 12{sup +}}{sup 2}x3p{sub 3/2} and (1i{sub 13/2}){sup 3} for the 21/2{sup -} and 33/2{sup +} states, respectively. The quadrupole moment of the 12{sup +} isomer in {sup 194}Pb described by the two-neutron (1i{sub 13/2}){sup 2} configuration has been remeasured as |Q(12{sup +})|=0.48(3) eb in perfect agreement with the previous data. The experimental results are discussed within a microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer approach in a number-projected one- and three-quasiparticle neutron space, and in the frame of the pairing plus quadrupole tilted-axis cranking model.

  17. Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor in the Few-GeV^2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfoyle, Gerard; Lachniet, Jeffrey; Brooks, William; Quinn, Brian; Vineyard, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor GM^n has been extracted from quasielastic scattering from deuterium in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous from 1 (GeV/c)^2 to nearly 5 (GeV/c)^2 in four-momentum transfer squared and eclipses the previous data in this region. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique, where many uncertainties cancel, and a simultaneous in-situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency, the largest correction to the data. Neutrons were detected using the CLAS electromagnetic calorimeters and the time-of-flight scintillators. Data were taken at two different electron beam energies, allowing up to four semi-independent measurements of GM^n to be made at each value of Q^2. The dipole parameterization is found to provide a good description of the data for Q^2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2. The impact of these new data on the world data for GM^n will be presented.

  18. Quality control and performance evaluation of k0-based neutron activation analysis at the Portuguese research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung, H. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Blaauw, M.; Almeida, S. M.; Dionisio, I.; Canha, N. H.

    2010-10-01

    The quality control (QC) and performance evaluation for the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA) at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI) has been developed with the intention of using the method to meet the demands of trace element analysis for the applications in environmental, epidemiological and nutritional studies amongst others. The QC and performance evaluation include the following aspects: (1) estimation of the overall/combined standard uncertainty from the primary uncertainty sources; (2) validation of the method using a synthetic multi-element standard (SMELS); and (3) analysis of the certified reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA): NIST-SRM-1633a and NIST-SRM-1648 and the reference material from the International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA-RM-336, for the purpose of controlling the overall accuracy and precision of the analytical results. The obtained results revealed that the k0-NAA method established at the RPI was fit for the purpose. The overall/combined standard uncertainty was estimated for elements of interest in the intended applications. The laboratory's analytical results as compared to the assigned values with the bias were less than 12% for most elements, except for a few elements which biased within 13-18%. The u-score values for most elements were less than |1.64|, except for Co, La and Ti within |1.64|-|1.96| and Sc, Cr, K and Sb within |1.96|-|2.58|. The NIST-1633a was also analyzed over 14 months for the purpose of evaluating the reproducibility of the method. The quality factors of k0-NAA established at RPI were evaluated, proving that the method meets the requirements of trace element analysis, which is also considering the method's performance for which the k0-NAA affords a specific, rapid and convenient capability for the intended applications.

  19. Total quality management—the critical success factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie J. Porter; Adrian J. Parker

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the key elements of TQM and the critical factors that influence the TQM implementation process. An extensive literature survey suggests that there are eight critical TQM factors. A survey was carried out to evaluate the experiences of a range of organizations against the identified critical factors. The survey indicated that the eight critical factors can be arranged

  20. Power quality factor and line-disturbances measurements in three-phase systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Montano; A. Lopez; J. Gutierrez; M. Castilla; D. Borras; J. C. Bravo

    2004-01-01

    A power quality meter (PQM) is presented for measuring, as a first objective, a single indicator, designated power quality factor (PQF), in the range between zero to one, which integrally reflect the power transfer quality of a general three phase network feeding unbalanced nonlinear loads. PQF definition is based on the analysis of functions in the frequency domain, separating the

  1. Exploiting environmental resonances to enhance qubit quality factors Silvia Kleff,1

    E-print Network

    von Delft, Jan

    equations) and calculate correlation functions, dephasing rates, and qubit quality factors. We findExploiting environmental resonances to enhance qubit quality factors Silvia Kleff,1 Stefan Kehrein-state Josephson qubits. It can be mapped to a spin-boson model with a spectral function with an approximately

  2. Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pade approximation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Hua Guo; Wei-Jun Li; Yong-Zhen Huang

    2001-01-01

    The finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation with Baker's algorithm are used to calculate the mode frequencies and quality factors of cavities. Comparing with the fast Fourier transformation\\/Pade method, we find that the Pade approximation and the Baker's algorithm can obtain exact resonant frequencies and quality factors based on a much shorter time record of the FDTD

  3. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q{sup 2} dependence of the axial-vector form factor g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}). If g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q{sup 2} mapping of g{sub a} between 0.01 neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n}. The experiment employs the usual techniques of electron-nucleon scattering and presents no special difficulty. Higher energy extensions are possible. They could yield measurements of g{sub a}(Q{sup 2}) up to Q{sup 2}=3 GeV{sup 2} and the possibility to access other form factors, such as the almost unknown pseudoscalar form factor g{sub P}. However, the experiments become much more challenging as soon as beam energies pass the pion production threshold.

  4. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 ?m thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  5. Reply to ``Comment on `Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, P.; Herndl, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Staudt, G.

    1997-12-01

    In a recent comment Barker [Phys. Rev. C 56, 3423 (1997), the preceding paper] criticized our procedure for the extraction of spectroscopic factors from neutron scattering lengths [Phys. Rev. C 55, 1591 (1997)]. In this reply we compare the R-matrix analysis by Barker to our potential model calculation, and we discuss the applicability of both models for the extraction of spectroscopic factors.

  6. Challenges for Addressing Quality Factors in Model Transformation Eugene Syriani

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    to assist modelers in developing high quality transformation models. We propose to initiate a design pattern; design patterns; software quality; validation and verification. I. INTRODUCTION In today's practices, model transformations are deployed as software artifacts in a wide range of application contexts

  7. Simulation of factors impeding water quality trading market performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig M. Smith; Jeffrey M. Peterson; John C. Leatherman

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, market-based approaches to natural resource management have received increased attention as a means to cost-effectively achieve environmental quality goals. Following on what has been hailed a success for reducing air pollution, water quality trading (WQT) has more recently been seen as the next great opportunity for reducing water pollution, especially for nutrient loading. Numerous trading

  8. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  9. Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables…

  10. Drawing conclusions about causes from systematic reviews of risk factors: The Cambridge Quality Checklists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Murray; David P. Farrington; Manuel P. Eisner

    2009-01-01

    Systematic reviews summarize evidence about the effects of social interventions on crime, health, education, and social welfare.\\u000a Social scientists should also use systematic reviews to study risk factors, which are naturally occurring predictors of these\\u000a outcomes. To do this, the quality of risk factor research needs to be evaluated. This paper presents three new methodological\\u000a quality checklists to identify high-quality

  11. Development of high-quality titanium--tritide targets for the rotating-target neutron source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Jones; D. M. Makowiecki; S. A. Steward

    1980-01-01

    The Rotating-Target Neutron Source II (RTNS II) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) is the most intense continuous source of 14-MeV D-T neutrons currently available and is a national center for the study of the effects of these neutrons on materials of interest to the fusion community. The 14-MeV neutrons are produced when a 400-keV deuteron beam strikes an approximately 10-..mu..m-thick

  12. Free NH 3 quantum rotations in Hofmann clathrates: structure factors and line widths studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Sobolev; P. Vorderwisch; A. Desmedt

    2005-01-01

    Quantum rotations of NH3 groups in Hofmann clathrates Ni–Ni–C6H6 and Ni–Ni–C12H10 have been studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Calculations of the dynamical structure factor for a free uniaxial quantum rotor reproduce the neutron scattering data with respect to their Q- and T-dependence as well as the relative intensities for the 0?1, 0?2 and 1?2 transitions. Though the effective NH3 rotation

  13. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D.; Chan, K. P.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; Peters, W. A.; Barbieri, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Utsuno, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu), one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,d)Ni55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

  14. Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H-->2(e-->,e'n)H1 Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Geis; M. Kohl; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhövel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. Degrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-01-01

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

  15. Quality assurance program for the determination of selenium in foods and diets by instrumental neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The biological essentially of selenium for animals was first evidenced in 1957. However, it was not until 1973 that an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase was proven to be a selenoenzyme. At present, selenium is known to be a normal component of several enzymes, proteins, and some aminoacryl transfer nucleic acids. A few selenium compounds have been reported to possess anticarcinogenic properties. There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of selenium in human nutrition and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed in several laboratories for the determination of total and species-specific selenium in whole blood, serum, urine, soft and hard tissues, food, water, proteins, etc. We have developed several instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods using the, Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facility for the determination of parts-per-billion levels of selenium. These methods include cyclic INAA (CINAA) and pseudocyclic INAA (PCINAA) using both conventional and anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. Considering the immense health significance, it is imperative that the selenium levels in foods and diets be measured under an extensive quality assurance program for routine monitoring purposes.

  16. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  17. On the determination of series resistance and diode quality factor of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The series resistance and diode quality factor are used for evaluation of solar cell performance. These parameters are normally deduced from the terminal I-V characteristics under forward bias. The method produces a smaller series resistance and a larger value for diode quality factor than appropriate for the device when operating as a solar cell. It is suggested that the diode quality factor be determined from measured saturated photocurrent, open circuit voltage characteristics and the series resistance be measured with an r-f bridge or calculated from a measurement of the surface sheet resistance.

  18. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted...Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A A B B C C ...Not more than 2 in any sample unit Sample average 1 per...

  19. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted...Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A A B B C C ...Not more than 2 in any sample unit Sample average 1 per...

  20. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted...Factors Factor Sample unit size Maximum number permissible for the respective grade A A B B C C ...Not more than 2 in any sample unit Sample average 1 per...

  1. Data Currency Quality Factors in Data Warehouse Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitri Theodoratos; Mokrane Bouzeghoub

    1999-01-01

    A Data Warehouse (DW) is a large collec- tion of data integrated from multiple distributed autonomous databases and other information sources. A DW can be seen as a set of materi- alized views defined over the remote source data. Until now research work on DW design is re- stricted to quantitatively selecting view sets for materialization. However, quality issues in

  2. Nitrification kinetics of biofilm as affected by water quality factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shulin Chen; Jian Ling; Jean-Paul Blancheton

    2006-01-01

    Various types of fixed film biofilters have been used in recirculating aquaculture systems under different water quality and operating conditions. The effectiveness of the nitrification process can be evaluated by nitrification kinetics. Nitrification in the bacterial film of the biofilter involves physical, chemical and biological processes that are governed by a variety of parameters such as substrate and dissolved oxygen

  3. Measuring Project Quality Factors Critical to Project Success

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    available to measure and track project cost (cheap) and schedule (fast), the measurement and monitoring of project quality (good) is at best underdeveloped. While qualitative measures of project cost and schedule encompasses all elements of the project other than those directly related to cost, and schedule. This research

  4. The Maturation Time Factor in Lime Putty Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M G MARGALHA; M R VEIGA

    Until the 19th century, lime in construction renderings was used mostly as a paste. After the transformation of rock into lime, the latter was stored in such a way as to maintain its characteristics. For that purpose, tanks or big ditches were used to store lime, always covered by water to avoid its carbonation. Through this procedure, the quality of

  5. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

  6. Factors affecting quality of fresh-cut horticultural products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alley E. Watada; Nathanee P. Ko; Donna A. Minott

    1996-01-01

    Fresh-cut products, also known as lightly or minimally processed products, are highly perishable because a large proportion of their surface area is without epidermis, the outer protective layer of tissue. Temperature, atmosphere, relative humidity and sanitation must be regulated to maintain quality of fresh-cuts. In the 0–10 °C range, Q10 of respiration rates ranged from 2.0 to 8.6 among various

  7. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-09-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

  8. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  9. Quality factors in single-defect photonic-crystal lasers with asymmetric cladding layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheolwoo Kim; Woo Jun Kim; Andrew Stapleton; Jiang-Rong Cao; John D. O'Brien; P. Daniel Dapkus

    2002-01-01

    We present quality factors of single-defect photonic-crystal resonant cavities with asymmetric cladding layers. The resonators studied here are dielectric slabs patterned with two-dimensional photonic crystals on a sapphire substrate. Three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference time-domain routines were used to analyze the electromagnetic properties of these cavities. We observe that high quality factors (approx800) can be obtained in these cavities for reasonable

  10. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  11. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS may be accepted as a regular or provisional student. Grade point averages are computed at the end

  12. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  13. Organizational Factors Associated with High Performance in Quality and Safety in Academic Medical Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Keroack; Barbara J. Youngberg; Julie L. Cerese; Cathleen Krsek; Leslie W. Prellwitz; Eoin W. Trevelyan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Leaders of academic medical centers (AMCs) are challenged to ensure consistent high performance in quality and safety across all clinical services. The authors sought to identify organizational factors associated with AMCs that stood out from their peers in a composite scoring system for quality and safety derived from patient-level data. Method A scoring method using measures of safety, mortality,

  14. Factor Analysis and Modelling for Rapid Quality Assessment of Croatian Wheat Cultivars with Different Gluten Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Horvat; Damir Magdi; Georg Drezner; F. Kuha

    Summary Factor analysis and multivariate chemometric modelling for rapid assessment of bak- ing quality of wheat cultivars from Slavonia region, Croatia, have been applied. The culti- vars @itarka, Kata, Monika, Ana, Demetra, Divana and Sana were grown under controlled conditions at the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek during three years (2000-2002). Their quality properties were evaluated by 45 different

  15. Gain factors with the new supermirror guide system. at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rosta; L. Cser; Zs. Révay

    2002-01-01

    In parallel with the installation of a cold-neutron source (CNS) at the 10-MW Budapest Research Reactor, the neutron-guide system has been redesigned and replaced by state of art neutron optical elements. Monte Carlo calculations have been used to determine the optimal conditions for the guide parameters. For the three cold-neutron beams nearly 100 m of new guides were installed; a

  16. Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items. PMID:24786942

  17. STUDY OF CERTAIN LAMB AND CARCASS QUALITY FACTORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD L. HINER; JOHN W. THORNTON

    K NOWLEDGE of important lamb carcass factors, which accurately estimate the yields of the more-preferred trimmed primal cuts, is needed to provide a basis for utilizing objective methods of determining these yields on the live animal. This would be helpful to the breeder in the selection of his breeding stock and the producer in marketing the finished animal to the

  18. Quality of information on risk factors reported by ski patrols

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, B; Pless, I; Goulet, C; Platt, R; Robitaille, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of reporting of information on risk factors from a standard accident report form used by ski patrols and a follow up mail questionnaire or telephone interview among injured skiers and snowboarders. Setting: 19 ski areas in the Canadian province of Quebec between November 2001 and April 2002. Participants: 4377 injured skiers and snowboarders seen by the ski patrol, who completed a follow up mail questionnaire or telephone interview. Main outcome measures: ? and weighted ? statistics were used to measure the chance corrected agreement for self reported ability, age, skiing time on day of injury, lessons, type of practice, use of helmet at time of injury, and hill difficulty. Results: The ? value for helmet use at the time of injury was 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.90) and for other risk factors ranged from 0.45 (skiing time on day of injury) to 0.98 (age). Few differences were seen in reporting by body region of injury. Reporting consistency was lower for respondents who completed telephone interviews compared with those who completed mail questionnaires and those who responded more than four months after the injury. Conclusions: Moderate to almost perfect agreement, depending on the risk factor, exists between ski patrols' accident report forms and follow up information. Ski patrol reports can be a reliable and readily available source of information on risk factors for skiing and snowboarding. PMID:15470006

  19. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    E-print Network

    Alexandre Deur

    2014-07-21

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

  20. Personal and contextual factors predicting patients' reported quality of life: exploring congruency with Betty Neuman's assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hinds, C

    1990-04-01

    The search for factors which influence seriously ill people's quality of life continues to generate both interest and research. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 87 patients with lung cancer who ranged between the ages of 38 and 82 years. The purposes of this investigation were to determine whether relationships existed between patients' preferences for illness-related information, their satisfaction with family functioning, their level of learned resourcefulness and their reported quality of life. This paper focuses on the results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis which identified seven factors, namely, prognosis, surgery, current radiotherapy, performance status, self-control skills (learned resourcefulness), preference for information and age-group, which accounted for 30% of explained variance in patients' reported quality of life. No single factor contributed a substantial amount of the variance in this sample's reported quality of life. This observation suggests differences in people's perceptions of these factors and their importance to them. These results support a conclusion that people's evaluation of their quality of life is subjective, changeable and depends on the circumstances they face. Congruence between the assumptions underlying Neuman's health care system model, and the personal and contextual nature of these seven factors in patients' quality of life are explored. These findings are relevant for practice. PMID:2341691

  1. Ranking airlines' service quality factors using a fuzzy approach: study of the Iranian society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehran Nejati; Mostafa Nejati; Azadeh Shafaei

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to review service quality factors of the airline industry, and to rank these factors in Iranian society. It aims to introduce a fuzzy TOPSIS approach for this purpose. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research was conducted among graduate students of the University of Tehran, Iran. In order to meet the objectives of the study, Fuzzy TOPSIS approach

  2. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  3. Laboratory and field analysis of factors affecting quality of leachate from coal storage piles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Davis; W. J. Jr. Boegly; T. Tamura

    1981-01-01

    It is the purpose of this research to investigate the potential environmental problems associated with the runnoff from coal storage facilities and to suggest methods of circumventing the acidic leachate. Specifically, controlled laboratory and field-scale experiments have been carried out which identify and investigate various factors believed to be influential in determining leachate quality. These factors, including coal type (high

  4. Job stress and task interest: Two factors in work life quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex J. Zautra; Cristóbal Eblen; Kim D. Reynolds

    1986-01-01

    A study of how stressful job events and task interest are associated with quality of work life was conducted through interviews and questionnaire assessment of 56 members of the nursing staff at a psychiatric hospital Factor analyses of work life satisfactions revealed two separable factors, one that accounted for satisfaction with the work itself and another that identified level of

  5. Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiete, Robert D.; Mooney, James A.; Tantalo, Theodore A.; Calus, Jason R.

    2000-10-01

    Sparse aperture designs can increase the effective aperture size of a remote sensing system, thus allowing the satellite to be placed in a higher orbit without compromising the resolution. The fill factor of a sparse aperture is the total area of the telescope apertures divided by the effective aperture size of the combined telescopes. Reducing the fill factor, F, reduces the overall weight, but also reduces both the signal and the MTF (modulation transfer function). Increasing the effective integration time, t, and applying Wiener filters can gain back some of the lost image quality. This study generated image simulations of various sparse aperture designs to assess the image quality as a function of fill factor. This study found that the integration time needs to be increased by a factor of 1/F2 - 1/F3 in order to maintain the image quality as the fill factor decreased. This study also found that the GIQE (Generalized Image Quality Equation) did not accurately predict the change in image quality, in (Delta) NIIRS, as the fill factor is reduced.

  6. Objective picture quality scale for video images (PQSvideo): definition of distortion factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsuji, Yamashita; Kameda, Masashi; Miyahara, Makoto M.

    2000-05-01

    We propose a PQSvideo (Picture Quality Scale for moving image), a method of objective quality assessment for coded moving images. We expect that the proposed PQSvideo approximates subjective assessment well. In PQSvideo, we define essential distortion factors considering not only global distortions (such as random noise) but also distortions on local features. Then, we describe each distortion metrically considering human visual perception. The PQSvideo is given by a linear combination of define each essential distortion factor, utilizing the principal component analysis method and the multiple regression analysis method between quantity of each essential distortion factor and MOS (Mean Opinion Score) obtained by assessment test. We have confirmed that the PQSvideo approximates MOS successfully.

  7. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  8. KAOS-V code: An evaluation tool for neutron kerma factors and other nuclear responses

    SciTech Connect

    Farawila, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Maynard, C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1989-09-01

    The accurate evaluation of neutron fluence-to-kerma factors from microscopic nuclear data is the subject of this report. The algorithms developed for this purpose combine in a consistent manner the two basic methods for computing kerma factors, namely kinematics and direct energy balance. These algorithms are implemented in the code KAOS-V which was used as the main evaluation tool to construct the response function library KAOS/LIB-V. KAOS-V uses data from the evaluated nuclear data files ENDF/B/V. Auxiliary nuclear data bases, e.g., the Japanese evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-2 can be used as a source of isotopic cross sections when these data are not provided in ENDF/B-V files for a natural element. These are needed mainly to estimate average quantities such as effective Q-values for the natural element. The code has the ability to compare the different results which aids in the choice of a consistent set of algorithms to evaluate kerma factors. Data in ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V format can be processed. For resonance treatment, the code has the ability to access NJOY and NPTXS interface files in formatted or binary forms. No input instructions are necessary to run the code interactively. The user can simply respond to the interactive messages sent by the code if an INPUT file is absent. An INPUT file is automatically generated following an interactive run, and can be edited and used to rerun or produce different results. Grouped and point output data can be produced along with graphic representation. These features are instrumental in detecting and understanding energy balance deficiencies and other problems in the nuclear data files. 60 refs., 4 figs.

  9. A Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor GMn in the Few-GeV2 Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lachniet, Jeff; Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Arenhovel, Hartmuth; Brooks, William; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Jeschonnek, Sabine; Quinn, Brian; Vineyard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor GMn has been extracted from quasielastic electron scattering data on deuterium with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous from Q2=1 GeV2 to 4.8 GeV2. High precision was achieved by employing a ratio technique in which many uncertainties cancel, and by a simultaneous in-situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency, the largest correction to the data. Neutrons were detected using the CLAS electromagnetic calorimeters and the time-of-flight scintillators. Data were taken at two different electron beam energies, allowing up to four semi-independent measurements of GMn to be made at each value of Q2. The dipole parameterization is found to provide a good description of the data over the measured Q2 range.

  10. a Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor GnM in the FEW-GEV2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfoyle, G. P.; Brooks, W. K.; Lachniet, J. D.; Quinn, B.; Vineyard, M. F.

    2008-03-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor GnM has been extracted from quasielastic scattering from deuterium in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous over a broad range, extending from below 1 (GeV/c)2 to nearly 5 (GeV/c)2 in four-momentum transfer squared. High precision was achieved by employing a ratio technique in which many uncertainties cancel, and by a simultaneous in-situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency, the largest correction to the data. Neutrons were detected using electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators. Data were taken at two different electron beam energies, allowing up to four semi-independent measurements of GnM to be made. The dipole parameterization is found to provide a good description of the data for Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2.

  11. Poor Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meifen; Li, Xiaoyi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Hao; Qiu, Chunbo; Zhang, Weifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether poor sleep quality of third-trimester pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Material/Methods Third-trimester pregnant women (T0, n=293) were tested using the first socio-demographic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessments, and received a diagnosis of depression. Three months (T1, n=223) after delivery, scale filling was finished and the structured interview was performed again. Results We found that 73 persons (32.7%) were low income, 84 persons (37.7%) were middle-income, and 66 persons (29.6%) were higher income. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 9.4% (21 persons). After controlling for other factors, age, household income, marital satisfaction, and sleep quality were significantly related to postpartum depression, in which age and sleep quality scores (a higher score was associated with poorer sleep quality) were positively related to postpartum depression, and household income and marital satisfaction were negatively related to postpartum depression. Moreover, third-trimester sleep quality score was positively related to postpartum depressive symptoms. Conclusions Poor third-trimester subjective sleep quality is a risk factor for postpartum depression. PMID:25526703

  12. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2009-03-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for differences in outcome between certain groups of patients. The questionnaire was administered to 129 visually impaired adults (mean age 42.1 years). Quality of life was measured with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire, developed by the National Eye Institute (NEI-VFQ-25). Measurements were conducted during the observational programme (baseline measurement), and 3 months and 1 year after finishing rehabilitation. The change between subsequent measurements of the four dependent variables was measured, and the longitudinal relationship between vision-related quality of life on the one hand and possible prediction factors on the other was evaluated by means of random coefficient analyses. If the factor scores 1 year after rehabilitation were compared with baseline scores, the Mental Health and Dependency scale showed a significant improvement. For participants who received rehabilitation, age seemed to be a significant prediction variable for all factors. Additionally, functional vision score, and time at onset of visual impairment were predictors for the factor 'Pain and Discomfort'. The results indicate that only age was a predictor for all domains of quality of life. Future research should aim at confirming these results. Ultimately, these findings should lead to adjustments in the rehabilitation programme. PMID:19057390

  13. A set of invariant quality factors measuring the deviation from the Kerr metric

    E-print Network

    Alfonso García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo; José M. M. Senovilla

    2013-03-07

    A number of scalar invariant characterizations of the Kerr solution are presented. These characterizations come in the form of {\\em quality factors} defined in stationary space-times. A quality factor is a scalar quantity varying in the interval $[0,1]$ with the value 1 being attained if and only if the space-time is locally isometric to the Kerr solution. No knowledge of the Kerr solution is required to compute these quality factors. A number of different possibilities arise depending on whether the space-time is Ricci-flat and asymptotically flat, just Ricci-flat, or Ricci non-flat. In each situation a number of quality factors are constructed and analysed. The relevance of these quality factors is clear in any situation where one seeks a rigorous formulation of the statement that a space-time is "close" to the Kerr solution, such as: its non-linear stability problem, the asymptotic settlement of a radiating isolated system undergoing gravitational collapse, or in the formulation of some uniqueness results.

  14. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

  15. Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dwayne R. Buxton

    1996-01-01

    The most important factor influencing forage quality is herbage maturity. For example, a 1-week delay in harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) will decrease digestibility and crude protein concentration by about 20 g kg?1 and increase cell-wall concentration by approximately 30 g kg?1. Forage quality also is influenced by the environment in which forages are grown and by soil fertility

  16. Relationship between quality of life and clinical status in asthma: a factor analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Juniper; M. E. Wisniewski; F. M. Cox; A. H. Emmett; K. E. Nielsen; P. M. O'Byrne

    2004-01-01

    Relationship between quality of life and clinical status in asthma: a factor analysis. E.F. Juniper, M.E. Wisniewski, F.M. Cox, A.H. Emmett, K.E. Nielsen, P.M. O9Byrne. #ERS Journals Ltd 2004. ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown that correlation between clinical asthma status and asthma-specific quality of life is only weak to moderate. However, this relationship has never been explored to determine whether

  17. Quality of life and temperament factors in schizophrenia: Comparative study of patients, their siblings and controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rena Kurs; Herman Farkas; Michael Ritsner

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which temperament factors are associated with quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia based on a triplet design comparing patients with their non-affected siblings and healthy control subjects. Forty-seven DSM-IV clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients, 47 non-affected siblings, and 56 non-patients matched for gender and age were evaluated using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the Quality of

  18. Quantum Limit of Quality Factor in Silicon Micro and Nano Mechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A.; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J.; Ahn, Chae H.; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit. PMID:24247809

  19. Ultrahigh quality factor SiN membrane resonators for cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakram, Srivatsan; Chang, Laura; Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2014-05-01

    We study the optomechanical properties of SiN membrane resonators through spectroscopic and interferometric imaging techniques. We demonstrate ultra-high quality factors of 50 ×106 and f × Q products of 1 ×1014 Hz. These values correspond to the largest yet reported for mesoscopic flexural resonators. We describe a mathematical model of radiation loss that accurately predicts our measured quality factors. Building upon this identification of clamping losses as the dominant dissipation mechanism, we also demonstrate enhancement of the mechanical quality factors by engineering a phononic band gap in the substrate. Our work paves the way towards the realization of quantum limited mechanical systems at room temperature. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO.

  20. Factors associated with data quality in the routine health information system of Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine health information systems (RHIS) are crucial to the acquisition of data for health sector planning. In developing countries, the insufficient quality of the data produced by these systems limits their usefulness in regards to decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with poor data quality in the RHIS in Benin. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study included health workers who were responsible for data collection in public and private health centers. The technique and tools used were an interview with a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable was the quality of the data. The independent variables were socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, personal and work-related resources, and the perception of the technical factors. The quality of the data was assessed using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. We used survival analysis with univariate proportional hazards (PH) Cox models to derive hazards ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Focus group data were evaluated with a content analysis. Results A significant link was found between data quality and level of responsibility (p?=?0.011), sector of employment (p?=?0.007), RHIS training (p?=?0.026), level of work engagement (p?factors such as the availability of resources, supervision, and the perceived complexity of the technical factors. Conclusion This exploratory study identified several factors associated with the quality of the data in the RHIS in Benin. The results could provide strategic decision support in improving the system’s performance. PMID:25114792

  1. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

  2. Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Rai, E-mail: takahashi.rai@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinichi; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Nakajima, Hirochika [Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Selectively patterned graphene is integrated onto a silicon ring resonator to investigate the quality factor (Q factor) variation. The Q factor sharply decreases from 7900 to 1200 as the patterned graphene length increases from 0 to 20??m. A numerical estimation, which takes into account optical absorption by graphene, shows an exponential damping of the Q factor with increasing graphene length and is consistent with the experimental result. We expect these fundamental characterizations to be helpful in developing graphene-integrated silicon photonics applications.

  3. The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

  4. [Temporal variation of water quality and driving factors in Yanghe watershed of Zhangjiakou].

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Wang, Tie-Yu; Lü, Yong-Long; Du, Li-Yu; Luo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Yanghe is an important water source for Guanting Reservoir, which once supplied the Beijing city with drinking water, industrial process water and water-use in landscape. Based on the data of water quality monitored by Yanghe watershed monitoring stations from 1992 to 2009, 11 pollutants were selected for analysis. The trends of changes in water quality were figured out, and the major pollutants and driving factors were measured by the integrated standard index and grey correlation analytical methods. The results showed that there were two stages of water quality change in Yanghe watershed of Zhangjiakou. Firstly, the water was polluted seriously but recovered rapidly from 1992 to 1996. Secondly, although light pollution occurred in the watershed from 1997 to 2009, the pollution factors were still above the limits. The main pollution factors are ammonia nitrogen, petroleum, permanganate index, BOD5, Cr6+ and Cd. The main driving factor of water quality is the change of land use type, and the agricultural land showed less impact on water quality than the industrial land. PMID:23487965

  5. [Evaluation of factors influencing the formation of personal qualities in nurses].

    PubMed

    Pronin, S V; Poliakov, I V; Bychkov, A A

    1990-01-01

    The article provides a socio-psychological evaluation of factors influencing the formation of personal qualities of nurses. For the purpose of screening diagnosis of professionally conditioned deformation of personal qualities the following semantic variables were chosen: a capacity for initiative, discipline, honesty, sympathy, communicativeness, discretion. The influence of nurses' age, specialization, place of work, family status on self-evaluations is traced. Factors are identified which influence the working stability of medium-level personnel under conditions of major curative and preventive institutions. PMID:2270518

  6. Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life in chronic portuguese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic illnesses are diseases of long duration and generally of slow progression. They cause significant quality of life impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse psychosocial predictors of quality of life and of subjective well-being in chronic Portuguese patients. Methods Chronic disease patients (n?=?774) were recruited from central Portuguese Hospitals. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and outcome variables: quality of life (HRQL) and subjective well-being (SWB). MANCOVA analyses were used to test psychosocial factors as determinants of HRQL and SWB. Results After controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables, results showed that dispositional optimism, positive affect, spirituality, social support and treatment adherence are significant predictors of HRQL and SWB. Similar predictors of quality of life, such as positive affect, treatment adherence and spirituality, were found for subgroups of disease classified by medical condition. Conclusions The work identifies psychosocial factors associated with quality of life. The predictors for the entire group of different chronic diseases are similar to the ones found in different chronic disease subgroups: positive affect, social support, treatment adherence and spirituality. Patients with more positive affect, additional social support, an adequate treatment adherence and a feel-good spirituality, felt better with the disease conditions and consequently had a better quality of life. This study contributes to understanding and improving the processes associated with quality of life, which is relevant for health care providers and chronic diseases support. PMID:24405802

  7. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongguo Zhu; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; H. Arenhoevel; Chris Armstrong; C. Bernet; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Paul Brindza; D. Brown; S. Bueltmann; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; D. B. Day; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Yusuf Farah; Renee Fatimi; Kenneth Garrow; Chris Harris; Markus Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; M. Kaufmann; Mahbub Khandaker; Gunther Kubon; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; Robert Lourie; Allison Lung; David Mack; Sudhir Malik; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; Geoffrey Milanovich; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; M. Muehlbauer; Thomas Petitjean; Yelena Prok; Daniela Rohe; Emmanuel Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ingo Sick; C. Smith; Michael Steinacher; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Al Tobias; Bill Vulcan; Glen Warren; H. Woehrle; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Marko Zeier; Jianguo Zhao; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-01-01

    We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor Gⁿ{sub E} via d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p. Gⁿ{sub E} was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia (¹⁵NDâ). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target

  8. Transverse Asymmetry AT' from the Quasielastic 3He>\\\\(e-->,e'\\\\) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Xu; D. Dutta; F. Xiong; B. Anderson; L. Auberbach; T. Averett; W. Bertozzi; T. Black; J. Calarco; L. Cardman; G. D. Cates; Z. W. Chai; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; G. S. Corrado; C. Crawford; D. Dale; A. Deur; P. Djawotho; B. W. Filippone; J. M. Finn; H. Gao; R. Gilman; A. V. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; W. Glöckle; J. Golak; J. Gomez; V. G. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; F. W. Hersman; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; C. R. Howell; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; C. W. de Jager; J. S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C. E. Jones; M. Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; J. Lerose; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; J. W. Martin; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; K. McIlhany; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; E. Pace; T. Pavlin; G. G. Petratos; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R. D. Ransome; Y. Roblin; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; G. Salmè; M. Schnee; T. Shin; K. Slifer; P. A. Souder; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; M. Sutter; B. Tipton; L. Todor; M. Viviani; B. Vlahovic; J. Watson; C. F. Williamson; H. Witala; B. Wojtsekhowski; J. Yeh; P. ZoLnierczuk

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in 3He-->\\\\(e-->,e'\\\\) quasielastic scattering in Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory with high precision for Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6 \\\\(GeV\\/c\\\\)2. The neutron magnetic form factor GnM was extracted based on Faddeev calculations for Q2 = 0.1 and 0.2 \\\\(GeV\\/c\\\\)2 with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  9. Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing.

    PubMed

    Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Wyss, Gabriela S; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Birlouez-Aragone, Inès; Kahl, Johannes

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, ?-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for ?-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in ?-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in ?-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. PMID:23744724

  10. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  11. Quality of Drawing as a Factor in the Interpretation of Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank A.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    1978-01-01

    The drawings of 32 poliomyelitis patients and their matched controls were examined to see whether figure drawings primarily reflect the subject's projection of psychological state, ability to draw, or some combination of these two factors. Quality of drawing may at times be the overwhelming determinant of clinical and research findings.…

  12. Human Factors in the Australian Construction Industry: Towards Total Quality Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Jaafari

    1996-01-01

    This paper concerns the challenges of applying the principles of total quality management to construction projects, particularly from the stand point of the human factor. The work is based on two major studies carried out in 1993–1995, at industry and project level respectively. The last study particularly targeted construction workers and their perception of the usefulness of the QA systems

  13. Frame Factors and a Quality Assurance Agency in an 'Embryonic' Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Using the Affiliations Unit of the University of Botswana as a case study, this paper explores how the operational milieu of an External Quality Assurance Agency (EQAA) impacts on its role and function. This milieu is described and selected frame factors are identified and evaluated, including the size of the country; the role of a hegemonic…

  14. Frame Factors and a Quality Assurance Agency in an "Embryonic" Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Affiliations Unit of the University of Botswana as a case study, this paper explores how the operational milieu of an External Quality Assurance Agency (EQAA) impacts on its role and function. This milieu is described and selected frame factors are identified and evaluated, including the size of the country; the role of a hegemonic…

  15. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  16. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  17. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

  18. Power Stored and Quality Factors in Frequency Selective Surfaces at THz Frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan José Sanz-Fernandez; Rebecca Cheung; George Goussetis; Carolina Mateo-Segura

    2011-01-01

    A study of the external, loaded and unloaded quality factors for frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) is presented. The study is focused on THz frequencies between 5 and 30 THz, where ohmic losses arising from the conductors become important. The influence of material properties, such as metal thickness, conduc- tivity dispersion and surface roughness, is investigated. An equiv- alent circuit that

  19. Sensitivities Kernels of Seismic Traveltimes and Amplitudes for Quality Factor and Boundary Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, M.; Zhao, L.; Ma, K.

    2010-12-01

    Finite-frequency approach enables seismic tomography to fully utilize the spatial and temporal distributions of the seismic wavefield to improve resolution. In achieving this goal, one of the most important tasks is to compute efficiently and accurately the (Fréchet) sensitivity kernels of finite-frequency seismic observables such as traveltime and amplitude to the perturbations of model parameters. In scattering-integral approach, the Fréchet kernels are expressed in terms of the strain Green tensors (SGTs), and a pre-established SGT database is necessary to achieve practical efficiency for a three-dimensional reference model in which the SGTs must be calculated numerically. Methods for computing Fréchet kernels for seismic velocities have long been established. In this study, we develop algorithms based on the finite-difference method for calculating Fréchet kernels for the quality factor Q? and seismic boundary topography. Kernels for the quality factor can be obtained in a way similar to those for seismic velocities with the help of the Hilbert transform. The effects of seismic velocities and quality factor on either traveltime or amplitude are coupled. Kernels for boundary topography involve spatial gradient of the SGTs and they also exhibit interesting finite-frequency characteristics. Examples of quality factor and boundary topography kernels will be shown for a realistic model for the Taiwan region with three-dimensional velocity variation as well as surface and Moho discontinuity topography.

  20. Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability

    E-print Network

    Dabdub, Donald

    Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size. The method integrates multiple measures of quantified goodness of fit. The method provides a means

  1. Quality factor tuning of high-frequency high-Q filter biquads using adaptive signal processing 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Jan-Michael

    1997-01-01

    A quality factor (Q) tuning technique for high-frequency and high-Q continuous-time filter biquads is proposed. The method is based on the existing magnitude locked loop Q-tuning technique, but it utilizes the continuous-time ...

  2. Factors Affecting Quality of English Language Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduwa-Ogiegbaen, S. E.; Iyamu, E. O. S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the factors responsible for the poor quality of the teaching of English as a second language in public secondary schools in Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were posed. The questions examined the following three variables: (1) Frequency of the use of instructional media; (2) Frequency of the use of…

  3. Nature versus nurture: an examination of factors that contribute to IT service quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janette Moody

    2009-01-01

    As the IT unit increases its strategic alignment with the organization, technical people of all levels are required to become more customer-focused. It has been suggested that a service orientation on the part of IT personnel can be a contributing factor to the IT unit's service quality. However, IT workers do not exist in a vacuum, but must work within

  4. Integration equation analysis on resonant frequencies and quality factors of rectangular dielectric resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyh-Yeong Ke; Yuan-Tung Cheng

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the resonance problem of rectangular dielectric resonators (DRs) is analyzed by using the spectral dyadic Green's function and volume integral-equation formulation. The rectangular dielectric body is replaced by a set of entire-domain polarized volume current basis, and Galerkin's moment method is used to solve the resonant frequency and quality factor of the rectangular DR. The effects of

  5. The Quality of Medical Care, Behavioral Risk Factors, and Longevity Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. Lichtenberg

    2009-01-01

    The rate of increase of longevity has varied considerably across U.S. states since 1991. This paper examines the effect of the quality of medical care, behavioral risk factors (obesity, smoking, and AIDS incidence), and other variables (education, income, and health insurance coverage) on life expectancy and medical expenditure using longitudinal state-level data. We examine the effects of three different measures

  6. Clinical impact versus factor analysis for quality of life questionnaire construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth F. Juniper; Gordon H. Guyatt; David L. Streiner; Derek R. King

    1997-01-01

    Objective: We have compared two philosophically different methods for selecting items for a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. The impact method selects items that are most frequently perceived as important by patients whereas the psychometric method (factor analysis) selects items primarily according to their relationships with one another. Patients: 150 adults with symptomatic asthma and a wide range of disease

  7. Factors Affecting the Quality of Texas Butter as Revealed by a Statewide Survey.

    E-print Network

    Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendell Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

    1945-01-01

    , ,XAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION C. H. McDOWELL, Acting Director College Station, Texas I I 1 BULLETIN NO. 670 MAY 19jK " FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY 01 TEXA i BUTTER AS REVEALED BY A STATEWIDE SURVEY ']BY F. E. Hanson, W. S...

  8. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Loucks; D. L. Richmann; K. L. Milliken

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou\\/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1)

  9. Two physical mechanisms for boosting the quality factor to cavity volume ratio of photonic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-47 (2003). 7. A.S. Jugessur, P. Pottier, R.M. De La Rue, "One-dimensional temperature photonic crystal defect lasers at near-infrared wavelengths in InGaAsP," J. Lightwave Technol. 17Two physical mechanisms for boosting the quality factor to cavity volume ratio of photonic crystal

  10. Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

  11. Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hakim Mazrou; Tassadit Sidahmed; Malika Allab

    2010-01-01

    An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an 241Am–Be radionuclide source of 185GBq (5Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards,

  12. Factors determining cost and quality of the electrical insulation in the VPI-process

    SciTech Connect

    Bruetsch, R.; Allison, J.; Thaler, T. [Von Roll Isola, Breitenbach (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The construction of the electrical insulation and the carrying out of the VPI-process are critical steps in the production of rotating high voltage machines. On the other hand the manufacture of the insulation and the VPI-process are cost factors. It is therefore important to know the factors influencing cost and quality of the insulation in the VPI-process in order to determine the optimal production parameters and to achieve a high reliability of the resulting machine. This article gives an overview of the relevant factors and some considerations regarding costs.

  13. Measurement of coherent Debye-Waller factor in in vivo deuterated C-phycocyanin by inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Bellissent-Funel, M C; Filabozzi, A; Chen, S H

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements of dry and 35% D2O hydrated amorphous protein powder of C-phycocyanin were made as a function of temperature ranging from 313K down to 100K. The protein is grown from blue-green algae cultured in D2O and is deuterated up to 99%. The scattering is thus dominated by coherent scattering. Within the best energy resolution of the time-of-flight instrument, which is 28 mueV FWHM, the scattering appears entirely elastic. For this reason we are able to extract a coherent Debye-Waller factor by making an independent measurement of the static structure factor. We observe a considerable difference in the q dependence of the Debye-Waller factor between the dry and hydrated proteins; furthermore, there is an interesting temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor that is quite different from that predicted for dense hard-sphere liquids. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9083683

  14. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  15. Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H?2(e?,e'n)H1 Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, E.; Kohl, M.; Ziskin, V.; Akdogan, T.; Arenhövel, H.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C. B.; Degrush, A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Karpius, P.; Kolster, H.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R. G.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R. P.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Širca, S.; Sindile, A.; Six, E.; Smith, T.; Steadman, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Zwart, T.

    2008-07-01

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio GEn/GMn was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry AedV at four-momentum transfers Q2=0.14, 0.20, 0.29, and 0.42(GeV/c)2.

  16. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5 ?m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24 ± 3 W m-1 K-1 for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46 kHz-8 MHz and showed a maximum measured Q ? 86 000 at fn = 46.849 kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788 GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  17. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  18. Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons)

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons) Jeff Martin University of Winnipeg Skywalk 2007 Manitoba Research & Innovation Fund #12; Ultracold Neutrons What are neutrons? Why are they important? How to make lots of neutrons. Interesting properties of ultracold neutrons (UCN) Supercool

  19. Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:19447996

  20. Understanding variation in quality of antibiotic use for community-acquired pneumonia: effect of patient, professional and hospital factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Schouten; M. E. J. L. Hulscher; B. J. Kullberg; A. Cox; I. C. J. Gyssens; R. P. T. M. Grol

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop effective and targeted interventions to improve care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), insight is needed into the factors that influence the quality of antibiotic use. Therefore, we measured the performance of nine quality indicators and studied determinants of variation in the quality of antibiotic use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on 498 prospectively included patients with CAP

  1. Factors influencing enterprise to improve data quality in information systems application —An empirical research on 185 enterprises through field study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Jing-hua; Xie Kang; Wan Xiao-wei

    2009-01-01

    Management of data quality has become the bottleneck for enterprises to upgrade their application of information technology (IT). Based on the theory of total quality management, this paper presents five influencing factors of data quality from the perspective of organizational management, namely top management support, capability on regulation and process management, business-IT alignment, staff participation and integration of information systems

  2. Mass higher educations affect the quality of higher education in China and the countermeasures of the main factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical index system of factors for the teaching quality of high education is established. Firstly, the critical factors influencing teaching quality has been analyzed. Further, the author discusses the current situation of our higher education and points out the negative effect of enrollment expansion and shortage of teachers are the main reason-hat have caused the drop

  3. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

  4. Factors Influencing RNs' Perceptions of Quality Geriatric Care in Rural Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cline, Daniel D; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Kovner, Christine; Boltz, Marie; Kolanowski, Ann; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    The rapidly aging population and their frequent use of hospital services will create substantial quality challenges in the near future. Redesigning rural hospital work environments is the key to improving the quality of care for older adults. This study explored how the work environment influences registered nurses' (RNs') perceived quality of geriatric care in rural hospitals. We used an exploratory mixed-methods research design emphasizing the qualitative data (in-depth, semi-structured interviews). Quantitative data (questionnaire) measuring the RN work environment were also collected to augment qualitative data. Four themes emerged: (a) collegial RN relationships, (b) poor staffing/utilization, (c) technology benefits/challenges, and (d) RN-physician interactions, which were identified as key factors influencing the quality of geriatric care. We concluded that rural hospital work environments may not be optimized to facilitate the delivery of quality geriatric care. Targeted interventions are needed to improve overall quality of care for hospitalized older adults in rural settings. PMID:24319004

  5. The quality of our Nation's waters: factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination: understanding observed water quality and anticipating future water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, Sandra M.; Thomas, Mary Ann; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, a study was conducted from 2001 to 2011 to shed light on factors that affect the vulnerability of water from public-supply wells to contamination (referred to hereafter as “public-supply-well vulnerability”). The study was designed as a follow-up to earlier NAWQA studies that found mixtures of contaminants at low concentrations in groundwater near the water table in urban areas across the Nation and, less frequently, in deeper groundwater typically used for public supply. Beside the factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination, this circular describes measures that can be used to determine which factor (or factors) plays a dominant role at an individual public-supply well. Case-study examples are used throughout to show how such information can be used to improve water quality. In general, the vulnerability of the water from public-supply wells to contamination is a function of contaminant input within the area that contributes water to a well, the mobility and persistence of a contaminant once released to the groundwater, and the ease of groundwater and contaminant movement from the point of recharge to the open interval of a well. The following measures described in this circular are particularly useful for indicating which contaminants in an aquifer might reach an individual public-supply well and when, how, and at what concentration they might arrive: * Sources of recharge—Information on the sources of recharge for a well provides insight into contaminants that might enter the aquifer with the recharge water and potentially reach the well. * Geochemical conditions—Information on the geochemical conditions encountered by groundwater traveling to a well provides insight into contaminants that might persist in the water all the way to the well. * Groundwater-age mixtures—Information on the ages of the different waters that mix in a well provides insight into the time lag between contaminant input at the water table and contaminant arrival at the well. It also provides insight into the potential for in-well dilution of contaminated water by unaffected groundwater of a different age that simultaneously enters the well. Preferential flow pathways—pathways that provide little resistance to flow—can influence how all other factors affect public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination. For example, preferential flow pathways can influence whether a contaminant source is physically linked to a well, whether contaminant concentrations are substantially altered before contaminated groundwater reaches a well, and whether contaminated groundwater can arrive at a well within a timeframe of concern to the well owner. Methods for recognizing the influence of preferential flow pathways on the quality of water from a public-supply well are presented in this circular and can provide opportunities to prevent or mitigate the deterioration of a water supply. Knowing what water-quality variables to measure, what spatial and temporal scales on which to measure them, and how to interpret the resulting data makes it possible for samples from public-supply wells to provide a broad window into a well’s past and present water quality—and possibly future water quality. Such insight can enable resource managers to prioritize actions for sustaining a high-quality groundwater source of drinking water.

  6. Neutron-diffraction study of the antiferromagnetic form factor of La sub 2 NiO sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Stassis, C.; Johnston, D.C.; Leung, T.C.; Ye, J.; Harmon, B.N. (Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)); Lander, G.H. (Commission of European Communities, Joint Research Center, Postfach 2340, D-7500 Karlsruhe (Germany)); Schultz, A.J.; Loong, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)); Honig, J.M. (Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Neutron-diffraction techniques have been used to study the antiferromagnetic form factor of a La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} single crystal at 15 K. The antiferromagnetic form factor was obtained by measuring the integrated intensities of 16 magnetic reflections. A plateau is clearly seen at low {ital Q} (up to 3 A{sup {minus}1}) in the experimentally determined form factor, similar to those observed for La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. The magnetization density deduced from the experimental data exhibits strong ansiotropy in the Ni-O plane. The experimental data are compared with covalency models and a recent spin-polarized band calculation.

  7. Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

    1992-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

  8. A high quality factor photonic crystal channel-drop filter with a linear gradient microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Fan, Qing-bin; Lu, Ye; Luo, De-jun; Kong, Yi-bu; Zhang, Dong-chuang

    2015-05-01

    We design a channel-drop filter (CDF) with a linear gradient microcavity in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC). The model of three-port CDF with reflector is used to achieve high quality factor (Q-factor) and 100% channel-drop efficiency. The research indicates that adjusting the distance between reference plane and reflector can simultaneously influence the Q-factor due to coupling to a bus waveguide and the phase retardation occurring in the round trip between a microcavity and a reflector. The calculation results of 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that the designed filter can achieve the drop efficiency of 96.7% and ultra-high Q-factor with an ultra-small modal volume.

  9. Chip Mount Design as a Dissipation-Limiting Factor in High Quality Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Brooks; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neil, C.; O'Malley, P.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting quantum computing technology continues to make progress with regards to both materials quality and circuit complexity. We have found that chip mount design can become a coherence-limiting factor for superconducting coplanar resonators with an internal quality factor above 1 million. Understanding the impact of chip-to-mount coupling will aid in both proper mount design for higher density circuits as well as the further improvement of coherence times. These coplanar resonators provide an ideal test circuit as they are sensitive to a variety of loss mechanisms including radiation, infrared light, and magnetic fields which also affect more complex superconducting circuits. I will present results relating the coherence and performance of resonators to box design, box material, and chip layout.

  10. Doping optimization for ultra-high quality factor superconducting niobium cavities for particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexander; Grassellino, Anna; Kim, Young-Kee

    2014-03-01

    Increasing quality factor of the fundamental mode in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities is vital for development of the future particle accelerator facilities, i.e. LCLS-II, Project X, ERLs, and ADS for nuclear energy and waste transmutation, since it directly affects the dissipated power in cavity walls. It has been discovered that doping of certain concentration of nitrogen into the surface of superconducting niobium significantly improves the quality factor of SRF cavities. We report the results of the nitrogen doping optimization guided by diffusion model and present two surface treatment procedures that allow achieving optimal value of nitrogen concentration at the surface of cavity: one with electropolishing required, another one without it.

  11. Quality Factors in TileCal and out-of-time Pile-up

    E-print Network

    Klimek, Pawel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment records data from the proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Tile Calorimeter is the hadronic sampling calorimeter of ATLAS in the region |?| cell (pile-up). In 2011 the LHC is running with filled bunches at 50 ns spacing and with an expected number of up to about 8 proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. We present a Quality Factor that is computed online for each event and for each calorimeter cell within the L1 trigger latency (10 ?s), and allows to identify calorimeter channels presenting pile-up. In presence of poor quality factor the data from the corresponding channel is read out with additional information to allow for an offline dedicated treatment of the...

  12. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bryan Neff (University of Western Ontario; Department of Biology)

    2010-06-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend to cite more papers than those published a decade ago. We analyzed citation data from 75,312 papers from 70 ecological journals published during 1998â??2007. We found that papers published in 2007 cited an average of seven more papers than those published a decade earlier. This increase accounts for about 80% of the observed impact factor inflation rate of 0.23. In examining the 70 journals we found that nearly 50% showed increases in their impact factors, but at rates lower than the background inflation rate. Therefore, although those journals appear to be increasing in quality as measured by the impact factor, they are actually failing to keep pace with inflation.

  13. [Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].

    PubMed

    Chávez, J F

    1980-03-01

    A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

  14. Surface plasmon resonances in Drude metal cylinders: radius dependence and quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nápoles-Duarte, J. M.; Chavez-Rojo, M. A.; Fuentes-Montero, M. E.; Rodríguez-Valdez, L. M.; García-Llamas, R.; Gaspar-Armenta, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the dispersion relation of surface plasmon modes in metal cylinders using the Drude model by numerically solving complex eigenfrequencies as a function of the radius. We also studied the quality factor Q of the modes and found that it decays as the radius is increased, and for a small radius there is a maximum value equal to {{? }s}/? independent of the mode order (where {{? }s} is the Ritchie’s surface plasmon frequency and ? is the damping constant).

  15. Factors influencing health-related quality of life of Asians with anxiety disorders in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Luo; Calvin Soon-Leng Fones; Julian Thumboo; Shu-Chuen Li

    2004-01-01

    As little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Asians with anxiety disorders, we assessed HRQoL in Singaporeans with anxiety disorders and identified factors influencing their HRQoL. Outpatients with anxiety disorders (n = 119) attending a hospital psychiatric clinic completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). SF-36 score

  16. The quality of medical care, behavioral risk factors, and longevity growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. Lichtenberg

    2011-01-01

    The rate of increase of longevity has varied considerably across U.S. states since 1991. This paper examines the effect of\\u000a the quality of medical care, behavioral risk factors (obesity, smoking, and AIDS incidence), and other variables (education,\\u000a income, and health insurance coverage) on life expectancy and medical expenditure using longitudinal state-level data. We\\u000a examine the effects of three different measures

  17. A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

  18. Factors affecting the quality of sound recording for speech and voice analysis.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Morgan, Angela T

    2009-01-01

    The importance and utility of objective evidence-based measurement of the voice is well documented. Therefore, greater consideration needs to be given to the factors that influence the quality of voice and speech recordings. This manuscript aims to bring together the many features that affect acoustically acquired voice and speech. Specifically, the paper considers the practical requirements of individual speech acquisition configurations through examining issues relating to hardware, software and microphone selection, the impact of environmental noise, analogue to digital conversion and file format as well as the acoustic measures resulting from varying levels of signal integrity. The type of recording environment required by a user is often dictated by a variety of clinical and experimental needs, including: the acoustic measures being investigated; portability of equipment; an individual's budget; and the expertise of the user. As the quality of recorded signals is influenced by many factors, awareness of these issues is essential. This paper aims to highlight the importance of these methodological considerations to those previously uninitiated with voice and speech acoustics. With current technology, the highest quality recording would be made using a stand-alone hard disc recorder, an independent mixer to attenuate the incoming signal, and insulated wiring combined with a high quality microphone in an anechoic chamber or sound treated room. PMID:21271920

  19. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

  20. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

  1. Factors associated with resilience, quality of life and self-esteem: Adolescents who have experienced multiple neurosurgeries and chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitomi Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine adolescent factors, illness-related factors, and social support factors associated with resilience (positive perception of self-esteem and quality of life) in adolescents who have experienced multiple neurosurgeries and chronic pain. This study also examined the relationship between an adolescent's perception of coping styles and quality of life and his\\/her mother's perceptions

  2. Comparisons of image quality factors for phase aberration correction with diffuse and point targets: theory and experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zhao; G. E. Trahey

    1991-01-01

    The use of several alternative image-brightness-based quality factors for phase aberration correction with diffuse and point targets in coherent ultrasonic imaging systems is explored. The factors are similar to the sharpness functions proposed by R.A. Muller et al. (1974) for incoherent imaging systems. Different region of interest (ROI) sizes are used to compare the quality factors. Good agreement is found

  3. Measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron at JLab via recoil polarimetry in the reaction: d(e, e-prime n)p

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Finn

    2004-11-01

    Preliminary results are reported for measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, GEn/GMn, obtained via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2H(e, e?n) 1H reaction at Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2. The measurements, conducted in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, together with other recent polarization measurements, are the result of a decade long effort to establish a firm experimental database for the important, but elusive, electric form factor of the neutron.

  4. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Aidan Kelleher

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.

  5. Quality, reliability, human and organization factors in design of marine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experience has amply demonstrated that Human and Organization Factors (HOF) play important roles in determining the quality and reliability of marine structures such as ships, pipelines, and offshore platforms. This paper addresses HOF in the context of quantitative reliability analyses that are intended to help improve the quality of marine structures. Quality is defined as the combination of acceptable and desirable service-ability, reliability, durability, and compatibility in a marine structure. A classification of HOF is proposed that addresses individual, organization, equipment/hardware, procedures/software, and environmental considerations. Alternatives for improved management of HOF are addressed including Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC), and design of error tolerant structures. A generic design process for marine structures is characterized. Based on these developments, a generic Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) is developed that addresses HOF in addition to the structure system aspects that have been traditionally addressed by QRA. Error promoting characteristics of complex design guidelines and computer software are discussed. A companion paper illustrates application of these developments to a ship structure problem involving design of the critical details for fatigue (Bea, 1995).

  6. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

  7. Measuring the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor with CLAS and CLAS12 Proposal for JSA Sabbatical/Research Leave Support at Jefferson Lab

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    of this project is to measure the neutron magnetic form factor. The elastic electromagnetic form factors are basic the dipole and are a few percent above the Anderson et al. results (blue, inverted triangles) [8] and Xu, et region. In particular, we have data for an electron beam energy of 2.6 GeV with normal CLAS torus

  8. Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Hemodialysis Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Md. Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

    2013-01-01

    Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0–100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m2) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1±19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0±8.6 and 39.6±8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life. PMID:24358336

  9. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran’s national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  10. Quality Assessment and Factor Analysis of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Endoscopic Ultrasound Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Danlu; Jin, Jiaxin; Tian, Jinhui; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive monitoring of the quality of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) requires complete and accurate reporting and methodology. Objective To assess the reporting and methodological quality of SRs/MAs on EUS diagnosis and to explore the potential factors influencing articles’ quality. Methods The quality of the reporting and methodology was evaluated in relation to the adherence of papers to the PRISMA checklist and the AMSTAR quality scale. The total scores for every criterion and for every article on the two standards were calculated. Data were evaluated and analyzed using SPSS17.0 and RevMan 5.1 in terms of publication time, category of reviews, category of journals, and funding resource. Results A total of 72 SRs/MAs was included, but no Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs) were obtained. The number of SRs/MAs ranged from 1 in 1998 to 15 in 2013; 88.1% used the QUADAS tool; the average overall scores by PRISMA statement and AMSTAR tool were 19.9 and 5.4, respectively. Scores on some items showed substantial improvement after publication of PRISMA and AMSTAR. However, no reviews followed the criterion of protocol and registration, and only 11.1% of articles fulfilled the criterion of literature search. SRs/MAs from the Science Citation Index (SCI) were of better quality than non-SCI studies. Funding resource made no difference to quality. Regression analysis showed that time of publication and inclusion in the SCI were significantly correlated with total scores on the two standards. Conclusion The reporting and methodological quality of SRs/MAs on EUS diagnosis has improved measurably since PRISMA and AMSTAR checklists released. It is hoped that CSR in this field will be produced. Literature searching and protocol criteria, as well as QUADAS-2 tool need to be addressed more in the future. Time of publication and SCI relate more to the overall quality of SRs/MAs than does funding resource. PMID:25905713

  11. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    E-print Network

    Plaster, Bradley R. (Bradley Robert), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with ...

  12. Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  13. A time-domain Discontinuous Galerkin method for mechanical resonator quality factor computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindjee, Sanjay; Persson, Per-Olof

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are becoming increasingly important in the design of micromechanical resonators, in particular for the prediction of complex frequency response in high quality devices where damping is controlled by anchor losses. Frequency based approaches have been shown to predict these accurately, however, they require the solution of eigenvalue problems or the inversion of Helmholtz-type operators which are known to be very difficult for large-scale iterative solvers. We propose using a time-domain approach instead, where a broadband input signal is propagated through the system with a local explicit time-stepper. This is achieved using a new high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization for the linear elasticity equations, in particular a second-order formulation with Compact DG fluxes and a Runge-Kutta time integrator, where the block-diagonal mass matrices allow for efficient, stable, and accurate time stepping. Our solver scales well on distributed parallel computers, even in three spatial dimension and for large problem sizes. The resulting output signal is analyzed using a well-known filter diagonalization method, which is capable of finding accurate frequencies and quality factors for as little as a hundred periods of data. We validate the properties of our scheme on model problems, and demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed analysis process on two high quality factor disk resonators, using an axisymmetric formulation as well as full three dimensional simulations which is shown to scale well.

  14. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  15. The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\\\vec{\\\\rm H}(\\\\vec{\\\\rm e},{\\\\rm e}'{\\\\rm n}){\\\\rm p}$ Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-01-01

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

  16. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  17. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect

    Najar, Hadi, E-mail: hnajar@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chan, Mei-Lin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24?±?3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz–8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  18. Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

  19. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Psychological factors in male partners of infertile couples: relationship with semen quality and early miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Zorn, B; Auger, J; Velikonja, V; Kolbezen, M; Meden-Vrtovec, H

    2008-12-01

    In this study we sought to evaluate whether psychological factors in males affect semen quality and pregnancy. In 1076 men of infertile couples, psychological factors, i.e. exposure to acute stress, coping with stress, the WHO (five) Well-Being Index and the Zung's Anxiety Scale Inventory scores were assessed by a questionnaire at the time of semen analysis. Relationships between psychological factors and semen quality (sperm concentration, rapid and progressive motility and normal morphology) were assessed. In 353 men with infertility duration of < or =1.5 years, sperm concentration > or =5 x 10(6) sperm/mL and a female partner with a laparoscopically confirmed tubal patency, we looked prospectively for relations between psychological factors and the occurrence of a natural pregnancy at a 6-month follow-up (n = 124), and first-trimester loss (n = 18). Anxiety trait, found in 19% of men, was related to previous in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts (p = 0.014), cigarette intake (p = 0.006), alcohol intake (p = 0.026) and sexual difficulties (p < 0.001). Regression analyses indicated a significant positive relationship between the level of sperm concentration and the WHO (five) Well-Being Index score, each successive score number accounting for a 7.3% increase in sperm concentration (p = 0.039), whereas no correlation was found between psychological factors and sperm rapid progressive motility and normal morphology. Poorer coping with stress was related to the occurrence of a first-trimester miscarriage (p = 0.016) in the female partner. Possible depression in males is related to decreased sperm concentration, and poor coping with stress is associated with increased occurrence of early miscarriage. PMID:17651396

  1. Quality of life and the related factors in spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries may be affected by several factors. Moreover, this issue is yet to be documented fully in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health related quality of life of spouses who act as primary caregivers of veterans with chronic spinal cord injuries in Iran. Methods The study consisted of 72 wives of 72 veterans who were categorized as spinal cord injured patients based on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification. Health related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Pearson's correlation was carried out to find any correlation between demographic variables with SF-36 dimensions. To find the effect of the factors like age, employment status, duration of care giving, education, presence or absence of knee osteoarthritis, and mechanical back pain on different domains of the SF-36 health survey, Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.7 years. According to the ASIA classification 88.9% and 11.1% of the veterans were paraplegic and tetraplegic respectively. Fifty percent of them had a complete injury (ASIA A) and 85% of the spouses were exclusive care givers. All of the SF-36 scores of the spouses were significantly lower than the normal population. Pearson's correlation demonstrated a negative significant correlation between both age and duration of caring with the PF domain. The number of children had a negative correlation with RE and VT. Conclusion The burden of caregiving can impact the QOL of caregivers and cause health problems. These problems can cause limitations for caregiver spouses and it can lead to a decrease in the quality of given care. PMID:23506336

  2. Impact of solvent quality on the density profiles of looped triblock copolymer brushes by neutron reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alonzo, Jose [Clemson University; Liu, Ming [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Yin, Fang [University of Utah; Smith, Grant [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-deuterated polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-dPS-PVP) triblock copolymers from toluene onto silicon leads to the formation of dPS loops tethered by the PVP end blocks. Using neutron reflectometry, we have determined the segment density profiles of these looped polymer brushes in toluene, a good solvent for the dPS block, and in cyclohexane at 20 C (poor solvent), 32 C, (near- solvent), and 50 C (marginal solvent). While the swelling behavior qualitatively agrees with that observed for singly grafted brushes, there are interesting differences in the local structural details: In a good solvent, the segment density profiles are composed of an inner parabolic region and a long, extended tail. In cyclohexane, the profiles are described by exponential decays. We ascribe these features to a novel polydispersity effect that arises due to tethering the PS loops by both ends. The results also show that the less dense layers undergo more significant changes in swollen height as solvent quality is changed and that the looped brushes of different molecular weight, asymmetry, and tethering density adhere to scaling relationships derived for lightly cross-linked polymer gels.

  3. Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  4. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of the management and active, inspirational team leadership appear to be important. Not only patient outcomes but also the performance indicators of monitoring and screening/assessment showed improvement in many but not all of the QI teams with such characteristics. More studies are needed to identify factors associated with the impact of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in mental healthcare. PMID:22230594

  5. Symmetric reflection line resonator and its quality factor modulation by a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Jiang, Hong-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Siddiqi, Irfan [Quantum Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.

  6. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A., E-mail: antonio.badolato@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Minkov, M.; Savona, V. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ? 2?×?10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  7. Single point defect photonic crystal nanocavity with ultrahigh quality factor achieved by using hexapole mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Takasumi; Shinya, Akihiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Kondo, Shingo; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2007-07-01

    Photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities with an extremely high quality factor (Q) based on a point defect are fabricated and their properties are studied. Their confinement of light is based on rotational symmetry, which forms a hexapole mode with a Q of 3.2×105. It demonstrates that this nanocavity is an alternative candidate for achieving an ultrahigh Q. In addition, we observed bistable behavior based on the thermo-optic effect at a threshold power of a few 100?W. We also investigated the dynamic properties of this cavity, where we observed that the cavity exhibits a smaller Q at a higher input power.

  8. Micromachined Fabry-Perot resonator combining submillimeter cavity length and high quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malak, M.; Pavy, N.; Marty, F.; Peter, Y.-A.; Liu, A. Q.; Bourouina, T.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally optical quality factor of nearly 9000 in a micromachined Fabry-Pérot resonator based on free space propagation of light and direct coupling to optical fibers. This result is obtained on long cavity resonators (L >250 ?m), a usually difficult case in terms of power loss, but very useful configuration for experiments requiring either long optical path or enough space for manipulation. The resonator architecture includes two multilayered silicon-air Bragg mirrors of cylindrical shape, combined with a fiber rod lens. The specific stability criteria are derived for the proposed resonator architecture. Dimensions of the fabricated devices are chosen accordingly.

  9. Mediators of Maternal Depression and Family Structure on Child BMI: Parenting Quality and Risk Factors for Child Overweight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina L. McConley; Sylvie Mrug; M. Janice Gilliland; Richard Lowry; Marc N. Elliott; Mark A. Schuster; Laura M. Bogart; Luisa Franzini; Soledad L. Escobar-Chaves; Frank A. Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers

  10. High quality-factor optical nanocavities in bulk single-crystal diamond.

    PubMed

    Burek, Michael J; Chu, Yiwen; Liddy, Madelaine S Z; Patel, Parth; Rochman, Jake; Meesala, Srujan; Hong, Wooyoung; Quan, Qimin; Lukin, Mikhail D; Lon?ar, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. PMID:25511421

  11. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF?) with an ultra-high quality (Q) factor above 10? at 1550 nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of 2 nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion Q-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of 3. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high-energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF? resonators potentially becomes feasible. PMID:25361142

  12. High quality-factor optical nanocavities in bulk single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Michael J.; Chu, Yiwen; Liddy, Madelaine S. Z.; Patel, Parth; Rochman, Jake; Meesala, Srujan; Hong, Wooyoung; Quan, Qimin; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Lon?ar, Marko

    2014-12-01

    Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics.

  13. Household Air Quality Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Pneumonia in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Pavani K.; Dutt, Dhiman; Silk, Benjamin J.; Doshi, Saumil; Rudra, Carole B.; Abedin, Jaynal; Goswami, Doli; Fry, Alicia M.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Luby, Stephen P.; Cohen, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009–2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces. PMID:24664785

  14. Realizing the frequency quality factor product limit in silicon via compact phononic crystal resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettler, Drew; Su, Mehmet; Leseman, Zayd; Soliman, Yasser; Olsson, Roy; El-Kady, Ihab

    2010-10-01

    High-Q (quality factor) resonators are a versatile class of components for radio frequency micro-electromechanical systems . Phononic crystals provide a promising method of producing these resonators. In this article, we present a theoretical study of the Q factor of a cavity resonator in a two-dimensional phononic crystal comprised of tungsten rods in a silicon matrix. One can optimize the Q of a phononic crystal resonator by varying the number of inclusions or the cavity harmonic number. We conclude that using higher harmonics marginally increases Q while increasing crystal length via additional inclusions causes Q to increase by orders of magnitude. Incorporating loss into the model shows that the silicon material limit on Q is achievable using a two-dimensional phononic crystal design with a reasonable length. With five layers of inclusions on either side of the cavity, the material limit on Q is achieved, regardless of the harmonic number.

  15. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  16. Methods of incorporation of biomagnification and bioavailability into Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative bioaccumulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, L.; Cook, P. [Environmental Protection Agency., Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    In the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative, the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) accounts for bioavailability and food chain biomagnification. A summary of the derivation and uses of these methodologies will be made. The method for determining the freely dissolved (bioavailable) portion of the chemical in the ambient water is based upon a three compartment partitioning model which consists of the freely dissolved chemical, and chemical sorbed to dissolved and particulate organic carbon. The methodology accounting for food chain biomagnification in the prediction of BAFs uses food chain multipliers to adjust bioconcentration factors to BAFS. The food chain multipliers were developed using the food chain model of Gobas (1993) and Great Lakes data.

  17. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality

  18. {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e}, e{prime})X and the neutron electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.O. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1995-12-31

    Recent data for the spin-dependent A{sub T}, and A{sub TL}, asymmetries in {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e}, e{prime}) quasielastic scattering are reviewed. The neutron electric and magnetic form factors are extracted from the data using a plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) model, and the model uncertainties are estimated. The extracted G{sub M}{sup n} is in agreement with the dipole prediction as well as with other recent experiments. No meaningful result for G{sub E}{sup n} is obtained due to large uncertainties and possible final-state interaction effects. At higher Q{sup 2}, the determination of G{sub E}{sup n} in {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e},e{prime}) does appear feasible based on the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) predictions.

  19. Astrophysical factor for the neutron generator 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction in the AGB stars

    E-print Network

    E. D. Johnson; G. V. Rogachev; A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; L. T. Baby; S. Brown; W. T. Cluff; A. M. Crisp; E. Diffenderfer; V. Z. Goldberg; B. W. Green; T. Hinners; C. R. Hoffman; K. W. Kemper; O. Momotyuk; P. Peplowski; A. Pipidis; R. Reynolds; B. T. Roeder

    2006-05-18

    The reaction 13C(alpha,n) is considered to be the main source of neutrons for the s-process in AGB stars. At low energies the cross section is dominated by the 1/2+ 6.356 MeV sub-threshold resonance in 17O whose contribution is determined with a very large uncertainty of ~1000% at stellar temperatures. In this work we performed the most precise determination of the low-energy astrophysical S factor using the indirect asymptotic normalization (ANC) technique. The alpha-particle ANC for the sub-threshold state has been measured using the sub-Coulomb alpha-transfer reaction (6Li,d). Using the determined ANC we calculated S(0), which turns out to be an order of magnitude smaller than in the NACRE compilation.

  20. Astrophysical factor for the neutron generator 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction in the AGB stars

    E-print Network

    Johnson, E D; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Baby, L T; Brown, S; Cluff, W T; Crisp, A M; Diffenderfer, E; Goldberg, V Z; Green, B W; Hinners, T; Hoffman, C R; Kemper, K W; Momotyuk, O; Peplowski, P; Pipidis, A; Reynolds, R; Roeder, B T

    2006-01-01

    The reaction 13C(alpha,n) is considered to be the main source of neutrons for the s-process in AGB stars. At low energies the cross section is dominated by the 1/2+ 6.356 MeV sub-threshold resonance in 17O whose contribution is determined with a very large uncertainty of ~1000% at stellar temperatures. In this work we performed the most precise determination of the low-energy astrophysical S factor using the indirect asymptotic normalization (ANC) technique. The alpha-particle ANC for the sub-threshold state has been measured using the sub-Coulomb alpha-transfer reaction (6Li,d). Using the determined ANC we calculated S(0), which turns out to be an order of magnitude smaller than in the NACRE compilation.

  1. Neutron electric form factor up to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 GeV/c{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; S. Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; E Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; G. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; J. W. Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-07-15

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G{sub En}/G{sub Mn} , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic {sup 2}H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q{sup 2} = 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  2. On the mechanical quality factors of cryogenic test masses from fused silica and crystalline quartz

    E-print Network

    Anja Schroeter; Ronny Nawrodt; Roman Schnabel; Stuart Reid; Iain Martin; Sheila Rowan; Christian Schwarz; Torsten Koettig; Ralf Neubert; Matthias Thürk; Wolfgang Vodel; Andreas Tünnermann; Karsten Danzmann; Paul Seidel

    2007-09-27

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors (IGWDs) are operated at room temperature with test masses made from fused silica. Fused silica shows very low absorption at the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. It is also well suited to realize low thermal noise floors in the detector signal band since it offers low mechanical loss, i. e. high quality factors (Q factors) at room temperature. However, for a further reduction of thermal noise, cooling the test masses to cryogenic temperatures may prove an interesting technique. Here we compare the results of Q factor measurements at cryogenic temperatures of acoustic eigenmodes of test masses from fused silica and its crystalline counterpart. Our results show that the mechanical loss of fused silica increases with lower temperature and reaches a maximum at 30 K for frequencies of slightly above 10 kHz. The losses of crystalline quartz generally show lower values and even fall below the room temperature values of fused silica below 10 K. Our results show that in comparison to fused silica, crystalline quartz has a considerably narrower and lower dissipation peak on cooling and thus has more promise as a test mass material for IGDWs operated at cryogenic temperatures. The origin of the different Q factor versus temperature behavior of the two materials is discussed.

  3. Factors affecting fertilisation and early embryo quality in single- and superovulated dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Bastos, Michele R; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2010-01-01

    Data on fertilisation and embryo quality in dairy cattle are presented and the main factors responsible for the low fertility of single-ovulating lactating cows and embryo yield in superovulated dairy cattle are highlighted. During the past 50 years, the fertility in high-producing lactating dairy cattle has decreased as milk production increased. Recent data show conception rates to first service to be approximately 32% in lactating cows, whereas in heifers it has remained above 50%. Fertilisation does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in single-ovulating cows, because it has remained above 80%. Conversely, early embryonic development is impaired in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first week after fertilisation. However, in superovulated dairy cattle, although fertilisation failure is more pronounced, averaging approximately 45%, the percentage of fertilised embryos viable at 1 week is quite high (>70%). Among the multifactorial causes of low fertility in lactating dairy cows, high feed intake associated with low concentrations of circulating steroids may contribute substantially to reduced embryo quality. Fertilisation failure in superovulated cattle may be a consequence of inappropriate gamete transport due to hormonal imbalances. PMID:20003858

  4. High quality factor mg-scale silicon mechanical resonators for 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, F. A.; Meng, P.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.; Liu, K.-Y.; Chao, S.; Martyniuk, M.; Roch-Jeune, I.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.

    2013-07-01

    Milligram-scale resonators have been shown to be suitable for the creation of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers, based on a phenomena first predicted for advanced gravitational-wave detectors. To achieve practical optoacoustic parametric devices, high quality factor resonators are required. We present millimetre-scale silicon resonators designed to exhibit a torsional vibration mode with a frequency in the 105-106 Hz range, for observation of 3-mode optoacoustic interactions in a compact table-top system. Our design incorporates an isolation stage and minimizes the acoustic loss from optical coating. We observe a quality factor of 7.5 × 105 for a mode frequency of 401.5 kHz, at room temperature and pressure of 10-3 Pa. We confirmed the mode shape by mapping the amplitude response across the resonator and comparing to finite element modelling. This study contributes to the development of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers for use in novel high-sensitivity signal transducers and quantum measurement experiments.

  5. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Yeh, L. H.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-10-01

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Qd) than the Ohmic quality factor (Qohm). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Qd and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Qd accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Qd with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  6. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis), as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial. PMID:22536241

  7. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high percentages of urban or agricultural land, or a combination of both, had higher concentrations and higher frequency of detections for most of the anthropogenic contaminants than areas with other combinations of land use and degree of aquifer confinement. Redox status is an indicator of more recently recharged water and affects the fate of some contaminants. Median concentrations of nitrate were highest in the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont aquifers and lowest in the Biscayne and Silurian-Devonian/Upper carbonate aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were significantly higher in unconfined aquifers than in confined aquifers and semiconfined/mixed confined aquifers (wells in aquifers with breached confining layers or wells open to both a confined and an unconfined aquifer). Water recharged after 1953 had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate than water recharged prior to 1953. Redox status was also a key factor affecting nitrate concentrations; in recently recharged waters, samples in oxic waters had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate than anoxic waters, regardless of land use in the area around the well. Samples from 54 wells (5 percent) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MCL of 10 mg/L for nitrate in drinking water. Most of the samples exceeding the drinking-water standard (52 samples, or 5 percent) were in domestic supply wells in agricultural areas. The Piedmont and Valley and Ridge aquifers had the largest number of samples (45) exceeding the MCL; in the remaining aquifers only 9 samples had concentrations of nitrate that exceeded the MCL (about 1 percent). None of the water recharged prior to 1953 and only a single sample from a confined aquifer had nitrate concentrations that exceeded 10 mg/L as N. Wells were sampled for a minimum of 47 pesticides. Detection frequencies and comparisons varied depending on the assessment level used. At least 1 of the 47 pesticides was detected at 510 (50 percent) of the 1,027 sites where pestic

  8. Design and Analysis of High Quality Factor Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Diamond Micromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motieian Najar, Mohammad Hadi

    Diamond is an excellent material for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) due to its superlative material properties compared to commonly used materials such as silicon. In its single crystalline form, diamond offers properties such as very high Young's modulus, low thermal coefficient of expansion, and very high thermal conductivity as well as being chemically inert. Specifically, diamond's high thermal conductivity offers the potential for very low thermoelastic damping (TED) in micromechanical resonators. Polycrystalline (Poly-C) diamond films deposited by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) have been explored in this research. HFCVD Poly-C diamond films are easy and inexpensive to deposit at wafer-scale, and retain many material properties that single crystalline diamond possesses. The first part of the study focuses on fabrication and testing of high quality factor micro-resonators such as double-ended tuning forks (DETF) and micro-cantilevers fabricated from microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond films with grain sizes ranging from 20 nm (nanocrystalline films) to 2.5 microm (microcrystalline films). The aim of this first study was to determine whether the quality factor of HFCVD diamond resonators could reach the limits imposed by intrinsic dissipation mechanisms such as thermoelastic damping (TED). Previous studies showed large differences between measured Q-factors and the TED limit, in part because these studies assumed thermal conductivity similar to that of single crystalline diamond. Here the thermal conductivity of NCD and MCD films was measured using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), and the resulting Q-factor measurements were shown to agree well with the theoretical TED limit. The second part of this research focuses on identifying the causes of dissipation in diamond resonators and suggesting approaches to improve the mechanical Q-factor. It is shown that, besides variations in deposition conditions such as decreasing the CH4:H2 ratio and increasing the deposition temperature, the thermal conductivity can be improved by increasing the thickness of the film and decreasing the wafer-to-filament distance to increase the abundance of monatomic hydrogen. Applying the suggested methods, the thermal conductivity was increased threefold to ~ 300 Wm-1K-1. Finally, we identified the limiting dissipation mechanism of low-frequency micro-resonators to be surface loss. To reduce surface loss, step-by-step annealing was performed and the Q-factor was increased to a maximum value of 365,000, the highest reported Q for any flexural poly-crystalline resonator to date.

  9. Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q}, the beam quality conversion factor

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Ottawa Carleton Institute for Physics, Carleton University Campus, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To use EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations to directly calculate beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, for 32 cylindrical ionization chambers over a range of beam qualities and to quantify the effect of systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q}. These factors are required to use the TG-51 or TRS-398 clinical dosimetry protocols for calibrating external radiotherapy beams. Methods: Ionization chambers are modeled either from blueprints or manufacturers' user's manuals. The dose-to-air in the chamber is calculated using the EGSnrc user-code egs{sub c}hamber using 11 different tabulated clinical photon spectra for the incident beams. The dose to a small volume of water is also calculated in the absence of the chamber at the midpoint of the chamber on its central axis. Using a simple equation, k{sub Q} is calculated from these quantities under the assumption that W/e is constant with energy and compared to TG-51 protocol and measured values. Results: Polynomial fits to the Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors as a function of beam quality expressed as %dd(10){sub x} and TPR{sub 10}{sup 20} are given for each ionization chamber. Differences are explained between Monte Carlo calculated values and values from the TG-51 protocol or calculated using the computer program used for TG-51 calculations. Systematic uncertainties in calculated k{sub Q} values are analyzed and amount to a maximum of one standard deviation uncertainty of 0.99% if one assumes that photon cross-section uncertainties are uncorrelated and 0.63% if they are assumed correlated. The largest components of the uncertainty are the constancy of W/e and the uncertainty in the cross-section for photons in water. Conclusions: It is now possible to calculate k{sub Q} directly using Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo calculations for most ionization chambers give results which are comparable to TG-51 values. Discrepancies can be explained using individual Monte Carlo calculations of various correction factors which are more accurate than previously used values. For small ionization chambers with central electrodes composed of high-Z materials, the effect of the central electrode is much larger than that for the aluminum electrodes in Farmer chambers.

  10. Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Dolengevich-Segal, Helen; Arrojo-Romero, Manuel; Castelli-Candia, Paola; Navio-Acosta, Mercedes; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria M; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. Methods We measured perceived quality of life (QOL) in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton's depression scale and the SF-36 self-administered global QOL perception scale. Results We found a correlation among Hamilton's scale scores and all SF-36 subscales. The severity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with all SF-36 subscales and with the highest scores in Hamilton's scale. The obsessions subscale was correlated to all SF-36 subscales, while the compulsions subscale was correlated only to social functioning, emotional role, mental health and vitality. Compulsions were not related to general health perception. There were significant differences between OCD patients and the Spanish general population in all SF-36 subscales except those related to physical health and pain. Gender, age, age of onset of the disorder, years of evolution and marital status of the patients did not significantly affect quality of life perception. Being employed was related to better scores in the subscale of physical role. Patients with medical comorbidity scored lower in the subscales of general health, social functioning and mental health. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders had worse scores in the subscales of pain, general health, social functioning and mental health. Conclusion Quality of life perception was different in OCD patients and the general population. Quality of life perception was related to severity of the disorder, physical and psychiatric comorbidity and employment status. PMID:16684346

  11. The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic ³{ovr He}({rvec e}, eâ²) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G. S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C. E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J. W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G. W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized ³He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  12. The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic {sup 3}{ovr He}({rvec e}, e{prime}) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  13. [Analysis on the key water quality factors to phytoplankton community in Wujingang Region of Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Wen, Hang; Wang, Dong-Wei; Sun, Jin-Hua; Huang, Yi

    2011-07-01

    Field investigations on the phytoplankton community were carried out in July 2009 and January 2010 in Wujingang Region of Taihu Lake (WRTL). Results show that there are 46 genus, 24 families and 6 phylum phytoplankton were identified in wet season, which is mainly composed of the Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta, the average phytoplankton abundance of this season is 14. 8 x 10(6) cell/L. There are 29 genus, 18 families and 5 phylum phytoplankton were found in level season, and Diatoms were the dominant category, the average phytoplankton abundance of the season is 3 113 cell/L. It shows that a remarkable discrepancy in community and density between the two seasons. The principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to assess the phytoplankton community structure with regard to 8 aquatic environmental factors and their spatial distribution, which result on the key aquatic environmental quality factors show that NH4(+) -N and TN were the most extraordinary pollution factors which affect the phytoplankton community and WRTL was in extrophication level. PMID:21922813

  14. Neutron measurements onboard the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Keith, J. E.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation environment inside a shielded volume is highly complex, consisting of both charged and neutral particles. Since the inception of human space flights, the charged particle component has received virtually all of the attention. There is however, a significant production of secondary neutrons, particularly from the aluminum structure in low earth orbiting spacecrafts. The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and solar energetic particles with the earth's atmosphere produce a non-isotropic distribution of albedo neutrons. Inside any reasonable habitable module, the average radiation quality factor of neutrons is about 4-5 times larger than the corresponding average quality factor of charged particles. The measurement of neutrons and their energy spectra is a difficult problem due the intense sources of charged particles. This paper reviews the results of Shuttle flight experiments (made during both solar maximum and solar minimum) to measure the contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent, as well as theoretical calculations to estimate the appropriate range of neutron energies that contribute most to the dose equivalent. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. A projection operator method for the analysis of magnetic neutron form factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kaprzyk; B. van Laar; F. Maniawski

    1981-01-01

    A set of projection operators in matrix form has been derived on the basis of decomposition of the spin density into a series of fully symmetrized cubic harmonics. This set of projection operators allows a formulation of the Fourier analysis of magnetic form factors in a convenient way. The presented method is capable of checking the validity of various theoretical

  16. High Quality Factor MBE-grown Aluminum on Silicon Planar Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Quintana, C.; Campbell, B.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Palmstrom, C.; Martinis, J. M.; Cleland, A. N.

    2015-03-01

    Linear arrays of planer Xmon qubit circuits fabricated using thin aluminum films on sapphire substrates have resulted in long coherence times and high fidelity gates. Scaling up to larger circuits, including two-dimensional qubit arrays, may however benefit from building circuits on silicon instead of sapphire substrates. I will present recent tests in this direction, reporting on measurements of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fabricated using aluminum films deposited on silicon in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. These resonators exhibit exceptional performance, with quality factors at low temperatures and single photon excitation energies exceeding 5x106. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office Grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  17. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  18. Ultra-high quality factor planar Si3N4 ring resonators on Si substrates.

    PubMed

    Tien, Ming-Chun; Bauters, Jared F; Heck, Martijn J R; Spencer, Daryl T; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Bowers, John E

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate planar Si3N4 ring resonators with ultra-high quality factors (Q) of 19 million, 28 million, and 7 million at 1060 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm, respectively. By integrating the ultra-low-loss Si3N4 ring resonators with laterally offset planar waveguide directional couplers, optical add-drop and notch filters are demonstrated to have ultra-narrow bandwidths of 16 MHz, 38 MHz, and 300 MHz at 1060 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm, respectively. These are the highest Qs reported for ring resonators with planar directional couplers, and ultra-narrowband microwave photonic filters can be realized based on these high-Q ring resonators. PMID:21747510

  19. Note: calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor.

    PubMed

    Sader, John E; Friend, James R

    2014-11-01

    A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration. PMID:25430150

  20. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  1. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

  2. Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H- beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Hardek, T. W.; Kang, Y. W.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-01

    Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of ˜50 mA H- ions from the ion source with a ˜5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of ˜3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to ˜170 °C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H- beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 °C.

  3. Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

    2015-02-01

    Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

  4. A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, E.; Hao, W.; Baker, S.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Miller, W.; Weise, D. R.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Prescribed fire is a significant emissions source in the U.S. and that needs to be adequately characterized in atmospheric transport/chemistry models. In addition, the Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Several published papers contain a few emission factors for prescribed fire and additional results are found in unpublished documents whose quality has to be assessed. In conjunction with three research projects developing detailed new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately, this database will be available on the Internet and will contain older emissions information that has been assessed and newer emissions information that has been developed from both laboratory-scale and field measurements. The database currently contains emissions information from over 300 burns of different wildland vegetation types, including grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, forests, and tundra over much of North America. A summary of the compiled data will be presented, along with suggestions for additional categories.

  5. A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

  6. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S. [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)], E-mail: bscaldwell@purdue.edu

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  7. Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime

    SciTech Connect

    Marko Zeier

    2000-12-12

    We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

  8. Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

  9. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Melnychuk, O.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here, we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: (1) record quality factors Q > 2 × 1011 up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; (2) Q ˜ 3 × 1010 at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  10. Effect of Threading Dislocations on the Quality Factor of InGaN/GaN Microdisk Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the theoretical advantages associated with nitride microcavities, the quality factors of devices with embedded indium gallium nitride (InGaN) or gallium nitride (GaN) optical emitters still remain low. In this work we identify threading dislocations (TDs) as a major limitation to the fabrication of high quality factor devices in the nitrides. We report on the use of cathodoluminescence (CL) to identify individual TD positions within microdisk lasers containing either InGaN quantum wells or quantum dots. Using CL to accurately count the number, and map the position, of dislocations within several individual cavities, we have found a clear correlation between the density of defects in the high-field region of a microdisk and its corresponding quality factor (Q). We discuss possible mechanisms associated with defects, photon scattering, and absorption, which could be responsible for degraded device performance. PMID:25839048

  11. Factors influencing quality of life in patients during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    ?mijewska-Tomczak, Ma?gorzata; Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Hojan, Katarzyna; Golusi?ski, Wojciech; Ruci?ska, Anna; Adamska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy (RT) in combination with chemotherapy is a standard of care for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The RT is associated with side effects, which impact on quality of life (QoL). Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the impact of RT on the QoL of patients with HNSCC during RT. Material and methods From September 2008 to February 2010, 205 patients with locally advanced HNSCC were enrolled. The data pertaining to their QoL were collected using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC Head and Neck Module (QLQ-H&N35) and then all items were transformed to a 0-100 scale according to the guidelines of the EORTC. The following clinical factors were chosen to study their potential influence on the QoL; site of primary, clinical stage, and methods of therapy: RT vs. chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Additionally, the sociodemographic factors (age, gender, education, habit of smoking) were studied. Results Deterioration of almost all scales and items in the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire were noted at the end of RT. The following factors negatively influenced the QoL: age < 60 years (p < 0.05), female gender (p < 0.05), habit of smoking (p < 0.01), advanced clinical stage (III and IV) (p < 0.05), site of primary (larynx, hypopharynx) (p < 0.01), and CRT (p < 0.01). Conclusions Our study showed that RT significantly negatively influenced QoL at the end of the RT course. Additionally, this study demonstrated that age, gender, smoking habit, tumor site, and clinical stage of disease showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNSCC patients during RT. PMID:25624853

  12. High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mexis, M.; Sergent, S.; Guillet, T.; Brimont, C.; Bretagnon, T.; Gil, B.; Semond, F.; Leroux, M.; Néel, D.; David, S.; Chécoury, X.; Boucaud, P.

    2011-06-01

    We compare the quality factor values of the whispery gallery modes of microdisks incorporating GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on AlN and AlGaN barriers by performing room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL measurements show a large number of high Q factor (Q) resonant modes on the whole spectrum which allows us to identify the different radial mode families and to compare them with simulations. We report a considerable improvement of the Q factor which reflect the etching quality and the relatively low cavity loss by inserting QDs into the cavity. GaN/AlN QDs based microdisks show very high Q values (Q > 7000) whereas the Q factor is only up to 2000 in microdisks embedding QDs grown on AlGaN barrier layer. We attribute this difference to the lower absorption below bandgap for AlN barrier layers at the energies of our experimental investigation.

  13. Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization. PMID:23514260

  14. Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Pickup Reaction ^64Zn(d,t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Kyle; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    2009-10-01

    A great deal of attention has recently been paid towards high-precision superallowed ?-decay Ft values. With the availability of extremely high-precision (<0.1%) experimental data, precision on the individual Ft values are now dominated by the ˜1% theoretical corrections^[1]. This limitation is most evident in heavier superallowed nuclei (e.g. ^62Ga) where the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) correction calculations become more difficult due to the truncated model space. Experimental spectroscopic factors for these nuclei are important for the identification of the relevant orbitals that should be included in the model space of the calculations. Motivated by this need, the single-nucleon transfer reaction ^64Zn(d,t)^63Zn was conducted at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) of TUM/LMU in Munich, Germany, using a 22 MeV polarized deuteron beam from the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the TUM/LMU Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with angular distributions from 10^o to 60^o. Results from this experiment will be presented and implications for calculations of ISB corrections in the superallowed &+circ; decay of ^62Ga will be discussed.^[1] I.S. Towner and J.C. Hardy, Phys. Rev. C 77, 025501 (2008).

  15. Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Pickup ^64Zn(d,t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Kyle; Garrett, P. E.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Towner, I. S.; Ball, G. C.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2010-11-01

    A great deal of attention has recently been paid towards high-precision superallowed ?-decay Ft values. With the availability of extremely high-precision (<0.1%) experimental data, precision on the individual Ft values are now dominated by the ˜1% theoretical corrections. This limitation is most evident in heavier superallowed nuclei (e.g. ^62Ga) where the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) correction calculations become more difficult due to the truncated model space. Experimental spectroscopic factors for these nuclei are important for the identification of the relevant orbitals that should be included in the model space of the calculations. Motivated by this need, the single-nucleon transfer reaction ^64Zn(d,t)^63Zn was conducted at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) of TUM/LMU in Munich, Germany, using a 22 MeV polarized deuteron beam from the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the TUM/LMU Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with angular distributions from 10^o to 60^o. Results from this experiment will be presented and implications for calculations of ISB corrections in the superallowed ° decay of ^62Ga will be discussed.

  16. Effects of dietary factors, stocking biomass and domestication on the nutritional and technological quality of the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Mairesse; Marielle Thomas; Jean-Noël Gardeur; Jean Brun-Bellut

    2007-01-01

    The ante mortem determinism of the quality components in fish is multivariate. Among the various influencing factors, the effects of (i) rearing biomass, (ii) dietary features and (iii) domestication process on the technological and nutritional variables in perch Perca fluviatilis here were studied using two-levels fractional factorial design 24–1 (resolution IV). This work allowed identifying two main factors, i.e. domestication

  17. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

  18. Super Cool! Neutrons! (Ultracold Neutrons)

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Super Cool! Neutrons! (Ultracold Neutrons) Jeff Martin University of Winnipeg UM Physics Foundation for Innovation Manitoba Research & Innovation Fund #12; Ultracold Neutrons What are neutrons? Why are they important? How to make lots of neutrons. Interesting properties of ultracold neutrons

  19. The Association Between Psychological Factors and Orofacial Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Reddy, Sreedevi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that psychological factors of psychological distress and perception of unhappiness in childhood are associated with self reported orofacial pain and to examine whether such patients have a poorer perception of their oral health related quality of life and if so then to what extent. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur amongst 400 cases and 400 controls. Patients were included based on Locker and Slade’s criteria. Patients were asked to complete 27 items Questionnaire which included the General Health Questionnaire to assess for psychological distress and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 for evaluating impact on quality of life. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between psychological factors, unhappy childhood and quality of life. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results An increased propensity to report orofacial pain was seen for those individuals with higher levels of Psychological Distress and with perception of Unhappiness in Childhood. These individuals also reported with poorer perception of their oral health related Quality of Life. Conclusion The present study has shown relationship between Orofacial Pain, Quality of Life and Psychological Factors.

  20. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-->(e-->,e'n)p at Q2 = 0.5 (GeV\\/c)2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhu; A. Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; H. Arenhövel; C. Armstrong; C. Bernet; W. Boeglin; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; D. Brown; S. Bültmann; R. Carlini; N. Chant; A. Cowley; D. Crabb; S. Danagoulian; D. B. Day; T. Eden; R. Ent; Y. Farah; R. Fatemi; K. Garrow; C. Harris; M. Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; M. Kaufmann; M. Khandaker; G. Kubon; J. Lichtenstadt; R. Lindgren; R. Lourie; A. Lung; D. Mack; S. Malik; P. Markowitz; K. McFarlane; P. McKee; D. McNulty; G. Milanovich; J. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchyan; M. Mühlbauer; T. Petitjean; Y. Prok; D. Rohe; E. Rollinde; O. A. Rondon; P. Roos; R. Sawafta; I. Sick; C. Smith; M. Steinacher; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosyan; R. Tieulent; A. Tobias; W. Vulcan; G. Warren; H. Wöhrle; S. Wood; C. Yan; M. Zeier; J. Zhao; B. Zihlmann

    2001-01-01

    We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor GnE via d-->(e-->,e'n)p. GnE was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ( 15ND3). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular

  1. The Transverse Asymmetry $\\\\bf A_{\\\\bf T'}$ from Quasi-elastic $^3\\\\vec{\\\\rm He}(\\\\vec{e},e')$ Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Xu; D. Dutta; F. Xiong; B. Anderson; L. Auberbach; T. Averett; W. Bertozzi; J. Calarco; L. Cardman; G. D. Cates; Z. W. Chai; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; G. S. Corrado; C. Crawford; D. Dale; A. Deur; P. Djawotho; B. W. Filippone; J. M. Finn; H. Gao; R. Gilman; A. V. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; W. Glockle; J. Golak; J. Gomez; V. G. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; F. W. Hersman; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; C. R. Howell; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; C. W. de Jager; J. S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C. E. Jones; M. Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; J. LeRose; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; J. W. Martin; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; K. McIlhany; E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Mitchell; S. Nanda; E. Pace; T. Pavlin; G. G. Petratos; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R. D. Ransome; Y. Roblin; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; G. Salme; M. Schnee; T. Shin; K. Slifer; P. A. Souder; S. Strauch; M. Sutter; B. Tipton; L. Todor; M. Viviani; B. Vlahovic; J. Watson; C. F. Williamson; B. Wojtsekhowski; J. Yeh

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of\\u000alongitudinally polarized electrons from polarized 3He nuclei at quasi-elastic\\u000akinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic\\u000aprecision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev\\u000acalculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2 %.

  2. Using Local and Regional Air Quality Modeling and Source Apportionment Tools to Evaluate Vehicles and Biogenic Emission Factors 

    E-print Network

    Kota, Sri H

    2014-07-25

    and inventories of CO, NO_(x) and VOCs from on-road vehicles estimated by vehicle emission factor models and biogenic emissions of isoprene estimated by a popular biogenic emission model are evaluated using local and regional scale air quality modeling and source...

  3. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  4. Marital Status and Quality in Middle-Aged Women: Associations With Levels and Trajectories of Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    of reasons. First, as a primary source of social support, marriage may protect against the wellMarital Status and Quality in Middle-Aged Women: Associations With Levels and Trajectories the menopausal transition. Risk factors were measured across more than 5 occasions and 13 years, on average. Data

  5. Parents' and Teachers' Perception of Selection as a Factor of Quality in the Curriculum Process in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyamu, Ede O. S.

    2005-01-01

    This study was motivated by the need to redress the problem of decline in the quality of education in Nigerian schools. Although there are several factors that influence success in the learning situation, it is contended in this paper that the provision of the other conditions of learning may not have marked impact on successful learning if the…

  6. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  7. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 HIGH QUALITY FACTOR COPPER INDUCTORS INTEGRATED IN DEEP DRY ETCHED

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    / Ar plasma etching step performed in a state-of-the-art Alcatel AMS 200 DSE ICP dry etcher (fig. 1cStresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 HIGH QUALITY FACTOR COPPER INDUCTORS INTEGRATED IN DEEP DRY ETCHED [2], insulating the inductor from the silicon substrate [3]. Etching a cavity underneath the inductor

  8. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  9. High quality 99mTc obtained from 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) using accelerator neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Ohta, Akio; Shiina, Takayuki; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Special Group for Generation Technology using Accelerator Neutrons Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    99m Tc, the daughter nuclide of 99Mo, is widely used for medical diagnosis. In Japan, about 0.9 million diagnostic procedures are carried out using 99mTc. 99Mo has been mostly produced using 235U in research reactors. Because of recent shortages of 99Mo, a variety of alternative production methods of 99Mo or 99mTc were proposed. We proposed to produce 99Mo by 100Mo(n,2 n) using neutrons from an accelerator. The route is characterized to produce a large quantity of high-quality 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive wastes, since the cross section of the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction at 11 < En < 18 MeV is large, and the cross sections of the (n?) , (nn ' p) , and (np) reactions on 100Mo are quite small. Intense neutrons are available because of recent progresses of accelerator and target technologies. In the talk, we show our recent experimental results to obtain 99mTc with high-quality using 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) .

  10. Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiming; Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Gong, Zizhou; Ding, Qi; Gustafsson, Martin V.; Trinh, M. Tuan; Jin, Song; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2015-06-01

    The remarkable performance of lead halide perovskites in solar cells can be attributed to the long carrier lifetimes and low non-radiative recombination rates, the same physical properties that are ideal for semiconductor lasers. Here, we show room-temperature and wavelength-tunable lasing from single-crystal lead halide perovskite nanowires with very low lasing thresholds (220 nJ cm-2) and high quality factors (Q ~ 3,600). The lasing threshold corresponds to a charge carrier density as low as 1.5 × 1016 cm-3. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved fluorescence reveals little charge carrier trapping in these single-crystal nanowires and gives estimated lasing quantum yields approaching 100%. Such lasing performance, coupled with the facile solution growth of single-crystal nanowires and the broad stoichiometry-dependent tunability of emission colour, makes lead halide perovskites ideal materials for the development of nanophotonics, in parallel with the rapid development in photovoltaics from the same materials.

  11. Material-mediated proangiogenic factor release pattern modulates quality of regenerated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Baek, Kwanghyun; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Millet, Larry J; Bashir, Rashid; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-12-28

    Hydrogels designed to sustainably release bioactive molecules are extensively used to enhance tissue repair and regenerative therapies. Along this line, numerous efforts are made to control the molecular release rate and amount. In contrast, few efforts are made to control the molecular release pattern, and, subsequently, modulate the spatial organization of newly forming tissues, including blood vessels. Therefore, using a hydrogel printed to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into a pre-defined pattern, this study demonstrates that spatial distribution of VEGF is important in guiding growth direction of new blood vessels, and also in retaining the structural integrity of pre-existing vasculature. Guided by a computational model, we fabricated a patch composed of micro-sized VEGF-releasing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel cylinders using an ink-jet printer. Interestingly, hydrogel printed with computationally optimized spacing created anisotropically aligned vasculature exclusively when the printed gel pattern was placed parallel to pre-existing blood vessels. In contrast, vascular sprouting from placing the printed gel pattern perpendicular to pre-existing vessels resulted in deformation and structural disintegration of the original vasculature. We envision that this study will be useful to better understand angiogenesis-modulated neovascularization and further improve the treatment quality for various wounds and tissue defects. PMID:25450405

  12. Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiming; Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Gong, Zizhou; Ding, Qi; Gustafsson, Martin V; Trinh, M Tuan; Jin, Song; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-06-01

    The remarkable performance of lead halide perovskites in solar cells can be attributed to the long carrier lifetimes and low non-radiative recombination rates, the same physical properties that are ideal for semiconductor lasers. Here, we show room-temperature and wavelength-tunable lasing from single-crystal lead halide perovskite nanowires with very low lasing thresholds (220 nJ cm(-2)) and high quality factors (Q ? 3,600). The lasing threshold corresponds to a charge carrier density as low as 1.5 × 10(16) cm(-3). Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved fluorescence reveals little charge carrier trapping in these single-crystal nanowires and gives estimated lasing quantum yields approaching 100%. Such lasing performance, coupled with the facile solution growth of single-crystal nanowires and the broad stoichiometry-dependent tunability of emission colour, makes lead halide perovskites ideal materials for the development of nanophotonics, in parallel with the rapid development in photovoltaics from the same materials. PMID:25849532

  13. Quality of life and related factors among the women undergoing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Musarezaie, Amir; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and 81% of therapeutic surgery performed for breast cancer in Iran is mastectomy. Following mastectomy, the patients suffer from many problems which lead to several disorders and decrease in their quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 105 breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy, selected with a convenient sampling method. A questionnaire containing three parts was used to collect data. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 14 using descriptive and analytical statistical methods. Results: Spearman test showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between QOL and education level and also fatigue. Moreover, Spearman test indicated a statistically significant correlation between age and the mental dimension of QOL. There was no significant relationship between QOL with marital and employment status. Conclusions: Based on the findings, we can suggest that nurses should be educated about the factors affecting QOL. They can receive the necessary knowledge in various areas such as meeting the patients, optimum management of patients’ problems, improvement of their health, and finally help to increase the cancer patients’ QOL. PMID:25878710

  14. QLM9: A new radial quality factor ( Q?) model for the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jesse F.; Wysession, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    We employ a niching genetic algorithm to invert ˜30,000 differential ScS/ S attenuation values for a new spherically symmetric radial model of shear quality factor ( Q?) with high sensitivity to the lower mantle. The new radial Q? model, QLM9, possesses greater sensitivity to Q? at large mantle depths than previous studies. On average, lower mantle Q? increases with depth, which supports models of increasing viscosity with depth [B.M. Steinberger, A.R. Calderwood. Mineral physics constraints on viscous flow models of mantle flow, J. Conf. Abs., 6, 2001., 2001.]. There are two higher- Q? regions at ˜1000 and ˜2500 km depth, which roughly correspond to high-viscosity regions observed by Forte and Mitrovica [A.M. Forte and J.X. Mitrovica, Deep-mantle high-viscosity flow and thermochemical structure inferred from seismic and geodynamic data, Nature 410, 1049-1056, 2001.]. There is a lower- Q? layer at the core-mantle boundary and a relatively low- Q? region in the mid-lower mantle. With several caveats, we infer a divergence of the solidus and geotherm in the lower mantle and a convergence within D? by relating Q? to homologous temperature.

  15. Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, O.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter ?1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with ?1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of ?1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27].

  16. Internal friction quality-factor Q under confining pressure. [of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L.; Nadler, H.; Curnow, J.; Smith, T.; Cohen, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found in previous studies that small amounts of adsorbed volatiles can have a profound effect on the internal friction quality-factor Q of rocks and other porous media. Pandit and Tozer (1970) have suggested that the laboratory-measured Q of volatile-free rocks should be similar to the in situ seismic Q values of near-surface lunar rocks which according to Latham et al. (1970) are in the range of 3000-5000. Observations of dramatic increases in Q with outgassing up to values approaching 2000 in the seismic frequency range confirm this supposition. Measurements under confining pressures with the sample encapsulated under hard vacuum are reported to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface. It has been possible to achieve in the experiments Q values just under 2000 at about 1 kbar for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. It was found that a well-outgassed sample maintains a high Q whereas one exposed to moisture maintains a low Q as the confining pressure is raised to 2.5 kbar. This result suggests that volatiles can indeed affect Q when cracks are partially closed and the high lunar seismic Q values reported are concomitant with very dry rock down to depths of at least 50 km.

  17. Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

  18. LA INNOVACIÓN COMO FACTOR DE CALIDAD EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES EDUCATIVAS (INNOVATION AS A QUALITY FACTOR IN EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Fernández Díaz

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the role of innovation as a fundamental factor in the qualíty of educatío- nal organizations, as it is considered in several qualíty models, such as the EFQM. A better understanding of the process of innovation is seeked looking at the relatíonshíp and dífferen- ces between innovation and change. The paper focuses on the factors and condítions of

  19. Monte-Carlo-based perturbation and beam quality correction factors for thimble ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams.

    PubMed

    Wulff, J; Heverhagen, J T; Zink, K

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation into the calculation of perturbation and beam quality correction factors for ionization chambers in high-energy photon beams with the use of Monte Carlo simulations. For a model of the NE2571 Farmer-type chamber, all separate perturbation factors as found in the current dosimetry protocols were calculated in a fixed order and compared to the currently available data. Furthermore, the NE2571 Farmer-type and a model of the PTW31010 thimble chamber were used to calculate the beam quality correction factor kQ. The calculations of kQ showed good agreement with the published values in the current dosimetry protocols AAPM TG-51 and IAEA TRS-398 and a large set of published measurements. Still, some of the single calculated perturbation factors deviate from the commonly used ones; especially prepl deviates more than 0.5%. The influence of various sources of uncertainties in the simulations is investigated for the NE2571 model. The influence of constructive details of the chamber stem shows a negligible dependence on calculated values. A comparison between a full linear accelerator source and a simple collimated point source with linear accelerator photon spectra yields comparable results. As expected, the calculation of the overall beam quality correction factor is sensitive to the mean ionization energy of graphite used. The measurement setup (source-surface distance versus source-axis distance) had no influence on the calculated values. PMID:18460747

  20. Development and in vitro studies of epidermal growth factor-dextran conjugates for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Gedda, L; Olsson, P; Pontén, J; Carlsson, J

    1996-01-01

    A delivery molecule for directed boron neutron capture therapy against epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-rich tumors, such as gliomas, squamous carcinomas, and breast cancers, is presented. EGF and sulfhydryl boron hydride (BSH) were covalently coupled to an allylated 70 kDa dextran chain to form a conjugate. Conjugates with low and high substitution rates of BSH, as well as without BSH, were investigated. The conjugate with a low amount of boron had approximately 6 BSH (72 boron atoms) per dextran, while the conjugates with higher amounts had an average substitution of 55 BSH (660 boron atoms) per dextran. The maximum substitution of boron to dextran in a single experiment was over 800 boron atoms. Binding, retention, and internalization of 125I-labeled conjugates were investigated on cultured human glioma cells. Binding of the conjugates was EGF receptor specific, but the amount of BSH coupled to dextran affected specificity, more than the presence of dextran. The nonspecific binding of the conjugates increased with the amount of attached boron. This was partly due to nonspecific adhesion to the plastic in the culture dishes. [125I]EGF-allyldextran with 6 BSH had a binding maximum after 4 h of continuous incubation and thereafter decreased in binding, while [125I]EGF-allyldextran with the higher substitution rate had a slow increase of binding during 24 h. Over 93% of the radioactivity bound to the cells was internalized, but the retention was quite poor. Only one-third of the cell-bound activity was still associated to the cells 4 h after incubation had ended. In conclusion, it is possible to load the conjugates produced with high amounts of boron, and they retained specificity for the EGF receptor and internalized into cultured cells. Theoretical calculations show that about 10(3) boron atoms per EGF-based conjugate are needed to give a satisfactory therapeutic response. These conjugates are within reach of that level. PMID:8889021

  1. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The Han River basin is one of the most important industrial and grain production bases in the central China. A lot of factories and towns have been established along the river where large farmlands are located nearby. In the last few decades the water quality of the Han River, specifically in middle and lower reaches, has gradually declined. The agricultural nonpoint pollution and municipal and industrial point pollution significantly degrade the water quality of the Han River. Factor analysis can be applied to reduce the dimensionality of a data set consisting of a large number of inter-related variables. Cluster analysis can classify the samples according to their similar characters. In this study, factor analysis is used to identify major pollution indicators, and cluster analysis is employed to classify the samples based on the sample locations and hydrochemical variables. Water samples were collected from 12 sample sites collected from Xiangyang City (middle Han River) to Wuhan City (lower Han River). Correlations among 25 hydrochemical variables are statistically examined. The important pollutants are determined by factor analysis. A three-factor model is determined and explains over 85% of the total river water quality variation. Factor 1, including SS, Chl-a, TN and TP, can be considered as the nonpoint source pollution. Factor 2, including Cl-, Br-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2+ and PO43-, can be treated as the industrial pollutant pollution. Factor 3, including F- and NO3-, reflects the influence of the groundwater or self-purification capability of the river water. The various land uses along the Han River correlate well with the pollution types. In addition, the result showed that the water quality of Han River deteriorated gradually from middle to lower Han River. Some tributaries have been seriously polluted and significantly influence the mainstream water quality of the Han River. Finally, the result showed that the nonpoint pollution and the point pollution both significantly influence water quality in the middle and lower Han River. This study provides an effective method for watershed management and pollution control in Han River.

  2. Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and lowest in samples collected from sites in undeveloped areas. Volatile organic compounds were detected most frequently and in highest concentrations in samples from sites in urban areas, and least frequently in agricultural and undeveloped areas. No volatile organic compound concentrations and concentrations from only one pesticide, dieldrin, exceeded human-health benchmarks.

  3. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

  4. Visual and non-visual factors associated with patient satisfaction and quality of life in LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Lazon de la Jara, P; Erickson, D; Erickson, P; Stapleton, F

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine how laser in situkeratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK. Methods A total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA) were measured under photopic and scotopic conditions before surgery and at 3 months later. A multidimensional QOL scale (Institute for Eye Research multidimensional QOL scale), which assesses psychological characteristics, personality traits, cosmesis, frequency, and tolerance to disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, and overall satisfaction with vision correction, was also used. Paired rank tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative vision and QOL scores. Correlations and a multiple linear regression were used to describe the relationship between CVA, QOL, and satisfaction after LASIK. Results Significant postoperative changes included increased satisfaction following LASIK (P<0.001), reduced frequency of visual and ocular symptoms (P<0.001), and change in psychological characteristics (P=0.033). The change in satisfaction with LASIK can be predicted by a combination of preoperative satisfaction, postoperative frequency of disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, postoperative mean spherical equivalent, and postoperative scotopic high CVA (R 2=0.725, P<0.05). Conclusions Satisfaction with LASIK is related to visual function, preoperative expectations, psychological characteristics, and uncorrected CVA achieved. An increased sense of subjective well-being, adaptability, and self-efficacy was evident after LASIK. Patients reported a more optimistic attitude to life and increase perceived QOL after surgery. PMID:21720417

  5. The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction

    E-print Network

    E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-04-08

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

  6. Differentiation among Schools as a Factor of the Quality of General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozochkina, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    Russian schools differ widely in the quality of education they provide and in the socioeconomic status of the students they teach. More needs to be done to provide quality education for children from all social strata, including provision of remedial or extra tutoring where necessary. General school education provides the basic body of knowledge…

  7. Public Library Public Access Computing and Internet Access: Factors Which Contribute to Quality Services and Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Carlo Bertot; Denise M. Davis

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a number of variables which can contribute to the quality of public access computing and Internet services that public libraries provide their communities. Through this exploration, the article offers several insights and implications for the development and implementation of high quality public access computing and Internet services which increasingly technology-savvy users expect from service providers. A key

  8. Identification of Regional Soil Quality Factors and Indicators: I. Central and Southern High Plains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Brejda; Thomas B. Moorman; Douglas L. Karlen; Thanh H. Dao

    and Parkin, 1994). Soil functions that soil quality influ- ences include the ability (i) to accept, hold, and release Appropriate indicators for assessing soil quality on a regional scale nutrients and other chemical constituents; (ii) to accept, using the National Resource Inventory (NRI) are unknown. Our hold, and release water to plants and surface and objectives were to (i) identify

  9. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  10. Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H{sup -} beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Hardek, T. W.; Kang, Y. W.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of {approx}50 mA H{sup -} ions from the ion source with a {approx}5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of {approx}3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to {approx}170 deg. C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H{sup -} beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 deg. C.

  11. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron from the ^2H( e,e' n)^1H Reaction at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madey, Richard

    2001-10-01

    The JLab E93-038 collaboration measured the electric form factor of the neutron, G^n_E, via quasi-elastic scattering from the ^2H( e,e' n)^1H reaction at three values of the squared four-momentum transfer Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2]. By measuring the ratio of two scattering asymmetries associated with two different precession angles of the neutron polarization vector, systematic uncertainties are minimal because the polarimeter analyzing power and the beam polarization do not enter in the ratio. Preliminary results for G^nE will be discussed. Projected uncertainties are ~ 0.005 for the lowest Q^2 and ~ 0.004 for the other two Q^2 points.

  12. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  13. Modelling of the serine-proteinase fold by X-ray and neutron scattering and sedimentation analyses: occurrence of the fold in factor D of the complement system.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, S J; Smith, K F; Kilpatrick, J M; Volanakis, J E; Sim, R B

    1993-01-01

    Solution scattering is a powerful means of determining the overall arrangement of domains in the multidomain proteins of complement. the serine-proteinase domain is central to all proteolytic events during complement activation. As models of this domain, bovine beta-trypsin, trypsinogen, alpha-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen A were studied by neutron and X-ray synchrotron solution scattering. At pH 7, all the X-ray and neutron M(r) values corresponded to monomeric proteins. The X-ray radii of gyration, RG, of beta-trypsin, trypsinogen, alpha-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen A (measured in positive solute-solvent contrasts) were 1.59 nm, 1.78 nm, 1.71 nm and 1.76 nm (+/- 0.05-0.11 nm) in that order. Neutron contrast variation showed that the RG at infinite contrast, RC, for these four proteins were 1.57 nm, 1.70 nm, 1.67 nm and 1.78 nm (+/- 0.03 nm) in that same order. The radial inhomogeneity of neutron-scattering density, alpha, was positive at (5-13) x 10(-5), and corresponds to the preponderance of hydrophilic residues near the protein surface. On trypsinogen activation, a small reduction in the RG value of 0.13 +/- 0.07 nm was just detectable, while the RG of chymotrypsinogen A was unchanged after activation. The RC and alpha values of the four proteins can be calculated by using crystallographic co-ordinates. The reduced RG of beta-trypsin relative to trypsinogen was explained in terms of the removal of the extended N-terminal hexapeptide of trypsinogen. The full X-ray and neutron-scattering curves in positive and negative contrasts agreed well with scattering curves calculated from crystallographic coordinates to a nominal structural resolution of 4.5 nm, provided that the internal structure was considered in neutron modelling, and that the hydration was considered in X-ray modelling. Sedimentation-coefficient data also provide information on the disposition of domains in multidomain proteins. It was found that the hydrated X-ray sphere model could be directly utilized to calculate sedimentation coefficients. X-ray scattering on factor D showed from its RG of 1.78 nm that this is monomeric and very similar in structure to beta-trypsin. The X-ray-scattering curve of factor D was readily modelled using the beta-trypsin crystal structure after allowance for sequence changes. The success of these modellings provides a basis for the constrained modelling of solution scattering data for the multidomain proteins of complement. PMID:8216242

  14. Quality indicators for colorectal cancer surgery and care according to patient-, tumor-, and hospital-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) care has improved considerably, particularly since the implementation of a quality of care program centered on national evidence-based guidelines. Formal quality assessment is however still needed. The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with practice variation in CRC patient care. Methods CRC patients identified from all cancer centers in South-West France were included. We investigated variations in practices (from diagnosis to surgery), and compliance with recommended guidelines for colon and rectal cancer. We identified factors associated with three colon cancer practice variations potentially linked to better survival: examination of ?12 lymph nodes (LN), non-use and use of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and stage III patients, respectively. Results We included 1,206 patients, 825 (68%) with colon and 381 (32%) with rectal cancer, from 53 hospitals. Compliance was high for resection, pathology report, LN examination, and chemotherapy use for stage III patients. In colon cancer, 26% of stage II patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 71% of stage III patients. 84% of stage US T3T4 rectal cancer patients received pre-operative radiotherapy. In colon cancer, factors associated with examination of ?12 LNs were: lower ECOG score, advanced stage and larger hospital volume; factors negatively associated were: left sided tumor location and one hospital district. Use of chemotherapy in stage II patients was associated with younger age, advanced stage, emergency setting and care structure (private and location); whereas under-use in stage III patients was associated with advanced age, presence of comorbidities and private hospitals. Conclusions Although some changes in practices may have occurred since this observational study, these findings represent the most recent report on practices in CRC in this region, and offer a useful methodological approach for assessing quality of care. Guideline compliance was high, although some organizational factors such as hospital size or location influence practice variation. These factors should be the focus of any future guideline implementation. PMID:22813349

  15. Estimation of gas hydrate saturation using isotropic and anisotropic models at the location selected after measurement of seismic quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhra, A.; Sain, K.; Shankar, U.

    2012-12-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition (NGHP) 01 discovered gas hydrate in unconsolidated sediments at several drilling sites along the continental margins of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India. Presence of gas hydrate reduces the attenuation of travelling seismic waves which can be measured by estimation of seismic quality factor (Dasgupta and Clark, 1998). Here, we use log spectral ratio method (Sain et al, 2009) to compute quality factor at three locations, among which two have strong and one has no bottom simulating reflector (BSR), along seismic cross-line near one of the drilling site. Interval quality factor for three submarine sedimentary layers bounded by seafloor, BSR, one reflector above and another reflector below the BSR has been measured. To compute quality factor, unprocessed pre-stack seismic data has been used to avoid any influence of processing sequence. We have estimated that interval quality factor lies within 200-220 in the interval having BSR while it varies within 90-100 in other intervals. Thereby, high interval quality factor ascertains that observed BSR is due to presence of gas hydrates. We have performed rock physics modelling by using isotropic and anisotropic models, to quantitatively estimate gas hydrate saturation at one of the location where an interval has high quality factor. Abruptly high measured resistivity and high P-wave velocity in the interval, leads to towering hydrate saturation (Archie,1942 and Helegrud et al, 1999) in comparison to lower gas hydrate saturations estimated by pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Overestimation of saturation is attributed to presence of near vertical fractures that are identified from logging-while-drilling resistivity images. We have carried out anisotropic modeling (Kennedy and Herrick, 2004 and Lee,2009) by incorporating fracture volume and fracture porosity to estimate hydrate saturation and have observed that modeled gas hydrate saturations agree with the lower gas hydrate saturations obtained from pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Therefore, we find that 1) quality factor is significantly higher in the interval bearing gas hydrates and is a useful tool to discover hydrate deposits, 2) anisotropy due to presence of near vertical hydrate filled fractures translates into elevated saturation because of high measured resistivity and velocity and 3) anisotropic model greatly corrects the saturation estimates in fractured medium. References: Archie, G.E., 1942. Petroleum Transactions of AIME, 146, 54-62. Dasgupta, R., Clark, R.A., 1998. Geophysics 63, 2120-2128. Kennedy, W.D., Herrick, D.C., 2004. Petrophysics 45, 38-58. Lee, M.W., 2009. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5141, 13. Sain, K., Singh, A.K., Thakur, N.K., Khanna, R.K., 2009.Marine Geophysical Researches 30, 137-145.

  16. Modeling of High-Quality Factor XNOR Gate Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers at 1 Tb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Amer

    2015-06-01

    The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor ( Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of ˜1 Tb/s.

  17. Neutron scatter camera

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  18. The critical factors for implementing the quality system of ISO\\/TS 16949 in automobile parts industry in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsu-Ming Yeh; Fan-Yun Pai; Kai-I Huang

    2012-01-01

    Since most manufacturers promote ISO\\/TS16949 quality system certification process through the help of external counsellors, this study focuses upon the auditors of ISO\\/TS 16949 as the primary objects of the research, in contrast to previous studies targeting certified manufacturers. Collecting data through questionnaire surveys, this study first utilises Kano's model to discover the main factors identified as potential improvements by

  19. Experimental factors affecting the quality and reproducibility of MALDI TOF mass spectra obtained from whole bacteria cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracie L. Williams; Denis Andrzejewski; Jackson O. Lay; Steven M. Musser

    2003-01-01

    Numerous experimental factors are shown to significantly influence the spectra obtained when bacteria are analyzed by MALDI\\u000a TOF\\/MS. Detailed investigation of the instrument parameters and sample preparation are all shown to influence the spectra.\\u000a Of these, the preanalysis sample preparation steps incorporate the most important elements influencing the quality and reproducibility\\u000a of the spectra. Some of the most important sample

  20. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices by Texas Beef Cattle Producers 

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Jennifer

    2014-05-28

    to encourage the voluntary adoption of best management practices (BMPs) to improve water quality and control nonpoint source pollution originating from livestock, farm, and forestry operations as well as urban nonpoint sources. Policy tools used to encourage...

  1. Cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen: factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality 

    E-print Network

    Waite, Jessica Arlene

    2008-10-10

    Centrifugation of stallion semen is an integral part of the cryopreservation procedure, primarily allowing for the concentration of sperm and removal of seminal plasma. In addition, centrifugation is required for maximizing spermatozoal quality...

  2. Cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen: factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality 

    E-print Network

    Waite, Jessica Arlene

    2009-05-15

    Centrifugation of stallion semen is an integral part of the cryopreservation procedure, primarily allowing for the concentration of sperm and removal of seminal plasma. In addition, centrifugation is required for maximizing spermatozoal quality...

  3. Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.) 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

    2013-08-02

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has the potential to become a major source of biodiesel but for market viability, peanut oil yields must increase and specific quality requirements must be met. Oil yield in peanut is influenced by many components...

  4. Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    E-print Network

    Lager, Julia M.

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

  5. Cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen: factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality

    E-print Network

    Waite, Jessica Arlene

    2009-05-15

    Centrifugation of stallion semen is an integral part of the cryopreservation procedure, primarily allowing for the concentration of sperm and removal of seminal plasma. In addition, centrifugation is required for maximizing spermatozoal quality...

  6. Cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen: factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality

    E-print Network

    Waite, Jessica Arlene

    2008-10-10

    Centrifugation of stallion semen is an integral part of the cryopreservation procedure, primarily allowing for the concentration of sperm and removal of seminal plasma. In addition, centrifugation is required for maximizing spermatozoal quality...

  7. Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Lager, Julia M.

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

  8. [Preliminary analysis of spatiotemporal variation of water quality and its influencing factors in the Jiulong River watershed].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-Liang; Huang, Ya-Ling; Li, Qing-Sheng; Zhou, Zeng-Rong; Feng, Yuan; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-04-01

    Twenty one sub-watersheds in the Jiulong River watershed were chosen for in-situ monitoring water quality of baseflow in flood season, dry season and average season in 2010. Geographical information system and multivariate analysis were coupled to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify its influencing factors. The results show that the water quality in dry season is the worst whereas the water quality in flood season is comparatively good. The first principal component representing sanitary and industrial wastewater pollution, explained 45.58% of the total variance of water quality. The second principal component concerning pollution due to agricultural activities, explained 21.28% of the total variance. NH4(+) -N, SRP, potassium permanganate index, K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Na had a significantly positive correlation with percentage of built-up and density of population. NO3(-) -N was correlated positively with percentage of cropland. The sub-watersheds with high proportion of build-up area and density of population show high concentration of NH4(+) -N, SRP, potassium permanganate index, K+, Cl-. Comparatively, the sub-watersheds with high percentage of cropland show high level of nitrate concentration. Improvement of the wastewater treatment efficiency and increased recognition of agricultural non-point source pollution were finally highlighted from watershed management perspectives. PMID:22720552

  9. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients. PMID:23521364

  10. Precise measurement of the transverse asymmetry in quasielastic {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e},e{prime}) and the neutron magnetic form factor

    SciTech Connect

    J.-O. Hansen for the Jefferson Lab E95-001 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    The authors have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T{prime}} in {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e},e{prime}) quasielastic scattering with high statistical precision for Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data are expected to allow extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor G{sup n}{sub M}with an uncertainty similar to that of recent experiments on deuterium. Data analysis is currently in progress.

  11. Extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic 3He>(e-->,e') at Q2=0.1-0.6(GeV\\/c)2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Anderson; L. Auberbach; T. Averett; W. Bertozzi; T. Black; J. Calarco; L. Cardman; G. D. Cates; Z. W. Chai; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; G. S. Corrado; C. Crawford; D. Dale; A. Deur; P. Djawotho; D. Dutta; J. M. Finn; H. Gao; R. Gilman; A. V. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; W. Glöckle; J. Golak; J. Gomez; V. G. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; F. W. Hersman; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; C. R. Howell; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; C. W. De Jager; J. S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C. E. Jones; M. Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; J. Lerose; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; J. W. Martin; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; K. McIlhany; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Mitchell; S. Nanda; E. Pace; T. Pavlin; G. G. Petratos; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R. D. Ransome; Y. Roblin; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; G. Salmè; M. Schnee; J. Seely; T. Shin; K. Slifer; P. A. Souder; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; M. Sutter; B. Tipton; L. Todor; M. Viviani; B. Vlahovic; J. Watson; C. F. Williamson; H. Witala; B. Wojtsekhowski; F. Xiong; W. Xu; J. Yeh; P. Zolnierczuk

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in the quasielastic 3He-->(e-->,e') process with high precision at Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6(GeV\\/c)2. The neutron magnetic form factor GMn was extracted at Q2 values of 0.1 and 0.2(GeV\\/c)2 using a nonrelativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC

  12. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr Clark

    2012-10-31

    Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

  13. Factors associated with health-related quality of life in adults with asthma. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly recognized as an important endpoint, as a reflection of the effects of the disease from a patient perspective. Our aim was to evaluate the factors determining the HRQoL in patients with asthma, according to the EQ-5D questionnaire. Methods Patients were included using multi-stage sampling, from Primary Care clinics from all the Autonomous Communities in Spain. The patients included were: over 18 years-old, with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma for at least one year, and had visited a Health Centre in the previous 2 years. The characteristics of the asthma disease, the adherence to treatment, the socio-demographic variables, the smoking habits, and the asthma control were collected using a questionnaire. The influence of the different variables included in the study on the EQ-5D was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 2,125 patients were finally included (57.7% females, mean age 48 years). The response rate was 95.4%. Some factors showed a considerable detrimental effect on the HRQoL of asthmatics. Advanced age, lower educational level and poor control of asthma are significantly associated with a worse quality of life in all the dimensions assessed by the EQ-5D scale. The baseline severity of the asthma, and having been admitted to hospital are related to a worse quality of life in 5 of the 6 dimensions analyzed. Conclusion In our study, we could identify some factors related to quality of life in asthma patients. The most important were advanced age, lower education level, and poor control of the asthma. PMID:23031194

  14. Which factors are associated with quality of life in patients with Graves' orbitopathy presenting for orbital decompression surgery?

    PubMed

    Wickwar, S; McBain, H B; Ezra, D G; Hirani, S P; Rose, G E; Newman, S P

    2015-07-01

    PurposeGraves' orbitopathy (GO) is associated with changes in the appearance of the eyes and visual dysfunction. Patients report feeling socially isolated and unable to continue with day-to-day activities. This study aimed at investigating the demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with quality of life in patients presenting for orbital decompression surgery.MethodsOne-hundred and twenty-three adults with GO due for orbital decompression at Moorfields Eye Hospital London were recruited prospectively. Clinical measures including treatment history, exophthalmos, optic neuropathy, and diplopia were taken by an ophthalmologist. Participants completed psychosocial questionnaires, including the Graves' Ophthalmopathy Quality of Life Scale (GO-QOL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Derriford Appearance Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictors of quality of life.ResultsHigher levels of potential cases of clinical anxiety (37%) and depression (26%) were found in this study sample than in patients with other chronic diseases or facial disfigurements. A total of 55% of the variance in GO-QOL visual function scores was explained by the regression model; age, asymmetrical GO and depressed mood were significant unique contributors. In all, 75% of the variance in GO-QOL appearance scores was explained by the regression model; gender, appearance-related cognitions and depressed mood were significant unique contributors.ConclusionAppearance-related quality of life and mood were particularly affected in this sample. Predominantly psychosocial characteristics were associated with quality of life. It is important when planning surgery for patients that clinicians be aware of factors that could potentially influence outcomes. PMID:25998940

  15. Comparison of coronary risk factors and quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with versus without diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pischke, Claudia R; Weidner, Gerdi; Elliott-Eller, Melanie; Scherwitz, Larry; Merritt-Worden, Terri A; Marlin, Ruth; Lipsenthal, Lee; Finkel, Robert; Saunders, Donald; McCormac, Patty; Scheer, Judith M; Collins, Richard E; Guarneri, Erminia M; Ornish, Dean

    2006-05-01

    It is unclear whether patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) can make comprehensive lifestyle changes that produce similar changes in coronary risk factors and quality of life compared with patients with CAD and without DM. We examined medical characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life by diabetic status and gender in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project (MLDP), a study of 440 nonsmoking patients with CAD (347 men, 55 with DM; 15.9%; 93 women, 36 with DM; 38.7%). Patients met in groups to improve lifestyle (plant-based, low-fat diet; exercise; stress management) for 1 year. Follow-ups were conducted at 3 and 12 months. At baseline, body mass and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher among patients with DM. Men with DM had a worse medical history (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CAD) than did those without DM. Patients with DM, especially women, reported poorer quality of life than did patients without DM. The 2 groups of patients were able to adhere to the recommended lifestyle, as demonstrated by significant improvements in weight (mean -5 kg), body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, exercise capacity, and quality of life. No significant changes in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were noted. By the end of 12 months, improvements in glucose-lowering medications (i.e., discontinuation or a change from insulin to oral hypoglycemic agents) were noted for 19.8% (n = 18) of patients with DM. In conclusion, patients with CAD and DM are able to follow a comprehensive lifestyle change program and show similar improvements in coronary risk factors and quality of life as those without DM. PMID:16635593

  16. Analysis of the impact of selected socio-demographic factors on quality of life of asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Filanowicz, Ma?gorzata; Graczyk, Ma?gorzata; Ceg?a, Bernadeta; Jab?o?ska, Renata; Napiórkowska-Baran, Katarzyna; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on quality of life of patients with different degrees of asthma severity. Material and methods The study was conducted in 2009–2010 in the Clinic of Allergology, Clinical Immunology and Internal Diseases in Dr J. Biziel University Hospital No. 2 in Bydgoszcz. Patients were divided into a tested group (126) and a control group (86). The criterion for the division was the degree of asthma control according to GINA 2006. The following tools were used: the author's questionnaire containing questions about socio-demographic and clinical data, and the WHOQOL-100. Results In the tested group, a statistically significant correlation was observed between quality of life and age (p < 0.002 for the entire population), education (p < 0.05 in the group with controlled asthma, p = 0.0005 for the entire population), professional activity (p < 0.003 in the group with partially controlled asthma, p < 0.05 with uncontrolled asthma and p < 0.0001 in the entire population), marital status (p = 0.025 for the entire population) and financial situation (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0002; p < 0.009 in all groups; p < 0.0001 in the entire population). There was no significant difference between quality of life, and sex and the place of residence of the respondents. Conclusions Age, education, professional activity, marital status and financial situation affect the assessment of quality of life in patients with asthma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex and the place of residence do not influence the assessment of quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:24278078

  17. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  18. Elder Abuse by Adult Children: An Applied Ecological Framework for Understanding Contextual Risk Factors and the Intergenerational Character of Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Gans, Daphna

    2000-01-01

    Using an applied ecological model, this study focuses on contextual risk factors of elder abuse. Five levels of environment were used to interpret existing research on risk factors. Configuration of risk factors provides a framework for understanding the intergenerational character of quality of life for older adults, developing recommendations…

  19. Advantages of passive detectors for the determination of the cosmic ray induced neutron environment.

    PubMed

    Hajek, M; Berger, T; Schöner, W; Vana, N

    2002-01-01

    Due to the pronounced energy dependence of the neutron quality factor, accurate assessment of the biologically relevant dose requires knowledge of the spectral neutron fluence rate. Bonner sphere spectrometers (BSSs) are the only instruments which provide a sufficient response over practically the whole energy range of the cosmic ray induced neutron component. Measurements in a 62 MeV proton beam at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, and in the CERN-EU high-energy reference field led to the assumption that conventional active devices for the detection of thermal neutrons inside the BSS, e.g. 6Lil(Eu) scintillators, also respond to charged particles when used in high-energy mixed radiation fields. The effects of these particles cannot be suppressed by amplitude discrimination and are subsequently misinterpreted as neutron radiation. In contrast, paired TLD-600 and TLD-700 thermoluminescence dosemeters allow the determination of a net thermal neutron signal. PMID:12382939

  20. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

  1. Impacts of preharvest factors during kernel development on rice quality and functionality.

    PubMed

    Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Grigg, Brandon C; Lanning, Sarah B

    2013-01-01

    Rice quality and functionality are characterized in many ways, depending largely on the industry segment using the rice. These characteristics include appearance, milling, and cooking parameters. Recently, variable quality of rice grown in the United States has been reported, but the cause was not well documented. Agronomic impacts include planting time, irrigation and fertility, cultivar selection, and harvest conditions. However, recent research suggests that ambient air temperature, specifically elevated nighttime air temperature (NTAT) during grain filling, dramatically affects the variability of rice milling quality, in terms of milled- and head-rice yields; appearance, in terms of chalkiness; and functional characteristics, including viscosity profiles, gelatinization temperatures, and proximate concentrations. Future research is needed to develop cultivars that are resistant to stress resulting from elevated NTAT during the critical period of grain filling, and, for the near term, to develop altered production management practices that mitigate elevated-temperature stress. PMID:23464570

  2. Influence of natural factors on the quality of midwestern streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Streams flowing through cropland in the Midwestern Corn Belt differ considerably in their chemical and ecological characteristics, even though agricultural land use is highly intensive throughout the entire region. These differences likely are attributable to differences in riparian vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology. This conclusion is based on results from a study of the upper Midwest region conducted during seasonally low-flow conditions in August 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report summarizes significant results from the study and presents some implications for the design and interpretation of water-quality monitoring and assessment studies based on these results.

  3. Aspects of radiation beam quality and their effect on the dose response of polymer gels: Photons, electrons and fast neutrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Berg; Christian Bayreder; Dietmar Georg; Achim Bankamp; Gerd Wolber

    2009-01-01

    Polymer gels are generally assumed to exhibit no significant dependence of the dose response on the energy or type of irradiation for clinically used beam qualities. Based on reports on differences in dose response for low energy photons and particle beams with high linear energy transfer (LET) we here investigate the dose response and energy dependence for a normoxic methacrylic

  4. Improving the Quality and Scientific Understanding of Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This short 1000 word report presents a series of research needs for improving the measurement and understanding of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMFs are useful measures of trophic magnification and represent the diet-weighted average biomagnification factor (BMF) of che...

  5. Factors Affecting Professional Job Mastery: Quality of Study or Work Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aamodt, Per Olaf; Havnes, Anton

    2008-01-01

    For students and for society a core aspect of higher education is to prepare for future employment. Employability, however, goes beyond getting a job and this paper focuses on the quality of job performance, or job mastery. Employability is understood as a process and a product of learning both in higher education and in work life. The paper…

  6. Review of affective factors on cost, time and quality of construction projects in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammadreza Hasanzadeh; Zahra Tavakolirad; Parisa Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, project management in different fields, has a significant effect on time and costs and also stabilizing the quality of projects. A considerable part of projects is the construction part which takes a noticeable portion of governmental and private budget in developing countries. According to the presented statistical results, many civil projects have failed: delay in finishing the project, additional

  7. Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia H. Mackintosh; Barbara J. Myers; Suzanne S. Kennon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the quality of the relationship between children of incarcerated mothers and their kinship caregivers, to investigate whether perceived levels of warmth and acceptance were related to assessments of the children's behaviors. The sample consisted of 69 children (6 to 12 years) with currently incarcerated mothers who attended a recreational summer camp, and 25 of their caregivers. Children who

  8. Tangibility as a quality factor in electronic commerce b2c

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucía Melián-Alzola; Víctor Padrón-Robaina

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role and importance of the tangible elements of purchase processes in business to customer (b2c) electronic commerce, as well as the impact on overall perceived quality and the customers' attitudes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The database for this study was obtained from a sample of 191 individuals who had purchased on

  9. Factors Associated with Reduced Quality of Life in Polio Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors. PMID:26120843

  10. Genetic and management factors affecting beef quality in grazing Hereford steers.

    PubMed

    Melucci, L M; Panarace, M; Feula, P; Villarreal, E L; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Soria, L A; Mezzadra, C A; Arceo, M E; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Corva, P M; Irurueta, M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Miquel, M C

    2012-12-01

    Attributes contributing to differences in beef quality of 206 Hereford steers finished on pasture were assessed. Beef quality traits evaluated were: Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness and muscle and fat color at one and seven days after slaughter and trained sensory panel traits (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and marbling) at seven days. Molecular markers were CAPN1 316 and an SNP in exon 2 on the leptin gene (E2FB). Average daily live weight gain, ultrasound monthly backfat thickness gain and rib-eye area gain were estimated. Molecular markers effects on meat quality traits were analyzed by mixed models. Association of meat quality with post weaning growth traits was analyzed by canonical correlations. Muscle color and marbling were affected by CAPN1 316 and E2FB and Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness by the former. The results confirm that marker assisted selection for tenderness is advisable only when beef aging is a common practice. The most important sources of variation in tenderness and color of meat remained unaccounted for. PMID:22818350

  11. Factors Associated with Reduced Quality of Life in Polio Survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors. PMID:26120843

  12. Identifying Factors Underlying the Quality of Online Teaching Effectiveness: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangert, Arthur W.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally campus-based courses rely on student evaluations to provide instructors with feedback about their teaching effectiveness. However, current student evaluations of teaching instruments do not adequately assess many of the essential constructivist-based teaching practices recommended for quality online learning experiences. One of the…

  13. Trust, Vision, and Resources: Contextual Factors Influencing Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolman, Joni Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes and explores elementary teachers' perspectives on the influence of context on the quality of teachers. Utilizing a conceptual framework developed from a reading of the extant literatures and situated participation theory, this qualitative multiple case study of four nominated elementary teachers, who have switched…

  14. Meta-Analysis: The Preferred Method of Choice for the Assessment of Distance Learning Quality Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    Current comparative research literature, although abundant in scope, is inconclusive in its findings, as to the quality and effectiveness of distance education versus face-to-face methods of delivery. Educational research produces contradictory results due to differences among studies in treatments, settings, measurement instruments, and research…

  15. Psychological factors and asthma quality of life: a population based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R J Adams; D H Wilson; A W Taylor; A Daly; E Tursan d’Espaignet; E Dal Grande; R E Ruffin

    2004-01-01

    Background: Reports of psychological conditions in asthmatic subjects have been limited to certain population groups or convenience samples. A study was undertaken of the prevalence of psychological distress in asthma in the general population and its associations with quality of life.Methods: The WANTS Health and Well-being Survey is a population household interview survey of adults (age ?18) in Western Australia,

  16. A Taxonomy of Factors to Promote Quality Web-Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of the e-learning production unit at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Phase 1 of the study, completed in 2003, was the design and development of a process-based quality management system for web-supported learning (WSL) using a basic ISO 9000 approach (University of Pretoria, 2003). The second phase,…

  17. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2=3.4GeV2 Using the Reaction 3He>(e-->,e'n)pp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Riordan; S. Abrahamyan; B. Craver; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; J. Miller; G. D. Cates; N. Liyanage; B. Wojtsekhowski; A. Acha; K. Allada; B. Anderson; K. A. Aniol; J. R. M. Annand; J. Arrington; T. Averett; A. Beck; M. Bellis; W. Boeglin; H. Breuer; J. R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Crowe; F. Cusanno; D. Day; P. Degtyarenko; P. A. M. Dolph; C. Dutta; C. Ferdi; C. Fernández-Ramírez; R. Feuerbach; L. M. Fraile; G. Franklin; S. Frullani; S. Fuchs; F. Garibaldi; N. Gevorgyan; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; J. Gomez; K. Grimm; J.-O. Hansen; J. L. Herraiz; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; T. Holmstrom; D. Howell; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; J. Katich; L. J. Kaufman; M. Khandaker; J. J. Kelly; D. Kiselev; W. Korsch; J. Lerose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; D. J. Margaziotis; S. May-Tal Beck; S. Mayilyan; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; T. Ngo; D. M. Nikolenko; B. Norum; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. Protopopescu; A. J. R. Puckett; V. A. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; B. Quinn; I. Rachek; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; J. Roche; G. Ron; O. Rondon; G. Rosner; A. Saha; M. M. Sargsian; B. Sawatzky; J. Segal; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; Yu. Shestakov; J. Singh; S. Sirca; P. Souder; S. Stepanyan; V. Stibunov; V. Sulkosky; S. Tajima; W. A. Tobias; J. M. Udias; G. M. Urciuoli; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wang; F. R. Wesselmann; J. R. Vignote; S. A. Wood; J. Wright; H. Yao; X. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction 3He-->(e-->,e'n)pp in quasielastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were

  18. GAS-TO-WALL ABSORBED DOSE CONVERSION FACTORS FOR NEUTRON ENERGIES OF 25 TO 250 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. NEWHAUSER; U. J. SCHREWE

    1997-01-01

    Cavity chamber absorbed dose measurements do not usually strictly adhere to the conditions of the Fano theorem and therefore the differences in the gas and wall mass stopping powers must be taken into account. Values of gas-to-wall absorbed dose conversion factorsrm,gwere calculated for neutron energies of 25 to 250 MeV for detectors with walls of C, O, Mg, Al, Si,

  19. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-07-30

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G{sup n}E/G{sup n}M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic {sup 2}H({rvec e},e/{rvec n}){sup 1}H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} lies slightly above the Galster parameterization.

  20. Differentiating the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Natural and Anthropogenic Processes on River Water-Quality Variation Using a Self-Organizing Map With Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lee, Jin-Jing

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the historical improvement and advanced measure of river water quality in the Taipei metropolitan area, this study applied the self-organizing map (SOM) technique with factor analysis (FA) to differentiate the spatiotemporal distribution of natural and anthropogenic processes on river water-quality variation spanning two decades. The SOM clustered river water quality into five groups: very low pollution, low pollution, moderate pollution, high pollution, and very high pollution. FA was then used to extract four latent factors that dominated water quality from 1991 to 2011 including three anthropogenic process factors (organic, industrial, and copper pollution) and one natural process factor [suspended solids (SS) pollution]. The SOM revealed that the water quality improved substantially over time. However, the downstream river water quality was still classified as high pollution because of an increase in anthropogenic activity. FA showed the spatiotemporal pattern of each factor score decreasing over time, but the organic pollution factor downstream of the Tamsui River, as well as the SS factor scores in the upstream major tributary (the Dahan Stream), remained within the high pollution level. Therefore, we suggest that public sewage-treatment plants should be upgraded from their current secondary biological processing to advanced treatment processing. The conservation of water and soil must also be reinforced to decrease the SS loading of the Dahan Stream from natural erosion processes in the future. PMID:26044928

  1. Factors affecting baseline quality of life in two international adjuvant breast cancer trials. International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG).

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, J.; Hürny, C.; Coates, A. S.; Peterson, H. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Galligioni, E.; Marini, G.; Thürlimann, B.; Forbes, J. F.; Goldhirsch, A.; Senn, H. J.; Rudenstam, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    Quality of life (QL) is used to assess treatments in clinical trials but may be influenced by other factors. We analysed the impact of biomedical, sociodemographic and cultural factors on baseline QL indicators in two International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. Patients with stage II breast cancer were randomized within 6 weeks of primary surgery to various adjuvant treatments. They were asked to assess five indicators of QL at baseline. QL forms were available for 1231 (83%) of the 1475 premenopausal and 989 (82%) of the 1212 post-menopausal patients, who were from nine countries and spoke seven languages. Culture (defined as language/country groups) had a statistically significant impact on baseline QL measures. Premenopausal patients with poor prognostic factors showed a tendency to report worse QL, with oestrogen receptor status as an independent predictor for mood (P = 0.0005). Older post-menopausal patients reported better emotional wellbeing (P = 0.002), mood (P = 0.002), and less effort to cope (P = 0.0009) compared with younger post-menopausal patients. Co-morbidity, type of surgery, treatment assignment and sociodemographic factors showed a statistically significant impact in post-menopausal patients only. Cultural and biomedical factors influenced baseline QL and should be considered when evaluating the impact of treatment on QL in international breast cancer clinical trials. PMID:9744512

  2. The effect of fill factor of infrared FPA sensor on microscanning imagery quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-rui Wang; Jian-qi Zhang; Hong-hua Chang

    2005-01-01

    Micro-scanning is an important technique in high-resolution IR imaging field. It can increase the system resolution and improve the performance of imaging systems. For the design of super-resolution IR imaging system, it is necessary to choose the optimum micros-canning mode according to the particular fill factor of sensor. Hence, it is very important to study the effect of fill factor

  3. Dry Eye in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Adam J.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate dry eye prevalence in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), including a young adult population, and investigate associated risk factors and impact on health-related quality of life. Design Cohort study. Methods The BOSS (2005–2008) is a study of aging in the adult offspring of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study cohort. Questionnaire data on health history, medication use, risk factors, and quality of life were available for 3275 participants. Dry eye was determined by self-report of frequency of symptoms and the intensity of those symptoms. Associations between dry eye and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Results The prevalence of dry eye in the BOSS was 14.5%, 17.9% of women and 10.5% of men. In a multivariate model, statistically significant associations were found with female sex (Odds Ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.33–2.11), current contact lens use (OR, 2.01; 95%CI, 1.53–2.64), allergies (OR, 1.59; 95%CI 1.22–2.08), arthritis (OR, 1.44; 95%CI, 1.12–1.85), thyroid disease (OR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.02–1.99), antihistamine use (OR, 1.54; 95%CI, 1.18–2.02), and steroid use (OR, 1.54; 95%CI, 1.16–2.06). Dry eye was also associated with lower scores on the Medical Outcomes Short Form-36 (?=?3.9, p<0.0001) as well as on the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) (?= ?3.4, p<0.0001) when controlling for age, sex, and comorbid conditions. Conclusions The prevalence of dry eye and its associated risk factors in the BOSS were similar to previous studies. In this study, DES was associated with lower quality of life on a health-related quality of life instrument and the vision-specific NEI-VFQ-25. PMID:24388838

  4. Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rovin, S; Nash, J

    1982-01-01

    The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

  5. Understanding Critical Factors for the Quality and Shelflife of MAP Fresh Meat: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Singh; Ali Abas Wani; Sven Saengerlaub; Horst-Christian Langowski

    2011-01-01

    Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas

  6. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  7. Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikorn Thongtip; Jumnian Saikhun; Sittidet Mahasawangkul; Kornchai Kornkaewrat; Pornsawan Pongsopavijitr; Nucharin Songsasen; Anuchai Pinyopummin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of (1) age (2) seasonality (3) and circulating testosterone (SrTest), triiodothyronine (SrT3) and tetraiodothyronine (SrT4), as well

  8. Quality of life in head and neck cancers patients: predictive factors, functional and psychosocial outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Babin; E. Sigston; M. Hitier; D. Dehesdin; J. P. Marie; O. Choussy

    2008-01-01

    The principal endpoints in head and neck cancer are survival with improvement of quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients.\\u000a Patients treated for head and neck cancer suffer from a number of symptom domains: physical symptoms linked to diet and feeding,\\u000a communication disorders, pain and their general state of health; psychological symptoms including depression, irritability,\\u000a loss of self-esteem (occasionally feelings

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

  10. Energy velocity and quality factor of poroelastic waves in isotropic media.

    PubMed

    Gerasik, Vladimir; Stastna, Marek

    2011-05-01

    The energy velocity and Q factor of poroelastic acoustic waves in the context of classical isotropic Biot's theory are revisited. Special attention is paid to the high frequency regime when interphase interaction is viscoelastic. The analogy with viscoelastic behavior is emphasized in derivation of the energy balance equations which relate kinetic energy, potential energy, viscous power dissipation, and elastic energy stored associated with each wave. These lead to exact closed form expressions for the energy velocity and Q factor for both longitudinal and shear waves from energy principles. Most notably, the analysis of the resulting expressions reveals that the energy velocity of both longitudinal and shear waves equals (exceeds) the corresponding phase velocity in the case of the low (full) frequency range theory, and that the exact expression for the Q factor contains an additive correction due to viscoelastic interphase interaction. PMID:21568384

  11. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-10-01

    Neutron generators based on the 2H(d,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >109 n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 1014 n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 105 n/cm2s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The neutron flux required for positron production could not be provided with a single D-T neutron generator. Therefore, a subcritical fission multiplier was designed to increase the neutron yield. The neutron flux was increased by a factor of 25. A D-D driven fission multiplier was also studied for BNCT and a gain of 17 was obtained. The fission multiplier system gain was shown to be limited by the neutron absorption in the fuel and the reduction of source brightness. A brief discussion was also given regarding the neutron generator applications for fast neutron brachytherapy and neutron interrogation systems. It was concluded that new designs of compact D-D/D-T neutron generators are feasible and that superior quality neutron beams could be produced and used for various applications.

  12. Systematic Monitoring of Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Exploratory Factor Analysis of Service Quality Instrument and Performance Ranking

    PubMed Central

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Considerable conceptual and operational complexities related to service quality measurements and variability in delivery contexts of scaled-up medical male circumcision, pose real challenges to monitoring implementation of quality and safety. Clarifying latent factors of the quality instruments can enhance contextual applicability and the likelihood that observed service outcomes are appropriately assessed. Objective To explore factors underlying SYMMACS service quality assessment tool (adopted from the WHO VMMC quality toolkit) and; determine service quality performance using composite quality index derived from the latent factors. Study design Using a comparative process evaluation of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Kenya site level data was collected among health facilities providing VMMC over two years. Systematic Monitoring of the Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up quality instrument was used to assess availability of guidelines, supplies and equipment, infection control, and continuity of care services. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify quality structure. Results Fifty four items and 246 responses were analyzed. Based on Eigenvalue >1.00 cut-off, factors 1, 2 & 3 were retained each respectively having eigenvalues of 5.78; 4.29; 2.99. These cumulatively accounted for 29.1% of the total variance (12.9%; 9.5%; 6.7%) with final communality estimates being 13.06. Using a cut-off factor loading value of ?0.4, fifteen items loading on factor 1, five on factor 2 and one on factor 3 were retained. Factor 1closely relates to preparedness to deliver safe male circumcisions while factor two depicts skilled task performance and compliance with protocols. Of the 28 facilities, 32% attained between 90th and 95th percentile (excellent); 45% between 50th and 75th percentiles (average) and 14.3% below 25th percentile (poor). Conclusion the service quality assessment instrument may be simplified to have nearly 20 items that relate more closely to service outcomes. Ranking of facilities and circumcision procedure using a composite index based on these items indicates that majority performed above average. PMID:24983242

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH QUALITY-FACTOR ON-CHIP TUNED MICROWAVE

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    for tuning. Our chip-scale resonator design further minimizes en- ergy losses and reduces the effect of skin-chip reso- nators are preferred because they reduce power consumption, prevent connection losses resonators yield lower Q-factors. To date, microwave resonators based on on-chip spiral coils have been

  14. Illumination Effects on the Capacitance Spectra and Signal Quality Factor of Al/InSe/C Microwave Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasrawi, A. F.

    2013-06-01

    Amorphous indium selenide thin films have been used in the design of a microwave-sensitive Schottky barrier. The illumination effects on the capacitance spectra, on the signal quality factor, and on the capacitance ( C)-voltage ( V) characteristics of the Al/InSe/C device are investigated. Particular shifts in the amplitude and in the resonance peaks of the capacitance spectra which were studied in the frequency range of 10.0 kHz to 3.0 GHz are observed. While the photoexcitation of these devices increased the capacity level by ˜1.6 times the original magnitude, the dark quality factor, which was 2.2 × 106 at 3.0 GHz, fell to 1.2 × 106 when subjected to luminance of 14.7 klux. Analysis of the C- V curves recorded at signal power ranging from wireless local area network (LAN) levels to the maximum output power of third generation (3G) mobiles reflected high tunability of capacitance upon increasing the voltage or power. The tunability of the biased capacitance was much more pronounced in the light than in the dark. The obtained characteristics of the Al/InSe/C sensors indicate their usability in radio and microwave technology.

  15. Factors That Affect Quality of Life among People Living with HIV Attending an Urban Clinic in Uganda: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mutabazi-Mwesigire, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and primary general care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource limited settings, PLHIV are living longer, and HIV has been transformed into a chronic illness. People are diagnosed and started on treatment when they are relatively well. Although ART results in clinical improvement, the ultimate goal of treatment is full physical functioning and general well-being, with a focus on quality of life rather than clinical outcomes. However, there has been little research on the relationship of specific factors to quality of life in PLHIV. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with quality of life among PLHIV in Uganda receiving basic care and those on ART. Methods We enrolled 1274 patients attending an HIV outpatient clinic into a prospective cohort study. Of these, 640 received ART. All were followed up at 3 and 6 months. Health related quality of life was assessed with the MOS-HIV Health Survey and the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI). Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of social behavioral and disease factors with Physical Health Summary (PHS) score, Mental Health Summary (MHS) score, and GPGI. Results Among PLHIV receiving basic care, PHS was associated with: sex (p=0.045) - females had lower PHS; age in years at enrollment (p=0.0001) - older patients had lower PHS; and depression (p<0.001) - depressed patients had lower PHS. MHS was only associated with opportunistic infection (p=0.01) - presence of an opportunistic infection was associated with lower MHS. For the GPG the associated variables were age (p=0.03) - older patients had lower GPGI; education (p=0.01) – higher education associated with higher GPGI; and depression - patients with depression had a lower GPGI (p<0.001). Among patients on ART, PHS was associated with: study visit (p=0.01), with increase in time there was better PHS, and this also improved with increase in education level (p=0.002). Patients with WHO disease stage 3&4 had a lower PHS compared to patients at stage 1&2 (p=0.006), and depressed patients had lower PHS (p<0.001). MHS improved from baseline to six month study visit (p<0.001), and females had lower MHS compared to males (p=0.01). GPGI was associated with higher income (p=0.04), alcohol use was associated with lower GPGI (p=0.004), and depressed patients had a lower GPGI (p<0.001). Conclusion Quality of life improved over time for PLHIV on ART. Regardless of treatment status, PLHIV with depression or low education level and female gender were at risk of having a poor quality of life. Clinicians and policy makers should be aware of these findings, and address them to improve quality of life for PLHIV. PMID:26039733

  16. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cutshall, N.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K{sub d}`s > 10{sup 5} reach about 1 to 5 {mu}g/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed.

  17. Loneliness in Elderly People, Associated Factors and Its Correlation with Quality of Life: A Field Study from Western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    ARSLANTA?, Hülya; ADANA, Filiz; ABACIG?L ERG?N, Filiz; KAYAR, Derya; ACAR, Gülçin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the factors that affect loneliness of older people and their relationship with quality of life. Methods Data in this cross-sectional study were collected through survey form, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Quality of Life (QOL) Short Form (SF-36) Scale. The total number of elderly people over the age of 65 yr from whom the study population was chosen was 4,170. The study population was determined as 190 with G-power program by taking impact size 0.362, ?=0.05, power (1-?) =0.80 at a confidence level of 95% and a substitute group composing of 10 individuals was added. In total, 83.2% (n=174) of the target population was reached via Multi-Stage Sampling Methods. Results UCLA Loneliness median score of the participants was 33 (25thp= 27, 75thp= 40). It was found that the existence of chronic diseases and physical handicaps, regular use of medication, lack of hobbies and living with spouse increased loneliness (P<0.05). A negative relationship was identified between all sub-scales in the QOL scale and loneliness. Conclusion Loneliness negatively affects QOL in old age and that the existence of chronic health problems and lack of hobbies are strong predictors for loneliness. Elderly people living alone must be evaluated as a high-risk group and thus policy makers and health personnel should be aware of the factors that can affect loneliness. In order to increase life quality of the aged population and psychological well-being of the elderly, social support systems must be taken into account and the elderly should be encouraged to participate in social activities.

  18. Factors that affect the quality of the bio-waste fraction of selectively collected solid waste in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M D; Sans, R; Garrido, N; Torres, A

    2008-01-01

    The present study determines the composition of the bio-waste fraction of waste and establishes correlations between the quality of this fraction and socio-economic/demographic variables. According to the Catalan Waste Agency [Agència de Residus de Catalunya (2004). Statistical data. Available from: ], the quantities of glass, paper/cardboard, light packaging and biodegradable material (those components of municipal waste that can be recovered, and have a separate collection) that were selectively collected in 2004 represent 25.6% by weight of the total municipal waste generated. There is a large spread of values from different cities. It is important to bear in mind that this percentage was calculated using the total weights of all of the materials present in the different bins used for selective solid waste collection, without taking account of the fact that many of these bins contain a certain amount of other, undesirable waste. In order to be able to determine the actual quantities that are recovered, it is necessary to establish the quality of the waste collected. To establish the quality of the waste collected, 350 samples were analysed, corresponding to the bins for the bio-waste fraction of solid waste in 193 different cities in Catalonia. Seven levels of quality were established for the study, depending on the amount of undesirable waste present. The results show certain correlations between the socio-economic/demographic factors studied and the percentage of undesirable waste present in the samples. The correlations presented here are not intended to be predictive, but rather indicative of a tendency, which should help us gain a better understanding of the behaviour of the society studied with respect to the separation of solid household waste at origin. PMID:17376669

  19. [Relationships between Dendrobium quality and ecological factors based on partial least square regression].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Tao; Huang, Lin-Fang; Du, Jing; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2013-10-01

    A total of eleven ecological factors values were obtained from the ecological suitability database of the geographic information system for traditional Chinese medicines production areas (TCM-GIS), and the relationships between the chemical components of Dendrobium and the ecological factors were analyzed by partial least square (PLS) regression. There existed significant differences in the chemical components contents of the same species of Dendrobium in different areas. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale had significant positive correlation with soil type, the accumulated dendrobine in D. nobile was significantly positively correlated with annual precipitation, and the erianin content of D. chrysotoxum was mainly affected by air temperature. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Zhejiang Province was the optimal production area for D. officinale, Guizhou Province was the most appropriate planting area for D. nobile, and Yunnan Province was the best production area of D. chrysotoxum. PMID:24483071

  20. Students' Experiences Concerning Course Workload and Factors Enhancing and Impeding Their Learning--A Useful Resource for Quality Enhancement in Teaching and Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen our understanding of factors which students experience as important in learning, in order to improve the quality of teaching and curriculum planning. A total of 132 veterinary students participated in the study by answering a questionnaire containing open-ended questions. Most of the comments on factors enhancing…

  1. The persian version of the chronic urticaria quality of life questionnaire: factor analysis, validation, and initial clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Tavakol, Marzieh; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Baiardini, Ilaria; Braido, Fulvio; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Tavakol, Zahra; Afarideh, Mohsen; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-08-01

    Chronic urticaria (CU) also known as chronic idiopathic urticaria results in a lowered quality of life (QoL). Disease specific questionnaires are necessary to assess QoL in CU patients. Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaire (CU-Q2oL) is the only available and validated disease specific questionnaire in the assessment of QoL in CU patients originally developed in Italian language. The aim of the current study was to develop the Persian version of the CU-Q2oL with an acceptable reliability and validity.Using the standard methods provided by guidelines, CU-Q2oL was translated into Persian. A total number of 110 patients with confirmed diagnosis of CU were asked to fill the questionnaire. Determination of scales was performed in addition to checking the data for internal consistency and known group validity. Urticaria activity score 7 (UAS7) was used to assess the severity of the CU in the population study. The 6 dimensional scale of Persian CU-Q2oL was determined using the Exploratory Factor Analysis. About 68% of the variance was explained by these 6 factor structure higher than 59.9% of the original Italian version.All 6 factors showed acceptable internal consistency as measured by Cronbach ? coefficient. There was a significant correlation between UAS7 and total CU-Q2oL score. UAS7 and the presence of angioedema were predictors of CU-Q2oL score.The Persian version of CU-Q2oL was shown to be a valid and reliable tool to be used in the future clinical studies. Cultural considerations must be kept in mind in adoption of CU-Q2oL to other languages.  PMID:24659164

  2. Examining Factors Associated with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life for Youth with Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Hillary L.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey; Norman, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported quality of life (QoL) outcomes in cleft lip and palate treatment are critical as we advance evidence-based care. To date, scant data exist analyzing cleft treatment from the patients’ perspective. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the interrelationship among variables associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among youth with cleft. Methods As part of an ongoing longitudinal study among school-aged youth with cleft, clinical evaluations and research questionnaire packets were completed prior to a determination of surgical recommendation status (baseline). Participants completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP), a validated OHRQoL measure for children with cleft, as part of their clinical appointments. During the participants’ baseline clinical evaluations, plastic surgeons determined whether surgical interventions were recommended within the year (the expert determination of such represents a greater degree of current clinical need). General linear models (GLM) incorporating surgical recommendation, gender, and age were fit for each COHIP subscale and for the total COHIP. Significant interaction terms were evaluated for their effect on the COHIP subscale. Results Baseline assessments were obtained from 1,200 participants (x?=11.8 years; 57% male). GLM analysis showed that participants with a surgical recommendation had lower QoL on all but the Self-Esteem subscale compared to those without a surgical recommendation (p<0.002). Two subscales had statistically significant age-gender interactions (p<0.003), while another subscale had a statistically significant surgery by gender interaction term (p=0.027). Conclusions Overall, youth currently recommended for surgery had lower OHRQoL scores on the COHIP Total scale than those with no surgical recommendation; older females had lower QoL scores than males. PMID:24867742

  3. Factors Influencing the Quality of Life (Qol) Among Thai Older People in a Rural Area of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    HONGTHONG, Donnapa; SOMRONGTHONG, Ratana; WARD, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The population prevalence of older people has been growing worldwide. Quality of Life (QoL) among older people is a significant public health concern. Hence, this study aimed to assess level of QoL and factors influencing QoL among rural Thai older people. Methods: The study was undertaken in Phayao Province where is one of the top ten provinces with the highest index of Thai aging. A district in this province was purposively selected to be the study area and the quota-sampling technique was used for sample collection, totally 400 older people participated according to Taro Yamane. The WHO QoL-Old was employed to interview elderly QoL. Multivariate linear regression was performed to determine the factors influencing QoL among the older people. Results: Over two-thirds of older people (68.5%) had QoL at fair level. The vast majority (96%) had high scores for Activity Daily Living (ADL). Approximately one-fifth (20.5%) reported current smoking and 31.7% reported ever drinking during previous year. Following univariate analysis, nine factors – gender, age, education, working, income, present illness, drinking, ADL, and participating in elderly club were identified as being significantly associated with QoL (P <0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed four factors predictive of QoL among elderly: ADL, income, alcohol drinking, and present illness (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Physical function, health status and financial were the predictor of QoL among elderly. Noticeably, drinking was one predictive factor of QoL but only among moderate drinkers. Hence, healthy life style should be considered as key areas in attempts to promote QoL among elderly people.

  4. Impact of Trapped Flux and Thermal Gradients on the SRF Cavity Quality Factor

    E-print Network

    Kugeler, O; Knobloch, J; Aull, S

    2012-01-01

    The obtained Q0 value of a superconducting niobium cavity is known to depend on various factors like the RRR of the Niobium material, crystallinity, chemical treatment history, the high-pressure rinsing process, or effectiveness of the magnetic shielding. We have observed that spatial thermal gradients over the cavity length during cool-down appear to contribute to a degradation of Q0. Measurements were performed in the Horizontal Bi-Cavity Test Facility (HoBiCaT) at HZB on TESLA type cavities as well as on disc- and rod-shaped niobium samples equipped with thermal, electrical and magnetic diagnostics. Possible explanations for the effect are discussed.

  5. Synergistic associations of physical activity and diet quality on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Marie-Eve; Faraj, May; Strychar, Irene; Doucet, Éric; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2013-02-28

    Healthy diet and physical activity are associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Little is known about whether they interact to improve CMR. The purpose of the present study was to determine the synergistic associations of diet quality and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) on CMR factors. The present study was an a posteriori analysis of two cross-sectional studies on 124 inactive non-diabetic postmenopausal women with a BMI ? 27 kg/m². The following factors were measured: diet quality (assessed by the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI) from a 3 d food record); PAEE (doubly labelled water); body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scan); lipoprotein profile (total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), non-HDL-C, total cholesterol:HDL-C, TAG, apoA1, apoB, apoA1:apoB and LDL-C:apoB); insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp); inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), haptoglobin, orosomucoid, IL-6 and leucocyte count). The association of the interaction PAEE × C-HEI and CMR factors was evaluated by hierarchical regressions. Fat mass-adjusted ANCOVA determined the interaction between PAEE and the C-HEI. In hierarchical regressions, the interaction PAEE × C-HEI was a correlate of more favourable values of HDL-C, apoB, apoA1:apoB and LDL-C:apoB ratios, and hs-CRP, while only PAEE was a negative correlate of haptoglobin. Compared with those in the low-PAEE/low-C-HEI group, women in the high-PAEE/high-C-HEI group had 10 % higher HDL-C, 13 % lower apoB, 11 % larger LDL particles and 28 % lower hs-CRP concentrations (P< 0·05). PAEE and the C-HEI have a synergistic association with the CMR profile. These results support the integration of both diet quality and physical activity in the management of CMR. PMID:22571776

  6. Occupational risk factors in Alzheimer's disease: a review assessing the quality of published epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Santibáñez, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco; García, Ana M

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the most frequently studied occupational exposures—pesticides, solvents, electromagnetic fields (EMF), lead and aluminium—is inconsistent. Epidemiological studies published up to June of 2003 were systematically searched through PubMed and Toxline. Twenty?four studies (21 case–control and 3 cohort studies) were included. Median GQI was 36.6% (range 19.5–62.9%). Most of the case–control studies had a GQI of <50%. The study with the highest score was a cohort study. Likelihood of exposure misclassification bias affected 18 of the 24 studies. Opportunity for bias arising from the use of surrogate informants affected 17 studies, followed by disease misclassification (11 studies) and selection bias (10 studies). Eleven studies explored the relationship of AD with solvents, seven with EMF, six with pesticides, six with lead and three with aluminium. For pesticides, studies of greater quality and prospective design found increased and statistically significant associations. For the remaining occupational agents, the evidence of association is less consistent (for solvents and EMF) or absent (for lead and aluminium). PMID:17525096

  7. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

  8. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  9. Neutrons for Catalysis Neutrons as

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Neutrons for Catalysis Neutrons as Microscopic Probes in Heterogeneous Catalysis Juergen Eckert-situ reactor for neutron scattering #12;In-situ gas-loading cells are available for neutron scattering available: standard equipment to monitor catalytic reactions In-situ (or ,,semi in-situ) Neutron Scattering

  10. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

  11. Encapsulated Annealing: Enhancing the Plasmon Quality Factor in Lithographically–Defined Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Michel; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Huigao; Tan, Shu Fen; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Qiu, Cheng–Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithography provides the precision to pattern large arrays of metallic nanostructures with varying geometries, enabling systematic studies and discoveries of new phenomena in plasmonics. However, surface plasmon resonances experience more damping in lithographically–defined structures than in chemically–synthesized nanoparticles of comparable geometries. Grain boundaries, surface roughness, substrate effects, and adhesion layers have been reported as causes of plasmon damping, but it is difficult to isolate these effects. Using monochromated electron energy–loss spectroscopy (EELS) and numerical analysis, we demonstrate an experimental technique that allows the study of these effects individually, to significantly reduce the plasmon damping in lithographically–defined structures. We introduce a method of encapsulated annealing that preserves the shape of polycrystalline gold nanostructures, while their grain-boundary density is reduced. We demonstrate enhanced Q–factors in lithographically–defined nanostructures, with intrinsic damping that matches the theoretical Drude damping limit. PMID:24986023

  12. Encapsulated Annealing: Enhancing the Plasmon Quality Factor in Lithographically-Defined Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosman, Michel; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Huigao; Tan, Shu Fen; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Qiu, Cheng–Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2014-07-01

    Lithography provides the precision to pattern large arrays of metallic nanostructures with varying geometries, enabling systematic studies and discoveries of new phenomena in plasmonics. However, surface plasmon resonances experience more damping in lithographically-defined structures than in chemically-synthesized nanoparticles of comparable geometries. Grain boundaries, surface roughness, substrate effects, and adhesion layers have been reported as causes of plasmon damping, but it is difficult to isolate these effects. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and numerical analysis, we demonstrate an experimental technique that allows the study of these effects individually, to significantly reduce the plasmon damping in lithographically-defined structures. We introduce a method of encapsulated annealing that preserves the shape of polycrystalline gold nanostructures, while their grain-boundary density is reduced. We demonstrate enhanced Q-factors in lithographically-defined nanostructures, with intrinsic damping that matches the theoretical Drude damping limit.

  13. Study of the Influence of the Source Quality on the Determination of the Shape Factor of Beta Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Bret, C.; Loidl, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Mougeot, X.; Bouchard, J.

    2012-06-01

    We are developing metallic magnetic calorimeters for beta spectrometry with the aim of determining the shape factors of beta spectra. The beta emitter is enclosed inside the detector absorber and the absorber size is chosen such that the detection efficiency is close to 100% for the entire spectrum. The nature of the deposit of the beta emitter is critical for precise measurement. A dependence of the shape of the spectrum on the quality of the source has been observed, supposedly due to interactions between the electrons and the deposit itself. We chose for this comparative study a nuclide with an allowed transition whose theoretical spectrum is relatively well-known, 63Ni, a pure beta emitter with an endpoint energy of 66.98 keV. Results of measurements of 63Ni deposited with different techniques are presented and compared to each other and to the theoretical spectrum.

  14. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  15. The Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Demiral, Ayse Nur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ayse.demiral@deu.edu.tr; Sen, Mehmet [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Demiral, Yuecel [Department of Public Health, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Kinay, Muenir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant.

  16. Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T. M.

    2009-06-01

    Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

  17. Quality of life and factors predictive of burden among primary caregivers of chronic liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Douglas L.; Chao, Daniel; Ma, Grace; Morgan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic liver disease increases the socioeconomic and emotional burden on the patient’s caregiver. This is important because a patient’s adherence to therapy and transplant eligibility is dependent on the caregiver’s ability to handle these challenges. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 50 primary caregivers of patients with advanced liver disease. Caregivers completed the RAND 36-item (Short Form [SF-36]) Health Survey and the Zarit Burden Scale survey. Caregiver quality of life, based on the SF-36, was compared using t-tests with the scores of the National reference population as controls. Results In our cohort, the mean age of caregivers was 56.9±11.4 years, 40 (83.3%) were female, and 34 (70.8%) were spouses/significant others of the patient. Compared with the adjusted National norm data, caregivers scored substantially lower in categories of role limitations due to emotional problems (P<0.001), vitality (P=0.025), mental health (P=0.005), and social functioning (P=0.002). While the adjusted physical component score of the caregivers was comparable to the National mean, the mental component score (MCS) was lower than the National average (42.4±13.3 vs. 50.0±10, P<0.001). Though only 8 of 50 (16.0%) subjects reported a formal diagnosis of depression or anxiety, 23 (46.0%) had MCS <42, a strong predictor of clinical depression, based on previous studies. Conclusions Primary caregivers of patients with advanced liver disease have significantly lower SF-36 mental health scores compared with the general population. Comparison of SF-36 scores to caregiver history suggests under recognition of mental health problems in this population. PMID:25608915

  18. Quality of Life and its Related Factors Among Iranian Patients with Metastatic Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fard, Jabbar Heydari; Janbabaei, Ghasem

    2014-01-01

    Context: Quality of life (QoL) is an important issue in all cancer patients; especially in patients with metastatic cancer. But there is very little information available about QoL in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and its associated factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer were recruited from the one oncology center related to the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, between March 2012 and August 2013. Their QoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire (Persian version). Results: In this study, the overall QoL score of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer was 57.63, which was relatively optimal. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms scale and general health status domains of quality of life with age (P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant association between patients’ gender and their social functioning (P = 0.017) and also their emotional functioning (P = 0.015). Conclusions: The findings suggest that in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers, the most affected functions in their QoL were social and emotional functioning which get worse with age. Thus, providing psychological counseling and psychotherapy services to deliver culturally appropriate mental health care and social support for these patients and their families’ which can lead to the improvement of QoL in these patients is strongly recommended. PMID:25191010

  19. Computational fluid dynamics approaches in quality and hygienic production of semisolid low-moisture foods: a review of critical factors.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-10-01

    Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges. PMID:25224872

  20. Neutron spectra and dose equivalents calculated in tissue for high-energy radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Followill, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrons are by-products of high-energy radiation therapy and a source of dose to normal tissues. Thus, the presence of neutrons increases a patient’s risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Although neutrons have been thoroughly studied in air, little research has been focused on neutrons at depths in the patient where radiosensitive structures may exist, resulting in wide variations in neutron dose equivalents between studies. In this study, we characterized properties of neutrons produced during high-energy radiation therapy as a function of their depth in tissue and for different field sizes and different source-to-surface distances (SSD). We used a previously developed Monte Carlo model of an accelerator operated at 18 MV to calculate the neutron fluences, energy spectra, quality factors, and dose equivalents in air and in tissue at depths ranging from 0.1 to 25 cm. In conjunction with the sharply decreasing dose equivalent with increased depth in tissue, the authors found that the neutron energy spectrum changed drastically as a function of depth in tissue. The neutron fluence decreased gradually as the depth increased, while the average neutron energy decreased sharply with increasing depth until a depth of approximately 7.5 cm in tissue, after which it remained nearly constant. There was minimal variation in the quality factor as a function of depth. At a given depth in tissue, the neutron dose equivalent increased slightly with increasing field size and decreasing SSD; however, the percentage depth-dose equivalent curve remained constant outside the primary photon field. Because the neutron dose equivalent, fluence, and energy spectrum changed substantially with depth in tissue, we concluded that when the neutron dose equivalent is being determined at a depth within a patient, the spectrum and quality factor used should be appropriate for depth rather than for in-air conditions. Alternately, an appropriate percent depth-dose equivalent curve should be used to correct the dose equivalent at the patient surface. PMID:19472632

  1. Experts and Novices Use the Same Factors–But Differently–To Evaluate Pearl Quality

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Yusuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading) and expert participants’ pearl grading skill and then compare the novices’ grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices’ grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts’ grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices’ consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices’ trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%). This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts. PMID:24466074

  2. Wayfinding: a quality factor in human design approach to healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Del Nord, R

    1999-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is the systematic analysis of interactions and reciprocal conditions existing between the physical space of hospital buildings and the different categories of individuals that come in contact with them. The physical and environmental facilities of hospital architecture often influence the therapeutic character of space and the employees. If the values of the individual are to be safeguarded in this context, priority needs to be given to such factors as communication, privacy, etc. This would mean the involvement of other professional groups such as psychologists, sociologists, ergonomists, etc. at the hospital building planning stage. This paper will outline the result of some research conducted at the University Research Center "TESIS" of Florence to provide better understanding of design strategies applied to reduce the pathology of spaces within the healthcare environment. The case studies will highlight the parameters and the possible architectural solutions to wayfinding and the humanization of spaces, with particular emphasis on lay-outs, technologies, furniture and finishing design. PMID:10622912

  3. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Taylor

    2010-10-19

    In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

  4. Factorize

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students find factor pairs for a given number and then create a rectangle with those dimensions on a coordinate plane. This activity allows students to explore factorizations of numbers and how they relate to rectangles with that number as an area. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  5. Neutron capture therapies

    DOEpatents

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  6. Calculation of effective dose from measurements of secondary neutron spectra and scattered photon dose from dynamic MLC IMRT for 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV beam energies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca M. Howell; Nolan E. Hertel; Wang Zhonglu; Jesson Hutchinson; Gary D. Fullerton

    2006-01-01

    Effective doses were calculated from the delivery of 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate treatment plans. ICRP-60 tissue weighting factors were used for the calculations. Photon doses were measured in phantom for all beam energies. Neutron spectra were measured for 15 MV and 18 MV and ICRP-74 quality conversion factors used to

  7. Tobacco and other factors have a negative impact on quality of life in hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Yamini, D; Basseri, B; Chee, G M; Arakelyan, A; Enayati, P; Tran, T T; Poordad, F

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to adversely affect general, social, emotional and mental health domains. This study was designed to identify variables that may be associated with these measurable outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective review of demographic and clinical data from 800 patients with HCV evaluated between January 1998 and November 2007. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire filled out by the patients at the first encounter. Variables evaluated included fibrosis stages (i.e. FS0/1/2 vs FS3/4), demographics, comorbid health conditions, tobacco and alcohol use, high-risk social behaviours and laboratory data. Variables assessed were depression, fatigue, problems sleeping and loss of interest in sex. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Depression (29.3%) in our HCV study population was associated with female gender, tobacco use, hyperlipidemia, history of heavy alcohol use and intravenous drug use. Fatigue (44.6%) was associated with end-stage renal disease, past and current tobacco use and current alcohol use. Difficulty sleeping (13.8%) was associated with past and current tobacco use, current alcohol use and diabetes. Loss of interest in sex (7.7%) was associated with current tobacco use, multiple risk factors for HCV and age at time of evaluation. Fibrosis stage (FS) also had a significant positive association with alcohol use (OR 2.61; P = 0.003) and tobacco use (OR 2.00; P = 0.002). Smoking and alcohol use have a significant negative impact on the presence of depression, fatigue, difficulty sleeping and loss of interest in sex in HCV patients. Practitioners should be aware of these associations, particularly tobacco use, which significantly and negatively impacted every variable evaluated. PMID:20723039

  8. Relative role of climatic factors and anthropogenic actions in the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Queiroga, Henrique; Brotas, Vanda; Fortunato, André B.; Manso, Maria Dolores

    2013-04-01

    The Aveiro lagoon harbours one of the largest saltmarshes in Europe, with a significant role of ecological services, supporting at the same time several economic activities that might impact its water and ecological quality. Besides the pressures associated with human activities, the impacts of climate change in estuarine ecosystems are also matter of concern worldwide. In this context, understanding the systems' natural variability, the impacts of climate change and the relative role of anthropogenic pressures is essential to ensure estuarine ecosystems' long-term management. Thus, this study evaluates the influence of climatic factors and anthropogenic pressures on the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon based on an integrated approach. This approach combines the analysis of long time series from the past 25 years and high-resolution numerical modelling of future scenarios of climate change (increase in air temperature, changes in the precipitation regimes and sea level rise) and anthropogenic interventions (dredging, a marina construction and emergency by-pass wastewater discharges) in the lagoon. The analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of variability of the water and ecological quality in the Aveiro lagoon at different scales, based on historical data from 1985 to 2010 complemented by the campaigns performed, suggested a combined influence of the climatic variability and anthropogenic interventions. Future scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic interventions simulated revealed a larger influence of climate change when compared with the analysed anthropogenic actions. The most important variations from the reference scenario are predicted for the sea level rise scenarios, followed by the changes in the hydrological regimes scenarios, putting in evidence the main role of circulation (tide and river flow) in establishing the water quality and ecological dynamics in the lagoon. A significant decrease of chlorophyll a and nutrients is predicted in the downstream and middle areas of the channel due to sea level rise, while a significant salinity increase is predicted upstream. These changes may promote modifications in the communities' distribution and composition, affecting the food web and promoting a progression further upstream of the marine species. Results also suggest that the identified effects may be more important in shallow estuaries.

  9. Associations of Lifestyle Factors, Disease History and Awareness with Health-Related Quality of Life in a Thai Population

    PubMed Central

    Vathesatogkit, Prin; Sritara, Piyamitr; Kimman, Merel; Hengprasith, Bunlue; E-Shyong, Tai; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of the presence and awareness of individual health states on quality of life (HRQoL) is often documented. However, the impacts of different health states have rarely been compared amongst each other, whilst quality of life data from Asia are relatively sparse. We examined and compared the effects of different health states on quality of life in a Thai population. Methods In 2008–2009, 5,915 corporate employees were invited to participate in a survey where HRQoL was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. The adjusted mean SF-36 scores were calculated for each self-reported illness, number of chronic conditions, lifestyle factors and awareness of diabetes and hypertension. The effect sizes (ES) were compared using Cohen's d. Results The response rate was 82% and 4,683 (79.1%) had complete data available for analysis. Physical and Mental Component Summary (PCS and MCS) scores decreased as the number of chronic conditions increased monotonically (p<0.0001). Diabetes and hypertension negatively influenced PCS (mean score differences ?0.6 and ?1.5, p<0.001 respectively) but not MCS, whereas awareness of diabetes and hypertension negatively influenced MCS (?2.9 and ?1.6, p<0.005 respectively) but not PCS. Arthritis had the largest ES on PCS (?0.37), while awareness of diabetes had the largest ES on MCS (?0.36). CVD moderately affected PCS and MCS (ES ?0.34 and ?0.27 respectively). Obesity had a negative effect on PCS (ES ?0.27). Exercise positively affected PCS and MCS (ES +0.08 and +0.21 (p<0.01) respectively). Conclusion Health promotion to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases is important to improve the quality of life in Asian populations. Physical activity is an important part of such programs. Awareness of diseases may have greater impacts on mental health than having the disease itself. This has implications for the evaluation of the cost-benefit of screening and labeling of individuals with pre-disease states. PMID:23189172

  10. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Movsas, Benjamin [Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)]. E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Scott, Charles [RTOG Headquarters, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients {<=}50 years vs. {>=}65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed.

  11. Epidemiologic Studies of Psychosocial Factors Associated With Quality of Life Among Patients With Chronic Diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Masayo

    2012-01-01

    A link between affective disturbances and physical disorders has been suggested since the Greco–Roman era. However, evidence supporting an association between mind and body is limited and mostly comes from North America and Europe. Additional local epidemiologic studies are needed so that more evidence can be collected on effective treatments and health management. Epidemiologic studies of Japanese with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those on chronic hemodialysis examined the association between psychosocial factors and patient quality of life (QOL). Strong associations among depression, social support, and patient QOL were confirmed, which supports the findings of studies performed in Western countries. In addition, disparities between the perspectives of patients with RA and their doctors were observed. Alexithymia, a personality construct that reflects a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotion, had a stronger independent association with increased risk of 5-year mortality than did depression among patients with chronic hemodialysis. Physiological, biological, and psychosocial factors are associated and independently and interactively determine our health. Epidemiology is a powerful tool for identifying effective points of intervention, after considering all possible confounders. Future studies must clarify how health can be improved by using a psychosocial approach. PMID:22156289

  12. A human factors framework and study of the effect of nursing workload on patient safety and employee quality of working life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Holden; Matthew C Scanlon; Neal R Patel; Rainu Kaushal; Kamisha Hamilton Escoto; Roger L Brown; Samuel J Alper; Judi M Arnold; Theresa M Shalaby; Kathleen Murkowski; Ben-Tzion Karsh

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundNursing workload is increasingly thought to contribute to both nurses' quality of working life and quality\\/safety of care. Prior studies lack a coherent model for conceptualising and measuring the effects of workload in healthcare. In contrast, we conceptualised a human factors model for workload specifying workload at three distinct levels of analysis and having multiple nurse and patient outcomes.MethodsTo test

  13. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2=3.4 GeV2 using the Reaction He3(e,e'n)pp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Riordan; S. Abrahamyan; B. Craver; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; J. Miller; G. D. Cates; N. Liyanage; B. Wojtsekhowski; A. Acha; K. Allada; B. Anderson; K. A. Aniol; J. R. M. Annand; J. Arrington; T. Averett; A. Beck; M. Bellis; W. Boeglin; H. Breuer; J. R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Crowe; F. Cusanno; D. Day; P. Degtyarenko; P. A. M. Dolph; C. Dutta; C. Ferdi; C. Fernandez-Ramirez; R. Feuerbach; L. M. Fraile; G. Franklin; S. Frullani; S. Fuchs; F. Garibaldi; N. Gevorgyan; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; J. Gomez; K. Grimm; J. O. Hansen; J. L. Herraiz; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; T. Holmstrom; D. Howell; C. W. deJager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; J. Katich; L. J. Kaufman; M. Khandaker; J. J. Kelly; D. Kiselev; W. Korsch; J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; D. J. Margaziotis; S. May-Tal Beck; S. Mayilyan; K. McCormick; Z. E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; T. Ngo; D. M. Nikolenko; B. Norum; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. Protopopescu; A. J. R. Puckett; V. A. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; B. Quinn; I. Rachek; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; J. Roche; G. Ron; O. Rondon; G. Rosner; A. Saha; M. Sargsian; B. Sawatzky; J. Segal; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; Yu. Shestakov; J. Singh; S. Sirca; P. Souder; S. Stepanyan; V. Stibunov; V. Sulkosky; S. Tajima; W. A. Tobias; J. M. Udias; G. M. Urciuoli; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wang; F. R. Wesselmann; J. R. Vignote; S. A. Wood; J. Wright; H. Yao; X. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the\\u000areaction He3(e,e'n)pp in quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab.\\u000aLongitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in\\u000awhich the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum\\u000atransfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in\\u000acoincidence with neutrons that were

  14. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blue; Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as

  15. Survey of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Perdrisat, Charles F. [William and Mary College; Punjabi, Vina A. [Norfolk State U.

    2011-09-20

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has been greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in compar- ison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at MIT-Bates, MAMI, and JLab. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): implications of neutron beam and boron compound characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, F J; Nigg, D W; Capala, J; Watkins, P R; Vroegindeweij, C; Auterinen, I; Seppälä, T; Bleuel, D

    1999-07-01

    The potential efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant glioma is a significant function of epithermal-neutron beam biophysical characteristics as well as boron compound biodistribution characteristics. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to evaluate the relative significance of these factors on theoretical tumor control using a standard model. The existing, well-characterized epithermal-neutron sources at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR), and the Finnish Research Reactor (FiR-1) were compared. Results for a realistic accelerator design by the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) are also compared. Also the characteristics of the compound p-Boronophenylaline Fructose (BPA-F) and a hypothetical next-generation compound were used in a comparison of the BMRR and a hypothetical improved reactor. All components of dose induced by an external epithermal-neutron beam fall off quite rapidly with depth in tissue. Delivery of dose to greater depths is limited by the healthy-tissue tolerance and a reduction in the hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose allow for longer irradiation and greater dose at a depth. Dose at depth can also be increased with a beam that has higher neutron energy (without too high a recoil dose) and a more forward peaked angular distribution. Of the existing facilities, the FiR-1 beam has the better quality (lower hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose) and a penetrating neutron spectrum and was found to deliver a higher value of Tumor Control Probability (TCP) than other existing beams at shallow depth. The greater forwardness and penetration of the HFR the FiR-1 at greater depths. The hypothetical reactor and accelerator beams outperform at both shallow and greater depths. In all cases, the hypothetical compound provides a significant improvement in efficacy but it is shown that the full benefit of improved compound is not realized until the neutron beam is fully optimized. PMID:10435523

  17. Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  18. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  19. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.D. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi} and 20 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi}, respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

  20. DOSIMETRIC response of a REM-500 in low energy neutron fields typical of nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Matysiak, W; Atanackovic, J; Waker, A J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the response of a REM-500 to assess neutron quality factor and dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are commonly encountered in the workplace environment of nuclear power stations. The McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility was used to measure the response of the instrument in monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range 51 to 727 keV by bombarding a thin LiF target with 1.93-2.50 MeV protons. The energy distribution of the neutron fields produced in the facility was measured by a (3)He filled gas ionization chamber. The MCA mode of the REM-500 instrument was used to collect lineal energy distributions at varying neutron energies and to calculate the frequency and dose-mean lineal energies. The effective quality factor, Q-, was also calculated using the values of Q(y)listed in the REM-500 operation manual and compared with those of ICRP 60. The authors observed a continuously increasing trend in y - F, y-D, and Q-with an increase in neutron energy. It is interesting to note that standard tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) filled with tissue equivalent(TE) gas give rise to a similar trend for these microdosimetric quantities of interest in the same energy range; however, the averages calculated in this study are larger by about 15%compared to a TEPC filled with propane-based TE gas probably because of the larger stopping power of protons in propane compared to TE gas. These somewhat larger event sizes did not result in any significant increase in the Q-compared to those obtained from a TEPC filled with TE gas and were found to be in good agreement with other measurements reported earlier at corresponding neutron energies. The instrument quality factor response, R(Q), defined as the ratio of measured quality factor to the calculated quality factor in an ICRU tissue sphere,was found to vary with neutron energy. The instrument response,R(Q), was ~0.6 at 727 keV, which deteriorates further to ~0.3 at 51 keV neutron energy. The counter response based on ICRP 60 was comparable to an ideal response of 1.0 above 600 keV, which dropped to ~0.8 at 159 keV and ~0.4 at 51 keV neutron energy. The decline in counter quality factor response based on ICRP 60 was found to be much steeper than that when using the instrument’s built-in function for quality factor.The REM-500 measures a dose equivalent at 727 keV,which is 60% of the ambient dose equivalent, 40% at 159 keV,and 15% at 51 keV. Two algorithms have been developed, one for real time measurement and another to be used post measurement,and their efficacy is demonstrated in determining the quality factor and the ambient dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are typical for the workplace environment in CANDU® nuclear power generating stations. PMID:22570919

  1. Neutron beam optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using the D-D and DT high-energy neutron sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Verbeke; J. L. Vujic; K. N. Leung

    2000-01-01

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the most suitable neutron energy for treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors in the context of boron neutron capture therapy. Two figures-of-merit--the absorbed skin dose and the absorbed tumor dose at a given depth in the brain--are used to measure the neutron beam quality. Based on the results

  2. Exploring factors influencing asthma control and asthma-specific health-related quality of life among children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors contributing to children’s asthma control status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The study objectives were to assess the relationship between asthma control and asthma-specific HRQoL in asthmatic children, and to examine the extent to which parental health literacy, perceived self-efficacy with patient-physician interaction, and satisfaction with shared decision-making (SDM) contribute to children’s asthma control and asthma-specific HRQoL. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized data collected from a sample of asthmatic children (n?=?160) aged 8–17 years and their parents (n?=?160) who visited a university medical center. Asthma-specific HRQoL was self-reported by children using the National Institutes of Health’s Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Asthma Impact Scale. Satisfaction with SDM, perceived self-efficacy with patient-physician interaction, parental health literacy, and asthma control were reported by parents using standardized measures. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized pathways. Results Path analysis revealed that children with better asthma control reported higher asthma-specific HRQoL (??=?0.4, P?factors such as perceived self-efficacy with patient-physician interaction and satisfaction with shared decision-making indirectly influenced children’s asthma control status and asthma-specific HRQoL. PMID:23432913

  3. A Scientific Assessment of Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity Level, and Nutritional Knowledge as Determinants of Dietary Quality among Indo-Mauritian Women.

    PubMed

    Dunneram, Yashvee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A healthy diet is of particular concern throughout the life of women to avoid many chronic illnesses especially during their 30s to 50s. There are published data on dietary quality and its determinants among women, but there is a lack of similar data regarding women in Mauritius. This study aimed to investigate the association between age and dietary quality in relation to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level (PAL) and nutritional knowledge (NK). A survey-based study was conducted in 2012 among Indo-Mauritian women including 117 young (21.35 ± 1.98), 160 reaching middle age (34.02 ± 5.09) and 50 middle-aged (37.85 ± 8.32). Validated questionnaires were used to elicit information on the determinants. A food frequency table consisting of 18 food items was used to assess dietary quality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between various factors and dietary quality. The mean dietary score of middle-aged women (18.70 ± 2.67) was closer to recommended dietary guidelines compared to young women (17.22 ± 3.40), and women reaching middle age (17.55 ± 3.29). Educational level, PAL, NK, and age were main determinants of dietary quality among Indo-Mauritian women (P < 0.05). Younger women with low educational level, PAL, and NK are at risk of poor dietary quality. PMID:23762543

  4. A Scientific Assessment of Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity Level, and Nutritional Knowledge as Determinants of Dietary Quality among Indo-Mauritian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A healthy diet is of particular concern throughout the life of women to avoid many chronic illnesses especially during their 30s to 50s. There are published data on dietary quality and its determinants among women, but there is a lack of similar data regarding women in Mauritius. This study aimed to investigate the association between age and dietary quality in relation to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level (PAL) and nutritional knowledge (NK). A survey-based study was conducted in 2012 among Indo-Mauritian women including 117 young (21.35 ± 1.98), 160 reaching middle age (34.02 ± 5.09) and 50 middle-aged (37.85 ± 8.32). Validated questionnaires were used to elicit information on the determinants. A food frequency table consisting of 18 food items was used to assess dietary quality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between various factors and dietary quality. The mean dietary score of middle-aged women (18.70 ± 2.67) was closer to recommended dietary guidelines compared to young women (17.22 ± 3.40), and women reaching middle age (17.55 ± 3.29). Educational level, PAL, NK, and age were main determinants of dietary quality among Indo-Mauritian women (P < 0.05). Younger women with low educational level, PAL, and NK are at risk of poor dietary quality. PMID:23762543

  5. Introducing porous silicon as a getter using the self aligned maskless process to enhance the quality factor of packaged MEMS resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wajihuddin Mohammad; Chester Wilson; Ville Kaajakari

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum encapsulated MEMS resonators are used in frequency references and gyroscopes. We present the use of porous silicon as a getter material for MEMS devices. Two types of devices were fabricated using the electrochemical etching and compared for quality factor. One type was with a cavity in the substrate of an SOI die, which helps in reducing the parasitic capacitance

  6. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  7. Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

  8. Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of open dielectric resonators by a combination of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and Prony's methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Pereda; L. A. Vielva; A. Vegas; A. Prieto

    1992-01-01

    Open dielectric resonators using the FD-TD (finite-difference time-domain) method are analyzed. Resonant frequencies and quality factors are calculated using Prony's method instead of the classical fast Fourier transform. In this way, reductions of up to two orders of magnitude are achieved in computation time. The results obtained are in good agreement with those reported by other authors

  9. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979May 31, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Loucks; D. L. Richmann; K. L. Milliken

    1980-01-01

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou\\/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced

  10. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P<0.001. However, no significant variation (P>0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

  11. Continuous and pulsed room temperature lasing behaviour at 1.55 ?m on high quality factor photonic crystal microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postigo, P. A.; Martínez, L. J.; Alén, B.; Prieto, I.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.; Dotor, M. L.; Muñoz, L. E.; Kaldirim, M.

    2010-08-01

    In this work we show room temperature continuous (CW) lasing at 1.5 ?m in photonic crystal microcavities with a single layer of self-assembled quantum wires (QWRs). Low threshold values in the range of 1-20 ?W (depending on the excitation type, pulsed or CW) have been measured, along high quality factors exceeding Q=55000 using L7-type photonic crystal microcavities. Solid-source molecular beam epitaxy has been used for the synthesis of the InP/InAs epitaxial material comprising a single layer of InAs QWRs. The main axis of the cavity is always parallel to the QWRs, which are more than 1ìm in length along the [1-10] direction. No lasing has been obtained for L7 cavities with axis parallel to the [110] (i.e., perpendicular to the direction of the QWRs), showing the strong one-dimensional character of the QWRs inside the photonic cavity. Under inhomogeneous pulsed excitation the lasing spectra show asymmetric lineshapes and peak splittings first in the ?eV and later in the meV ranges as the excitation power is increased.

  12. Factors influencing quality of life and disease severity in Hungarian children and young adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to evaluate factors affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to assess the level of agreement on HRQol between children and their parents. Methods Fifty-nine patients (mean age: 14.03?±?4.81 years) from 5 Hungarian CF centres completed the survey. HRQoL was measured using The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R). Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their smoking habits, educational level and history of chronic illness. Disease severity was assessed using the physician-reported Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score system. Spirometry, Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile (pc), hospitalisation and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection were examined as physiologic parameters of CF, and the impact of these factors on HRQoL was assessed. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the most important factors affecting HRQoL. The level of significance was set to 0.05. Results Passive smoking and parental educational level and chronic diseases status did not have a significant impact on the patients’ HRQoL (p?>?0.05). Significantly lower SK scores and spirometry values were found in low BMI pc patients (p?25th BMI pc) (p?

  13. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  14. Quality of life profile and correlated factors in chronic leg ulcer patients in the mid-west of São Paulo State, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Masuda, Paula Yoshiko; Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Taira, Cecilia Midori Higashi; Cleto, Norma Gondim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic leg ulcer may have an impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the impact of leg ulcers on patient's quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index and to define the main factors correlated with this perception. METHOD Cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling study. We included patients with chronic leg ulcers being treated for at least 3 months. A sociodemographic and clinical survey was conducted to assess the profile of the ulcers. We administered a screening for depressive symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test for categorical data, Pearson for numeric variables, and multiple regression for categorical data. RESULTS Forty-one patients were assessed. Their mean age was 61.78 years. Venous ulcers (48.8%) were the most prevalent. Seventy-three percent of the sample perceived no impact/low impact on quality of life in the past week, and 26.8% perceived moderate/high impact. A multiple regression analysis identified the causes of lesion, pain related to the ulcers, time of onset, and severity of the depressive symptoms as the variables that had an influence on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the sample perceived low or no impact of the condition on the quality of the life. The variables etiology of the lesion (p<0.001), pain related to the ulcers (p=0.001), time of onset (p=0.006), and severity of the depressive symptoms (p<0.001) had an influence on the quality of life, suggesting the need for further studies with more robust designs to confirm the causal relationship between these characteristics and quality of life. PMID:24626651

  15. Model for Initiation of Quality Factor Degradation at High Accelerating Fields in Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavaties

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyuba, A.; /Fermilab /Novosibirsk State U.; Romanenko, A.; /Fermilab; Cooley, L.D.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-13

    A model for the onset of the reduction in SRF cavity quality factor, the so-called Q-drop, at high accelerating electric fields is presented. Since magnetic fields at the cavity equator are tied to accelerating electric fields by a simple geometric factor, the onset of magnetic flux penetration determines the onset of Q-drop. We consider breakdown of the surface barrier at triangular grooves to predict the magnetic field of first flux penetration H{sub pen}. Such defects were argued to be the worst case by Buzdin and Daumens, [1998 Physica C 294 257], whose approach, moreover, incorporates both the geometry of the groove and local contamination via the Ginzburg-Landau parameter {kappa}. Since previous Q-drop models focused on either topography or contamination alone, the proposed model allows new comparisons of one effect in relation to the other. The model predicts equivalent reduction of H{sub pen} when either roughness or contamination were varied alone, so smooth but dirty surfaces limit cavity performance about as much as rough but clean surfaces do. Still lower H{sub pen} was predicted when both effects were combined, i.e. contamination should exacerbate the negative effects of roughness and vice-versa. To test the model with actual data, coupons were prepared by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing, and stylus profilometry was used to obtain distributions of angles. From these data, curves for surface resistance generated by simple flux flow as a function of magnetic field were generated by integrating over the distribution of angles for reasonable values of {kappa}. This showed that combined effects of roughness and contamination indeed reduce the Q-drop onset field by {approx}20%, and that that contamination contributes to Q-drop as much as roughness. The latter point may be overlooked by SRF cavity research, since access to the cavity interior by spectroscopy tools is very difficult, whereas optical images have become commonplace. The model was extended to fit cavity test data, which indicated that reduction of the superconducting gap by contaminants may also play a role in Q-drop.

  16. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on some quality traits and fertility of cryopreserved ovine semen.

    PubMed

    Padilha, R T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Cavalcante, M M; Almeida, A P; Haag, K T; Gastal, M O; Nunes, J F; Rodrigues, A P R; Figueiredo, J R; Oliveira, M A L

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the quality and fertility of frozen/thawed ovine semen. Five rams (five ejaculates/ram) were used for evaluation of semen parameters. Before cryopreservation, ejaculates were divided into four aliquots and extended with Tris alone or supplemented with human IGF-I (50, 100, or 250 ng/mL). Semen was evaluated immediately after thawing (T0), after 1 h (T1) and 2 h (T2) post-incubation at 37 °C. The percentage of live cells (fluorescence analysis-calcein and ethidium), acrosome integrity (NAR) and motility were analyzed, and hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) were used to evaluate membrane resistance. In addition, AI was performed using 121 ewes to compare the optimal concentration of IGF-I vs. Tris alone on pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasonography. After 1 and 2 h post-incubation, in every group, percentage motile sperm, NAR and HOST decreased compared to semen at T0. Motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the IGF-I 100 and IGF-I 250 groups when compared to the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (76.2 and 74.4% vs. 66.2 and 64.4 percent, respectively) at T0, after 1 h (67 and 63.6% vs. 56.2 and 54.7%) and 2 h post-incubation (58.2 and 55.8% vs. 48 and 47.2%). Furthermore, viability was higher (P < 0.05) in the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) 100 and IGF-I 250 groups than in the IGF-I 50 and Tris groups (88.7 and 88.3% vs. 76.6 and 77.6%, respectively) at T0. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in NAR or hypo-osmotic swelling tests (HOST) among groups. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in fertility between the IGF-I 100 and Tris groups. In conclusion, IGF-I improved subjective sperm motility and structural integrity of the plasma membrane without a significant effect on 45-day pregnancy rates after laparoscopic insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen. PMID:22541171

  17. Factors Associated with Concordance and Variability of Sleep Quality in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    McCurry, Susan M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the day-to-day variation in sleep characteristics and the concordance between nighttime sleep of persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their family caregivers. Participants: N = 44 community-dwelling older adults with probable or possible AD and their co-residing family caregivers. Design: Participants wore an Actillume (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc) for one week and completed an assessment battery to evaluate patient and caregiver mood, physical function, medication use, caregiver behavior management style, and patient cognitive status. Measurements and Results: Actigraphically derived sleep measures included bedtime, rising time, total time in bed, total sleep time, number of awakenings, total wake time, and sleep percent (efficiency). For each sleep parameter, total variance was determined for between-subject variance and within-subject variance from day-to-day. Sleep concordance was examined using multinomial logistic regression to compare trichotomous patient-caregiver combinations of good and bad sleepers. For both patients and caregivers, between-subject daily variability accounted for more of the variance in sleep than within-subject variability. Patient depression and caregiver management style were significant predictors both for concordant poor sleep (both patient and caregiver with sleep efficiency <85%) and patient-caregiver sleep discordance. Conclusions: This study provides data that sleep disturbances for persons with AD and their family caregivers vary considerably night to night, and that poor sleep in one member of the caregiving dyad is not necessarily linked to disturbed sleep in the other. Understanding the complex interrelationship of sleep in AD patients and caregivers is an important first step towards the development of individualized and effective treatment strategies. Citation: McCurry SM; Pike KC; Vitiello MV; Logsdon RG; Teri L. Factors associated with concordance and variability of sleep quality in persons with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. SLEEP 2008;31(5):741-748. PMID:18517044

  18. Neutron guide

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Geoffrey L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  19. Quality of Life in Animals as a New Outcome for Surgical Research: G-CSF as a Quality of Life Improving Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artur Bauhofer; Klaus Witte; Björn Lemmer; Martin Middeke; Wilfried Lorenz; Ilhan Celik

    2002-01-01

    Sepsis is still a major problem in human medicine with a high mortality rate. Nearly all attempts to improve the outcome of septic patients with immune modulators failed. In most of these trials only mechanistic endpoints such as mortality rate, complication rate, cytokine levels and physiological parameters were assessed. Only in a very few trials quality of life had been

  20. General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosko, Andrey

    This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

  1. The Form Factors of the Nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Perdrisat, Charles F. [William and Mary College, JLAB

    2013-11-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has been greatly improved by performing double-polarization experiments, in comparison with with pre-vious unpolarized cross section data. Here we will review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton and the neutron, obtained at MIT-Bates, JLab and MAMI. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high- precision experiments will be discussed. In particular, the possibility that the proton is non-spherical in its ground state, and that the transverse charge density are model in- dependently defined in the infinite momentum frame. Likewise, flavor decomposition of the nucleon form factors into dressed u and d quark form factors, may give information about the quark-diquark structure of the nucleon. The current proton radius "crisis" will also be discussed.

  2. [Diet quality and associated factors among the elderly: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Daniela de; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of diet among the elderly and associations with socio-demographic variables, health-related behaviors, and diseases. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,509 elderly participants in a health survey in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Food quality was assessed using the Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R). Mean index scores were estimated and a multiple regression model was employed for the adjusted analyses. The highest diet quality scores were associated with age 80 years or older, Evangelical religion, diabetes mellitus, and physical activity, while the lowest scores were associated with home environments shared with three or more people, smoking, and consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. The findings emphasize a general need for diet quality improvements in the elderly, specifically in subgroups with unhealthy behaviors, who should be targeted with comprehensive strategies. PMID:25210908

  3. Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

    2013-11-01

    The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm2: the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H2, to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses.

  4. [Factors associated with the quality of well water and the prevalence of waterborne diseases in the municipality of Abomey-Calavi in Benin].

    PubMed

    Degbey, Cyriaque; Makoutode, Michel; Agueh, Victoire; Dramaix, Michele; de Brouwer, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the factors associated with the water quality of household wells, suggest solutions to improve it, and study the prevalence of water-borne diseases in this community. The quality of well water and the prevalence of waterborne diseases in the municipality were studied by analysis of the microbiological indicators currently used to assess drinking-water quality and the retrospective study of waterborne diseases treated in the local health centres. The wells surveyed were contaminated by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, Clostridium perfringens and fecal streptococci, at prevalences of 12.5, 12.2, 12.2, 12.1, 12 and 11.1%, respectively. The high rates of diarrhea, urinary infections, typhoid fever and abdominal pain found in the retrospective study were consistent with the results of the well-water quality assessment. These results showed that human activity has strongly influenced water quality, especially the lack of sanitation in the different districts and neighbourhoods. Other factors affecting the vulnerability of well water include poor waste management by households, the low depth of the water table, the nature of the soil, and the permeability of the aquifer used. Improvement in water quality, sanitation, and personal hygiene will make it possible to reduce considerably the propagation of these diseases and several others. It is therefore important to provide these populations with the necessary equipment for an adequate drinking water supply, but also to promote health education to avoid water pollution. The search for solutions to these problems will lead to a plan for future action. PMID:21700557

  5. Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO

    E-print Network

    Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

    2005-10-13

    Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

  6. Relationship of Workplace Factors and Job Involvement of Healthcare Employees with Quality of Patient Care in Teaching and Non-teaching Hospitals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manisha Agarwal; Abhishek Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of certain hospital workplace factors on job involvement among healthcare employees\\u000a at the paramedical levels and quality of patient care in public hospitals in North India. The sample consisted of paramedical\\u000a healthcare employees (N?=?200), from a medical college affiliated teaching hospital and public hospitals (non-teaching) run by the railway services.\\u000a Data were analyzed statistically

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) does not correlate positively with isometric strength, fatigue, and quality of life in post-polio syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A Trojan; J.-P Collet; M. N Pollak; S Shapiro; B Jubelt; R. G Miller; J. C Agre; T. L Munsat; D Hollander; R Tandan; A Robinson; L Finch; T Ducruet; N. R Cashman

    2001-01-01

    Objectives and background: To determine if serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels are associated with strength, body mass index (BMI), fatigue, or quality of life in post-poliomyelitis syndrome (PPS). PPS is likely due to a distal disintegration of enlarged post-polio motor units as a result of terminal axonal sprouting. Age-related decline in growth hormone and IGF-I (which support terminal axonal

  8. Effect of agonal and postmortem factors on gene expression profile: quality control in microarray analyses of postmortem human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Tomita; Marquis P. Vawter; David M. Walsh; Simon J. Evans; Prabhakara V. Choudary; Jun Li; Kevin M. Overman; Mary E. Atz; Richard M. Myers; Edward G. Jones; Stanley J. Watson; Huda Akil; William E. Bunney

    2004-01-01

    There are major concerns that specific agonal conditions, including coma and hypoxia, might affect ribonucleic acid (RNA) integrity in postmortem brain studies. We report that agonal factors significantly affect RNA integrity and have a major impact on gene expression profiles in microarrays. In contrast to agonal factors, gender, age, and postmortem factors have less effect on gene expression profiles. The

  9. Thermal neutron cross-section data for the design of cold and superthermal neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernnat, W.; Emendörfer, D.; Käfer, S.; Keinert, J.; Mattes, M.; Predel, M.

    1997-02-01

    For the relevant materials used in cold and superthermal neutron sources the database for design studies was considerably improved. For D 2O at room temperature the intra and inter molecular interaction with neutrons were included using realistic structure factors S( ?). These effects are also taken into account for the cold moderators liquid H 2 and D 2 by deriving improved S( ?). The neutron interaction in solid materials and neutron filters as Al, Pb and Bi is treated exactly at low temperatures, especially for coherent neutron scattering in the tetragonal and FCC lattices. For superfluid 4He cross-section data for ultracold neutron production were derived as well as data for neutron transport considering diffusive motions and intermolecular scattering. Validation of the generated cross-sectional data was realized by comparison with differential and integral neutron scattering experiments so far available. These thermal neutron data can be used for both multigroup SN and Monte-Carlo methods solving the neutron transport equation.

  10. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2=3.4GeV2 Using the Reaction 3He?(e?,e'n)pp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, S.; Abrahamyan, S.; Craver, B.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Miller, J.; Cates, G. D.; Liyanage, N.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Acha, A.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Aniol, K. A.; Annand, J. R. M.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Beck, A.; Bellis, M.; Boeglin, W.; Breuer, H.; Calarco, J. R.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; Coman, L.; Crowe, B.; Cusanno, F.; Day, D.; Degtyarenko, P.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Dutta, C.; Ferdi, C.; Fernández-Ramírez, C.; Feuerbach, R.; Fraile, L. M.; Franklin, G.; Frullani, S.; Fuchs, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Gomez, J.; Grimm, K.; Hansen, J.-O.; Herraiz, J. L.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Holmstrom, T.; Howell, D.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M. K.; Katich, J.; Kaufman, L. J.; Khandaker, M.; Kelly, J. J.; Kiselev, D.; Korsch, W.; Lerose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Markowitz, P.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Beck, S. May-Tal; Mayilyan, S.; McCormick, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Nanda, S.; Nelyubin, V.; Ngo, T.; Nikolenko, D. M.; Norum, B.; Pentchev, L.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Punjabi, V. A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Quinn, B.; Rachek, I.; Ransome, R. D.; Reimer, P. E.; Reitz, B.; Roche, J.; Ron, G.; Rondon, O.; Rosner, G.; Saha, A.; Sargsian, M. M.; Sawatzky, B.; Segal, J.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shestakov, Yu.; Singh, J.; Širca, S.; Souder, P.; Stepanyan, S.; Stibunov, V.; Sulkosky, V.; Tajima, S.; Tobias, W. A.; Udias, J. M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Vlahovic, B.; Voskanyan, H.; Wang, K.; Wesselmann, F. R.; Vignote, J. R.; Wood, S. A.; Wright, J.; Yao, H.; Zhu, X.

    2010-12-01

    The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction 3He?(e?,e'n)pp in quasielastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were registered in a large-solid-angle detector. More than doubling the Q2 range over which it is known, we find GEn=0.0236±0.0017(stat)±0.0026(syst), 0.0208±0.0024±0.0019, and 0.0147±0.0020±0.0014 for Q2=1.72, 2.48, and 3.41GeV2, respectively.

  11. Measurements of the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio GEn/GMn via the ^2H(\\vec{e},e'\\vec{n})^1H reaction to Q^2 = 1.45 (GeV/c)^2

    E-print Network

    Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 Collaboration; :; B. Plaster; A. Yu. Semenov

    2005-11-13

    We report values for the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio, GEn/GMn, deduced from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in the quasielastic 2H(\\vec{e},e'\\vec{n})1H reaction, at three Q^2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)^2. The data at Q^2 = 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)^2 are the first direct experimental measurements of GEn employing polarization degrees of freedom in the Q^2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2 region and stand as the most precise determinations of GEn for all values of Q^2.

  12. Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  13. Analysis of neutron beta-decay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Wilkinson

    1982-01-01

    The factors determining neutron beta-decay are analyzed in detail. The 19 ``small'' terms entering the lifetime of the neutron within the V, A framework are quantitatively evaluated. The Coulomb effect, the finite mass and the size of the nucleon are all taken into account analytically. To a neutron\\/hydrogen-atom mass difference of 782.332 +\\/- 0.017 keV corresponds the phase space factor

  14. 2.5 kw Laser Cutting Of Steels; Factors Affecting Cut Quality In Sections Upto 20 mm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Frass, K.; Menzies, I. A.

    1987-09-01

    An experimental investigation into the cutting of mild steel up to 20 mm thick was carried out using a 2.5 kW CO2 laser with a good quality T.E.M. 00 mode. The results show that cutting was possible in sections up to 20 mm although the quality of the cut edge decays between 15 and 20 mm. Explanations of this decay in quality and of the reduction in cutting efficiency with increasing thickness are put forward concerning the effect of the cut slot depth on the action of the oxygen jet. The technical and commercial possibility of cutting a stack of two or three layers of steel at once was investigated. This method was found to be less efficient than single sheet cutting.

  15. Cross-comparison of diet quality indices for predicting chronic disease risk: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Vernier, Cédric; Crichton, Georgina E; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2014-12-01

    The scientific community has become increasingly interested in the overall quality of diets rather than in single food-based or single nutrient-based approaches to examine diet-disease relationships. Despite the plethora of indices used to measure diet quality, there still exist questions as to which of these can best predict health outcomes. The present study aimed to compare the ability of five diet quality indices, namely the Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), to detect changes in chronic disease risk biomarkers. Nutritional data from 1352 participants, aged 18-69 years, of the Luxembourg nationwide cross-sectional ORISCAV-LUX (Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg) study, 2007-8, were used to calculate adherence to the diet quality index. General linear modelling was performed to assess trends in biomarkers according to adherence to different dietary patterns, after adjustment for age, sex, education level, smoking status, physical activity and energy intake. Among the five selected diet quality indices, the MDS exhibited the best ability to detect changes in numerous risk markers and was significantly associated with lower levels of LDL-cholesterol, apo B, diastolic blood pressure, renal function indicators (creatinine and uric acid) and liver enzymes (serum ?-glutamyl-transpeptidase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). Compared with other dietary patterns, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a favourable cardiometabolic, hepatic and renal risk profile. Diets congruent with current universally accepted guidelines may be insufficient to prevent chronic diseases. Clinicians and public health decision makers should be aware of needs to improve the current dietary guidelines. PMID:25475010

  16. Health-related quality of life and its related factors in HIV+ patients referred to Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center, Iran in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Haseli, Najmeh; Esmaeelzadeh, Firooz; Ghahramani, Fariba; Alimohamadi, Yousef; Hayati, Ramin; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole. Nowadays, using anti-viral medication delays the onset of the disease cycle and increases the patients’ life time. From the psychological point of view, however, such patients are faced with a great number of social and cultural limitations which affect various dimensions of their health as well as quality of life. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the quality of life and its related factors in HIV patients in Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center. Methods: The present analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 129 HIV patients in Shiraz Behavioral Counseling Center who were selected through convenience sampling. The data were gathered using demographic as well as SF-36 questionnaires and analyzed through T-test, ANOVA, X2, and Schiff's post hoc test. Results: In this study, the patients’ mean score of quality of life was 48.8+14. In addition, the mean scores of males’ and females’ life quality were 47.7+16.2 and 59.5+20.4, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean difference of the patients’ quality of life was also found to be significant based on employment status, marital status, and history of drug abuse (p<0.05), while it was not significant regardin gage, level of education, length of disease, and the distance between the house and the service providing center. Conclusion: In comparison to the physical dimension, the HIV-positive individuals’ quality of life mean score was lower in the mental dimension. In addition, the mean difference revealed to be significant based on marital as well as employment status. These findings show such patients’ needs for psychological support, more psychological interventions, and creation of appropriate job opportunities. PMID:25250258

  17. Spectrum tailoring of the neutron energy spectrum in the context of delayed neutron detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E Koehler; Steve J Tobin; Nathan P Sandoval; Mike L Fensin

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of measuring plutonium mass in spent fuel, a delayed neutron instrument is of particular interest since, if properly designed, the delayed neutron signal from ²³U is significantly stronger than the signature from ²³Pu or ²¹Pu. A key factor in properly designing a delayed neutron instrument is to minimize the fission of ²³U. This minimization is achieved by

  18. Micromegas neutron beam monitor neutronics.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Andrew C; Miller, Laurence F

    2005-01-01

    The Micromegas is a type of ionising radiation detector that consists of a gas chamber sandwiched between two parallel plate electrodes, with the gas chamber divided by a Frisch grid into drift and amplification gaps. Investigators have applied it to a number of different applications, such as charged particle, X-ray and neutron detection. A Micromegas device has been tested as a neutron beam monitor at CERN and is expected to be used for that purpose at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) under construction in Oak Ridge, TN. For the Micromegas to function effectively as neutron beam monitor, it should cause minimal disruption to the neutron beam in question. Specifically, it should scatter as few neutrons as possible and avoid neutron absorption when it does not contribute to generating useful information concerning the neutron beam. Here, we present the results of Monte Carlo calculations of the effect of different types of wall materials and detector gases on neutron beams and suggest methods for minimising disruption to the beam. PMID:16381746

  19. Cement analysis using d + D neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan

    2005-12-01

    In the cement industry, the primary concern is quality control. The earlier the cement industry can institute quality control upon their product, the more significant their savings in labor, energy and material. We are developing a prototype cement analyzer using pulsed neutrons from a d-D electronic neutron generator with the goal of ensuring quality control of cement in an on-line manner. By utilizing a low intensity d-D neutron source and a specially-designed moderator assembly, we are able to produce one of the safest neutron-based systems in the market. Also, this design includes some exciting new methods of data acquisition which may substantially reduce the final installation costs. In our proof-of-principle measurements, we were able to measure the primary components of cement (Al, Si, Ca and Fe) to limits required for the raw materials, the derived mixes and the clinkers utilizing this neutron generator.

  20. Ectopic expression of a BZR1-1D transcription factor in brassinosteroid signalling enhances carotenoid accumulation and fruit quality attributes in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Jia, Chengguo; Zhang, Min; Chen, Delong; Chen, Sixue; Guo, Rongfang; Guo, Deping; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-01-01

    The brassinosteroid (BR) response transcription factor Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-mediated BR signalling regulates many specific developmental processes including fruit ripening. Here, we report the effect of 2,4-epibrassinolide (EBR) and BZR1-1D overexpression on carotenoid accumulation and quality attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. EBR-treated pericarp discs of ethylene-insensitive mutant, Never ripe, accumulated significantly more carotenoid than those of the control. The results suggest that BR seems to be involved in modulating pigments accumulation. When three independent transgenic lines overexpressing the Arabidopsis BZR1-1D were used to evaluate the role of BZR1 in regulating tomato fruit carotenoid accumulation and quality attributes, fruits of all three transgenic lines exhibited enhanced carotenoid accumulation and increased soluble solid, soluble sugar and ascorbic acid contents during fruit ripening. In addition, the fruits of two transgenic lines showed dark green shoulder at mature green stage, in accordance with the up-regulated expression level of SlGLK2, which is involved in chloroplast development. Our results indicate the importance of BZR1-centred BR signalling in regulating carotenoid accumulation and quality attributes of tomato fruit and the potential application of the BZR1-like(s) for improvement of nutritional quality and flavour of tomato through genetic engineering. PMID:24102834