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1

Neutron quality factor  

SciTech Connect

Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

NONE

1995-06-01

2

Effective quality factors for neutrons based on the revised ICRP/ICRU recommendations.  

PubMed

The quality factor (Q) is intended to relate the biological effectiveness of a radiation to the absorbed dose delivered in tissue. Quality factors are defined as a function of the unrestricted linear energy transfer (L) relationship in water and are used with operational quantities. Radiation weighting factors (wR) are used in protection quantities to take into account total radiation detriment. While the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defines the Q(L) relationship, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends the charged particle stopping power and range data. If either of these data recommendations change, the quality factors must be recomputed. The latest guidance from both organisations applicable to neutron quality factors are the ICRP Publication 60 (Q(L) relationship) and the ICRU Report 49 (stopping power and range data). In the present study, absorbed dose conversion coefficients (pGy cm2) were calculated for two operational quantities defined by the ICRU--the ambient absorbed dose and the personal absorbed dose. Dose-equivalent (pSv cm2) conversion coefficients were also computed using mean quality factors based on ICRP 60 and ICRU 49 recommendations. Effective quality factors were then calculated from the ratio of the dose-equivalent to the absorbed dose conversion coefficients for both the personal dose-equivalent and ambient dose-equivalent and compared to values reported in the literature. PMID:16381781

Veinot, K G; Hertel, N E

2005-01-01

3

Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body.  

PubMed

Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from (252)Cf and (244)Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. PMID:22908356

Endo, Akira; Sato, Tatsuhiko

2013-04-01

4

Important Water Quality Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

5

Factors influencing healthcare service quality  

PubMed Central

Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

2014-01-01

6

Neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Transfer Reactions  

E-print Network

The present paper examines past measurements of the angular distributions for (d,p) and (p,d) reactions on targets with Z=3-24 leading to the ground states. The procedure is prescribed for extracting a conventional set of spectroscopic factors. Most of these spectroscopic factors agree well with large-basis shell model predictions. In all, the ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei have been obtained. The consistency of the method is evaluated by comparing spectroscopic factors obtained separately in (p,d) and (d,p) reactions. The values correlate with Endt's compilation when available, but the current method is more general and the spectroscopic factor values obtained are more consistent with each other.

Jenny Lee; M. B. Tsang; W. G. Lynch

2006-02-19

7

Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-05-01

8

Quality factors in interventional neuroradiology.  

PubMed

The interest we take in medical economics and strategy is like the one we take in politics: we may scorn politics, but it cannot be denied that it commands our entire life. For this reason, we must try to determine the conditions required to evaluate the quality of interventional neuroradiology, its operators, its practice, its advances, its teaching, and to maintain this quality. It is probably vital to the freedom of our future therapeutic decisions that we contribute effectively to this discussion before the standard is forced upon us by an exclusively economical or administrative logic. On the other hand, any advance can only be turned into progress if it is diffused and applied. There is no doubt that several levels of quality are acceptable, thus the best approach will be to look for and identify the minimum standard for quality or the limits of non-quality. We shall refrain from suggesting that the level of excellence at a given moment should be imposed upon all operators and constitute the standard level of practice. Practice is based on knowledge and competence. The most skilled surgical act cannot guarantee safe medical treatment if it is not supported by sufficient knowledge about the diseases and their symptoms. Mastership of the decision process requires a thorough vision of the therapeutic decision tree involved. Quality is a composition of global view and detailed analysis to allow a fuzzy gestion of the performance. Regardless of the plan chosen, openmindedness should be kept to allow adaptation, correction or interruption of a given therapeutic process in view of unpredicted pieces of information. Such input is a predictable possibility that should be explained to the patient prior to starting the procedure. Dealing with human beings, the attitude along with the technical management will be of paramount importance in the overall quality assessment. PMID:11840701

Lasjaunias, P

2001-01-01

9

Factors affecting image formation in accelerator-based fast neutron radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast neutrons can be generated with accelerators via various reactions. The reactions 7Li(p,n) 7Be and D(d,n) 3He were employed for this study to generate neutrons at various energies. Radiographs of different materials have been produced and analysed in terms of contrast and resolution. Monte Carlo methods have been used to evaluate the physical factors determining the image quality in these practical situations. In each case the theoretical and experimental values were compared. A series of gamma-ray radiographs generated using a Co-60 source provided an experimental benchmark for comparison with fast neutron radiographs. The neutron radiographs were generated as a function of fast neutron producing reaction (neutron energy spectrum), scintillator type and thickness, charged particle energy, imaging geometry and sample material. Both a CCD camera operating at room temperature and cooled CCD were used in the imaging process.

Ambrosi, R. M.; Watterson, J. I. W.

1998-04-01

10

High quality-factor optical resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 1010.

Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Ristic, Davor; Coillet, Aurélien; Mortier, Michel; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Saleh, Khaldoun; Cibiel, Gilles; Dumeige, Yannick; Ferrari, Maurizio; Chembo, Yanne K.; Llopis, Olivier; Féron, Patrice

2014-09-01

11

Rice Quality Factors: Implications For Management Decisions.  

E-print Network

. Review comments and suggestions from Bill Black, Bart Drees, Arthur Gerlow, Melvin Parker, James Stansel, Mo Way, Bill Webb, and Michael Wohlgenant are also appreciated. A special thanks to Kim Trant for editorial assistance. ... Rice Quality Factors...

Grant, Warren R.; Rister, Edward, M.; Brorsen, B. Wade

1986-01-01

12

Theoretical estimation of quality factor for tritium.  

PubMed

A theoretical calculation of the tritium quality factor is made and some of the results are presented. These results may contribute to a better dose equivalent assessment of tritium since there is some uncertainty, as is reflected in published data that are inconsistent. The results in this study support the ICRU Report 40 recommended value. PMID:1526789

Bigildeev, E A; Michalik, V; Wilhelmová, L

1992-10-01

13

Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

Hastings, Tricia A.

2009-01-01

14

A study of neutron radiation quality with a tissue-equivalent proportional counter for a low-energy accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility.  

PubMed

The accelerator-based in vivo neutron activation facility at McMaster University has been used successfully for the measurement of several minor and trace elements in human hand bones due to their importance to health. Most of these in vivo measurements have been conducted at a proton beam energy (E(p)) of 2.00 MeV to optimise the activation of the selected element of interest with an effective dose of the same order as that received in chest X rays. However, measurement of other elements at the same facility requires beam energies other than 2.00 MeV. The range of energy of neutrons produced at these proton beam energies comes under the region where tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are known to experience difficulty in assessing the quality factor and dose equivalent. In this study, the response of TEPCs was investigated to determine the quality factor of neutron fields generated via the (7)Li(p, n)(7)Be reaction as a function of E(p) in the range 1.884-2.56 MeV at the position of hand irradiation in the facility. An interesting trend has been observed in the quality factor based on ICRP 60, Q(ICRP60), such that the maximum value was observed at E(p)=1.884 MeV (E(n)=33±16 keV) and then continued to decline with increasing E(p) until achieving a minimum value at E(p)=2.0 MeV despite a continuous increase in the mean neutron energy with E(p). This observation is contrary to what has been observed with direct fast neutrons where the quality factor was found to increase continuously with an increase in E(p) (i.e. increasing E(n)). The series of measurements conducted with thermal and fast neutron fields demonstrate that the (14)N(n, p)(14)C produced 580 keV protons in the detector play an important role in the response of the counter under 2.0 MeV proton energy (E(n) ? 250 keV). In contrast to the lower response of TEPCs to low-energy neutrons, the quality factor is overestimated in the range 1-2 depending on beam energy <2.0 MeV. This study provides an insight to understanding the response of TEPCs in low-energy neutron fields where the neutrons are moderated using a polyethylene moderator. PMID:21183541

Aslam; Waker, A J

2011-02-01

15

Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of Hp(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine; Clasie, Benjamin; Kry, Stephen F.; Schneider, Uwe

2012-12-01

16

Factors affecting quality of informed consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; this

C Lavelle-Jones; D J Byrne; P Rice; A Cuschieri

1993-01-01

17

7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned...Cherries 1 Allowances for Quality Factors §...

2011-01-01

18

7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL...PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned...Cherries 1 Allowances for Quality Factors §...

2010-01-01

19

Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields  

SciTech Connect

The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30 St, P.O.BOX MG-6,Magurele, cod 077125 (Romania)

2013-12-16

20

High quality factor measured in fused silica  

E-print Network

We have measured the mechanical dissipation in a sample of fused silica drawn into a rod. The sample was hung from a multiple-bob suspension, which isolated it from rubbing against its support, from recoil in the support structure, and from seismic noise. The quality factor, Q, was measured for several modes with a high value of 57 million found for mode number 2 at 726 Hz. This result is about a factor 2 higher than previous room temperature measurements. The measured Q was strongly dependent on handling, with a pristine flame-polished surface yielding a Q 3-4 times higher than a surface which had been knocked several times against a copper tube.

Steven D. Penn; Gregory M. Harry; Andri M. Gretarsson; Scott E. Kittelberger; Peter R. Saulson; John J. Schiller; Joshua R. Smith; Sol O. Swords

2000-09-11

21

Neutron Spectroscopic factors of ^56Ni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact shell-structure of the unstable doubly-magic nucleus ^56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if ^56Ni is a good core, ^56Ni(p, d)^55Ni transfer reactions were measured using ^56Ni beam at two different energies, 37 MeV/u and 80 MeV/u, in inverse kinematics in two experiments. The second measurement was done in order to test the sensitivity of reaction cross sections and models to reaction energies. The measurements were performed at NSCL using HiRA array and S800 spectrometer. Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the first experiment. The results show good agreement with shell-model calculations. Preliminary results of the measurements with 80 MeV/u beam will be presented as well.

Sanetullaev, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Lynch, W. G.; Bazin, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, Daniel; Hodges, R.; Lee, Jenny; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Clement, R. R. C.; Howard, M. E.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Manning, B.; Charity, R. J.; Charity, L. G.; Shapira, D.; Shmitt, K. T.

2011-10-01

22

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-03-01

23

Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

24

Neutron spectroscopic factors of Ni isotopes from transfer reactions  

E-print Network

177 neutron spectroscopic factors for nickel isotopes have been extracted by performing a systematic analysis of the angular distributions measured from (d,p) transfer reactions. A subset of the extracted spectroscopic factors are compared to predictions of large-basis shell models in the full pf model space using the GXPF1A effective interaction, and the (f5/2, p3/2, p1/2, g9/2) model space using the JJ4PNA interaction. For ground states, the predicted spectroscopic factors using the GXPF1A effective interaction in the full pf model space agree very well with the experimental values, while predictions based on several other effective interactions and model spaces are about 30% higher than the experimental values. For low-energy excited states (spectroscopic factors and shell model calculations is not better than a factor of two.

Jenny Lee; M. B. Tsang; W. G. Lynch; M. Horoi; S. C. Su

2009-05-07

25

DENSITES DE MOMENTS ET NEUTRONS POLAR~SES THE MAGNETIC FORM FACTOR OF TERBIUM (*)  

E-print Network

DENSITES DE MOMENTS ET NEUTRONS POLAR~SES THE MAGNETIC FORM FACTOR OF TERBIUM (*) T. 0.BRUN Ames, Argonne, Illinois R6sumB. -Le facteur de forme magnktique du Terbium a kt6 mesurk avec des neutrons magnetic form factor of terbium has been measured with polarized neutrons using single crystals held

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Neutron Electromagnetic Form Factors Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave.,  

E-print Network

Neutron Electromagnetic Form Factors H. Gao Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts probing the neutron electromagnetic structure. In this talk, I review the experimental status of the neutron electromagnetic form factor studies. The recently completed Je erson Lab experiment E95

27

Understanding the Institutional-Level Factors of Urban School Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article addresses which school-level factors contribute to school quality. Previous research has focused on assessing the effects of school-level variables on student-level quality (e.g., achievement). However, the field has been limited in not evaluating the effects of school-level factors directly on measured…

Gottfried, Michael A.

2012-01-01

28

Total Quality Management in Ghana: Critical Success Factors and Model for Implementation of a Quality Revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors aim to identify the critical success factors and challenges of total quality management (TQM) implementation and propose a model for the successful implementation of a quality revolution in Ghana. The approach in this study was to review existing literature followed by case studies of 15 firms. Three employees (quality manager\\/director and any two “ordinary employees”)

James Osei Mensah; Gorkem Copuroglu; Fred Appiah Fening

2012-01-01

29

Factors Affecting the Eating Quality of Pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade studies with the specific objective of improving the sensory quality of pork have come to the forefront of meat research, likely a result of consumer complaints of blandness levelled against modern lean meat and the frequent reference to the more strongly flavored meat that was available years ago. Regardless of the lack of scientific evidence to

Tania M. Ngapo; Claude Gariépy

2008-01-01

30

Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

Lee, Pen-Nan

1991-01-01

31

7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

2011-01-01

32

7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.  

...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

2014-01-01

33

7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

2012-01-01

34

7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

2010-01-01

35

7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors ...Vary markedly or undercolored. 100 cherries 12 18 25. Pits 20 ozs ...blemished, and blemished of which 100 cherries 10 15 20....

2013-01-01

36

Factors Affecting the Quality of Southern Short Cure Cheddar Cheese.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 646 FEBRUARY 1944 FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. HANSON, W. S. ARBUCKLE and C. N. SHEPARDSON... contains the results of an investigation made to determine the factors which affect the quality of short cure ched- dar cheese. Studies have been made concerning the effect of ri- pening temperature, amount of rennet extract used and manufac- turing...

Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendel Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

1944-01-01

37

Neutron-proton asymmetry dependence of spectroscopic factors in Ar isotopes  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton rich 34Ar and neutron rich 46Ar using the (p,d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

Jenny Lee; M. B. Tsang; D. Bazin; D. Coupland; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; M. Kilburn; W. G. Lynch; A. Rogers; A. Sanetullaev; A. Signoracci; Z. Y. Sun; M. Youngs; K. Y. Chae; R. J. Charity; H. K. Cheung; M. Famiano; S. Hudan; P. OMalley; W. A. Peters; K. Schmitt; D. Shapira; L. G. Sobotka

2010-02-24

38

Partial Kerma Factors for Neutron Scattering from ^16O^  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success for the use of neutron for radiation therapy and other applications in radiological physics depends on the understanding of the interaction of neutron with elements in the tissue. Study of the mechanisms of energy deposition by neutron interaction with matter is very important to improve the understanding of the neutron dosimetry. Cross section data are the basic inputs for many types of calculations in radiation physics. One important quantity in some radiological applications of neutron is the kerma (kinetic energy released in material.) Differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering from some elements of biological interests are available at energies 18 -- 26 MeV. Optical Model Potentials based on these measured cross sections may be used to calculate various quantities of interest for the neutron dosimetry at higher energies where cross section data may not be available. Kerma values for elastic and inelastic scattering of neutron from ^16O are obtained from differential cross sections.

Islam, Mohammed

2011-10-01

39

Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

Chiang, R. T. [AREVA NP Inc., 6399 San Ignacio Ave., San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

2012-07-01

40

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

41

High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

Scalari, G.; Maissen, C.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.; Faist, J.

2014-12-01

42

High quality factor, fully switchable THz superconducting metasurface  

E-print Network

We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q=54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with an high Q and inductive elements with an high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

Scalari, Giacomo; Cibella, Sara; Leoni, Roberto; Faist, Jerome

2014-01-01

43

Updating the tritium quality factor: the argument for conservatism  

SciTech Connect

Estimated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor (Q) chosen for tritium beta radiation. In 1969 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended using 1 as the Q for all low energy beta radiation. Considerable improvements have been made in evaluating exposures to tritium at very low dose rates and in refining physiological and biological endpoints since the 1969 ICRP recommendations. This study summarizes recent experiments to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium. Based upon our study of published data related to quality factor, its importance in the calculation of dose, and the currently accepted conservative philosophy in radiation protection, it is concluded that a value of 2 would seem to be more defensible for environmental assessments and that a reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed.

Till, J E; Etnier, E L; Meyer, H R

1980-01-01

44

Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

2014-11-01

45

Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

2013-01-01

46

The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2004-01-01

47

The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

Bradley Plaster

2004-02-01

48

Improvements in the Image Quality of Neutron Radiograms of NUR Neutron Radiography Facility by Using Several Exposure Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the construction of NUR reactor neutron radiography facility in 1991, only transfer exposure method was used as a non destructive technique. The reason is the excess of gamma rays in the neutron beam. To improve radiation performances of the NR system, a stainless steal hollow conical cylinder is introduced at the bottom of the facility beam port, this filter reduce gamma infiltration through the edges of the NR structure without disturbing neutron beam arriving from the in pool divergent collimator. First results confirm our prediction; a gamma rays diminution and a relatively stable neutron flux at the point object are confirmed, consequently the n/? ratio reaches a value of 2.104 n/cm2 mR. Radiograms obtained by using the direct exposure method reveal the feasibility of the technique in the new NR configuration facility, but a weak resolution and contrast of the image is observed. In this paper, we describe a procedure to improve the image quality obtained by direct exposure technique. The process consists of using digitized images obtained by several exposure techniques (NR, gamma radiography or X radiography) for a comparison study and then better image definition can be attained.

Zergoug, T.; Nedjar, A.; Mokeddem, M. Y.; Mammou, L.

2008-03-01

49

Snow shielding factors for cosmogenic nuclide dating inferred from Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional formulations of changes in cosmogenic nuclide production rates with snow cover are based on a mass-shielding approach, which neglects the role of neutron moderation by hydrogen. This approach can produce erroneous correction factors and add to the uncertainty of the calculated cosmogenic exposure ages. We use a Monte Carlo particle transport model to simulate fluxes of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons near the surface of the Earth and vary surface snow depth to show changes in neutron fluxes above rock or soil surface. To correspond with shielding factors for spallation and low-energy neutron capture, neutron fluxes are partitioned into high-energy, epithermal and thermal components. The results suggest that high-energy neutrons are attenuated by snow cover at a significantly higher rate (shorter attenuation length) than indicated by the commonly-used mass-shielding formulation. As thermal and epithermal neutrons derive from the moderation of high-energy neutrons, the presence of a strong moderator such as hydrogen in snow increases the thermal neutron flux both within the snow layer and above it. This means that low-energy production rates are affected by snow cover in a manner inconsistent with the mass-shielding approach and those formulations cannot be used to compute snow correction factors for nuclides produced by thermal neutrons. Additionally, as above-ground low-energy neutron fluxes vary with snow cover as a result of reduced diffusion from the ground, low-energy neutron fluxes are affected by snow even if the snow is at some distance from the site where measurements are made.

Zweck, Christopher; Zreda, Marek; Desilets, Darin

2013-10-01

50

Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

1984-01-01

51

Leadership and management quality: key factors in effective health systems.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of health care systems in the developing world is related to the quality of their leadership and management, yet that factor has been neglected by academics and funders. Based on replicable existing models, the article proposes an approach to strengthening local management training institutions. PMID:23342756

Pfeffermann, Guy

2012-01-01

52

Determinations of the quality factor Q of the Chandler wobble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar coordinates series of ILS (H), IPMS and BIH are analyzed for the Chandler wobble using the Okamoto-Kikuchi method (1982) and the Chao-Gilbert (ARH) method (1980). More accordant results for the quality factor Q than those of Wilson and Vicente (1981) are obtained.

Dong, Da-Nan

1986-12-01

53

High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled  

E-print Network

Kandas,1,2,* Baigang Zhang,1 Chalongrat Daengngam,3 Islam Ashry,1,2 Chih-Yu Jao,3 Bo Peng,4 Sahin K: With extremely low material absorption and exceptional surface smoothness, silica-based optical resonators can achieve extremely high cavity quality (Q) factors. However, the intrinsic material limitations of silica

Heflin, Randy

54

Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors  

E-print Network

Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are calculated for three types of finger and wrist extremity phantoms: (1) the polymethyl methacrylate models specified by the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program...

Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

1997-01-01

55

Personnel neutron dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

Hankins, D.

1982-04-01

56

Journal quality metrics: options to consider other than impact factors.  

PubMed

Journal quality metrics (also referred to as bibliometrics), such as impact factors, are increasingly being used as a measure of researchers' and educators' success and prestige. Occupational therapists who submit articles to peer-reviewed journals may face a professional and research dilemma: Do they submit their articles to journals that largely have a professional audience and potentially do not have an impact factor, or do they opt not to publish their research material in occupational therapy-oriented journals? Occupational therapy authors can consider other journal quality metric alternatives, in addition to the impact factor option, including the Eigenfactor Score, Article Influence Score, h-index, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP), and discipline-specific generated journal quality measures. These other journal quality metrics can be important reference points for occupational therapists who publish and may encourage authors to publish in journals relevant to the discipline. This process, in turn, will build the occupational therapy body of knowledge as well as provide an essential, growing reference source for evidence-based practice. PMID:21675341

Brown, Ted

2011-01-01

57

Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

58

Analysis of quality factors for Rayleigh channel waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate investigation of the effect of imperfect elastic dissipation on the propagation of Rayleigh-type channel waves and use of their quality factors in investigations of the properties of coal seams, a simple method for calculating the quality factor Q R is proposed in this paper. Introduction of complex velocities into the dispersion function allows calculation of the dispersion function of Rayleigh-type channel waves in coal seams. By the control variable method, we analyzed changes in Q R with changes in coal seam thickness and P- and S-wave Q-factors within the coal seam and adjacent rock layers. The numerical results show that the trend of the Q R curve is consistent with the group velocity curve. The minimum Q R value occurs at the Airy phase frequency; the Airy phase frequency decreases as coal seam thickness increases. The value of Q R increases with increasing Q S2 (quality factor for S wave in coal seam). We can compensate for the absorption of Rayleigh-type channel waves using the computed Q R curve. Inversion of the Q R curve can also be used to predict the thicknesses and lithologies of coal seams.

Yang, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Si-Yuan; Li, De-Chun; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Hao-Ran

2014-03-01

59

Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

60

Determination of the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the MNSR inner irradiation capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D neutronic model, using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes, for the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is used to calculate the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule. The calculated result is 4%. A copper wire is used to measure the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule to be

K. Khattab; N. Ghazi; H. Omar

2007-01-01

61

Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown.

Burda, O.; Sato, T.; Wissmann, F.

2013-06-01

62

High quality factor nonpolar GaN photonic crystal nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality factor a-plane nonpolar GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities on r-plane sapphire substrates have been demonstrated. Nonpolar GaN PC nanocavities on a thin membrane structure were realized by using e-beam lithography to define the PC patterns and focused-ion beam milling to fabricate the suspended thin membrane. A dominant resonant mode at 388 nm with a high quality factor of approximately 4300 has been demonstrated at 77 K by the micro-photoluminescence system. Moreover, the degree of polarization of the emission from the non-polar GaN PC nanocavity was measured to be 64% along the m crystalline direction.

Wu, Tzeng-Tsong; Lo, Sheng-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Tsao, Che-Wei; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung

2013-05-01

63

Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

2013-07-01

64

Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~ 100,000, realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W-1.

Wang, Cheng; Burek, Michael J.; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A.; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I.-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-12-01

65

Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators.  

PubMed

Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~105, realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W-1. PMID:25607041

Wang, Cheng; Burek, Michael J; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-12-15

66

Material electronic quality specification factors for polycrystalline silicon wafers  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a scheme to monitor quality (diffusion length) improvement, or upgrading, for inhomogeneous polycrystalline silicon wafers. Statistically-based parameters and scaling factors are defined to represent individual regions of varying diffusion length, and are used to follow material electronic property changes from crystal growth through upgrading steps, including phosphorus diffusion, hydrogen passivation and aluminum firing. Measurements of diffusion length using two different methods, SPV and IRPC are used.

Bailey, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; Kalejs, J.P.; Keaveny, C. [ASE Americas, Billerica, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

67

Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the transparent optical crystals. The larger values of F and Q result in the enhancement of various nonlinear processes. Low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations based on these resonators have been recently demonstrated. Theory predicts a possibility of nearly 10(exp 14) room-temperature optical Q-factors of optical crystalline WGM resonators, which correspond to finesse levels higher than 10(exp 9). Experiments have shown numbers a thousand times lower than that. The difference occurs due to media imperfections. To substantially reduce the optical losses caused by the imperfections, a specific, multi-step, asymptotic processing of the resonator is implemented. The technique has been initially developed to reduce microwave absorption in dielectric resonators. One step of the process consists of mechanical polishing performed after high temperature annealing. Several steps repeat one after another to lead to significant reduction in optical attenuation and, as a result, to the increase of Q-factor as well as finesse of the resonator which demonstrates a CaF2 WGM resonator with F greater than 10(exp 7) and Q greater than 10(exp 11).

Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir

2008-01-01

68

Development of an ultra-high-speed scanning neutron tomography system for high-quality and four-dimensional visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new neutron tomography imaging system was developed in order to realize high-quality three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) visualizations by fusing the high-frame-rate neutron radiography and computed tomography (CT) techniques. The fundamental idea is that the object is revolved with high rotating speed and the neutron radiography images are recorded with a high-speed video camera and an image intensifier, and

M. Kureta; H. Iikura

2009-01-01

69

His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany.  

PubMed

Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men's satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women's satisfaction, but men's satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men's satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

2014-08-01

70

Microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic damping  

E-print Network

Microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic 19 February 2013) Thin-film microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with mechanical quality factor limited by thermoelastic dissipation in the diamond film are demonstrated. Surface

Lin, Liwei

71

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

PubMed

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

72

Semiconductor nano-gap antennas with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic islands with nano-gap structure are one of the most popular optical antennas [1]. We theoretically propose a new nano-gap antenna utilizing exciton resonance of semiconductor. A light field at the nano-gap (hot spot) formed between two CuCl islands is significantly enhanced by a factor of metallic antennas. However, the hot spot of the semiconducting antenna exhibits much higher quality factor (Q 10^4) at T=40 K than those of metallic antennas which do not exceed Q 100. Our result suggests the semiconducting antenna would function as a new type of photonic cavity. The calculation method is based on a finite element method which can take into account exciton resonance [2]. We also systematically study the geometry dependence of the enhancement factor and Q factor. In contrast to metallic antenna, blunt edges of semiconducting islands at the gap are preferable in order to achieve high enhancement factor. This is because of the fact that exciton wave function extends near the edge for blunt geometry.[4pt] [1] P. M"uhlschlegel et al, Science 308, 5728, 1607-1609 (2005).[0pt] [2] M. Uemoto and H. Ajiki, in preparation.

Uemoto, Mitsuharu; Ajiki, Hiroshi

2013-03-01

73

Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

2014-01-01

74

Magnetic Field Effects on High Quality Factor Superconducting Coplanar Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have proven to be invaluable tools in studying some of the same decoherence mechanisms as those found in superconducting qubits. Prior improvements in fabrication led to resonator internal quality factors (Qi's) in excess of 10 million at high power, enabling us to sensitively probe environmental effects on the resonance frequency and Qi. We have found these resonators to be very susceptible to applied and stray magnetic fields, with measurable changes in the resonator's Qi and resonance frequency from fields as small as a few milligauss. I will present more recent measurements of resonators in magnetic fields.

Megrant, Anthony; Neill, Charles; Barends, Rami; Chen, Yu; Chiaro, Ben; Kelly, Julian; Mariantoni, Matteo; Mutus, Josh; O'Malley, Peter; Sank, Daniel; Vainsencher, Amit; Wenner, James; White, Ted; Low, David; Ohya, Shinobu; Palmstrom, Christopher; Martinis, John; Cleland, Andrew

2013-03-01

75

The Quality of Factor Solutions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: The Influence of Sample Size, Communality, and Overdetermination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sample size and the quality of factor solutions obtained from exploratory factor analysis. This research expanded upon the range of conditions previously examined, employing a broad selection of criteria for the evaluation of the quality of sample factor solutions. Results…

Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Hines, Constance V.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Ferron, John M.; Mumford, Karen R.

2005-01-01

76

Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ˜ P-1 behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ˜ Pc with c ? 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ˜ 1.

Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

2014-12-01

77

Professional quality of life and associated factors among VHA chaplains.  

PubMed

Chaplains play a unique role in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care systems and have numerous responsibilities. Compassion satisfaction (CS), compassion fatigue (CF), and burnout (BO) are three major phenomenons that have been documented in other helping professions, but little is known about VA Chaplains' professional quality of life. This study examines a national sample of VA Chaplains and their professional quality of life along with associated factors. Two-hundred and seventeen VA Chaplains completed an anonymous Internet survey, and regression analyses were conducted to determine which variables affect professional quality of life. On average, participants report high levels of CS and low levels of CF and BO. Gender, perceived support from VA administration, and mental health (MH) integration were significant predictors for CS. MH integration and perceived support significantly affected CF. Age, MH integration, and perceived support affected BO. Significant interaction effects were found for CF and BO. In summary, younger Chaplains and Chaplains who report low levels of collaboration with MH professionals are most likely to develop CF and BO. This supports continued support from the VA for interdisciplinary initiatives and mentorship of younger Chaplains. PMID:23756070

Yan, Grace W; Beder, Joan

2013-06-01

78

Recent and Future Measurements of the Neutron Electric Form Factor  

SciTech Connect

I review recently conducted measurements of G{sub E}{sup n} as well as precision form factor experiments at high momentum transfer that will be performed with the 11 GeV electron beam at Jefferson Lab.

Semenov, Andrei [University of Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

2010-08-05

79

Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')  

SciTech Connect

A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

Dipangkar Dutta

2000-12-12

80

Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV at this location for the first time. The increased air pollution was associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. The glutathione dependent oxidative potential did not increase during the construction period but a significant increase was found when the new widened road was in operation.

Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

2014-05-01

81

Evaluation of quality of life and risk factors affecting quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common disease leading to spinal deformity in children ages 10 and over. With advances in the study of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), greater attention has been given to the quality of life (QoL) of patients with AIS and their perception of deformity instead of just focusing on improving the rate of surgical correction. This article provides an overview of the methods of evaluating HRQoL and it analyzes several main factors affecting QoL, such as severity of disease, method of treatment, gender, and social environment, based on previous studies of patients with AIS. The authors believe that radiological studies should no longer be taken as the only indicator of postoperative therapeutic evaluation and hope to build a new evaluation system with assessment of QoL for patients with AIS. PMID:25674383

Han, Jing; Xu, Qintong; Yang, Yi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Chi

2015-01-01

82

Survey of ground state neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Li to Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

The ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 have been extracted by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions from (d,p) and (p,d) reactions. We demonstrate an approach that provides systematic and consistent values with minimum assumptions. For the 61 nuclei that have been described by large-basis shell-model calculations, most experimental spectroscopic factors are reproduced to within 20%.

M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; W. G. Lynch

2005-09-09

83

Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes.  

PubMed

An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an (241)Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF(3) and (3)He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations. PMID:20471278

Mazrou, Hakim; Sidahmed, Tassadit; Allab, Malika

2010-10-01

84

Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum  

PubMed Central

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-01-01

85

Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y. [National University of Singapore, (Singapore)

2007-07-01

86

Open-access colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated factors and quality  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: A population-based analysis of all adult outpatients undergoing a first-time colonoscopy between 1997 and 2007 in Ontario was performed. Colonoscopy was considered to be OA if there were no visits in the preceding five years with the physician performing the colonoscopy. Using logistic regression, patient, physician and institution factors associated with OA colonoscopy were identified. Using propensity score matching, the relationship between OA colonoscopy and incomplete colonoscopy in 2006 was examined. RESULTS: A total of 1,079,259 colonoscopies were performed. Of these, 14% were OA in 1997 compared with 26% in 2007. Patients 50 to 69 years of age, those from higher-income neighbourhoods and those with less comorbidity were more likely to undergo OA colonoscopy. The odds of receiving OA colonoscopy were six times greater in a nonhospital clinic compared with a community hospital. Colonoscopy was more likely to be complete if the procedure was OA (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.4]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OA colonoscopy have increased substantially since 1997. Institution type was most strongly associated with OA colonoscopy. Colonoscopy completeness, a recognized quality indicator, does not appear to be compromised by OA colonoscopy. PMID:23781517

Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

2013-01-01

87

Measurement of Vortex Bragg Glass Structure Factor in Nb using Neutron Reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key predictions in the Bragg Glass model of weakly pinned vortex lattices is a power-law structure factor similar to that of a 2D solid. Previous attempts using SANS in Nb and HTSC have provided results that are consistent with the Bragg Glass model. Here we report the first experiment using neutron reflectometry to resolve S(Q) in a Nb single crystal. This work was supported by a grant from DOE-BES. The experiments were carried out at NG-1- Advanced Neutron Diffractometer facility at NIST NCNR.

Hanson, Helen; Wang, Xi; Ling, Xinsheng; Maranville, Brian

2009-03-01

88

Temperature dependence of the Westcott g-factor for neutron capture reactions in ENDF/B-VI  

SciTech Connect

The Westcott g-factors, which allow the user to determine reaction rates for nuclear reactions taking place at various temperatures, have been calculated using data from the Evaluated Neutron Nuclear Data library, ENDF-VI. The nuclides chosen have g-factors which are significantly different from unity and result in different reaction rates compared to nuclides whose neutron capture cross section varies as the reciprocal of the neutron`s velocity. Values are presented as a function of temperature up to 400{degrees}C.

Holden, N.E.

1993-08-01

89

Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k{sub Q} factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k{sub Q} factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k{sub Q} factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V{sub cyl} which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V{sub cyl}: (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V{sub cyl}, no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing that k{sub Q} factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries are close to unity under specific conditions. The theoretical limit k{sub Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}=1 is determined based on the property of PCSR deliveries to provide a uniform dose in the target volume. The present approach explains recent experimental observations and proposes ideal conditions for IMRT reference dosimetry. The result of this study could potentially serve as a theoretical basis for reference dosimetry of composite IMRT beam deliveries or for routine IMRT quality assurance.

Bouchard, Hugo [Departement de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

2012-11-15

90

Fabrication of silica ultra high quality factor microresonators.  

PubMed

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery. The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.(3-7) The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million). However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. PMID:22805153

Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

2012-01-01

91

Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

2014-05-01

92

Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.  

PubMed

In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small. PMID:24778349

Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

2014-05-21

93

A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

2002-01-01

94

Quality of care in patients with chronic kidney disease is determined by hospital specific factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Guidelines have set goals for risk factor management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. These goals are often not met. In this analysis, we set out to assess the quality of risk factor management in CKD and to identify factors that determine the quality of care (QoC). For that purpose, baseline data of the MASTERPLAN (Multifactorial Approach and Superior

A. D. van Zuilen; P. J. Blankestijn; M. van Buren; M. A. G. J. ten Dam; K. A. H. Kaasjager; G. Ligtenberg; Y. W. J. Sijpkens; H. E. Sluiter; P. J. G. van de Ven; G. M. M. Vervoort; L. J. Vleming; M. L. Bots; J. F. M. Wetzels

2010-01-01

95

Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

2011-10-01

96

Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

2014-01-01

97

Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)  

SciTech Connect

Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

Derek Glazier

2007-09-30

98

Neutron spectroscopic factors of $^{55}$Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of $^{55}$Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei ($^{55}$Ni, $^{57}$Ni, $^{55}$Co and $^{57}$Co), one neutron away from $^{56}$Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the $^{1}$H($^{56}$Ni,d)$^{55}$Ni transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f$_{7/2}$, p$_{3/2}$ and the s$_{1/2}$ hole-states of $^{55}$Ni. This new data provides a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s$_{1/2}$ hole-state below Fermi energy.

A. Sanetullaev; M. B. Tsang; W. G. Lynch; Jenny Lee; D. Bazin; K. P. Chan; D. Coupland; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; M. Kilburn; A. M. Rogers; Z. Y. Sun; M. Youngs; R. J. Charity; L. G. Sobotka; M. Famiano; S. Hudan; D. Shapira; W. A. Peters; C. Barbieri; M. Hjorth-Jensen; M. Horoi; T. Otsuka; T. Suzuki; Y. Utsuno

2014-01-30

99

Survey of excited state neutron spectroscopic factors for Z=8-28 nuclei  

E-print Network

We have extracted 565 neutron spectroscopic factors of sd and fp shell nuclei by systematically analyzing more than 2000 measured (d,p) angular distributions. We are able to compare 125 of the extracted spectroscopic factors to values predicted by large-basis shell-model calculations and evaluate the accuracies of spectroscopic factors predicted by different shell-model interactions in these regions. We find that the spectroscopic factors predicted for most excited states of sd-shell nuclei using the latest USDB or USDA interactions agree with the experimental values. For fp shell nuclei, the inability of the current models to account for the core excitation and fragmentation of the states leads to considerable discrepancies. In particular, the agreement between data and shell-model predictions for Ni isotopes is not better than a factor of two using either the GXPF1A or the XT interaction.

M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; S. C. Su; J. Y. Dai; M. Horoi; H. Liu; W. G. Lynch; S. Warren

2009-01-14

100

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The sample included 107 patients with RA, 88 females and seven males, with an average age of 56.09 years, recruited from the greater Southern California area. Confirmatory factor analysis evaluated single, two- and three-factor models. The single factor solution yielded a poor fit to the data. While the three-factor solution had the best fit, the two-factor solution, comprised of sleep efficiency and perceived sleep quality factors, was optimal because it had very good fit, and acceptable reliability for its individual factors. Clinical indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality factor, but not with the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:23390921

Nicassio, Perry M.; Ormseth, Sarah R.; Custodio, Mara K.; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H.; Irwin, Michael R.

2014-01-01

101

Improving the Quality Factor of Microwave Compact Resonators by Optimizing their Geometrical Parameters  

E-print Network

Applications in quantum information processing and photon detectors are stimulating a race to produce the highest possible quality factor on-chip superconducting microwave resonators. We have tested the surface-dominated loss hypothesis by systematically studying the role of geometrical parameters on the internal quality factors of compact resonators patterned in Nb on sapphire. Their single-photon internal quality factors were found to increase with the distance between capacitor fingers, the width of the capacitor fingers, and the impedance of the resonator, achieving quality factors as high as 500,000. With no ion-milling of the sapphire, the internal quality factors drop by roughly a factor of four. All of these results are consistent with our starting hypothesis.

Geerlings, K; Edwards, E; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J; Devoret, M H

2012-01-01

102

Factors Affecting Track Registration Characteristics of CR-39 Polymer when Used as a Fast Neutron Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain factors affecting track registration characteristics of CR-39 were investigated for Cf-252 fission neutrons. The etching conditions used for all experiments were 6.25N NaOH at 70(DEGREES)C for 4 hours. Track densities were determined with an optical microscope. To determine the effect of polyethylene thickness on track density, groups of CR-39 detectors (1 x .05 x 0.025 in.) covered with different thicknesses of polyethylene (0-5.2 mm) were exposed to a known neutron fluence and etched. The net track density increased with polyethylene thickness up to 4.45 mm. The neutron fluence response was determined by exposing groups of detectors overlaid with 0.77 mm of polyethylene to different neutron fluences (2.87 x 10('7) to 2.87 x 10('8) n/cm('2)). Net track density increased linearly with neutron fluence with a sensitivity of 5.5 x 10('-4) tracks/n. The effect of pre-gamma irradiation on track density and bulk etch rate was determined by irradiating groups of polyethylene covered detectors with different gamma doses (0-24 Mrads) and exposing them to a known neutron fluence. Net track density decreased and bulk etch rate increased non-linearly with gamma dose. The effect of pre-gamma irradiation and pre-annealing on track density and bulk etch rate was determined by exposing groups of polyethylene covered detectors to a fixed gamma dose, annealing them at various temperatures (20(DEGREES)C -170(DEGREES)C) for 30 minutes and irradiating them with a fixed neutron fluence. Net track density and bulk etch rate increased non-linearly with temperature. To determine the effect of pre-annealing on track density and bulk etch rate groups of detectors were annealed at different temperatures (20(DEGREES)C-170(DEGREES)C) for 30 minutes and then exposed to a known neutron fluence. The net track density initially decreased with increasing temperature up to 60(DEGREES)C, increased between 60(DEGREES)C and 120(DEGREES)C, then sharply decreased between 120(DEGREES)C and 130(DEGREES)C, remaining constant thereafter. The bulk etch rate initially decreased with increasing temperature to 60(DEGREES)C, increased between 60(DEGREES)C and 80(DEGREES)C, remained constant to 130(DEGREES)C after which it sharply increased. UV spectrophotometry measurements showed significant changes in light absorbance for gamma irradiated and for annealed CR-39.

Ipe, Nisy Elizabeth Philip

1984-01-01

103

Reduced neutron spectroscopic factors when using potential geometries constrained by Hartree-Fock calculations  

E-print Network

We carry out a systematic analysis of angular distribution measurements for selected ground-state to ground-state (d,p) and (p,d) neutron transfer reactions, including the calcium isotopes. We propose a consistent three-body model reaction methodology in which we constrain the transferred-neutron bound state and nucleon-target optical potential geometries using modern Hartree-Fock calculations. Our deduced neutron spectroscopic factors are found to be suppressed by ~30% relative to independent-particle shell-model values, from 40Ca through 49Ca. The other nuclei studied, ranging from B to Ti, show similar average suppressions with respect to large-basis shell-model expectations. Our results are consistent with deduced spectroscopic strengths for neutrons and protons from intermediate energy nucleon knockout reactions, and for protons from (e,e'p) reactions, on well-bound nuclei. PACS: 24.50.+g, 24.10.Eq, 25.40.-h, 25.45.-z

Jenny Lee; J. A. Tostevin; B. A. Brown; F. Delaunay; W. G. Lynch; M. J. Saelim; M. B. Tsang

2006-01-27

104

Color: A Crucial Factor for Aesthetic Quality Assessment in a Subjective Dataset of Paintings  

E-print Network

Color: A Crucial Factor for Aesthetic Quality Assessment in a Subjective Dataset of Paintings Seyed different features used to evaluate the aesthetic quality of a painting or photograph, color plays a crucial of paintings in our dataset. · An in-depth analysis of the role of color in the aesthetic quality assessment

Knüpfer, Christian

105

The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments  

SciTech Connect

Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Hill, S.G.

1990-01-01

106

As2S3 Microspheres With Near Absorption-Limited Quality Factor  

E-print Network

As2S3 Microspheres With Near Absorption-Limited Quality Factor Francis Vanier1, Pablo Bianucci1@polymtl.ca Abstract--We present As2S3 microsphere optical resonators made out of high purity fiber. The quality factor in the fiber. Keywords--Microsphere, Optical resonators, Chalcogenide glass. I. INTRODUCTION Whispering gallery

Peter, Yves-Alain

107

The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

Grozanick, Sara E.

2010-01-01

108

Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables…

Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

2012-01-01

109

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

110

The NE11 experiment at SLAC and the neutron form factors  

SciTech Connect

The neutron electromagnetic form factors G{sub En} and G{sub Mn}, which reflect the charge and magnetization distributions within the neutron, are of fundamental importance for understanding nucleon structure, and are necessary for calculations of processes involving the electromagnetic interaction with complex nuclei. These quantities are functions of Q{sup 2}, the four-momentum transfer squared. SLAC experiment NE11 has measured these form factors out to a Q{sup 2} of 4.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} with high precision, and the results have been recently published. This paper provides some additional details on the extraction of G{sub Mn} and G{sub En} from the NE11 measurements. Several formalisms have been developed over the years which attempt to understand the nucleon form factors using basic physical principles. Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) models are based on superpositions of photon couplings to various vector mesons. These models generally involve free parameters which are fit to form factor data at low Q{sup 2}, and are not expected to be valid at high Q{sup 2}. For asymptotically large Q{sup 2}, dimensional scaling methods and perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD) predict form factor behavior at large Q{sup 2}, but they do not make absolute magnitude predictions. To describe the form factor behavior at intermediate values of Q{sup 2}, a hybrid model by Gari and Kruempelmann (GK) uses VMD constraints at low Q{sub 2} and pQCD constraints at high Q{sup 2}. Free parameters in the model are adjusted to fit existing form factor data. Other approaches include the use of QCD sum rules to make absolute predictions, diquark models, and relativistic constituent quark models.

Stuart, L.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lung, A.; Bosted, P.E. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1993-05-01

111

Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 ?m thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

2015-01-01

112

Confirming the Three-Factor Structure of the Quality of Relationships Inventory within Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study further validates the Quality of Relationships Inventory (QRI; G. R. Pierce, I. G. Sarason, & B. R. Sarason, 1991) by evaluating its factor structure in a sample of 572 partners from 286 couples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare 3 different models of the QRI and to investigate the invariance of the factor

Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; Buysse, Ann; Rosseel, Yves; Peene, Olivier J.

2006-01-01

113

On the determination of series resistance and diode quality factor of solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The series resistance and diode quality factor are used for evaluation of solar cell performance. These parameters are normally deduced from the terminal I-V characteristics under forward bias. The method produces a smaller series resistance and a larger value for diode quality factor than appropriate for the device when operating as a solar cell. It is suggested that the diode quality factor be determined from measured saturated photocurrent, open circuit voltage characteristics and the series resistance be measured with an r-f bridge or calculated from a measurement of the surface sheet resistance.

Anderson, R. L.

1976-01-01

114

Development of an ultra-high-speed scanning neutron tomography system for high-quality and four-dimensional visualizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new neutron tomography imaging system was developed in order to realize high-quality three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) visualizations by fusing the high-frame-rate neutron radiography and computed tomography (CT) techniques. The fundamental idea is that the object is revolved with high rotating speed and the neutron radiography images are recorded with a high-speed video camera and an image intensifier, and then the consecutive images are processed by a 3D CT technique. The 4D dynamic images of the sand flow in the sandglasses could be visualized clearly. This new technique has also an advantage in that it can reduce radio-activation of the object materials remarkably.

Kureta, M.; Iikura, H.

2009-06-01

115

Measuring Project Quality Factors Critical to Project Success  

E-print Network

available to measure and track project cost (cheap) and schedule (fast), the measurement and monitoring of project quality (good) is at best underdeveloped. While qualitative measures of project cost and schedule encompasses all elements of the project other than those directly related to cost, and schedule. This research

Calgary, University of

116

Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.  

PubMed

Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. PMID:22424746

Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

2012-09-01

117

Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

2013-01-01

118

Practical issues in subjective video quality evaluation: human factors vs. psychophysical image quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe subjective video quality testing using naturally occurring, realistic, video content. The use of realistic content poses a number of challenges that are not encountered when using standard video test clips. The methods that we have developed are targeted to define levels of video quality that will be acceptable to customers of a video service. The

Marc Sullivan; James Pratt; Philip Kortum

2008-01-01

119

Preliminary ANS (Advanced Neutron Source) reactor cold source gain factor calculations for liquid deuterium and liquid nitrogen-15  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual energy group gain factors are computed for liquid nitrogen-15 and liquid deuterium cold source moderators using simple one-dimensional slab and spherical geometry calculational models. The energy spectrum of the neutron source is assumed to be that of a thermalized Maxwellian flux at 20\\/degree\\/C. The slab geometry calculations indicate that the optimum thickness for neutron transmission through a slab given

1988-01-01

120

Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

2014-03-01

121

Factors affecting the porridge quality of sorghum and pearl millet  

E-print Network

was done as a part of "ICRISAT Sorghum and Millet Research Program", Dr. L. W. Rooney, project leader, Cereal Quality Lab, Soil and Crop Sciences, College Station, Texas, and was funded by ICRISAT, Mali, Bamako, BP, 34. 'ABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE... hydrolysis by pepsin. A) 4500x, protein bodies; B) 4500x, pericarp piece. P- protein bodies; PP- pericarp piece. . . . . . . . . . . 64 66 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Sorghum (~Sor hum bicolor L. Moench) and pearl millet (Penni- setum americanum...

Kante, Assa

1987-01-01

122

Factors affecting quality of fresh-cut horticultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut products, also known as lightly or minimally processed products, are highly perishable because a large proportion of their surface area is without epidermis, the outer protective layer of tissue. Temperature, atmosphere, relative humidity and sanitation must be regulated to maintain quality of fresh-cuts. In the 0–10 °C range, Q10 of respiration rates ranged from 2.0 to 8.6 among various

Alley E. Watada; Nathanee P. Ko; Donna A. Minott

1996-01-01

123

Quality factor temperature dependence of a surface phonon polariton resonance cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the surface phonon polariton coupling in an SiO2 optical cavity with 250 nm metal (gold (Au)/chrome (Cr)) side walls, and find a temperature dependence of the quality factor, Q =?o/??. By using optical cavities of varying widths between parallel metal walls and FTIR-ATR measurements, we first observe that the quality factor obeys an inverse power law dependence on the width. And by relating the widths to the optical path length, and ultimately to the temperature using the general thermo-optical coefficient, we show the quality factor temperature dependence. We argue that the temperature dependence of the quality factor is a practical and almost universal result that describes the energy dissipative behavior of both mechanically and optically responsive systems.

Hammonds, James S.; Stancil, Kimani A.; Stokes, Charlezetta E.

2014-09-01

124

System theoretic approach for determining causal factors of quality loss in complex system design  

E-print Network

Identifying the factors that could lead to the loss of quality is difficult for large, complex systems. Traditional design methods such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Robust ...

Goerges, Stephanie L

2013-01-01

125

Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

2014-09-01

126

Analysis of quality factor of quartz-crystal tuning forks using L-shaped bar model with torsion spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the quality factor of a quartz-crystal tuning fork using an L-shaped bar model that consisted of two bars depicting the right half of the tuning fork and a torsion spring at the joint of its arm and base bars. An analysis of the quality factor showed that the calculated quality factor is lower by approximately 10% of that calculated by a cantilever model and is closer to the measured quality factor.

Itoh, Hideaki; Sugiura, Keisuke

2014-12-01

127

Quality management and safety culture in medicine – Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?  

PubMed Central

In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report “To err is human: building a safer healthcare system” highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety. PMID:20049068

Wischet, Werner; Schusterschitz, Claudia

2009-01-01

128

Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life Among Minority Elders in Southwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study described health-related quality of life and examined the relationship of factors influencing health-related quality of life among minority elders in southwest China. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with a convenience sample of 105 community-dwelling minority elders in Southwest China. The participants reported poor physical health-related quality of life. Depression, chronic diseases, and body mass index were predictors

Dan Luo; Jie Hu

2011-01-01

129

Factors that Impact Quality of E-Teaching/Learning Technologies in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article analyzes and assesses factors that have impact upon the quality of eTeaching/learning technologies in higher education; it is on their basis that the concept of eTeaching/learning quality is denied. Research data about the students' motives in choosing various teaching/learning technologies for the development of their competence are…

Daukilas, Sigitas; Kaciniene, Irma; Vaisnoriene, Daiva; Vascila, Vytautas

2008-01-01

130

Access and Quality of Primary Care for People With Disabilities: A Comparison of Practice Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows how practice factors, particularly payment type, affect quality and accessibility of primary care for adults with disabilities. The study consisted of: (a) a survey of practice characteristics, including accessibility, accommodations for disabled patients, and payment type; and, (b) a retrospective chart audit for quality of care indicators. The sample consisted of 513 patients within 73 doctors within

Mary Ann H. McColl; Sam Shortt; Duncan Hunter; John Dorland; Marshall Godwin; Walter Rosser; Ralph Shaw

2010-01-01

131

Factors associated with perceived quality influencing beef consumption behaviour in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a steady decline in beef consumption in Ireland for over a decade, although 1997 data show that this decline has been reversed. A cognitive representation of perceived meat quality based on prior to purchase considerations, point of purchase considerations and consumption stage considerations was used as a conceptual framework to investigate which quality factors have influenced the

Michael A. Mannion; Cathal Cowan; Michael Gannon

2000-01-01

132

Factors Influencing the Reporting of Adverse Perioperative Outcomes to a Quality Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality management programs have used several data reporting sources to identify adverse perioperative out- comes. We compared reporting sources and identified factors that might improve data capture. Adverse periop- erative outcomes between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were reported to the Department of Anesthesiol- ogy Quality Management program by anesthesiologists, hospital chart reviewers, and other hospital personnel us-

Robert I. Katz; Robert S. Lagasse

2000-01-01

133

On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1987-01-01

134

Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.  

PubMed

Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality. PMID:25252342

de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

2014-09-01

135

Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

1980-08-01

136

Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surfaces, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5?×?106 in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30?mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method to rapidly detect minuscule vibrations, as well as careful reduction of the noise of the electrostatic environment. We observe that the measured quality factors fluctuate because of fluctuations of the resonant frequency. We measure record-high quality factors, which are comparable to the highest Q values reported in mechanical resonators of much larger size, a remarkable result considering that reducing the size of resonators is usually concomitant with decreasing quality factors. The combination of ultra-low mass and very large Q offers new opportunities for ultra-sensitive detection schemes and quantum optomechanical experiments.

Moser, J.; Eichler, A.; Güttinger, J.; Dykman, M. I.; Bachtold, A.

2014-12-01

137

No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio ?PSNR?? Mean Square Error?MSE? and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

2014-05-01

138

Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

2010-01-01

139

Key quality factors in Web site design and use: an examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the research described in this paper was to identify the key quality factors in Web site design and use. From the factors identified, a conceptual model has been developed to assess how a Web site can deliver what its users expect. The model is based on: ease of use, customer confidence, on-line resources, and relationship services. These

J. Cox; B. G. Dale

2002-01-01

140

Simultaneous neutron transmission and diffraction contrast tomography as a non-destructive 3D method for bulk single crystal quality investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional neutron tomography allows to reconstruct the attenuation cross section, a measure for the material distribution, at high spatial resolution and non-destructively. However, it does not state anything about the ordering structure of the atoms inside this material. Extending the setup with a second neutron imaging detector, diffracted neutrons from the ordered crystal lattice could be captured. Emerging iterative reconstruction techniques allow reconstructing the local Bragg reflectivity in the sample, a measure for the spatial distribution in crystal quality (orientation, homogeneity of phases). Simultaneous acquisition ensures optimal use of the neutron flux and a direct comparison of different sample properties.

Peetermans, S.; Lehmann, E. H.

2013-09-01

141

Spallation Neutron Source Availability Top-Down Apportionment Using Characteristic Factors and Expert Opinion  

SciTech Connect

Apportionment is the assignment of top-level requirements to lower tier elements of the overall facility. A method for apportioning overall facility availability requirements among systems and subsystems is presented. Characteristics that influence equipment reliability and maintainability are discussed. Experts, using engineering judgment, scored each characteristic for each system whose availability design goal is to be established. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to produce a set of weighted rankings for each characteristic for each alternative system. A mathematical model is derived which incorporates these weighting factors. The method imposes higher availability requirements on those systems in which an incremental increase in availability is easier to achieve, and lower availability requirements where greater availability is more difficult and costly. An example is given of applying this top-down apportionment methodology to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility.

Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

1999-10-01

142

Judging the quality of evidence in reviews of prognostic factor research: adapting the GRADE framework  

PubMed Central

Background Prognosis research aims to identify factors associated with the course of health conditions. It is often challenging to judge the overall quality of research evidence in systematic reviews about prognosis due to the nature of the primary studies. Standards aimed at improving the quality of primary studies on the prognosis of health conditions have been created, but these standards are often not adequately followed causing confusion about how to judge the evidence. Methods This article presents a proposed adaptation of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), which was developed to rate the quality of evidence in intervention research, to judge the quality of prognostic evidence. Results We propose modifications to the GRADE framework for use in prognosis research along with illustrative examples from an ongoing systematic review in the pediatric pain literature. We propose six factors that can decrease the quality of evidence (phase of investigation, study limitations, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, publication bias) and two factors that can increase it (moderate or large effect size, exposure-response gradient). Conclusions We describe criteria for evaluating the potential impact of each of these factors on the quality of evidence when conducting a review including a narrative synthesis or a meta-analysis. These recommendations require further investigation and testing. PMID:24007720

2013-01-01

143

Poor Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether poor sleep quality of third-trimester pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Material/Methods Third-trimester pregnant women (T0, n=293) were tested using the first socio-demographic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessments, and received a diagnosis of depression. Three months (T1, n=223) after delivery, scale filling was finished and the structured interview was performed again. Results We found that 73 persons (32.7%) were low income, 84 persons (37.7%) were middle-income, and 66 persons (29.6%) were higher income. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 9.4% (21 persons). After controlling for other factors, age, household income, marital satisfaction, and sleep quality were significantly related to postpartum depression, in which age and sleep quality scores (a higher score was associated with poorer sleep quality) were positively related to postpartum depression, and household income and marital satisfaction were negatively related to postpartum depression. Moreover, third-trimester sleep quality score was positively related to postpartum depressive symptoms. Conclusions Poor third-trimester subjective sleep quality is a risk factor for postpartum depression. PMID:25526703

Wu, Meifen; Li, Xiaoyi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Hao; Qiu, Chunbo; Zhang, Weifeng

2014-01-01

144

Calculation of dose conversion factors for inhalation and ingestion from radioisotopes produced in spallation neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Internal dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion of certain radionuclides were published in Federal Guidance Report (FGR) No.11 in 1988. Unfortunately, a significant number of radioisotopes that can be produced in spallation neutron sources are not included in FGR No.11. This project provides internal dose conversion factors for at least 100 radionuclides which are important to the spallation community, and which are not included in FGR No.11. Using nuclear decay information from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), the computer code EDISTR was used to compile libraries of nuclear decay data containing information such as frequency, energy, type of emitted radiations, and beta spectra. C++ codes were developed to aid in the translation of EDISTR output into formats readable by a second computer code, Dose Calculation (DCAL). DCAL contains biokinetic models consistent with those outlined in reports No.30 and No.66 of the International Committee on Radiological Protection (ICRP). DCAL uses the nuclear decay libraries and biokinetic models to caclulate the number of nuclear transfomations/Bq in source tissues over 50 years, U{sub s}, and the specific effective energy for each radiation type absorbed in source target tissues from source tissues, SEE(T {l_arrow} S). The dose conversion factor is calculated as follows: H{sub 50}(T{l_arrow}S) = 1.6(10){sup -10} {center_dot} U{sub s} {Sigma}{sub i} SEE(T{l_arrow}S){sub i} [Sv/Bq]. Where 1.6(10){sup -10} is a conversion factor.

Wooten, H. O. (H. Omar)

2001-01-01

145

How institutional quality and economic factors impact technological deepening in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the effect of institutional and economic factors on research and development (R&D) expenditures in developing countries. The paper finds that several measures of institutional quality are correlated with R&D expenditures. Since the institutional variables increase as institutional quality improves, this suggests that stronger institutions and better protection of property rights encourage greater R&D expenditures. In addition, foreign

George R. G. Clarke

2001-01-01

146

Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Quality Factor in a Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the measurements of the temperature dependence of the internal quality factor (Qi) of a microwave resonator, well below the superconducting transition temperature. The device is a quarter-wavelength niobium (Tc = 9.2 K) coplanar waveguide resonator. The measured |S21| parameter shows typically the skewed Lorentzian distributions, from which the fitted quality factor monotonically decreases with the temperature increasing from 30 mK to 900 mK. It is observed that for the lower temperature range (i.e., at T < 700 mK) the temperature dependence of the fitted Qi deviates significantly from the predictions of the usual Mattis—Bardeen theory. The measured 3 dB internal quality factor Q'i also verifies such an anomalous temperature dependence. Physically, this phenomenon could be attributed dominantly to the effects of the two-level systems in the device, rather than the usual temperature-dependent complex conductance.

Zhou, Pin-Jia; Wang, Yi-Wen; Wei, Lian-Fu

2014-06-01

147

Quantum Limit of Quality Factor in Silicon Micro and Nano Mechanical Resonators  

PubMed Central

Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit. PMID:24247809

Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A.; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J.; Ahn, Chae H.; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

148

Comparison of mean quality factors proposed by ICRP, ICRU and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts are exposed to primary cosmic-rays and secondary particles produced by them through interaction with the atoms of the spacecraft material and those of the human body. For the radiation risk estimation of astronauts, not only organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated, since radiation weighting factor as defined by ICRP60 is not suitable for use in space dosimetry due to its very simplified concept. Three relationships were proposed for expressing the radiation quality by different organizations; (1) International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined the quality factor based on LET in water, Q(L), in ICRP60, (2) in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, a quality factor Q(y) is defined as a function of lineal energy, y, for spherical liquid water of 1 mm in diameter, Q(y), and (3) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) proposed those for solid cancer and leukemia separately based on charge and energy of particles, QNASA(Z,E), in NASA/TP-2011-216155. The Q(L) relationship is most simple and widely used in space dosimetry, but the latter two relationships consider the difference of the track structure of the various heavy ions in tissue due to the production of d-rays, which is very important in the risk estimation for the HZE-particle exposure. We therefore calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in the ICRP reference voxel phantoms for various particles, using the PHITS code coupled with the ICRP, ICRU and NASA Q-functions. An isotropic irradiation of the phantom was assumed in the calculation. The details of the calculation procedure will be described, together with the comparison of mean quality factors obtained from the 3 relationships.

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Endo, Akira

2012-07-01

149

The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

2008-01-01

150

Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator  

SciTech Connect

Selectively patterned graphene is integrated onto a silicon ring resonator to investigate the quality factor (Q factor) variation. The Q factor sharply decreases from 7900 to 1200 as the patterned graphene length increases from 0 to 20??m. A numerical estimation, which takes into account optical absorption by graphene, shows an exponential damping of the Q factor with increasing graphene length and is consistent with the experimental result. We expect these fundamental characterizations to be helpful in developing graphene-integrated silicon photonics applications.

Kou, Rai, E-mail: takahashi.rai@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinichi; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Nakajima, Hirochika [Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2014-03-03

151

Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.  

PubMed

The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

2010-06-01

152

Quality improvement programme for cardiovascular disease risk factor recording in primary care  

PubMed Central

Objectives—Evaluation of the effect of a quality improvement programme on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor recording and risk factor levels in a controlled study at two primary health care centres serving 26 000 inhabitants in Northern Helsinki. Methods—From a random sample of patient records from 1995 (n=1066), 1996 (n=1042), and 1997 (n=1040) the frequency of CVD risk factor recording was measured and the changes in mean levels of total cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, and body weight were monitored during the follow up period. The intervention programme (1995–1996) consisted of lectures and meetings of multiprofessional teams, development of local guidelines, and introduction of a structured risk factor recording sheet as part of the patient records. Results—After the quality improvement period all risk factors were better recorded at the intervention station than at the control station (p<0.001). More high risk CVD patients were detected from the general population at the intervention station. The mean values of most measured risk factors changed during the intervention. During the follow up period differences were observed between the two health stations in the time trends for body weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, and glucose levels. Risk factor levels of high risk patients receiving CVD treatment decreased during the intervention. Conclusions—A simple quality improvement programme improved the practice of recording risk factors for CVD which resulted in earlier detection of patients with a high risk of developing the disease. Key Words: quality improvement; cardiovascular disease; risk factor recording; primary health care PMID:10980078

Ketola, E.; Sipila, R.; Makela, M.; Klockars, M.

2000-01-01

153

Suspended plate microresonators with high quality factor for the operation in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial wetting has been recently proposed to facilitate the operation of microresonators with high quality factor in liquids. By applying this concept to a resonator operated in a shearing eigenmode, a further reduction of viscous damping is expected corresponding to theory. In this study, an excellent quality factor of 490 could be verified for suspended plate-microresonators operated in water combining these two approaches. As a proof of concept, the resonators were employed as mass sensors in water revealing a sensitivity of 80 Hz/pg.

Linden, J.; Thyssen, A.; Oesterschulze, E.

2014-05-01

154

Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, ?-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for ?-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in ?-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in ?-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. PMID:23744724

Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Wyss, Gabriela S; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Birlouez-Aragone, Inès; Kahl, Johannes

2013-08-30

155

Analysis of factors associated with quality of life in breast cancer patients after surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer patients\\u000a after surgery. The QOL in 83 primary breast cancer patients after surgery was prospectively assessed using a newly developed\\u000a Japanese QOL questionnaire: The QOL Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs (QOL-ACD). The demographic\\u000a and medical factors relating

Kojiro Shimozuma; Hiroshi Sonoo; Kiyoshi Ichihara; Junichi Kurebayashi; Kazumasa Miyake; Keiichi Yoshikawa; Kikuko Ota

1994-01-01

156

First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.a [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Crivello, Martin [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires(Argentina); Perona, Marina [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto [Department of Instrumentation and Control, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano [Argentina Reactor, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casal, Mariana [Institute of Oncology 'Angel H. Roffo', University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kahl, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario Alberto [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-01-01

157

Insufficient quality of sputum submitted for tuberculosis diagnosis and associated factors, in Klaten district, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Sputum smear microscopy is the standard diagnostic method for detection of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Insufficient quality of sputum might result in missing cases. In this study we aimed at assessing the quality of sputum in a district in Central Java and determining patient and health worker factors associated with submission of three good quality sputum samples. Methods In 16 health centers information was collected on the quality of sputum submitted by TB suspects, i.e. volume, color, and viscosity. TB suspects were interviewed to assess their knowledge of TB, motivation to provide sputum and whether they were informed why and how to produce a sputum sample. Health workers were interviewed to assess what information they provided to TB suspects about the reason for sputum examination, methods to produce sputum and characteristics of a good quality sputum sample. All health worker and patient factors were evaluated for association with sputum quality. Results Of 387 TB suspects, 294 (76.0%) could be traced and interviewed, and of 272 (70.3%) information about sputum quality was available. Of those 203 (74.6%) submitted three samples, 90 (33.1%) provided at least one good sample, and 37 (13.6%) provided three good quality sputum samples. Of the 272 TB suspects, 168 (61.8%) mentioned that information on the reason for sputum examination was provided, 66 (24.3%) remembered that they were informed about how to produce sputum and 40 (14.7%) recalled being informed about the characteristics of good quality sputum. Paramedics reported to provide often/always information on the importance of sputum examination, and when to produce sputum. Information on how to produce sputum and characteristics of a good sputum sample was less often provided. None of the studied patient characteristics or health worker factors was associated with providing good quality sputum. Conclusion A considerable number of TB suspects did not provide three sputum samples and a large number of sputum samples were of insufficient quality. Training of health workers in providing health education to the TB suspect about the reason for sputum examination and how to produce a good quality sputum sample should be a priority of the TB program. PMID:19426477

Sakundarno, Mateus; Nurjazuli, Nurjazuli; Jati, Sutopo Patria; Sariningdyah, Retna; Purwadi, Sumarsono; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van der Werf, Marieke J

2009-01-01

158

Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production  

SciTech Connect

Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

1981-01-01

159

Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.  

PubMed

With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players. PMID:23914490

Grgantov, Zoran; Mili?, Mirjana; Kati?, Ratko

2013-05-01

160

Quality of Drawing as a Factor in the Interpretation of Figure Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The drawings of 32 poliomyelitis patients and their matched controls were examined to see whether figure drawings primarily reflect the subject's projection of psychological state, ability to draw, or some combination of these two factors. Quality of drawing may at times be the overwhelming determinant of clinical and research findings.…

Johnson, Frank A.; Greenberg, Roger P.

1978-01-01

161

Emission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel interchangeability  

E-print Network

in composition. As newer sources of natural gas become available (such as Liquefied Natural Gas and shale gasEmission factor estimation in regional air quality studies of residential natural gas fuel for natural gas burner emissions data. The method is built to compensate for the typically small sample size

Dabdub, Donald

162

Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

2013-01-01

163

The impact of institutional factors on student academic results: implications for ‘quality’ in universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper situates the topic of student assessment and the moderation of assessment within a broader context of policy debates about the quality of teaching and learning in universities. The focus and discussion grew out of a research project that aimed to investigate factors related to academic success and failure in a Faculty of Arts. The study, initially, identified a

Kerry Wimshurst; Richard Wortley; Merrelyn Bates; Troy Allard

2006-01-01

164

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

2008-01-01

165

Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

2011-01-01

166

Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

2012-01-01

167

Measurement Model Quality, Sample Size, and Solution Propriety in Confirmatory Factor Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sample size recommendations in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have recently shifted away from observations per variable or per parameter toward consideration of model quality. Extending research by Marsh, Hau, Balla, and Grayson (1998), simulations were conducted to determine the extent to which CFA model convergence and parameter estimation…

Gagne, Phill; Hancock, Gregory R.

2006-01-01

168

Factors affecting the utilization and quality of long-term care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of the nation in the coming decades will contribute to an increased demand for long-term care. Given this trend, it is becoming increasingly important to understand utilization of services along the continuum of care and to determine factors that influence the provision of quality care. These insights are needed to reduce national expenditures on long-term care and to

April Temple

2009-01-01

169

Factors influencing survival and postoperative quality of life after mitral valve reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Mitral valve reconstruction (MVR) is the preferred treatment for regurgitant lesions. Clinical benefit is well documented, but comparative data scrutinising factors influencing survival and postoperative quality of life (QOL) in different subsets of patients are missing. We hypothesised that mitral valve reconstruction for mitral regurgitation benefits the patients, regardless of the valve pathology. Methods: In this study, 663 consecutive

Lorenz Hansen; Stephan Winkel; Jannick Kuhr; Ralf Bader; Niels Bleese; Friedrich-Christian Riess

2010-01-01

170

Psychiatric Disorders Following First Breast Cancer Recurrence: Prevalence, Associated Factors and Relationship to Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with psychiatric disorders and the impact on quality of life (QOL) in patients with first breast cancer recurrence. Methods: We analyzed the baseline data on 50 consecutively enrolled recurrent breast cancer patients, participating in a feasibility study of multifaceted psychosocial intervention. Psychiatric disorders, including major

Masako Okamura; Shigeto Yamawaki; Tatsuo Akechi; Koji Taniguchi; Yosuke Uchitomi

2005-01-01

171

Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

Spokus, Diane

2008-01-01

172

Factors Affecting the Application of a Simple Ratio Technique for Spectral Correction of a Neutron Personnel Albedo Dosimeter.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accurately assess the dose equivalent indicated by the albedo response of a neutron personnel dosimeter, additional knowledge is generally required in order to apply the needed spectral specific correction factors. This work was designed to evaluate the capability of the USAF Personnel Neutron Dosimeter to "self-calibrate" for moderated fission neutron spectra. The boron/bare ratio technique is compared with a simple theoretical model of the dosimeter and with the 23 cm (9 in) to 7.6 cm (3 in) Hankins' remmeter calibration technique. The overall goal was to provide dose-equivalent estimates comparable to those provided by the remmeter technique without the necessity of special on-site measurements. Although the boron/bare technique with the present dosimeter design fails to provide calibration factors needed for moderated fission neutron spectra, theoretical predictions based upon the model and the measured dosimeter responses are used to propose a dosimeter design which might fulfill the desired goal. Ancillary data gathered during the study are also presented.

Nelson, Robert Clifton

173

Cancer history and other personal factors affect quality of life in patients with hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

Background Although patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) have been found to have reduced quality of life, little is known about how other characteristics affect their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of other characteristics, including history of cancer, on quality of life in patients with CHC. Methods One hundred forty patients from clinics at three hospitals in New York City completed a detailed epidemiologic interview about demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the SF-36 measuring health-related quality of life. We compared results from our patients to normative data using t-tests of differences between means. We used multivariate analyses to determine other personal and health-related factors associated with quality of life outcomes. Results Compared to normative data, these patients had reduced quality of life, particularly on physical functioning. The summary Physical Component Score (PCS) was 45.4 ± 10.6 and the Mental Component Score (MCS) was 48.2 ± 11.1, vs norms of 50 ± 10.0; p-values were <0.0001 and <0.05, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the PCS was significantly lower among those with cancer history, ? 2 other chronic conditions, less education, low physical activity, and higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Cancer was more important for men, while other chronic conditions were more important for women. On the MCS, history of depression, low physical activity, alcohol use, and female gender were independently associated with poorer scores. Conclusion Several health and lifestyle factors independently influence quality of life in CHC patients. Different factors are important for men and women. PMID:15960844

Olson, Sara H; Iyer, Sandy; Scott, Jennifer; Erez, Orry; Samuel, Shelby; Markovits, Temima; Schwartz, Myron; Toro, Charlene; Gambarin-Gelwan, Maya; Kurtz, Robert C

2005-01-01

174

High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials  

PubMed Central

With extremely low material absorption and exceptional surface smoothness, silica-based optical resonators can achieve extremely high cavity quality (Q) factors. However, the intrinsic material limitations of silica (e.g., lack of second order nonlinearity) may limit the potential applications of silica-based high Q resonators. Here we report some results in utilizing layer-by-layer self-assembly to functionalize silica microspheres with nonlinear and plasmonic nanomaterials while maintaining Q factors as high as 107. We compare experimentally measured Q factors with theoretical estimates, and find good agreement. PMID:24103932

Kandas, Ishac; Zhang, Baigang; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Ashry, Islam; Jao, Chih-Yu; Peng, Bo; Ozdemir, Sahin K.; Robinson, Hans D.; Heflin, James R.; Yang, Lan; Xu, Yong

2013-01-01

175

Polarization-insensitive resonances with high quality-factors in meta-molecule metamaterials.  

PubMed

Achieving narrow resonance is an area of interest within the field of metamaterials. However, only a few studies have investigated the polarization-insensitive resonances. A general principle for improving quality Q-factor of a sharp resonance is still unclear. In this work, we proposed a kind of planar meta-molecule metamaterials, which can exhibit polarization-insensitive resonance with high Q-factor. The proposed structures have a unit cell consisting of four arrayed ring resonant elements with two different sizes. Moreover, the investigation on surface current and two referential simulated structures confirm a principle for improving Q-factor. PMID:24977554

Wu, Lin; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming; Zheng, Yu; Duan, Ji'an; Yuan, Xiuhua

2014-06-16

176

Differential response to environmental and nutritional factors of high-quality tomato varieties.  

PubMed

The effect of salinity and silicon treatments on the marketable quality of four Marmande tomato varieties was investigated through conventional quality attributes and (1)H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Following variations in ripening through the content of GABA deduced from NMR was crucial for understanding the effects of environmental and nutritional factors. NMR data also lead to a new taste index, which increases from December to January. For Raf, Delizia and Conquista varieties, it was associated to ripening. In Tigre tomatoes the change, exclusively due to the decrease in sourness, does not affect the GABA content. The effect of the harvest day was more pronounced than treatments. However, increasing electrical conductivity seems an efficient alternative for improving fruit quality of Raf tomatoes harvest under non-optimal conditions. Silicon addition appears to reinforce the effect of light intensity on the quantity of photoassimilates available to the fruits without a clear effect on organoleptic quality. PMID:25624234

Iglesias, María José; García-López, Jesús; Collados-Luján, Juan Fernando; López-Ortiz, Fernando; Díaz, Manuel; Toresano, Fernando; Camacho, Francisco

2015-06-01

177

Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor G{sub M}{sup n} in the Few-GeV{sup 2} Region  

SciTech Connect

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q{sup 2}=1.0-4.8 GeV{sup 2} with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data.

Lachniet, J. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Afanasev, A. [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States); Arenhoevel, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Brooks, W. K. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V Valparaiso (Chile); Gilfoyle, G. P. [University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173 (United States); Higinbotham, D.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Cords, D.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Deur, A.; Gyurjyan, V.; Ito, M. M.; Kageya, T.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lowry, M.; Manak, J. J.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Niczyporuk, B. B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)] (and others)

2009-05-15

178

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-01-01

179

Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.  

PubMed

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-06-01

180

Sensorless enhancement of an atomic force microscope micro-cantilever quality factor using piezoelectric shunt control.  

PubMed

The image quality and resolution of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is dependent on the quality (Q) factor of the sensing micro-cantilever. Increasing the cantilever Q factor improves image resolution and reduces the risk of sample and cantilever damage. Active piezoelectric shunt control is introduced in this work as a new technique for modifying the Q factor of a piezoelectric self-actuating AFM micro-cantilever. An active impedance is placed in series with the tip oscillation voltage source to modify the mechanical dynamics of the cantilever. The benefit of using this control technique is that it removes the optical displacement sensor from the Q control feedback loop to reduce measurement noise in the loop and allows for a reduction in instrument size. PMID:23742557

Fairbairn, M; Moheimani, S O R

2013-05-01

181

Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

1993-01-01

182

Sensorless enhancement of an atomic force microscope micro-cantilever quality factor using piezoelectric shunt control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image quality and resolution of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is dependent on the quality (Q) factor of the sensing micro-cantilever. Increasing the cantilever Q factor improves image resolution and reduces the risk of sample and cantilever damage. Active piezoelectric shunt control is introduced in this work as a new technique for modifying the Q factor of a piezoelectric self-actuating AFM micro-cantilever. An active impedance is placed in series with the tip oscillation voltage source to modify the mechanical dynamics of the cantilever. The benefit of using this control technique is that it removes the optical displacement sensor from the Q control feedback loop to reduce measurement noise in the loop and allows for a reduction in instrument size.

Fairbairn, M.; Moheimani, S. O. R.

2013-05-01

183

Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.  

PubMed

Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

2011-10-10

184

Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.  

PubMed

This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

2012-02-01

185

Quality-factor amplification in piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying an all-electrical feedback loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all-electrical velocity feedback control to enhance the quality factor of piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN)-based microcantilevers and microbridges was implemented. Two alternatives to obtain a velocity-proportional signal were demonstrated depending on the top electrode configuration. For a straightforward electrode design in one-port configuration (i.e. self-actuation and self-sensing), a velocity signal, proportional to the piezoelectric current, was used in the feedback loop by cancelling out the dielectric current electronically. For top electrodes allowing a two-port configuration (i.e. one for actuation and one for sensing), the piezoelectric current is directly extracted and its relationship with velocity is analysed taking the symmetry of the modal shape into account. Standard operational amplifier-based configurations for the feedback circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board. Quality factors were determined from the transient electrical response of the devices. Comparable results were obtained from the displacement spectrum applying a laser Doppler vibrometer. Quality factors as high as 2 × 105, corresponding to an enhancement factor of about 200, were achieved in air for the lowest gain margin achievable before the circuit becomes unstable, making this kind of device more competitive for mass sensor applications due to enhanced spectral resolution.

Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Ababneh, A.; Schwarz, P.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

2011-02-01

186

Interactions among Ecological Factors That Explain the Psychosocial Quality of Life of Children with Complex Needs  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To explore the associations and interactions among ecological factors and explain the psychosocial quality of life of children with complex needs. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey consenting parents were identified by the Children's Treatment Network. Families were eligible if the child from 0 to 19 years, resided in Simcoe/York, and there were multiple family needs. Regression analysis was used to explore associations and interactions. n = 429. Results. Younger children, without conduct disorder, without hostile and punitive parenting and with low adverse family impact demonstrated the highest levels of psychosocial quality of life. Statistically significant interactions between processes of care and parent variables highlight the complexity of real life situations. Conclusions. It is not possible to fully understand the child's psychosocial quality of life in complex needs families by considering only simple associations between ecological factors. A multitude of factors and interactions between these factors are simultaneously present and the care of these families requires a holistic approach. PMID:20628505

Thurston, Sandy; Paul, Louise; Ye, Chenglin; Loney, Patricia; Browne, Gina; Thabane, Lehana; Rosenbaum, Peter

2010-01-01

187

Cross-Sectional Versus Sequential Quality Indicators of Risk Factor Management in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The fairness of quality assessment methods is under debate. Quality indicators incorporating the longitudinal nature of care have been advocated but their usefulness in comparison to more commonly used cross-sectional measures is not clear. Aims: To compare cross-sectional and sequential quality indicators for risk factor management in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study population consisted of 1912

Jaco Voorham; Petra Denig; Bruce H. R. Wolffenbuttel; Flora M. Haaijer-Ruskamp

2008-01-01

188

Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.  

PubMed

Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

2014-11-01

189

Impact of probe configuration and calibration techniques on quality factor determination of on-wafer inductors for GHz applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the quality factors measured on on-wafer (spiral) inductor test-structures are largely influenced by the choice between ground-signal and ground-signal-ground probe configuration. In particular when the SOLT network analyzer calibration technique is used in combination with ground-signal probing, the quality factor value can be overestimated significantly.

R. J. Havens; L. F. Tiemeijer; L. Garnbus

2002-01-01

190

Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

1992-01-01

191

The Use of a Multichannel Analyzer to Investigate Effects of Experimental Factors on Gross-Counting Gamma and Neutron Detectors  

SciTech Connect

Radiation detection technology is invaluable to many fields of study in identifying nuclear materials. However, many detectors use gross-counting methods that give only a relative count rate. Without a spectrum (information on counts over time vs energy), it can be more difficult to discern if an alarm is false, innocent, or real. In particular, we would like to understand better the effect of experimental factors (i.e., external conditions and equipment parameters) on detector data, with possible implications for false alarms. To more thoroughly characterize detector technology, a multichannel analyzer (MCA) was used to record spectra from neutron (helium-3 tubes) and gamma (photomultiplier tubes) gross-counting detectors. Several factors could affect the signal-to-noise ratio of sources. For example, we examined the effects of neutron detector high voltage setting on the appearance of a californium-252 spectrum, the effect of discriminator values on integrated counts in neutron detection, and the effect of gain changes on the gamma spectra from several sources. Possible implications of ambient temperature of the experiment on the data collected will be discussed. The input impedance of the MCA must be considered to ensure that data are not affected by the measurement itself. Moreover, a calibration on the MCA was performed to verify the conversion of a MCA channel number to a voltage. In summary, the series of source spectra collected on an MCA with a variety of experimental conditions allow us to understand factors that affect data better, and assure us that gross-counting neutron and gamma detectors will have minimal false alarms.

Volz, Heather M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rennie, John A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lovejoy, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Diana E. R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dempsey, Michael A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livesay, Jake [ORNL; Lousteau, Angela [ORNL

2012-07-12

192

Tunable and high quality factor SrTiO3 surface acoustic wave resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a tunable surface acoustic wave resonator in the 2 GHz-frequency range by depositing and patterning 2 ?m-wide pitch inter-digitated Al electrodes on SrTiO3 (STO) paraelectric substrate. We took advantage of the electrostrictive behavior of STO, whose properties are nonlinear with respect to the applied electric field, to induce tunability of the resonance frequency. The obtained frequency tunability reaches 0.7% at 0.5 MV/cm. Besides, the main advantage of this device is its high acoustic quality factor Q reaching 2450 at 2 GHz, thanks to the single-crystal nature of STO. This is one order of magnitude larger than the typical quality factor of its tunable bulk acoustic wave resonators counterparts.

Alzuaga, Sébastien; Daniau, William; Salut, Roland; Baron, Thomas; Ballandras, Sylvain; Defay, Emmanuel

2014-08-01

193

Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend to cite more papers than those published a decade ago. We analyzed citation data from 75,312 papers from 70 ecological journals published during 1998âÂÂ2007. We found that papers published in 2007 cited an average of seven more papers than those published a decade earlier. This increase accounts for about 80% of the observed impact factor inflation rate of 0.23. In examining the 70 journals we found that nearly 50% showed increases in their impact factors, but at rates lower than the background inflation rate. Therefore, although those journals appear to be increasing in quality as measured by the impact factor, they are actually failing to keep pace with inflation.

Bryan Neff (University of Western Ontario;Department of Biology); Julian Olden (University of Washington;School of Aquatic and Fishery Science)

2010-06-01

194

Predictors and Effective Factors on Quality of Life Among Iranian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that leads to joint swelling, stiffness, pain and progressive joint destruction. It is a common disease with prevalence of 1% worldwide that affecting all aspects of patients’ lives. Therefore, this study was conducted to summarize and provide a clear view of quality of life among the patients in Iran through a literature review. Methods: This study was conducted as a literature review over article published between 2000 to 2013, by using data bases comprise of Google scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, IRANDOC, SID, Medlib, Magiran and by key words: “quality of life”, “rheumatoid arthritis”, “Iran” and their Persian equivalents. Finally 2065 articles assessed and according to the aim of the study are 11 studies synthesized. Extracted results first were summarized in Extraction Table, and then analyzed manually. Results: In reviewed articles rheumatoid arthritis patients’ quality of life was measured by using five different tools, the most important one of them was SF36 questionnaire. Among eight dimensions of SF36 questionnaire, the highest mean according included articles result was social functioning with average score of 63.4 and the lowest for physical limitation (physical role functioning) with score of 43. Overall, mean of eight dimensions was 52.47. The most important factors affecting quality of life were disease severity and pain, depression, income, educational, occupational status, married status, sign of disease, fatigue, anxiety and disease activity scores. Conclusion: The results of the study showed relatively low quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Iran. Empowering patients by participating them in service delivery process and decision making can improves quality of life and in this regard health care provider must be focused on patient self-care abilities and reinforcing this factor by training them. PMID:24167426

Karimi, Saied; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Shokri, Azad; Mottaghi, Payman; Qolipour, Kamal; Kordi, Ayan; Bahman Ziari, Najmeh

2013-01-01

195

A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization  

PubMed Central

We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

2014-01-01

196

Which factors influence the quality of wine produced in new cool climate regions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Danish wine industry and then concentrate on production and discuss which factors are of importance for producing high-quality wines. Historically, Denmark has not been a wine-producing country primarily due to sub-optimal climate conditions, but during the latest decade, entrepreneurial growers have entered the business of wine production by establishing

Valdemar Smith; Jan Bentzen

2011-01-01

197

Impact of Recombinant Activated Factor VII on Health-Related Quality of Life after Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We recently demonstrated that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) given to patients presenting within 3 h of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reduces mortality (18% vs. 29%) and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS, 4–6, 53 vs. 69%). This analysis was performed to determine the impact of rFVIIa on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in those patients. Methods: In

Michael N. Diringer; Jean-Marc Ferran; Joseph Broderick; Stephen Davis; Stephan A. Mayer; Thorsten Steiner; Nikolai C. Brun; Brett E. Skolnick; Michael C. Christensen

2007-01-01

198

Defects in RNA quality control factors reveal RNAi-independent nucleation of heterochromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterochromatin assembly at Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres involves a self-reinforcing loop mechanism wherein chromatin-bound RNAi factors facilitate targeting of Clr4–Rik1 methyltransferase. However, the initial nucleation of heterochromatin has remained elusive. We show that cells lacking Mlo3, a protein involved in mRNP biogenesis and RNA quality control, assemble functional heterochromatin in RNAi-deficient cells. Heterochromatin restoration is linked to RNA surveillance because loss

Francisca E Reyes-Turcu; Ke Zhang; Martin Zofall; Eesin Chen; Shiv I S Grewal

2011-01-01

199

The quality of life and factors associated with it in the medically hospitalised elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The present study describes the quality of life (QOL) and explores health-related factors associated with domains of the QOL in the acutely ill and hospitalised elderly.Method: In all, 484 elderly (65–101 years, 241 men) patients hospitalised in an acute medical unit participated. Their QOL (in its overall and physical, psychological, social and environmental domains) was assessed with the World

Anne-Sofie Helvik; Knut Engedal; Geir Selbæk

2010-01-01

200

Clinical, Emotional and Social Factors Associated with Quality of Life in Chronic Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In chronic pancreatitis (CP), a debilitating, progressive and incurable disease, patients’ wellbeing is considerably impaired, but the different factors affecting quality of life (QoL), have not been identified yet. Methods: 69 patients with CP were evaluated (M\\/F 55\\/14; mean age 46.6 ± 10.05 years). Different degrees of pancreatic damage were defined using the Cambridge classification; pain intensity and frequency

A. Mokrowiecka; D. Pinkowski; E. Malecka-Panas; C. D. Johnson

2010-01-01

201

Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors - Data driven approaches.  

PubMed

Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

2015-03-15

202

Study and Simulation of Critical Factors Affecting Final Quality in Electromagnetically Hemmed Automotive Aluminum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous study on electromagnetic forming (EM) hemming technology carried out in TECNALIA showed the real capability of this high speed deformation method to produce quality hemmed parts (Jimbert et al., J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211:916-924, 2011). Continuing with the development of this promising new application for the EM technology, some new experiments were run. The objective of this study is to focus on the critical processing factors that affect the final quality of the electromagnetically hemmed parts. For this purpose, an experimental plan was designed changing different input parameters and output quality parameters measured to quantify the results. The flange height limit was obtained for the studied experimental setup and was established at 10 mm. The bending radius and the gap between the inner and the outer part have to be keep to the minimum to increase final quality. In parallel to the physical experiments, EM hemming simulations were carried out using an EM loose coupling simulation method. An EM hemming process simulation of a circular whole part was carried out using shell elements. Results were compared with cross section simulations of the hemmed union using solid elements in order to analyze the importance of the type of element used for EM hemming simulation. Simulations revealed that solid elements reproduce quality aspects better than shell elements.

Jimbert, P.; Eguia, I.; Daehn, G. S.; Iriondo, E.; Gutierrez, M. A.; Hurtado, I.

2013-06-01

203

New Vistas of the Structure of Neutron-Rich Nuclei - Single Particle States and g-FACTORS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt ?-?-? coincidence studies of neutron-rich nuclei populated in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf led to the discoveries of many important processes like neutron-less binary and ternary fragmentation in spontaneous fission, binary and ternary hot fission modes, hyper-deformation, cluster radioactivity and quasi-molecular states in ternary fission. The high statistics data, 5.7 × 1011 triples and higher folds, opened up discoveries of new band structures and significant extensions of previously known bands. These data were used to measure the angular correlations of cascades of ?-rays from the excited states of neutron-rich fission fragments stopped in an unmagnetized iron foil. By using this ?-? angular correlation technique, the single particle configurations of the known rotational bands were assigned and confirmed in the present work. In other words, the multipole mixing ratios of ?I=1 transitions in the rotational bands were measured. These experimental mixing ratios are compred with the theoretical ones of particle and axial-rotor model. The configuration of the ground states in 109,111Ru were, for the first time, assigned. And magnetic g-factors of excited states in even-even neutron-rich nuclei were meaured, too. Two sets of ?I=1 alternating parity doublets with opposite parities were observed in Ba and Ce isotopes. The B(E1)/B(E2) branching ratios and D0 values may indicate that the octupole correlations are strong in Ba and Ce isotopes because of the Z=56 and N=88 octupole shell gaps. High-spin, even-parity bands in neutron-rich 108,110,112Ru nuclei indicate two-phonon quasi-gamma bands in 110,112Ru.

Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Luo, Y. X.; Zhu, S. J.; Hwang, J. K.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Daniel, A. V.; Brewer, N.; Oganessian, Y.

2012-01-01

204

Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

2011-12-01

205

A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale)  

PubMed Central

Objective The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Design Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. Study sample 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. Results We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed “speech understanding”, “spatial perception”, and “clarity, separation, and identification”. Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, “effort and concentration”, representing two more questions. Conclusions These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores. PMID:24417459

2014-01-01

206

Modifiable and fixed factors predicting quality of life in people with colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: People with colorectal cancer have impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated what factors were most highly associated with it. Methods: Four hundred and ninety-six people with colorectal cancer completed questionnaires about QoL, functioning, symptoms, co-morbidity, cognitions and personal and social factors. Disease, treatment and co-morbidity data were abstracted from case notes. Multiple linear regression identified modifiable and unmodifiable factors independently predictive of global quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Results: Of unmodifiable factors, female sex (P<0.001), more self-reported co-morbidities (P=0.006) and metastases at diagnosis (P=0.036) significantly predicted poorer QoL, but explained little of the variability in the model (R2=0.064). Adding modifiable factors, poorer role (P<0.001) and social functioning (P=0.003), fatigue (P=0.001), dyspnoea (P=0.001), anorexia (P<0.001), depression (P<0.001) and worse perceived consequences (P=0.013) improved the model fit considerably (R2=0.574). Omitting functioning subscales resulted in recent diagnosis (P=0.002), lower perceived personal control (P=0.020) and travel difficulties (P<0.001) becoming significant predictors. Conclusion: Most factors affecting QoL are modifiable, especially symptoms (fatigue, anorexia, dyspnoea) and depression. Beliefs about illness are also important. Unmodifiable factors, including metastatic (or unstaged) disease at diagnosis, have less impact. There appears to be potential for interventions to improve QoL in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:21559017

Gray, N M; Hall, S J; Browne, S; Macleod, U; Mitchell, E; Lee, A J; Johnston, M; Wyke, S; Samuel, L; Weller, D; Campbell, N C

2011-01-01

207

Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p  

SciTech Connect

We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor G{sup n}{sub E} via d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p. G{sup n}{sub E} was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ({sup 15}ND{sub 3}). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle segmented detector. We find G{sup n}{sub E} = 0.04632{+-}0.00616(stat){+-}0.00341(syst) at Q{sup 2} = 0.495 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

Hongguo Zhu; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; H. Arenhoevel; Chris Armstrong; C. Bernet; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Paul Brindza; D. Brown; S. Bueltmann; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; D. B. Day; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Yusuf Farah; Renee Fatimi; Kenneth Garrow; Chris Harris; Markus Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; M. Kaufmann; Mahbub Khandaker; Gunther Kubon; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; Robert Lourie; Allison Lung; David Mack; Sudhir Malik; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; Geoffrey Milanovich; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; M. Muehlbauer; Thomas Petitjean; Yelena Prok; Daniela Rohe; Emmanuel Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ingo Sick; C. Smith; Tim Southern; Michael Steinacher; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Al Tobias; Bill Vulcan; Glen Warren; H. Woehrle; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Marko Zeier; Jianguo Zhao; Beni Zihlmann

2001-08-20

208

Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Hemodialysis Patients in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0–100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m2) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1±19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0±8.6 and 39.6±8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life. PMID:24358336

Md. Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

2013-01-01

209

Factors which can influence the quality related to cell viability of the umbilical cord blood units.  

PubMed

Cell viability is an important indicator for the quality of umbilical cord blood (UCB) units that can influence the transplant final outcome. Thus, it is particularly important to identify the factors that may affect the cell quality during the banking process. The present study is a first attempt to correlate the impact of exogenous factors (time from collection to processing, collected UCB volume) and endogenous factors (TNCC - total nucleated cell count, CD34(+)cell count) on cell viability assessed before UCB units cryopreservation within a banking standardized process. Three thousand UCB units collected in 35?ml CPDA containing bags were processed by HES sedimentation within 48 h. TNCC, CD34(+) cell counts and total cell viability were determined after processing. Cell viability of 94.37?±?4.67%, TNCC of 73.17?±?36.73?×?10(7) and CD34(+)cell count of 2.61?±?2.29?×?10(6) was obtained after processing of units with UCB collected volume of 80.23?±?28.52?ml. A significant negative correlation was found between cell viability and the time from collection to processing (r?=?-0.7228; P?80?ml, to 48?h versus 12?h. There were no differences considering cell viability for the UCB units with similar collected UCB volume that had various CD34(+)cell count or TNCC (P?>?0.05). The extension of the time from collection to processing of UCB units can reduce the quality by decreasing cell viability. The cell viability decreasing rate owing to the time influence is determined by the collected UCB volume being inversely proportional to it. Endogenous factors do not affect the cell viability. PMID:25219638

Dulugiac, Magda; Horeanga, Ionela; Torcatoru, Andrei; Bardas, Alexandru; Matei, Georgiana; Zarnescu, Otilia

2014-12-01

210

[Effects of environmental factors at different altitudes on leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple].  

PubMed

To inquire the different performances of the leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple tress at various altitudes and their responses to the environmental factors, indices including leaf morphology, anatomy, ?13 C, and fruit quality of the Fuji apple trees at respective altitudes of 1375 m, 1575 m and 1715 m were investigated and their responses to environmental factors were determined following stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that 6 factors like the warmth index, Bailey's index, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), coldness index, ultraviolet B and the annual precipitation dominantly affected the characteristic parameters of leaves and fruit. Elevation increase was matched by the decreasing warmth index, rising Bailey' s index, intenser PAR, higher coldness index, stronger ultraviolet B and heavier annual precipitation; meanwhile, the leaf structure and fruit quality parameters also displayed evident trends of change accordingly, namely, leaf parameters like leaf thickness, cuticle thickness, ratio of palisade and spongy, maximum conduit diameter, ?13C and nitrogen content per unit area increased gradually, and oppositely, leaf length-width ratio, specific leaf area, stoma length-width ratio and ratio of upper and lower epidermis to the leaf thickness decreased gradually; similarly, fruit parameters such as fruit shape index, fruit hardness, sugar-acid ratio, total color and the a/b-value ascended while the titratable acid and the hue angle descended. With increasing the altitude, the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of leaves were enhanced, and the fruit sugar-acid ratio climbed and the fruit flavor and color improved. Therefore, it could be safely concluded that within the altitude range between 1375 and 1715 m, environmental factors at a higher altitude favored Fuji apple growth. PMID:25509074

Luo, Wen-Wen; Gao, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Dong; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Liu, Hang-Kong

2014-08-01

211

Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic heart failure in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Sleep disorders are common among patients with chronic heart failure (HF), and it can have a significant effect on patients’ daily activities as well as their health. The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and its predictors in Iranian patients with chronic HF. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 patients with HF in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to November 2009. These patients completed a demographic questionnaire, and their sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and Linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients (n = 158) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5). The range of global PSQI scores was 3–20. Also, a significant relationship was found between PSQI scores and patients’ age (p<0.004), gender (p< 0.042), educational level (p< 0.001), occupational status (p< 0.038), number of hospitalizations (p< 0.005), type of referral (p< 0.001), non-cardiac diseases (p< 0.001), diuretic use (p< 0.021) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p< 0.015). Three predictors were identified using regression analyses with stepwise methods, and included age, type of referral and educational level. Conclusion: The high prevalence of poor sleep quality highlighted the importance of sleep disorders in HF patients. There are many factors associated with sleep quality and sleep disorders that health providers should recognize for improved and effective management.

Moradi, Mina; Mehrdad, Neda; Nikpour, Soghra; Haghani, Hamid; Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Sharifi, Farshad

2014-01-01

212

Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength ?˜1.3 ?m , with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

Vico Triviño, Noelia; Minkov, Momchil; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas

2014-12-01

213

Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

2014-01-01

214

Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better understanding of this occurrence. Methods Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), was reviewed and discussed. Results Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana, where a larger number and variety of anti-malarials were sampled. Poor quality was more frequent in the private and informal sector than in the public sector, posing a greater threat to the populations at risk, which are mostly located in hard to reach areas with scarce public facilities. Stock-outs identified in the public sector in Guyana could enhance the need to access those alternative sectors, exacerbating the risk of utilizing poor quality medicines. The availability of monotherapies and other non-recommended therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, could also have contributed to the diminished efficacy. The type of quality deficiencies identified -reduced content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or poor dissolution- and the irrational use of non-recommended treatments could result in non-sustained or lower levels of API in blood, favouring survival of more resistant mutants by exposing parasites to sub-lethal doses of the active ingredient. Conclusions The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described in Guyana and Suriname. However, also other factors need to be considered and a more comprehensive and extensive assessment on quality and pharmaceutical management is necessary to establish a tighter cause-effect correlation. Nevertheless, relevant authorities in these and neighbouring countries should take into consideration the reviewed data to properly address the problem when implementing corrective actions. PMID:24581434

2014-01-01

215

Local quality functions for graph clustering with non-negative matrix factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many graph clustering quality functions suffer from a resolution limit, namely the inability to find small clusters in large graphs. So-called resolution-limit-free quality functions do not have this limit. This property was previously introduced for hard clustering, that is, graph partitioning. We investigate the resolution-limit-free property in the context of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for hard and soft graph clustering. To use NMF in the hard clustering setting, a common approach is to assign each node to its highest membership cluster. We show that in this case symmetric NMF is not resolution-limit free, but that it becomes so when hardness constraints are used as part of the optimization. The resulting function is strongly linked to the constant Potts model. In soft clustering, nodes can belong to more than one cluster, with varying degrees of membership. In this setting resolution-limit free turns out to be too strong a property. Therefore we introduce locality, which roughly states that changing one part of the graph does not affect the clustering of other parts of the graph. We argue that this is a desirable property, provide conditions under which NMF quality functions are local, and propose a novel class of local probabilistic NMF quality functions for soft graph clustering.

van Laarhoven, Twan; Marchiori, Elena

2014-12-01

216

Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.  

PubMed

The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

2011-01-01

217

Quality of Life and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Community Health Care Program Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define “higher” and “lower” scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women. PMID:19061001

Martinelli, Luiz Mário Baptista; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Mutti, Anibal; Dèlia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Coltro, Rodrigo Soler; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2008-01-01

218

High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24?±?3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz–8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

Najar, Hadi, E-mail: hnajar@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chan, Mei-Lin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2014-04-14

219

Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

Voroshilova, Anna A.

2015-01-01

220

Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.  

PubMed

COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID:24653767

Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

2014-03-15

221

Prognostic factors. Confusion caused by bad quality design, analysis and reporting of many studies.  

PubMed

In contrast to therapeutic research guidance to design, conduct, analyse and report studies on prognostic factors is less developed and often several deficiencies are stressed. For the assessment of the importance of a factor of interest a systematic review of the corresponding studies would be required, however, this is hardly possible because of many weaknesses in the individual studies. In this article I will discuss several deficiencies of the analysis of prognostic factor studies and shortly discuss problems of reporting and of a summary assessment. By using 3 studies in cancer and a hypotheitcal study as examples I will discuss categorization respectively the determination of a functional form for a continuous factor, sample size, multivariable analysis and data quality. The message of this paper is that serious improvements of prognostic factor studies are required. This can be achieved by a closer collaboration between several disciplines and a closer collaboration at the international level. Specifically, experienced statisticians have to play a central role in the planning, analysis, interpretation and reporting of these studies. PMID:15608428

Sauerbrei, Willi

2005-01-01

222

Neutron spectroscopic factors of Nickel-56 via Nickel(p,d)-56 Nickel-55 reaction in inverse kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer reactions have been the classic tool for studying the angular distributions, the excitation energies, and the spectroscopic factors of possible single-particles states. With the advent of radioactive beams, there has been a renewed effort to utilize these beams in transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. The exact shell structure of the unstable doubly magic nucleus 56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if 56Ni has a closed f7/2 orbital, we have carried out the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni transfer reaction measurement with the radioactive 56Ni beam in inverse kinematics for the first time at the NSCL using the HiRA array and S800 spectrograph. The spectroscopic factor predicted by the independent particle model is 8, shell-model calculations give value of 6.8. We have extracted spectroscopic factors of the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni reaction, for the ground and two excited states of 55Ni. The neutron SF value of 7 for the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni ground state agrees with shell-model calculations supports the view that 56Ni is a closed shell nucleus. This result supports the use of 56Ni as a core in shell-model calculations. Another important goal was to study the structure of 55Ni by determining the spin and parities of excited states. We have assigned an ? value of 1 to first excited state of 55Ni for 2.089 MeV state of 55Ni. We have extracted a spectroscopic factor of 0.14 for this state. This serves as a second test of the shell model, and the results agree with the shell model calculations. We have confirmed the tentative ? = 0 assumption for 3.185 MeV state. A neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.2 was obtained for this state.

Sanetullaev, Alisher

223

Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of the management and active, inspirational team leadership appear to be important. Not only patient outcomes but also the performance indicators of monitoring and screening/assessment showed improvement in many but not all of the QI teams with such characteristics. More studies are needed to identify factors associated with the impact of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in mental healthcare. PMID:22230594

2012-01-01

224

A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.

Aidan Kelleher

2010-10-01

225

Large quality factor in sheet metamaterials made from dark dielectric meta-atoms.  

PubMed

Metamaterials--or artificial electromagnetic materials--can create media with properties unattainable in nature, but mitigating dissipation is a key challenge for their further development. Here, we demonstrate a low-loss metamaterial by exploiting dark bound states in dielectric inclusions coupled to the external waves by small nonresonant metallic antennas. We experimentally demonstrate a dispersion-engineered metamaterial based on a meta-atom made from alumina, and we show that its resonance has a much larger quality factor than metal-based meta-atoms. Finally, we show that our dielectric meta-atom can be used to create sheet metamaterials with negative permittivity or permeability. PMID:24702415

Jain, Aditya; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

2014-03-21

226

Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million  

SciTech Connect

We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ? 2?×?10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

Lai, Y.; Badolato, A., E-mail: antonio.badolato@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Minkov, M.; Savona, V. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-06-16

227

Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

Olsson, R. H., III

2012-03-01

228

Symmetric reflection line resonator and its quality factor modulation by a two-dimensional electron gas  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.

Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Jiang, Hong-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Siddiqi, Irfan [Quantum Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-02-24

229

Student Motivation and the "Feel Good" Factor: An Empirical Examination of Motivational Predictors of University Service Quality Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination…

Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

2015-01-01

230

Examining the Relationship between Global and Domain Measures of Quality of Life by Three Factor Structure Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between global and domain measures of quality of life from a psychometric perspective by three different factor structure models. Three hundred and four students at National Taiwan University participated in this study. They completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, a global measurement for quality of…

Wu, Chia-Huei; Yao, Grace

2007-01-01

231

Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

2015-01-01

232

High quality-factor optical nanocavities in bulk single-crystal diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics.

Burek, Michael J.; Chu, Yiwen; Liddy, Madelaine S. Z.; Patel, Parth; Rochman, Jake; Meesala, Srujan; Hong, Wooyoung; Quan, Qimin; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-12-01

233

High quality-factor optical nanocavities in bulk single-crystal diamond.  

PubMed

Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. PMID:25511421

Burek, Michael J; Chu, Yiwen; Liddy, Madelaine S Z; Patel, Parth; Rochman, Jake; Meesala, Srujan; Hong, Wooyoung; Quan, Qimin; Lukin, Mikhail D; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-01-01

234

Methods of incorporation of biomagnification and bioavailability into Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative bioaccumulation factors  

SciTech Connect

In the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative, the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) accounts for bioavailability and food chain biomagnification. A summary of the derivation and uses of these methodologies will be made. The method for determining the freely dissolved (bioavailable) portion of the chemical in the ambient water is based upon a three compartment partitioning model which consists of the freely dissolved chemical, and chemical sorbed to dissolved and particulate organic carbon. The methodology accounting for food chain biomagnification in the prediction of BAFs uses food chain multipliers to adjust bioconcentration factors to BAFS. The food chain multipliers were developed using the food chain model of Gobas (1993) and Great Lakes data.

Burkhard, L.; Cook, P. [Environmental Protection Agency., Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1995-12-31

235

Debye-Waller factor through the glass transition temperature in a-selenium, by incoherent inelastic neutron scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report, in this work, Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering (IINS) measurements in amorphous bulk selenium. Taking into account the low frequency Vibrational Density-of-States(VDOS), we study the modification introduced in the Debye-Waller factor by increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature ( Tg). The occurrence, in the vibrational density-of-states, of a ? 2 dependence in the acoustic region, allowed us to apply the Debye theory from which the variations of the Deybe-Waller factor are calculated in addition. It is shown that the main contribution to it is given by the acoustic region of the vibrational density of states and has a faster increase for temperatures above Tg.

Galli, G.; Migliardo, P.; Bellissent, R.; Reichardt, W.

1986-01-01

236

Neutron spectroscopic factors of 7Li and astrophysical 6Li(n,g)7Li reaction rates  

E-print Network

Angular distributions of the 7Li(6Li,6Li)7Li elastic scattering and the 7Li(6Li,7Li_{g.s.})6Li, 7Li(6Li,7Li*_{0.48})6Li transfer reactions at Ec.m. = 23.7 MeV were measured with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph. The optical potential of 6Li+7Li was obtained by fitting the elastic scattering differential cross sections. Based on the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) analysis, spectroscopic factors of 7Li=6Li+n were determined to be 0.73 +- 0.05 and 0.90 +- 0.09 for the ground and first exited states in 7Li, respectively. Using the spectroscopic factors, the cross sections of the 6Li(n,g)7Li direct neutron capture reactions and the astrophysical 6Li(n,g)7Li reaction rates were derived.

Jun Su; Zhihong Li; Bing Guo; Xixiang Bai; Zhichang Li; Jiancheng Liu; Youbao Wang; Gang Lian; Sheng Zeng; Baoxiang Wang; Shengquan Yan; Yunju Li; Ertao Li; Qiwen Fan; Weiping Liu

2010-01-25

237

Factors affecting adherence to a quality improvement checklist on an inpatient hepatology service  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing emphasis on measuring quality indicators such as adherence to practice guidelines, we sought to determine the factors and address the barriers affecting guideline adherence on an academic inpatient hepatology service. We performed a single-center, prospective observational study. Physicians were given a handheld checklist to complete daily. We first measured the adherence rate and studied factors affecting adherence by performing surveys. We then modified the program to address the factors affecting adherence and reassessed the adherence rate. There was a baseline 46% checklist adherence rate. Reasons given for nonadherence fell into two categories: ease of task and physician commitment from both attending physicians and housestaff. Specific reasons given were that the attending did not prompt (39%), the adherence sheet was not in the chart (35%), the individual forgot (12%), as well as lack of time, unclear protocol, “too difficult,” and “didn—t pay attention” (4% each). Each of these factors was addressed with a multimodal approach. Thereafter, the adherence rate rose from 46% to 83% (P < 0.001). Maintaining checklist adherence is time intensive and requires commitment from the whole medical team. PMID:24688186

Lai, Michelle

2014-01-01

238

An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities  

SciTech Connect

Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Q{sub d}) than the Ohmic quality factor (Q{sub ohm}). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Q{sub d} and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Q{sub d} accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Q{sub d} with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, L. H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2014-10-15

239

An Epidemiological Study on Trigger Factors and Quality of Life in Psoriatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: to evaluate the role of stress, tobacco, drugs, infections, allergies, heredity, alcohol, hormones and skin aggressions as trigger factors and the impact on quality of life in a sample of psoriasis patients. Methods: a transversal study performed in 90 patients affected by psoriasis between January and November 2012 at the “Nene Tereza” University Hospital, Tirane, Albania, based on two scored questionnaires. Results: more than 70 % of patients reported that stressful events caused a flare- up of their psoriasis (p< 0.05). More than 60% of males and 20% of females were smokers (p< 0.05). About 20% of our patients were taking one or more of the medications listed in the questionnaire (p> 0.05). About 20% of patients reported having had recurrent infections (p<0,05). About 80% of males patients consumed alcohol (p<0,05). More than 40% reported a relative with psoriasis. Statistical comparison of the group that reported skin aggressions with the group that did not revealed a significant difference (p<0,05). Only a few of them reported to have allergies (p>0,05). About 36% of females reported that hormonal changes (puberty and menopause) exacerbated their psoriasis (p<0,05). More than 40% of patients reported that psoriasis seriously affects their quality of life. Conclusion: stress, tobacco, infections, heredity, alcohol, hormonal changes and skin aggressions were confirmed as trigger factors for psoriasis in the present sample. Allergies and the investigated drugs seemed not to have any influence in flare-ups. We found that psoriasis had a serious impact in the quality of life in over of 40% of the patients interviewed. PMID:25126009

Xhaja, Alert; Shkodrani, Entela; Frangaj, Silvan; Kuneshka, Loreta; Vasili, Ermira

2014-01-01

240

Impact of solvent quality on the density profiles of looped triblock copolymer brushes by neutron reflectivity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-deuterated polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-dPS-PVP) triblock copolymers from toluene onto silicon leads to the formation of dPS loops tethered by the PVP end blocks. Using neutron reflectometry, we have determined the segment density profiles of these looped polymer brushes in toluene, a good solvent for the dPS block, and in cyclohexane at 20 C (poor solvent), 32 C, (near- solvent), and 50 C (marginal solvent). While the swelling behavior qualitatively agrees with that observed for singly grafted brushes, there are interesting differences in the local structural details: In a good solvent, the segment density profiles are composed of an inner parabolic region and a long, extended tail. In cyclohexane, the profiles are described by exponential decays. We ascribe these features to a novel polydispersity effect that arises due to tethering the PS loops by both ends. The results also show that the less dense layers undergo more significant changes in swollen height as solvent quality is changed and that the looped brushes of different molecular weight, asymmetry, and tethering density adhere to scaling relationships derived for lightly cross-linked polymer gels.

Huang, Zhenyu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alonzo, Jose [Clemson University; Liu, Ming [ORNL; Ji, Haining [ORNL; Yin, Fang [University of Utah; Smith, Grant [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

2008-01-01

241

Absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for cylindrical chambers in high energy photon beams.  

PubMed

Recent working groups of the AAPM [Almond et al., Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999)] and the IAEA (Andreo et al., Draft V.7 of "An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water," IAEA, 2000) have described guidelines to base reference dosimetry of high energy photon beams on absorbed dose to water standards. In these protocols use is made of the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, kQ which scales an absorbed-dose calibration factor at the reference quality 60Co to a quality Q, and which is calculated based on state-of-the-art ion chamber theory and data. In this paper we present the measurement and analysis of beam quality conversion factors kQ for cylindrical chambers in high-energy photon beams. At least three chambers of six different types were calibrated against the Canadian primary standard for absorbed dose based on a sealed water calorimeter at 60Co [TPR10(20)=0.572, %dd(10)x=58.4], 10 MV [TPR10(20)=0.682, %dd(10)x=69.6), 20 MV (TPR10(20)=0.758, %dd(10)x= 80.5] and 30 MV [TPR10(20) = 0.794, %dd(10)x= 88.4]. The uncertainty on the calorimetric determination of kQ for a single chamber is typically 0.36% and the overall 1sigma uncertainty on a set of chambers of the same type is typically 0.45%. The maximum deviation between a measured kQ and the TG-51 protocol value is 0.8%. The overall rms deviation between measurement and the TG-51 values, based on 20 chambers at the three energies, is 0.41%. When the effect of a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve is taken into account in the calculations, the maximum deviation is 1.1% and the overall rms deviation between measurement and calculation 0.48%. When the beam is specified using TPR10(20), and measurements are compared with kQ values calculated using the version of TG-21 with corrected formalism and data, differences are up to 1.6% when no sleeve corrections are taken into account. For the NE2571 and the NE2611A chamber types, for which the most literature data are available, using %dd(10)x, all published data show a spread of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, over the entire measurement range, compared to spreads of up to 1.1% for both chambers when the kQ values are expressed as a function of TPR10(20). For the PR06-C chamber no clear preference of beam quality specifier could be identified. When comparing the differences of our kQ measurements and calculations with an analysis in terms of air-kerma protocols with the same underlying calculations but expressed in terms of a compound conversion factor CQ, we observe that a system making use of absorbed-dose calibrations and calculated kQ values, is more accurate than a system based on air-kerma calibrations in combination with calculated CQ (rms deviation of 0.48% versus 0.67%, respectively). PMID:11190960

Seuntjens, J P; Ross, C K; Shortt, K R; Rogers, D W

2000-12-01

242

The influence of different technique factors on image quality of chest radiographs as evaluated by modified CEC image quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) research project ''Predictivity and optimisation in medical radiation protection'' addressed fundamental operational limitations in existing radiation protection mechanisms. The first part of the project aimed at investigating (1) whether the CEC image quality criteria could be used for optimization of a radiographic process and (2) whether significant differences in image quality based on

B LANHEDE; MB ATH; S KHEDDACHE; P SUND; L BJORNELD; M WIDELL; A ALMEN; J BESJAKOV; S MATTSSON; A TINGBERG; W PANZER; M ZANKL

243

Neutron radiography  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography is becoming a well established nondestructive testing (NDT) method. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recognized the method through its recommended practice SNT-TCIA which outlines training, knowledge, and experience necessary to obtain levels of competency in the method. Certification of nondestructive testing personnel is also covered in a military standard. Technical publications in the field of NDT and nuclear technology carry articles on neutron radiography and technical meetings include papers or even entire sessions on neutron radiography. There is an on-going series of international conferences on neutron radiography. Many books are available to provide introductory and advanced material on neutron radiographic techniques and applications. Neutron radiography as a service for hire is available, similar to that offered for other NDT services. The method is being adopted to solve NDT problems in specialty areas. The objective of this report is to provide a brief survey of the current state of the art in the use of neutron radiography. The survey will include information on the technique including principles of the method, sources of neutrons, detection methodology, standards and image quality indicators, and representative applications. An extensive reference list provides additional information for those who wish to investigate further and a Glossary is included which provides definitions for terms used in Neutron Radiography.

Berger, H.; Iddings, F.

1998-08-01

244

Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD  

PubMed Central

COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?2 = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test – Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism PMID:24653767

Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, VL

2014-01-01

245

A friend in need: the role of friendship quality as a protective factor in peer victimization and bullying.  

PubMed

This study examined friendship quality as a possible moderator of risk factors in predicting peer victimization and bullying. Children (50 boys and 49 girls, ages 10 to 13 years) reported on the quality of their best friendship, as well as their bullying and victimization tendencies. Parents reported on their child's internalizing and externalizing behaviors, in addition to bullying and victimization tendencies. Results indicated that externalizing problems were related to bullying behavior; however, friendship quality moderated this relation such that among children with externalizing behaviors, a high-quality friendship significantly attenuated bullying behavior. Internalizing problems and low friendship quality were significantly related to victimization; however, friendship quality did not moderate the relation between internalizing problems and victimization. Implications for interventions based on these findings are discussed. PMID:15851537

Bollmer, Julie M; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J; Maras, Melissa A

2005-06-01

246

Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

1975-01-01

247

Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor.  

PubMed

A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration. PMID:25430150

Sader, John E; Friend, James R

2014-11-01

248

Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage  

PubMed Central

Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97, N = 2,841) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, N = 1,702). We found that economic factors are an important predictor of conflict for both married and cohabiting couples. Affection was particularly responsive to human capital rather than short-term economic indicators. Economic hardship was associated with more conflict among married and cohabiting couples. PMID:21691414

Hardie, Jessica Halliday

2011-01-01

249

Energy dissipation in tapping-mode scanning force microscopy with low quality factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase angle of the cantilever oscillation in tapping mode scanning force microscopy can be related to the energy dissipated per oscillation period through an analytical model that assumes a sinusoidal movement of the cantilever [J. Tamayo and R. Garc?´a, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2926 (1998); J. P. Cleveland, B. Anczykowski, E. Schmid, and V. Elings, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2613 (1998)]. In this work, numerical calculations of the oscillation of cantilevers with quality factors lower than 10 show a significant contribution of higher harmonics (˜5%-20%). This contribution can lead to a significant error in the energy dissipated deduced by using the model cited above. Thus, an extended relationship between the phase shift and the energy dissipated is presented, that takes into account the higher harmonics of the oscillation. These results determine the conditions for the measurement of energy dissipation in a liquid.

Tamayo, Javier

1999-11-01

250

Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration.

Sader, John E.; Friend, James R.

2014-11-01

251

Factors influencing psychological status and quality of life in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.  

PubMed

Various mental and social problems can negatively impact the quality of life and overall health in patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD). In this report, we review and summarize the main studies and research related to this topic. Depression, anxiety, panic attacks, stress and post-traumatic stress are the most common symptoms of ICD-related disorders that can negatively impact mental status. Factors than can influence the impact of these psychological disorders include socio-demographic variables (younger age, gender, and employment), variables related to the ICD (number of ICD shocks, generator size, time from ICD implant, etc.) and psycho-social variables (negative coping strategies, lack of social support and personality type). Fortunately, these disorders, and their symptoms, can be prevented, treated or managed, if recognized. PMID:25433355

Kajanová, Alena; Bulava, Alan; Eisenberger, Martin

2014-11-30

252

Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors  

PubMed Central

Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

2014-01-01

253

Factors influencing trust in doctors: a community segmentation strategy for quality improvement in healthcare  

PubMed Central

Background Trust is a forward-looking covenant between the patient and the doctor where the patient optimistically accepts his/her vulnerability. Trust is known to improve the clinical outcomes. Objectives To explore the factors that determine patients’ trust in doctors and to segment the community based on factors which drive their trust. Setting Resource-poor urban and rural settings in Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 625 adult community-dwelling respondents from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India, chosen by multistage sampling strategy. Outcome measures The outcomes were to understand the main domains of factors influencing trust in doctors and to segment the community based on which of these domains predominantly influenced their trust. Results Factor analysis revealed five main categories, namely, comfort with the doctor, doctor with personal involvement with the patient, behaviourally competent doctor, doctor with a simple appearance and culturally competent doctor, which explained 49.3% of the total variance. Using k-means cluster analysis the respondents were segmented into four groups, namely, those who have ‘comfort-based trust’, ‘emotionally assessed trust’, who were predominantly older and belonging to lower socioeconomic status, those who had ‘personal trust’, who were younger people from higher socioeconomic strata of the community and the group who had ‘objectively assessed trust’, who were younger women. Conclusions Trust in doctors seems to be influenced by the doctor's behaviuor, perceived comfort levels, personal involvement with the patient, and to a lesser extent by cultural competence and doctor's physical appearance. On the basis of these dimensions, the community can be segmented into distinct groups, and trust building can happen in a strategic manner which may lead to improvement in perceived quality of care. PMID:24302512

Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

254

Fracture History in Osteoporosis: Risk Factors and its Effect on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background: Fractures are one of the main outcomes in osteoporosis and have an important effect on the general health status. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of major fracture history on quality of life. We also investigated the important risk factors and their effect on bone mineral density and fracture history. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We recruited 105 patients who were admitted to an osteoporosis outpatient clinic. Medical history, family history, calcium intake, physical activity level and biochemical tests were evaluated. Lumbar spine and femur neck bone mineral density were measured. The Qualeffo-41 questionnaire was also used for evaluating quality of life. Results: The average age of the 105 patients included in the study was 56.04±13.73 and 89% of them were post-menopausal women. The average body mass index was 26.84±5.99, which means that the women were overweight. Also, 48.5% of the patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis and 51.5% of them were diagnosed as low bone density. A total of 34 patients had a fracture history with minor trauma and some of the patients had more than one fracture (12 ankle and foot, 10 forearm, 9 vertebral, 4 hand, 3 hip, 2 rib, 1 tibial). When the patients with and without fracture history were compared, the mean Qualeffo-41 score in patients with fracture was 43.85±2.57 and in the non-fracture group was 36.27±2.01. Conclusion: Forearm, ankle and foot fractures can be commonly seen in osteoporosis patients with fracture history. We suggest that it is important to recognise osteoporosis prior to first fracture and disease-specific quality of life assessment should be done. PMID:25667782

Kuru, P?nar; Akyüz, Gülseren; Cer?it, Hülya Peynirci; Çelenlio?lu, Alp Eren; Cumhur, Ahmet; Biricik, ?efikcan; Kozan, Seda; Gök?en, Aylin; Özdemir, Mikail; Lüleci, Emel

2014-01-01

255

Factors affecting the use of patient survey data for quality improvement in the Veterans Health Administration  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how to use patient feedback to improve experiences of health care. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) conducts regular patient surveys that have indicated improved care experiences over the past decade. The goal of this study was to assess factors that were barriers to, or promoters of, efforts to improve care experiences in VA facilities. Methods We conducted case studies at two VA facilities, one with stable high scores on inpatient reports of emotional support between 2002 and 2006, and one with stable low scores over the same period. A semi-structured interview was used to gather information from staff who worked with patient survey data at the study facilities. Data were analyzed using a previously developed qualitative framework describing organizational, professional and data-related barriers and promoters to data use. Results Respondents reported more promoters than barriers to using survey data, and particularly support for improvement efforts. Themes included developing patient-centered cultures, quality improvement structures such as regular data review, and training staff in patient-centered behaviors. The influence of incentives, the role of nursing leadership, and triangulating survey data with other data on patients' views also emerged as important. It was easier to collect data on current organization and practice than those in the past and this made it difficult to deduce which factors might influence differing facility performance. Conclusions Interviews with VA staff provided promising examples of how systematic processes for using survey data can be implemented as part of wider quality improvement efforts. However, prospective studies are needed to identify the most effective strategies for using patient feedback to improve specific aspects of patient-centered care. PMID:22151714

2011-01-01

256

Neutron electric form factor up to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 GeV/c{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G{sub En}/G{sub Mn} , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic {sup 2}H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q{sup 2} = 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; S. Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; E Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; G. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; J. W. Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-07-15

257

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

258

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from a series of simulation and flight investigations undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks were analyzed to assess handling-quality factors common to both tasks. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping and rotor-system cross-coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate-command, attitude-command, and control-input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. NOE agility and instrument flying handling-quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

259

[Factors associated with quality of life in patients in renal replacement therapy in Brazil].  

PubMed

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious public health problem. The study of the impact of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in quality of life (QoL) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the QoL of patients on RRT and associated factors. 3036 patients on RRT in Brazil were interviewed in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, clinical and QoL aspects. Patients were randomly selected after a cluster sampling process on two levels: health services and patients. QoL was measured by Eq5D. The instrument allows the indirect measurement of QoL and utility calculation, in addition to the direct measurement of QoL by a visual analog scale (VAS). It was observed that transplant patients have better QoL and that the most prejudicial aspects are pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. The main factors associated with QOL are age, female gender, variables associated with the clinical condition of the patient such as the need for hospitalization and the presence of comorbidities, social class and variables associated with the health service use. The correlation between VAS and utility calculated was moderate and the 5 Eq5D questions explain 43% of the variability of VAS. The calculated utility can be used in cost-utility analysis. PMID:23827894

Alvares, Juliana; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Szuster, Daniele Araujo Campos; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

2013-07-01

260

Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools  

SciTech Connect

During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

Caldwell, Barrett S. [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)], E-mail: bscaldwell@purdue.edu

2008-05-01

261

Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.  

PubMed

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

2013-07-01

262

Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

2013-07-01

263

Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

2005-01-01

264

Service Needs and Factors Related to Quality of Life at Time of Service Enrollment Among Persons Living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationships of HIV risk factors, service needs, and vulnerabilities to health-related quality of life in a sample of 1,371 participants newly enrolled into 13 innovative HIV\\/AIDS treatment model service demonstration projects. These projects targeted services to traditionally underserved populations. Eight distinct quality of life clusters of HIV patients were used in this analysis along with patient

G. J. Huba; Lisa A. Melchior; David A. Cherin; Judith Steinberg; Geoffrey A. D. Smereck; Karen Richardson-Nassif; Peter Reis; Karen L. Meredith; Sandra S. McDonald; Trudy A. Larson; Eustache Jean-Louis; Victor F. German; Tracey Gallagher; Vivian B. Brown; A. T. Panter; Katherine Marconi

2000-01-01

265

Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here, we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: (1) record quality factors Q > 2 × 1011 up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; (2) Q ˜ 3 × 1010 at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Melnychuk, O.

2014-12-01

266

Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16,900 in the near infrared  

E-print Network

Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16,900 at the resonant wavelength {\\lambda} $\\sim 1.3$ {\\mu}m, with a maximal measured Q value of 22,500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

Triviño, Noelia Vico; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas

2014-01-01

267

Factors influencing quality of life in patients during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiotherapy (RT) in combination with chemotherapy is a standard of care for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The RT is associated with side effects, which impact on quality of life (QoL). Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate the impact of RT on the QoL of patients with HNSCC during RT. Material and methods From September 2008 to February 2010, 205 patients with locally advanced HNSCC were enrolled. The data pertaining to their QoL were collected using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC Head and Neck Module (QLQ-H&N35) and then all items were transformed to a 0-100 scale according to the guidelines of the EORTC. The following clinical factors were chosen to study their potential influence on the QoL; site of primary, clinical stage, and methods of therapy: RT vs. chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Additionally, the sociodemographic factors (age, gender, education, habit of smoking) were studied. Results Deterioration of almost all scales and items in the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire were noted at the end of RT. The following factors negatively influenced the QoL: age < 60 years (p < 0.05), female gender (p < 0.05), habit of smoking (p < 0.01), advanced clinical stage (III and IV) (p < 0.05), site of primary (larynx, hypopharynx) (p < 0.01), and CRT (p < 0.01). Conclusions Our study showed that RT significantly negatively influenced QoL at the end of the RT course. Additionally, this study demonstrated that age, gender, smoking habit, tumor site, and clinical stage of disease showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNSCC patients during RT. PMID:25624853

?mijewska-Tomczak, Ma?gorzata; Olek-Hrab, Karolina; Hojan, Katarzyna; Golusi?ski, Wojciech; Ruci?ska, Anna; Adamska, Anna

2013-01-01

268

Duration of participation in continuous quality improvement: a key factor explaining improved delivery of Type 2 diabetes services.  

PubMed

BackgroundIt is generally recognised that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs support development of high quality primary health care systems. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating their system-wide effectiveness. We examined variation in quality of Type 2 diabetes service delivery in over 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres participating in a wide-scale CQI project over the past decade, and determined the influence of health centre and patient level factors on quality of care, with specific attention to health centre duration of participation in a CQI program.MethodsWe analysed over 10,000 clinical audit records to assess quality of Type 2 diabetes care of patients in 132 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community health centres in five states/territories participating in the ABCD project for varying periods between 2005 and 2012. Process indicators of quality of care for each patient were calculated by determining the proportion of recommended guideline scheduled services that were documented as delivered. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the amount of variation in Type 2 diabetes service delivery attributable to health centre or patient level factors and to identify those factors associated with greater adherence to best practice guidelines.ResultsHealth centre factors that were independently associated with adherence to best practice guidelines included longer participation in the CQI program, remoteness of health centres, and regularity of client attendance. Significantly associated patient level variables included greater age, and number of co-morbidities and disease complications. Health centre factors explained 37% of the differences in level of service delivery between jurisdictions with patient factors explaining only a further 1%.ConclusionsAt the health centre level, Type 2 diabetes service delivery could be improved through long term commitment to CQI, encouraging regular attendance (for example, through patient reminder systems) and improved recording and coordination of patient care in the complex service provider environments that are characteristic of non-remote areas. PMID:25408165

Matthews, Veronica; Schierhout, Gill; McBroom, James; Connors, Christine; Kennedy, Catherine; Kwedza, Ru; Larkins, Sarah; Moore, Elizabeth; Thompson, Sandra; Scrimgeour, David; Bailie, Ross

2014-11-19

269

A measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor Gn?M? form quasi-elastic ²[right arrow]H ([right arrow]e, e') at low Q²  

E-print Network

The neutron magnetic form factor GnM has been measured using the inclusive electro-disintegration 2H(e, e') of the deuteron for the first time. The longitudinally polarized electron beam of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator ...

Meitanis, Nikolas (Nikolas C.)

2006-01-01

270

Perturbation approach for the control of the quality factor in photonic crystal membranes: Application to selective absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Above the light line, guided modes cannot be perpetually sustained into a photonic crystal membrane owing to its periodic modulation. The resulting leaky waves are nowadays largely exploited in the context of integrated optics. We develop here a model affording insight into the mechanism that allows the obtention of resonances endowed with extremely high quality factors. As a matter of fact, the model indicates that the quality factor can take arbitrarily high values and that this phenomenon results from the coupling between guided and radiated modes. The obtained tight control over the emission spectrum of a photonic crystal membrane is employed to design a spectrally and spatially selective absorber.

Blanchard, Cédric; Viktorovitch, Pierre; Letartre, Xavier

2014-09-01

271

Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization. PMID:23514260

Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

2013-04-01

272

Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Material and Methods Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. Results Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5)], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6)], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8)] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1)] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ? 0.05). Conclusions Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility. PMID:25162573

Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

2014-01-01

273

Characterization of maize elongation factor 1A and its relationship to protein quality in the endosperm.  

PubMed Central

The protein synthesis elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is a multifunctional protein in eukaryotic cells. In maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm eEF1A co-localizes with actin around protein bodies, and its accumulation is highly correlated with the protein-bound lysine (Lys) content. We purified eEF1A from maize kernels by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and chromatofocusing. The identify of the purified protein was confirmed by microsequencing of an endoproteinase glutamic acid-C fragment and by its ability to bundle actin. Using purified eEF1A as a standard, we found that this protein contributes 0.4% of the total protein in W64A+ endosperm and approximately 1% of the protein in W64Ao2. Because eEF1A contains 10% Lys, it accounts for 2.2% of the total Lys in W64A+ and 2.3% of the Lys in W64Ao2. However, its concentration predicts 90% of the Lys found in endosperm proteins of both genotypes, indicating that eEF1A is a key component of the group of proteins that determines the nutritional quality of the grain. This notion is further supported by the fact that in floury2, another high-Lys mutant, the content of eEF1A increases with the dosage of the floury2 gene. These data provide the biochemical basis for further investigation of the relationship between eEF1A content and the nutritional quality of cereals. PMID:9390440

Sun, Y; Carneiro, N; Clore, A M; Moro, G L; Habben, J E; Larkins, B A

1997-01-01

274

Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

1994-01-01

275

The Influence of Environmental Factors on Sleep Quality in Hospitalized Medical Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep–wake disturbances are common in hospitalized patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight-saving time. Methods: Between March and April 2013, 118 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76?±?11?years; hospitalization: 8?±?7?days) enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results: Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2–59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half-way down for most of the 24?h. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e., 222?±?72 vs. 174?±?85 lux, p?quality and bed position/light exposure, which is worthy of further study. PMID:25566173

Bano, Milena; Chiaromanni, Federica; Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; De Rui, Michele; Amodio, Piero; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Mazzotta, Gabriella; Costa, Rodolfo; Montagnese, Sara

2014-01-01

276

Sharp whispering-gallery modes in rolled-up vertical SiO2 microcavities with quality factors exceeding 5000.  

PubMed

Record high quality (Q) factors of 5400 in vertical microtube ring resonators operated in emission mode are demonstrated. This is achieved by rolling-up a differentially strained SiO2 layer. We also present a theoretical model to investigate the limit of the Q factor. This model especially includes the effect of interlayer voids in the rolled-up geometry, which is found to have a larger effect than scattering due to notches in the spiral shape. PMID:23258030

Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Trommer, Jens; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Schmidt, Oliver G

2012-12-15

277

Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H- beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited).  

PubMed

Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of ?50 mA H(-) ions from the ion source with a ?5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of ?3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to ?170 °C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H(-) beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 °C. PMID:22380241

Stockli, Martin P; Han, B X; Hardek, T W; Kang, Y W; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Piller, C; Santana, M; Welton, R

2012-02-01

278

Measurement of the neutron's electric form factor G(E)(n) via doubly polarized, quasi-elastic scattering at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

We determined the electric form factor of the neutron GEn via the reaction d(e,e?n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a frozen, polarized 15ND3 target at Jefferson Lab. The knocked out neutrons were detected in a segmented plastic scintillator in coincidence with the quasi-elastically scattered electrons which were tracked in Hall C's High Momentum Spectrometer. To extract GEn, we compared the experimental beam-target asymmetry with theoretical calculations based on different GEn models. We report the results of the fall 2001 run at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)2.

Frank Wesselmann

2004-11-01

279

The Effect of Quality of Care on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: In this study, we evaluated the quality of care and control of cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed diabetic patients, identified during diabetes screening program, 1 year after diagnosis. Methods: In this prospective study, 83 newly diagnosed diabetic patients identified at screening in Isfahan, were studied. Height, weight, blood pressure, plasma glucose, lipids, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of these patients were measured 2 times, first at the time of diagnosis and then 1 year later, and the results were compared between two groups, with and without regular course of treatment. Results: Nearly 46.99% and 53.1% of the studied patients have regular and irregular course of treatment. After 1 year, significant improvement in the mean of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein and HbA1c was seen in patients with regular course of treatment except for blood pressure (P < 0.05). Frequency of controlled cardiovascular risk factors including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and LDL was significantly improved in patients with regular course of treatment (P < 0.05). Mentioned changes were not seen in patients with irregular course of treatment. Conclusions: The findings of the current study demonstrated that though diabetes screening program result in earlier diagnosis of patients with type 2 diabetes, but it seems that regular follow-up and proper management of newly diagnosed patients is crucial for appropriate glycemic and metabolic control and preventing its related micro and macrovascular complication.

Teimouri, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Amini, Massoud; Hovsepian, Silva

2014-01-01

280

A nationwide survey on quality of life and associated factors of adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life and associated factors for adults with HFASD. All participants (n = 154) had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, were over 18 years of age, lived in the community, and had used one or more support services during the survey period. The results demonstrated that psychosocial quality of life was lower than that of the general Japanese adult population. Environmental factors, such as mother's support and early diagnosis, were associated with better quality of life, and aggressive behaviors were associated with poorer quality of life, while expressive language level at preschool years, a conventional outcome predictor, did not predict quality of life. These results emphasize that quality of life measures should be included as outcome indicators in treating individuals with HFASD. PMID:22399449

Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

2013-01-01

281

Ultra High Quality Factor Microtoroid for Chemical and Biomedical Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have drawn attentions in various types of sensing, such as chemical- and bio-sensing. Even though various types of microcavity geometries have been investigated, research about on-chip WGM toroidal resonator has been discontinued for the sensing applications in aquatic environment. The strong benefits of the microtoroid are ultra-high-Q and small mode volume leading to high sensitivity to small change of environment, surrounding media refractive index change or light scatterer induced effective refractive index change. By using this ultra high-Q WGM resonator, radius >75nm polystyrene nanoparticle are detected in aquatic environment. In addition to polystyrene nanoparticle sensing, individual synthetic hemozoin crystals are detected and its size is measured. The hemozoin crystal sensing ultimately leads to malaria infection diagnose. A sol-gel method fabricated microlaser, co-work with Lina He, extended the sensing capability, detecting >30nm radius polystyrene nanoparticle. Since the water experiment is challenging and tackling the difficulty is main task, theoretical investigations are performed about WGM resonance quality factor, resonator mode volume, and noise to minimum detectable particle size. The research described in this dissertation will shed light on advanced chemical- and bio-sensor developments.

Kim, Woosung

282

A quantitative study of factors influencing quality of life in rural Mexican women diagnosed with HIV.  

PubMed

This quantitative study explored the level of Quality of Life (QoL) in indigenous Mexican women and identified psychosocial factors that significantly influenced their QoL, using face-to-face interviews with 101 women accessing care in an HIV clinic in Oaxaca, Mexico. Variables included demographic characteristics, levels of depression, coping style, family functioning, HIV-related beliefs, and QoL. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze participant characteristics, and women's scores on data collection instruments. Pearson's R correlational statistics were used to determine the level of significance between study variables. Multiple regression analysis examined all variables that were significantly related to QoL. Pearson's correlational analysis of relationships between Spirituality, Educating Self about HIV, Family Functioning, Emotional Support, Physical Care, and Staying Positive demonstrated positive correlation to QoL. Stigma, depression, and avoidance coping were significantly and negatively associated with QoL. The final regression model indicated that depression and avoidance coping were the best predictor variables for QoL. PMID:24759058

Holtz, Carol; Sowell, Richard; VanBrackle, Lewis; Velasquez, Gabriela; Hernandez-Alonso, Virginia

2014-01-01

283

Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter ?1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with ?1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of ?1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27].

Melnychuk, O.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.

2014-12-01

284

Factors affecting the relationship between psychological status and quality of life in COPD patients  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to (i) evaluate the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and (ii) identify the effect modifiers of this relationship in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 337 clinically stable COPD patients answered the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) (assessing HRQoL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic information, lung function, and other clinical data were collected. Results Most patients (93%) were male; they had a mean (SD) age of 68 (9) years and mild to very severe COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV1 52 (16)% predicted). Multivariate analyses showed that anxiety, depression, or both conditions were associated with poor HRQoL (for all SGRQ domains). The association between anxiety and total HRQoL score was 6.7 points higher (indicating a worse HRQoL) in current workers than in retired individuals. Estimates for patients with "both anxiety and depression" were 5.8 points lower in stage I-II than in stage III-IV COPD, and 10.2 points higher in patients with other comorbidities than in those with only COPD. Conclusions This study shows a significant association between anxiety, depression, or both conditions and impaired HRQoL. Clinically relevant factors affecting the magnitude of this association include work status, COPD severity, and the presence of comorbidities. PMID:20875100

2010-01-01

285

Material-mediated proangiogenic factor release pattern modulates quality of regenerated blood vessels.  

PubMed

Hydrogels designed to sustainably release bioactive molecules are extensively used to enhance tissue repair and regenerative therapies. Along this line, numerous efforts are made to control the molecular release rate and amount. In contrast, few efforts are made to control the molecular release pattern, and, subsequently, modulate the spatial organization of newly forming tissues, including blood vessels. Therefore, using a hydrogel printed to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into a pre-defined pattern, this study demonstrates that spatial distribution of VEGF is important in guiding growth direction of new blood vessels, and also in retaining the structural integrity of pre-existing vasculature. Guided by a computational model, we fabricated a patch composed of micro-sized VEGF-releasing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel cylinders using an ink-jet printer. Interestingly, hydrogel printed with computationally optimized spacing created anisotropically aligned vasculature exclusively when the printed gel pattern was placed parallel to pre-existing blood vessels. In contrast, vascular sprouting from placing the printed gel pattern perpendicular to pre-existing vessels resulted in deformation and structural disintegration of the original vasculature. We envision that this study will be useful to better understand angiogenesis-modulated neovascularization and further improve the treatment quality for various wounds and tissue defects. PMID:25450405

Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Baek, Kwanghyun; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Millet, Larry J; Bashir, Rashid; Kong, Hyunjoon

2014-12-28

286

Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

2014-01-01

287

Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter ?1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with ?1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of ?1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. PMID:25554312

Melnychuk, O; Grassellino, A; Romanenko, A

2014-12-01

288

Internal friction quality-factor Q under confining pressure. [of lunar rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been found in previous studies that small amounts of adsorbed volatiles can have a profound effect on the internal friction quality-factor Q of rocks and other porous media. Pandit and Tozer (1970) have suggested that the laboratory-measured Q of volatile-free rocks should be similar to the in situ seismic Q values of near-surface lunar rocks which according to Latham et al. (1970) are in the range of 3000-5000. Observations of dramatic increases in Q with outgassing up to values approaching 2000 in the seismic frequency range confirm this supposition. Measurements under confining pressures with the sample encapsulated under hard vacuum are reported to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface. It has been possible to achieve in the experiments Q values just under 2000 at about 1 kbar for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. It was found that a well-outgassed sample maintains a high Q whereas one exposed to moisture maintains a low Q as the confining pressure is raised to 2.5 kbar. This result suggests that volatiles can indeed affect Q when cracks are partially closed and the high lunar seismic Q values reported are concomitant with very dry rock down to depths of at least 50 km.

Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L.; Nadler, H.; Curnow, J.; Smith, T.; Cohen, E. R.

1977-01-01

289

Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

290

Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

2009-01-01

291

Classification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification of indoor air pollution determinant factors  

E-print Network

of indoor air pollution determinant factors Jean-Baptiste Masson1,2 * , Gérard Govaert2 , Corinne Mandin1 representing different types of indoor air pollution. We restrain to the 20 variables corresponding to indoorClassification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

2006-01-01

293

The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

2012-01-01

294

Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid  

E-print Network

Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here we show that a high-quality resonance (Q>20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity --- as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient --- is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Via the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up which includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and which can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

Hoof, Sebastian; Hoogenboom, Bart W

2012-01-01

295

Evaluation of clinical aspects and quality of life as risk factors for depression in patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical aspects and quality of life (QOL) as risk factors for depression in patients with epilepsy. One hundred and forty outpatients with a diagnosis of epilepsy who were attending our epilepsy center participated. Patients anonymously filled out a questionnaire with clinical data related to epilepsy. Depression level was evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17), and quality of life was evaluated by the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31). Thirty-six patients with epilepsy suffered from depression (25.7%). Complex partial seizures (OR=0.112) and number of seizure types (OR=3.773) were found to be clinical risk factors for depression. Low scores for seizure worry (OR=0.947) and social function (OR=0.947) on the QOLIE-31 increased the probability of depression in patients with epilepsy. PMID:22472268

Zhao, Ting; Sun, Ming-Yue; Yu, Pei-Min; Zhu, Guo-Xing; Tang, Xing-Hua; Shi, Yun-Bo; Hong, Zhen

2012-06-01

296

Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components. Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05). Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health. PMID:24558275

Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.

2014-01-01

297

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

Marko Zeier

2000-12-12

298

Epithermal Neutrons, Illumination, Spatial Scale and Topography: A Correlative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Detection of Slope Hydration Using LRO's Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research correlates the Moon’s south polar epithermal neutron flux, topography and a visible illumination model and shows that there is a widespread hydration of polward-facing (PF) slopes that is occurring at a continuum of spatial scales.

McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T.; Sagdeev, R.; Parsons, A. M.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Harshman, K.; Hamara, D.; Bodnarik, J.

2014-10-01

299

Neutron dosimetry in low-earth orbit using passive detectors.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes neutron dosimetry measurements made by the USF Physics Research Laboratory aboard US and Russian LEO spacecraft over the past 20 years using two types of passive detector. Thermal/resonance neutron detectors exploiting the 6Li(n,T) alpha reaction were used to measure neutrons of energies <1 MeV. Fission foil neutron detectors were used to measure neutrons of energies above 1 MeV. While originally analysed in terms of dose equivalent using the NCRP-38 definition of quality factor, for the purposes of this paper the measured neutron data have been reanalyzed and are presented in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Dose equivalent rate for neutrons <1 MeV ranged from 0.80 microSv/d on the low altitude, low inclination STS-41B mission to 22.0 microSv/d measured in the Shuttle's cargo bay on the highly inclined STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. In one particular instance a detector embedded within a large hydrogenous mass on STS-61 (in the ECT experiment) measured 34.6 microSv/d. Dose equivalent rate measurements of neutrons >1 MeV ranged from 4.5 microSv/d on the low altitude STS-3 mission to 172 microSv/d on the ~6 year LDEF mission. Thermal neutrons (<0.3 eV) were observed to make a negligible contribution to neutron dose equivalent in all cases. The major fraction of neutron dose equivalent was found to be from neutrons >1 MeV and, on LDEF, neutrons >1 MeV are responsible for over 98% of the total neutron dose equivalent. Estimates of the neutron contribution to the total dose equivalent are somewhat lower than model estimates, ranging from 5.7% at a location under low shielding on LDEF to 18.4% on the highly inclined (82.3 degrees) Biocosmos-2044 mission. PMID:11852945

Benton, E R; Benton, E V; Frank, A L

2001-06-01

300

Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

2011-01-01

301

A Retrospective Study of Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome: Incidence, Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Influence on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective. The underlying cause for postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) and its impact on quality of life remain unclear. The objective of this study aims to determine retrospectively the prevalence of PMPS, its predicting risk factors, and its impact on quality of life. Method. In this survey, 225 women completed a battery of questionnaires. The questionnaires comprised the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) exploring the characteristics and the description of the pain, and a Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey evaluating quality of life. Logistic regression analyses were subsequently performed to identify risk factors for PMPS. Results. 62 women (27.6%) reported PMPS as a consequence of surgery, and the pain was generally mild, mostly localized in breast area and intermittent. The pain was mainly described as aching (62.9%). 144 women reported sensory disturbance. We found that only the younger age is the predictive factor for PMPS (P < 0.05). Compared to the patients who did not experience PMPS, those who suffered from PMPS had significantly worse scores in role limitations due to physical problems (role physical, RP), body pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), role limitations due to emotional problems (role emotional, RE), and mental health (MH) (P < 0.05). Conclusion. PMPS is a significant problem, and the possible risk factors should be further explored. Patients with PMPS have significant worse quality of life, suggesting that patients should be well informed about the likelihood of experiencing the pain, and they may be afforded greater predictability and higher perceived control to enhance their quality of life. PMID:24379736

Ying, Feng

2013-01-01

302

Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific radiation type (Z = 1 to 28). Because the anomalous response has been observed at large event sizes in the experiment due to the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta-rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume cavity, Monte Carlo simulation was also made for the response of a walled-TEPC with wall thickness 2 mm and density 1 g/cm(exp 3). The radius of cavity was set to 6.35 mm and a gas density 7.874 x 10(exp -5) g/cm(exp 3). The response of the walled- and the wall-less counters were compared. The average quality factor Q(sub ave)(y) for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrated the good agreement between the model calculations and flight TEPC data as shown. Using an integrated space radiation model (this includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions of walled-TEPC from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. The Q(sub ave)(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Q(sub ave)(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Q(sub ave)(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis for a proper interpretation of data supports the use of TEPCs for monitoring space radiation environment.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

303

Bone quality: A determinant for certain risk factors for bone fragility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Low bone quantity alone is insufficient cause for fragility fractures. This paper examines the role of bone quality in the fracture risk associated with age, sex, and race. Aspects of bone quality to be considered are bone architecture, matrix, mineralization, and fatigue damage. The trabecular network becomes progressively disconnected and weaker with age. Death of old osteocytes leads to

Christine M. Schnitzler

1993-01-01

304

Resident, Nursing Home, and State Factors Affecting the Reliability of Minimum Data Set Quality Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing home quality measures impact policy decisions such as reimbursement or consumer choice. Quality indicators in the United States are collected through the federally mandated Minimum Data Set (MDS). Bias in MDS data collection or coding can thus have a negative impact on policy applications. To understand whether bias was present in coding, the authors studied 5174 pairs of MDS

Ning Wu; Vincent Mor; Jason Roy

2009-01-01

305

Impact of Environmental Factors on Product Quality of Greenhouse Vegetables for Fresh Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer interest worldwide in the quality of vegetable products has increased in recent years. Product quality is a complex issue. As well as visual characteristics, properties such as texture, the content of minerals and vitamins, flavor and other organoleptic characteristics must be considered. In addition, new knowledge shows that vegetables are appreciated for their beneficial health effects in humans and

N. Gruda

2005-01-01

306

Estimation of gas hydrate saturation using isotropic and anisotropic models at the location selected after measurement of seismic quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition (NGHP) 01 discovered gas hydrate in unconsolidated sediments at several drilling sites along the continental margins of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India. Presence of gas hydrate reduces the attenuation of travelling seismic waves which can be measured by estimation of seismic quality factor (Dasgupta and Clark, 1998). Here, we use log spectral ratio method (Sain et al, 2009) to compute quality factor at three locations, among which two have strong and one has no bottom simulating reflector (BSR), along seismic cross-line near one of the drilling site. Interval quality factor for three submarine sedimentary layers bounded by seafloor, BSR, one reflector above and another reflector below the BSR has been measured. To compute quality factor, unprocessed pre-stack seismic data has been used to avoid any influence of processing sequence. We have estimated that interval quality factor lies within 200-220 in the interval having BSR while it varies within 90-100 in other intervals. Thereby, high interval quality factor ascertains that observed BSR is due to presence of gas hydrates. We have performed rock physics modelling by using isotropic and anisotropic models, to quantitatively estimate gas hydrate saturation at one of the location where an interval has high quality factor. Abruptly high measured resistivity and high P-wave velocity in the interval, leads to towering hydrate saturation (Archie,1942 and Helegrud et al, 1999) in comparison to lower gas hydrate saturations estimated by pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Overestimation of saturation is attributed to presence of near vertical fractures that are identified from logging-while-drilling resistivity images. We have carried out anisotropic modeling (Kennedy and Herrick, 2004 and Lee,2009) by incorporating fracture volume and fracture porosity to estimate hydrate saturation and have observed that modeled gas hydrate saturations agree with the lower gas hydrate saturations obtained from pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Therefore, we find that 1) quality factor is significantly higher in the interval bearing gas hydrates and is a useful tool to discover hydrate deposits, 2) anisotropy due to presence of near vertical hydrate filled fractures translates into elevated saturation because of high measured resistivity and velocity and 3) anisotropic model greatly corrects the saturation estimates in fractured medium. References: Archie, G.E., 1942. Petroleum Transactions of AIME, 146, 54-62. Dasgupta, R., Clark, R.A., 1998. Geophysics 63, 2120-2128. Kennedy, W.D., Herrick, D.C., 2004. Petrophysics 45, 38-58. Lee, M.W., 2009. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5141, 13. Sain, K., Singh, A.K., Thakur, N.K., Khanna, R.K., 2009.Marine Geophysical Researches 30, 137-145.

Mundhra, A.; Sain, K.; Shankar, U.

2012-12-01

307

Neutron interactions with biological tissue. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of neutrons with tissue through the ejected secondary charged particles. The authors used theoretical calculations whose input includes neutron cross section data; range, stopping power, ion yield, and straggling information; and geometrical properties. Outputs are initial and slowing-down spectra of charged particles, kerma factors, average values of quality factors, microdosimetric spectra, and integral microdosimetric parameters such as {bar y}{sub F}, {bar y}{sub D}, y{sup *}. Since it has become apparent that nanometer site sizes are also relevant to radiobiological effects, the calculations of event size spectra and their parameters were extended to these smaller diameters. This information is basic to radiological physics, radiation biology, radiation protection of workers, and standards for neutron dose measurement.

NONE

1998-02-17

308

Investigation of the relationships between quality factor Q and complex permittivity to clay and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EU-project iSOIL (Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping) geophysical measurements on different soil types have been conducted. After accomplishing field measurements large soil samples (50 kg each) were taken to be investigated in laboratory. Sampling points were representative for the different soil types of the study sites. The samples were dried at room temperature and larger clusters were crumbled to assure the soil as homogeneous as possible. The measuring cell consists of a plastic cylinder of 75 cm height and 23.5 cm diameter. The cylinder is assembled with two plate electrodes at bottom and top and two ring electrodes around its middle part. Every soil sample is partially saturated with rain water in different steps and filled into the cylinder. Accordingly, the four mentioned electrodes are used to measure the electrical conductivity of the sample. GPR reflection measurements are conducted by placing a 1.6 GHz antenna on top of the sample inside the cylinder and recording the reflections originating from the bottom plate. The resulting parameters are electrical conductivity and GPR velocity (calculated from known travel path and recorded arrival time) that is directly linked to the real part of permittivity. The water content is controlled by oven drying of smaller sub-samples and weighting of added water and the whole soil sample at every step. Additional to electrical conductivity and permittivity we derived the quality factor Q directly from the wavelet shape of the reflection using the spectral ratio method. Q-values range between 4 and 16 and are lower for higher clay and water content. The relationship between these parameters can be described by an empirically derived logarithmic multivariate regression. Together with this independently determined parameter it is possible to calculate the imaginary part of permittivity, which is a measure of relaxation losses. This parameter can be fitted with a linear relationship to the real part of permittivity and includes a logarithmic dependency on clay content. Acknowledgment: iSOIL is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

Wunderlich, T.; Rabbel, W.; Petersen, H.; al Hagrey, S.

2011-12-01

309

Real time quality factor and dose equivalent meter 'CIRCE' and its use on-board the Soviet orbital station 'Mir'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CIRCE experiment, which recorded the dose rate and quality factor values inside the Mir station, is described. Results obtained with a new active dose equivalent meter based on microdosimetric techniques and using a low pressure tissue equivalent proportional counter are presented. It is shown that the CIRCE devise is a practical tool for systematic real-time dosimetry in shuttle flights and in space stations.

Nguyen, V. D.; Bouisset, P.; Parmentier, N.; Akatov, I. A.; Petrov, V. M.

310

The critical factors for implementing the quality system of ISO\\/TS 16949 in automobile parts industry in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since most manufacturers promote ISO\\/TS16949 quality system certification process through the help of external counsellors, this study focuses upon the auditors of ISO\\/TS 16949 as the primary objects of the research, in contrast to previous studies targeting certified manufacturers. Collecting data through questionnaire surveys, this study first utilises Kano's model to discover the main factors identified as potential improvements by

Tsu-Ming Yeh; Fan-Yun Pai; Kai-I Huang

2012-01-01

311

Quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease in remission: the impact of IBS-like symptoms and associated psychological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Quality of life is reduced in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whether or not this is true in IBD patients in long-standing remission is unclear. Symptoms compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in IBD patients in remission. The importance of psychological factors in this process is a matter of controversy.METHODS:Forty-three patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 40 with Crohn's

Magnus Simrén; Jenny Axelsson; Rolf Gillberg; Hasse Abrahamsson; Jan Svedlund; Einar S. Bjornsson

2002-01-01

312

Neutron dose equivalent next to the target shield of a neutron therapy facility using an LET counter.  

PubMed

The use of a spherical tissue-equivalent proportional counter for measurements of the lineal energy (y) and derivations of the linear energy transfer (LET) for fast neutrons has the advantage of giving distributions of dose and dose equivalent as functions of either LET or y. A measurement next to the target shielding of the neutron therapy facility at the University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics (UCHC) is described, and the data processing is outlined. The distributions are presented and compared to those from measurements in the neutron beam. The average quality factors are presented. PMID:6793823

Stinchcomb, T G; Kuchnir, F T

1981-01-01

313

Factors affecting quality of life and fatigue in patients with leukemia under chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of treating chronic diseases, including hematologic malignancies, is to increase patients’ life span and to improve their capabilities as much as possible; so that patients could maintain an appropriate level of quality of life (QoL) and continue their lives. Most studies performed to evaluate the treatment of various diseases were mostly focused on the increase of life expectancy regardless of the QoL and treatment issues. Furthermore, fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and treatments related to it, which can affect a patient's QoL, and be followed by many problems. This study was designed and implemented with the aim to determine the factors affecting the QoL and fatigue in patients with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation descriptive-analytical study. One hundred and fifteen patients with leukemia referred to Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital were enrolled in the study through convenient sampling method. To collect data, a three-part questionnaire was used: The first part was related to demographic characteristics and disease-related data and the second part was the fatigue check list and the third part was the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) related to QoL. The data were analyzed after collection and coding through Software SPSS version 18 and descriptive and analytical statistics (analysis of variance test, independent t test, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficient) with 95% confidence interval. Results: The results showed that there was a significant correlation between QoL in Physical Component Summary with gender (P = 0.03), educational level (P = 0.09), and marital status (P = 0.004), Also there was a significant correlation between QoL in Mental Component Summary with educational level (P = 0.01) and economic status (P = 0.02). Findings showed that there was a significant correlation between fatigue and marital status (P = 0.005). But statistically there was no significant correlation between demographic variables such as age, educational level, and employment status with patients’ fatigue. Spearman correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant correlation between fatigues with pain (P = 0.005). Also findings revealed the statistically significant correlation between fatigues with economic status (P = 0.003). Conclusion: According to the present results, it seems that some demographic factors affect QoL and significant relationship exists between them. Fatigue in patients with leukemia dramatically affects their QoL. Therefore, it is important for medical staff to pay attention to demographics and fatigue in leukemic patients in order to improve their QoL and help them to organize their activities to promote health and QoL. PMID:25077157

Musarezaie, Amir; Khaledi, Firuz; Esfahani, Homayoon Naji; Ghaleghasemi, Tahere Momeni

2014-01-01

314

Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

Lager, Julia M.

2009-06-02

315

Aging, Gender and Quality of Life (AGEQOL) study: factors associated with good quality of life in older Brazilian community-dwelling adults.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn Brazil, a rapidly aging country suffering from large inequalities, the study of the quality of life (QOL) of aged people is important for the future health. The aim of this study was to examine the associations among QOL, gender, and physical and psychosocial health in older Brazilian community-dwelling adults to identify factors that are associated with better QOL.MethodsThe ¿Aging, Gender and Quality of Life (AGEQOL)¿ study, which included 2,052 respondents aged 60 or older, was conducted in Sete Lagoas, Brazil between January and July 2012. The respondents answered questions regarding their socioeconomic and demographic information, health and social situations, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and family satisfaction. The authors also applied the Brazilian version the World Health Organization Quality of Life QOL Assessment-Brief Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-Old). Ordinal logistic regression with the Proportional-Odds and Logit function was used to test the association between QOL and physical and psychosocial health according to age and socioeconomic status.ResultsOlder adults of both genders with five or more years of education, good self-rated health, an absence of depressive symptoms, and no family dysfunction reported better QOL. Retired men had a better QOL compared to non-retired men (OR¿=¿2.2; 95% CI¿=¿1.4¿3.2), but this association was not observed in females. Men living in mixed arrangements (OR¿=¿0.5; p¿=¿0.033) and women who did not practice physical activity (OR¿=¿0.7; p¿=¿0.022) tended to have poorer QOL.ConclusionsWe conclude that there are gender differences related to better QOL in this sample. Women with good physical and psychosocial health are more likely to have a better QOL. For men, the best QOL was associated with high socioeconomic conditions and good physical and psychosocial health. PMID:25433521

Campos, Ana; E Ferreira, Efigênia; Vargas, Andréa; Albala, Cecilia

2014-11-30

316

Application of positive matrix factorization to source apportionment of surface water quality of the Daliao River basin, northeast China.  

PubMed

Surface water monitoring networks play an important role in the stream water quality management. Since a time series of data is obtained from the monitoring network, multivariate statistical techniques can be used to identify important factors or pollution sources of water system. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is an improved factor analysis tool that has had limited application to water systems. The objective was to apply PMF to monitoring data to apportion water pollution sources in the Daliao River (DLR) basin. The DLR basin includes the Hun and Taizi River catchments in northeast China. This basin is densely populated and heavily industrialized. Fourteen monitoring stations located on the two rivers were used for monitoring 13 physical and chemical parameters from 1990 to 2002. Results show that five sources/processes in the Hun River and four in the Taizi River were identified by marker species and spatial-temporal variations of resolved factors, including point and nonpoint sources for both rivers. In addition, the industrial pollution source emission inventory data were used to compare with the resolved industrial sources. Results reveal that chemical transformations have influenced some chemical species. However, this influence is small compared with observed seasonal variations. Therefore, identification of pollution point and nonpoint sources by their seasonal variations is possible, which will also aid in water quality management. The spatial variation of the industrial pollutants typically corresponded with the urban industrial pollution source inventories. PMID:25655122

Li, Huiying; Hopke, Philip K; Liu, Xiande; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

2015-03-01

317

NSMAXG: A new magnetic neutron star spectral model in XSPEC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excellent sensitivity of X-ray telescopes, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, is ideal for the study of cooling neutron stars, which can emit at these energies. In order to exploit the wealth of information contained in the high quality data, a thorough knowledge of the radiative properties of neutron star atmospheres is necessary. A key factor affecting photon emission is magnetic fields, and neutron stars are known to have strong surface magnetic fields. Here I briefly describe our latest work on constructing magnetic (B >= 1010 G) atmosphere models of neutron stars and the NSMAXG implementation of these models in XSPEC. Our results allow for more robust extractions of neutron star parameters from observations.

Ho, Wynn C. G.

2014-08-01

318

Health-related quality of life and influencing factors among rural left-behind wives in Liuyang, China  

PubMed Central

Background In China, the number of left-behind wives in rural areas has reached 47 million. Left-behind wives might have more psychological stress and lower life quality. This study was to examine the health-related quality of life and influencing social and cognitive factors in a sample of left-behind wives in rural areas of China. Methods The demographic data questionnaire, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale were completed by a sample of 1,893 left-behind wives and 969 non-left-behind wives. Results Left-behind wives had lower scores on physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS) , and all the eight subscales of the SF-36 than non-left-behind wives (P?factors on the PCS of rural women, whereas the status of being left behind, monthly income, physical health status, sense of marriage security, stress, social support, passive coping styles, and depression were influencing factors on the MCS of rural women. Conclusions Left-behind wives scored lower on health-related quality of life than non-left-behind wives. Low health-related quality of life was associated with left behind status, older age, less education, low monthly income, unemployment, bad physical health status, passive coping styles, low social support, high level of stress, and high depression. PMID:24886024

2014-01-01

319

The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction  

E-print Network

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-04-08

320

The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13114

Pausder, H.-J.; Gerdes, R. M.

1982-01-01

321

The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-Earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment.

Pausder, H. J.; Gerdes, R. M.

1982-01-01

322

Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

2014-05-01

323

Elder Abuse by Adult Children: An Applied Ecological Framework for Understanding Contextual Risk Factors and the Intergenerational Character of Quality of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an applied ecological model, this study focuses on contextual risk factors of elder abuse. Five levels of environment were used to interpret existing research on risk factors. Configuration of risk factors provides a framework for understanding the intergenerational character of quality of life for older adults, developing recommendations…

Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Gans, Daphna

2000-01-01

324

DS02 fluence spectra for neutrons and gamma rays at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with fluence-to-kerma coefficients and transmission factors for sample measurements.  

PubMed

Fluence spectra at several ground distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are provided along with associated fluence-to-kerma coefficients from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Also included are transmission factors for calculating expected responses of in situ sample measurements of neutron activation products such as (32)P,(36)Cl,(39)Ar,(41)Ca, (60)Co,(63)Ni,(152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The free-in-air (FIA) fluences calculated in 2002 are available for 240 angles, 69 energy groups, 101 ground distances, 5 heights, 4 radiation source components, 2 cities. The DS02 code uses these fluences partitioned to a prompt and delayed portion, collapsed to 58 energy groups and restricted to 97 ground distances. This is because the fluence spectra were required to be in the same format that was used in the older Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) computer code, of which the DS02 computer code is a modification. The 2002 calculation fluences and the collapsed DS02 code fluences are presented and briefly discussed. A report on DS02, which is available on the website at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, provides tables and figures of the A-bomb neutron and gamma-ray output used as the sources in the 2002 radiation transport calculations. While figures illustrating the fluence spectra at several ground ranges are presented in the DS02 Report, it does not include any tables of the calculated fluence spectra in the DS02 report. This paper provides, at several standard distances from the hypocenter, the numerical information which is required to translate the FIA neutron fluences given in DS02 to a neutron activation measurement or neutron and gamma-ray soft-tissue dose. PMID:17643260

Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D; Cullings, Harry M

2007-11-01

325

Impacts of preharvest factors during kernel development on rice quality and functionality.  

PubMed

Rice quality and functionality are characterized in many ways, depending largely on the industry segment using the rice. These characteristics include appearance, milling, and cooking parameters. Recently, variable quality of rice grown in the United States has been reported, but the cause was not well documented. Agronomic impacts include planting time, irrigation and fertility, cultivar selection, and harvest conditions. However, recent research suggests that ambient air temperature, specifically elevated nighttime air temperature (NTAT) during grain filling, dramatically affects the variability of rice milling quality, in terms of milled- and head-rice yields; appearance, in terms of chalkiness; and functional characteristics, including viscosity profiles, gelatinization temperatures, and proximate concentrations. Future research is needed to develop cultivars that are resistant to stress resulting from elevated NTAT during the critical period of grain filling, and, for the near term, to develop altered production management practices that mitigate elevated-temperature stress. PMID:23464570

Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Grigg, Brandon C; Lanning, Sarah B

2013-01-01

326

Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H{sup -} beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of {approx}50 mA H{sup -} ions from the ion source with a {approx}5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of {approx}3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to {approx}170 deg. C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H{sup -} beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 deg. C.

Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Hardek, T. W.; Kang, Y. W.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-02-15

327

Influence of natural factors on the quality of midwestern streams and rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams flowing through cropland in the Midwestern Corn Belt differ considerably in their chemical and ecological characteristics, even though agricultural land use is highly intensive throughout the entire region. These differences likely are attributable to differences in riparian vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology. This conclusion is based on results from a study of the upper Midwest region conducted during seasonally low-flow conditions in August 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report summarizes significant results from the study and presents some implications for the design and interpretation of water-quality monitoring and assessment studies based on these results.

Porter, Stephen D.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

328

Knee Pain and Its Severity in Elderly Koreans: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the epidemiology (prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life) of knee pain and its severity in elderly Koreans. The subjects (n=3,054) were participants aged ?50 yr from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010. Knee pain was defined as pain in the knee lasting ?30 days during the most recent 3 months; severity was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. EQ-5D was used to measure quality of life. The prevalence of knee pain was 23.1% (11.7% in men, 31.9% in women). The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe knee pain were 4.3%, 9.1%, and 9.7%, respectively (2.8%, 5.4%, and 3.5% in men and 5.4%, 12.0%, and 14.4% in women). Old age, female gender, a low level of education, a manual occupation, obesity, and radiographic osteoarthritis were risk factors for knee pain, and were associated with increased severity of knee pain. Excluding men with mild knee pain, people with knee pain had significantly lower quality of life than those without knee pain. Early interventional approaches are needed to reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of knee pain in elderly Koreans. PMID:24339713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Sung, Nak-Jeong

2013-01-01

329

Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

2014-01-01

330

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Mr Clark

2012-10-31

331

Multi-scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattl...

332

Management as a Factor Affecting the Quality of Institutional Performance: The Experience of Kaunas College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article deals with the necessity of the development of higher education institutions, improvement of their performance and management in the context of constant changes and reforms. The outcomes of the research carried out at Kaunas College in 2003 while implementing the college performance quality improvement plan are presented. Research…

Spudyte, Irma; Misiunas, Mindaugas

2004-01-01

333

How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

2011-01-01

334

Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

2011-01-01

335

Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the quality of the relationship between children of incarcerated mothers and their kinship caregivers, to investigate whether perceived levels of warmth and acceptance were related to assessments of the children's behaviors. The sample consisted of 69 children (6 to 12 years) with currently incarcerated mothers who attended a recreational summer camp, and 25 of their caregivers. Children who

Virginia H. Mackintosh; Barbara J. Myers; Suzanne S. Kennon

2006-01-01

336

Unpacking the Faith Factor: Norms, Decency, and Relationship Quality among Urban Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that religious participation is correlated with more supportive behaviors and greater overall satisfaction among both married and unmarried couples in urban America. But little is known about how the association between religious participation and relationship quality may be mediated by family norms, lifestyle choices (e.g., drug use), and specific relationshiprelated behaviors. We explore these issues using data from

W. Bradford Wilcox; Nicholas H. Wolfinger

2006-01-01

337

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, a national treasure and the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority, and documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality conditions in a tributary of the Chesapeake, the Choptank R...

338

Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider practice patterns. Female gender was associated with higher levels of

Ginny Sprang; James J. Clark; Adrienne Whitt-Woosley

2007-01-01

339

Small scale biomass heating systems: Standards, quality labelling and market driving factors – An EU outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a comparative evaluation of several existing quality labels and standards for small scale biomass heating systems (BHS) and the biomass fuels they use was performed. With the introduction of pellet fuels, biomass heating technology achieved enough maturity to successfully compete with oil\\/gas heating devices in terms of ease of use, utilization of energy and pollutant emissions.From

V. K. Verma; S. Bram; J. De Ruyck

2009-01-01

340

Factors affecting quality of temperature models for the pre-appearance interval of forensically useful insects.  

PubMed

In the case of many forensically important insects an interval preceding appearance of an insect stage on a corpse (called the pre-appearance interval or PAI) is strongly temperature-dependent. Accordingly, it was proposed to estimate PAI from temperature by using temperature models for PAI of particular insect species and temperature data specific for a given case. The quality of temperature models for PAI depends on the protocols for PAI field studies. In this article we analyze effects of sampling frequency and techniques, temperature data, as well as the size of a sample on the quality of PAI models. Models were created by using data from a largely replicated PAI field study, and their performance in estimation was tested with external body of PAI data. It was found that low frequency of insect sampling distinctly deteriorated temperature models for PAI. The effect of sampling techniques was clearly smaller. Temperature data from local weather station gave models of poor quality, however their retrospective correction clearly improved the models. Most importantly, current results demonstrate that sample size in PAI field studies may be substantially reduced, with no model deterioration. Samples consisting of 11-14 carcasses gave models of high quality, as long as the whole range of relevant temperatures was studied. Moreover, it was found that carcasses exposed in forests and carcasses exposed in early spring are particularly important, as they ensure that PAI data is collected at low temperatures. A preliminary best practice model for PAI field studies is given. PMID:25541074

Matuszewski, Szymon; M?dra, Anna

2015-02-01

341

Psychological factors and asthma quality of life: a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reports of psychological conditions in asthmatic subjects have been limited to certain population groups or convenience samples. A study was undertaken of the prevalence of psychological distress in asthma in the general population and its associations with quality of life.Methods: The WANTS Health and Well-being Survey is a population household interview survey of adults (age ?18) in Western Australia,

R J Adams; D H Wilson; A W Taylor; A Daly; E Tursan d’Espaignet; E Dal Grande; R E Ruffin

2004-01-01

342

Psychosocial factors influencing practice of total quality management in some Nigerian organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To identify some psychological and social variables that could enhance employees' adoption of total quality management (TQM) in an organization that chooses to implement the management philosophy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey research was conducted, using 418 middle management staff, randomly drawn from some TQM and non-TQM courier organizations in Nigeria. Respondents received standardized scales measuring perception of their

Benjamin Osayawe Ehigie; Regina Clement Akpan

2005-01-01

343

Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man  

SciTech Connect

Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

Straume, T.

1982-11-01

344

Factors associated with quality of services for marginalized groups with mental health problems in 14 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Different service characteristics are known to influence mental health care delivery. Much less is known about the impact of contextual factors, such as the socioeconomic circumstances, on the provision of care to socially marginalized groups. The objectives of this work were to assess the organisational characteristics of services providing mental health care for marginalized groups in 14 European capital cities and to explore the associations between organisational quality, service features and country-level characteristics. Methods 617 services were assessed in two highly deprived areas in 14 European capital cities. A Quality Index of Service Organisation (QISO) was developed and applied across all sites. Service characteristics and country level socioeconomic indicators were tested and related with the Index using linear regressions and random intercept linear models. Results The mean (standard deviation) of the QISO score (minimum?=?0; maximum?=?15) varied from 8.63 (2.23) in Ireland to 12.40 (2.07) in Hungary. The number of different programmes provided was the only service characteristic significantly correlated with the QISO (p?factors, in particular the national GDP are likely to influence the organisational quality of services providing mental health care for marginalized groups. Such factors should be considered in international comparative studies. Their significance for different types of services should be explored in further research. PMID:24490720

2014-01-01

345

Quality-factor and reflection-coefficient estimation using surface-wave ghost reflections from subvertical structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic interferometry can retrieve the Green's function between receivers from the cross-correlation and summation of recordings from a boundary of surrounding sources. Having the sources only along a boundary is sufficient if the medium is lossless. If the medium is dissipative, the retrieved result using cross-correlation contains non-physical (ghost) arrivals. When using receivers at the surface and transient sources in the subsurface for the retrieval of the reflection response in a dissipative medium, it has been shown that the retrieved ghost reflections are characteristic of the quality factor of the subsurface. The ghost reflections are caused by internal reflections inside subsurface layers. It has been shown with numerical examples for recordings in a borehole from a surface source that a ghost reflection can be discriminated from physical reflections and tied to a specific subsurface layer. After connecting the ghost reflection to a specific layer, the quality factor of the medium above this layer and the reflection coefficient at the layer interface can be estimated. In this article, we show how the above principles can be adapted and applied for surface waves. Due to intrinsic losses in the medium, surface-wave ghost reflections are retrieved from internal scattering between subvertical boundaries. We demonstrate the method on an ultrasonic dataset recorded on a sample composed of a PVC block and an aluminum block. The aluminum block has a groove parallel to the PVC/aluminum interface. Using a surface-wave ghost reflection between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, we estimate the quality factor of the PVC and the reflection coefficient at the PVC/aluminum interface. We also show that the ghost reflection can be identified and tied to the layer between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, thus confirming previous numerical findings.

Draganov, Deyan; Ruigrok, Elmer; Ghose, Ranajit; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper

2015-01-01

346

A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Information on emissions is available for these calculations; however, it is often incomplete or difficult to find. Tables and computer models can also provide some of this information, but the quality and applicability of the data to a specific site are unknown. In conjunction with three research projects developing new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Resource Conservation and Climate Change Program Area of the Department of Defense's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately the vetted database will be available on the Internet and will contain emissions information that has been developed from laboratory and field-scale measurements and has been published.

Lincoln, Emily; Hao, WeiMin; Baker, S.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Urbanski, Shawn; Miller, J. Wayne; Weise, David; Johnson, Timothy J.

2010-12-20

347

Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture  

PubMed Central

Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

2013-01-01

348

Study examines quality of life factors at end of life for patients with cancer  

Cancer.gov

Better quality of life at the end of life for patients with advanced cancer was associated with avoiding hospitalizations and the intensive care unit, worrying less, praying or meditating, being visited by a pastor in a hospital or clinic, and having a therapeutic alliance with their physician, according to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute report published Online First by Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

349

An automatic quality factor for Autoscala foF2 values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new parameter for quality evaluation of ionogram traces reconstructed by Autoscala. This parameter efficiently assesses the reliability of the automatic interpretation of ionospheric characteristics. Based on an extensive analysis of the data, the parameter values are statistically associated with the accuracy of foF2 data automatically scaled by Autoscala. Therefore, Autoscala will be improved by providing foF2 accuracy as supplementary output information.

Cesaroni, C.; Scotto, C.; Ippolito, A.

2013-06-01

350

Some factors influencing the culinary quality of Irish potatoes II. Physical characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Quality comparisons were made with equal size tubers of the Irish potato varieties Red LaSoda, White Rose, Sebago, and Russet\\u000a Burbank.\\u000a \\u000a Varietal differences in tuber cell size were found. Russet Burbank tubers contained the largest cells, and Red LaSoda the\\u000a smallest. White Rose tuber cells were slightly larger than those of Red LaSoda while Sebago tuber cell size was exceeded

Earl P. Barrios; D. W. Newsom; J. C. Miller

1963-01-01

351

Near-road air quality monitoring: Factors affecting network design and interpretation of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time\\u000a near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air\\u000a monitoring networks or interpreting previously collected near-road monitoring data is essential for transportation system\\u000a planning, environmental impact assessments, and exposure assessments in health studies. For these

R. Baldauf; N. Watkins; D. Heist; C. Bailey; P. Rowley; R. Shores

2009-01-01

352

Understanding Critical Factors for the Quality and Shelflife of MAP Fresh Meat: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas

Preeti Singh; Ali Abas Wani; Sven Saengerlaub; Horst-Christian Langowski

2011-01-01

353

Experimental double-differential cross sections and derived kerma factors for oxygen at incident neutron energies from reaction thresholds to 65 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double-differential cross sections (energy spectra) for the (n, px), (n, dx), (n, tx) and (n, x) reactions on oxygen have been measured for nine incident neutron energies in the range 25 to 65 MeV at lab angles between and in steps of . From these measurements, the energy differential cross sections have been determined and consequently the partial and total kerma factors. Based on the obtained experimental partial kerma factors in the incident neutron energy range 25-65 MeV, a procedure is proposed for the extrapolation of these values to the reaction threshold energy of each measured reaction channel. Results of the experimental double-differential, energy differential and total cross sections are presented. The deduced partial and total kerma factors of the present work are compared with results of previous measurements and theoretical predictions.

Benck, S.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J. P.; Corcalciuc, V.

1998-12-01

354

Schizophrenia in Malaysian families: A study on factors associated with quality of life of primary family caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Schizophrenia is a chronic illness which brings detrimental effects in the caregivers' health. This study was aimed at highlighting\\u000a the socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with the subjective Quality of Life (QOL) of Malaysian\\u000a of primary family caregivers of subjects with schizophrenia attending an urban tertiary care outpatient clinic in Malaysia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was performed to study patient,

Ruzanna ZamZam; Marhani Midin; Lim S Hooi; Eng J Yi; Siti NA Ahmad; Siti FA Azman; Muhammad S Borhanudin; Rozhan SM Radzi

2011-01-01

355

Measurement of the quality factor of a new low-frequency differential accelerometer for testing the equivalence principle.  

PubMed

A cryogenic differential accelerometer has been developed to test the weak equivalence principle to a few parts in 10(15) within the framework of the general relativity accuracy test in an Einstein elevator experiment. The prototype sensor was designed to identify, address, and solve the major issues associated with various aspects of the experiment. This paper illustrates the measurements conducted on this prototype sensor to attain a high quality factor (Q ? 10(5)) at low frequencies (<20 Hz). Such a value is necessary for reducing the Brownian noise to match the target acceleration noise of 10(-14) g/?Hz, hence providing the desired experimental accuracy. PMID:24517790

Iafolla, V; Lefevre, C; Fiorenza, E; Santoli, F; Nozzoli, S; Magnafico, C; Lucente, M; Lucchesi, D; Peron, R; Shapiro, I I; Glashow, S; Lorenzini, E C

2014-01-01

356

Factors Affecting Sperm Quality Before and After Mating of Calopterygid Damselflies  

PubMed Central

Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera) have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm) at each stage of mating and after different storage times in male and female reproductive organs in two damselfly species, Mnais pruinosa and Calopteryx cornelia. Viability of stored sperm in females was lower than that of male stores even just after copulation. Male sperm vesicles were not equipped to maintain sperm quality for longer periods than the internal reproductive organs. However, the sperm vesicles were only used for short-term storage; therefore, this process appeared unlikely to reduce sperm viability when transferred to the female. Males remove rival sperm prior to transfer of their own ejaculate using a peculiar-shaped aedeagus, but sperm removal by males is not always complete. Thus, dilution occurs between newly received sperm and aged sperm already stored in the female, causing lower viability of sperm inside the female than that of sperm transferred by males. If females do not remate, sperm viability gradually decreases with the duration of storage. Frequent mating of females may therefore contribute to the maintenance of high sperm quality. PMID:20361037

Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

2010-01-01

357

The Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, 8-11 September 2008, Estes Park, CO 251 Primary Factors Affecting Water Quality and  

E-print Network

on the volcaniclastic rocks, allowing more water infiltration and potentially greater landslide erosion rates. For each-range atmospheric deposition, and people interact to affect water quantity and quality and erosion processes 251 Primary Factors Affecting Water Quality and Quantity in Four Watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

358

Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with low quality of life one year after coronary bypass operations: The Israeli Coronary Artery Bypass Study (ISCAB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: We sought to examine the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and perioperative clinical factors 1 year after coronary bypass operations on low health-related quality of life. We also sought to assess the usefulness of an additional single question on overall health for identifying patients with low health-related quality of life. Methods: This report is part of the Israeli coronary artery

Elisheva Simchen; Noya Galai; Dalit Braun; Yana Zitser-Gurevich; Eti Shabtai; Irit Naveh

2001-01-01

359

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

2008-01-01

360

Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons)  

E-print Network

the sun does it). 2) In an atom smasher (accelerator). Insititut LaueLangevin, Grenoble, France, www. ­ The atomic nucleus is made of neutrons and protons. property neutron proton electric charge 0 1e

Martin, Jeff

361

The Factors Associated With High-Quality Communication for Critically Ill Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Timely, high quality communication with families is essential to family-centered decision-making. Quality communication is represented by widespread documentation of prognostic, goals-of-care conversations (PGOCC) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and should occur without variation by patient characteristics. METHODS: Cohort included 645 PICU admissions in the top decile of risk of mortality on admission over six years. Electronic medical records were used to determine PGOCC, diagnosis on admission and complex chronic condition (CCC) status. Multivariate logistic regression and time-to-event analyses were used. RESULTS: Overall, 31% had a documented PGOCC. 51% had CCC status. 11% had an oncologic, 13% had a cardiovascular diagnosis on admission. 94% of patients who died in the PICU had PGOCC documented, but among the 200 patients with documented PGOCC, 78% did not die in the PICU. Oncologic diagnosis on admission was associated with a higher likelihood of PGOCC compared to non-CCC patients (ARR=1.86; SE=0.26) whereas no other diagnosis category reached the level of statistical significance. Median time from admission to PGOCC was 2 days. Age, gender and CCC status were not associated with whether a PGOCC was documented or with time from admission to PGOCC documentation. 45% of PGOCC in the cohort and 50% of conversations in patients with CCC were documented by PICU physicians. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the opportunity for improvement in documentation of PGOCC for critically ill children. It raises the questions of why there is variation of PGOCC across disease categories and whether PGOCC should be considered a quality measure for family-centered care. PMID:23457155

Benneyworth, Brian D.; Housey, Michelle; Davis, Matthew M.

2013-01-01

362

Aluminum nitride piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavity with high quality factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a piezoelectrically actuated, one-dimensional acoustic and photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated from aluminum nitride (AlN). Through simultaneous band structure engineering in both photonic and acoustic domains, we obtain high-quality piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities with intrinsic optical Q of 1.2 × 105. The piezoelectric actuation of the confined mechanical mode at 3.18 GHz is demonstrated with mechanical Q exceeding 10 000. Such piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities will find important applications in cavity optomechanics that desire effective coupling to the electrical degree of freedom.

Fan, Linran; Sun, Xiankai; Xiong, Chi; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X.

2013-04-01

363

Factors Affecting Quality and Postharvest Properties of Vegetables: Integration of Water Relations and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing of vegetables in the field, harvesting, handling in the packing house and storage are events in the lifetime of vegetables that are analysed from the point of view of the complex series of physiological transitions taking place in each of these events.Water is the major factor limiting plant metabolism and plants have developed fascinating mechanisms to cope with this

FEDERICO GÓMEZ GALINDO; WERNER HERPPICH; VASSILIS GEKAS; INGEGERD SJÖHOLM

2004-01-01

364

Factors influencing milk quantity and quality in Assaf sheep and goat crossbreds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to analyze the major factors that influence milk yield in Assaf sheep and Saanen, and Shami x Anglo Nubian goats, the major small ruminant dairy breeds and crossbreds in Israel. Six different farms with 745 Israeli-Assaf dairy sheep and 682 goats were surveyed. Udder halves were tested for udder bacterial condition, California mastitis test (CMT), somatic

G. Leitner; U. Merin; A. Glickman; L. Weisblit; O. Krifucks; A. Shwimmer; A. Saran

365

Mechanical quality factor enhancement in a silicon micromechanical resonator by low-damage process using neutral beam etching technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication and evaluation of silicon micromechanical resonators using neutral beam etching (NBE) technology is presented. An etching technique based on a low energy neutral beam of Cl2/F2/O2 is introduced for making nano-trench patterns on 5?µm-thick silicon. The NBE technology has been investigated to form a highly-anisotropic etching shape. A 5??m-deep trench pattern having smooth side walls with a gap width of 230?nm is achieved by using NBE. Additionally, a fabrication method for silicon resonators using NBE technology is proposed. The resonant frequency of the fabricated devices with a length of 500??m, width of 440??m and thickness of 5??m is 9.66?MHz, and the average quality factor (Q) value is around 78?000. The devices fabricated by both deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and NBE are evaluated and compared. The devices fabricated by NBE show that the motional resistances are reduced by almost 11 times from 645?k? to 59?k? and their output signals (insertion loss) are increased by approximately 15?dB in comparison with those fabricated by DRIE. Especially, devices fabricated by NBE provide the higher Q factors (average Q factor value of around 78?000) than those (average Q factor value of around 61?000) fabricated by DRIE in the same resonator parameters and measurement conditions.

Van Toan, Nguyen; Kubota, Tomohiro; Sekhar, Halubai; Samukawa, Seiji; Ono, Takahito

2014-08-01

366

Systematic Monitoring of Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Exploratory Factor Analysis of Service Quality Instrument and Performance Ranking  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable conceptual and operational complexities related to service quality measurements and variability in delivery contexts of scaled-up medical male circumcision, pose real challenges to monitoring implementation of quality and safety. Clarifying latent factors of the quality instruments can enhance contextual applicability and the likelihood that observed service outcomes are appropriately assessed. Objective To explore factors underlying SYMMACS service quality assessment tool (adopted from the WHO VMMC quality toolkit) and; determine service quality performance using composite quality index derived from the latent factors. Study design Using a comparative process evaluation of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Kenya site level data was collected among health facilities providing VMMC over two years. Systematic Monitoring of the Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up quality instrument was used to assess availability of guidelines, supplies and equipment, infection control, and continuity of care services. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify quality structure. Results Fifty four items and 246 responses were analyzed. Based on Eigenvalue >1.00 cut-off, factors 1, 2 & 3 were retained each respectively having eigenvalues of 5.78; 4.29; 2.99. These cumulatively accounted for 29.1% of the total variance (12.9%; 9.5%; 6.7%) with final communality estimates being 13.06. Using a cut-off factor loading value of ?0.4, fifteen items loading on factor 1, five on factor 2 and one on factor 3 were retained. Factor 1closely relates to preparedness to deliver safe male circumcisions while factor two depicts skilled task performance and compliance with protocols. Of the 28 facilities, 32% attained between 90th and 95th percentile (excellent); 45% between 50th and 75th percentiles (average) and 14.3% below 25th percentile (poor). Conclusion the service quality assessment instrument may be simplified to have nearly 20 items that relate more closely to service outcomes. Ranking of facilities and circumcision procedure using a composite index based on these items indicates that majority performed above average. PMID:24983242

Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

2014-01-01

367

Electron beam quality correction factors for plane-parallel ionization chambers: Monte Carlo calculations using the PENELOPE system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of three plane-parallel ionization chambers have been used to determine directly the chamber- and quality-dependent factors fc,Q, instead of the product (sw,air p)Q, and k_{Q,Q_o} (or k_{Q,Q_int} ) for a broad range of electron beam qualities (4-20 MeV) using divergent monoenergetic beams and phase-space data from two accelerators. An original calculation method has been used which circumvents the weakness of the so far assumed independence between stopping-power ratios and perturbation factors. Very detailed descriptions of the geometry and materials of the chambers have been obtained from the manufacturers, and prepared as input to the PENELOPE 2003 Monte Carlo system using a computer code that includes correlated sampling and particle splitting. Values of the beam quality factors have been determined for the case of an electron reference beam. The calculated values have been compared with those in the IAEA TRS-398 dosimetry protocol and the differences analysed. The results for a NACP-02 chamber show remarkably good agreement with TRS-398 at high electron beam qualities but differ slightly at low energies. Arguments to explain the differences include questioning the undemonstrated assumption that the NACP is a 'perturbation-free' chamber even at very low electron beam energies. Results for Wellhöfer PPC-40 and PPC-05 chambers cannot be compared with data from others for these chambers because no calculations or reliable experimental data exist. It has been found that the results for the PPC-40 are very close to those of a Roos chamber, but the values for the PPC-05 are considerably different from those of a Markus chamber, and rather approach those of a Roos chamber. Results for monoenergetic electrons and accelerator phase-space data have been compared to assess the need for detailed and costly simulations, finding very small differences. This questions the emphasis given in recent years to the use of 'realistic' source data for accurate electron beam dosimetry.

Sempau, Josep; Andreo, Pedro; Aldana, Judith; Mazurier, Jocelyne; Salvat, Francesc

2004-09-01

368

Effects of polymorphisms in the bovine growth differentiation factor 9 gene on sperm quality in Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Members of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) superfamily are critical regulators of germ cell development that act as extracellular ligands of the signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other aspects of cell behavior. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the TGF? superfamily that plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate in females; however, its role in the testis has not been well elucidated. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of GDF9 mutations on the quality of fresh and frozen semen of Holstein bulls. Two reported single nucleotide polymorphisms of GDF9, A485TA and A625C, were analyzed in 129 Holstein bulls. Analysis of variance revealed that the A485T polymorphism had significant effects on the acrosome integrity rate (P < 0.05), whereas the A625T polymorphism was significantly associated with sperm concentration (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant additive effect on sperm concentration was detected for the A485T polymorphism (P < 0.05), whereas the polymorphisms A485TA and A625C had significant dominant effects on acrosome integrity rate and sperm motility in frozen semen, respectively (P < 0.05). This study is the first to show a significant association of GDF9 with sperm quality traits, and the results implied that GDF9 is involved in the initiation or maintenance of spermatogenesis; however, further verification is needed. PMID:23884762

Tang, K Q; Yang, W C; Zhang, X X; Yang, L G

2013-01-01

369

Health-related quality of life and hand eczema--a comparison of two instruments, including factor analysis.  

PubMed

Hand eczema is a disease of long duration, affecting the individual and society. The purpose of this study of 100 patients (51 females and 49 males) at an occupational dermatology clinic was to investigate whether the generic questionnaire Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the dermatology-specific Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) are appropriate for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with hand eczema, and whether gender differences in HRQL could be detected. HRQL was affected by hand eczema, measured with both SF-36 and DLQI. The SF-36 showed more impaired HRQL for females than for males, in the mental health dimension, whereas no gender-related differences were detected with the DLQI. To compare the instruments we used factor analysis, with a polychoric correlation matrix as input, thus taking the ordinal aspect of the data into account. There was a high correlation between the instruments for physical health, but lower for mental health. In this context our interpretation of the factor analysis is that the SF-36 measures mental health better than the DLQI. The SF-36 therefore appears suitable for use in future studies for measuring HRQL, and gender differences in HRQL, in persons with reported hand eczema. PMID:15175027

Wallenhammar, Lena-Marie; Nyfjäll, Mats; Lindberg, Magnus; Meding, Birgitta

2004-06-01

370

On the use of quality factors and fluence to dose rate conversion in human radiation exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that various combinations of numbers and factors arrive at estimates of dose and dose effectiveness from values of fluence; but as yet it has not been possible to use biological data with the same degree of precision to estimate the physical data. It would seem that the most reasonable way to use the human data that exist is to apply them as far as possible to the human animal as a whole.

Sondhaus, C. A.

1972-01-01

371

Analysis of the impact of fibromyalgia on quality of life: associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the impact of fibromyalgia (FM) on the functional capacity of patients suffering this syndrome and identified\\u000a factors that are associated with greater disease impact. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive telephone survey on all\\u000a patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia during 2003 in a university hospital in Spain. Variables studied were socio-demographic,\\u000a job, clinical, health and psycho-social characteristics of patients diagnosed

Ma del Carmen Ubago Linares; Isabel Ruiz-Pérez; Ma José Bermejo Pérez; Antonio Olry de Labry-Lima; Elisa Hernández-Torres; Juncal Plazaola-Castaño

2008-01-01

372

Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of (1) age (2) seasonality (3) and circulating testosterone (SrTest), triiodothyronine (SrT3) and tetraiodothyronine (SrT4), as well as seminal (4) testosterone (SpTest), zinc (SpZn) and protein (SpTP) on semen quality in the Asian elephant Methods Analyses, including motility, viability and morphology were performed in semen samples collected twice monthly from 13 elephant bulls (age range, 10-to 72-years) by manual stimulation between July 2004 and June 2005. Serum samples obtained monthly were assessed for SrTest, SrT3, SrT4, and seminal plasma samples were evaluated for, SpTest, SpZn and SpTP. Results The highest semen quality was observed at age 23 to 43 years. Percentages of progressive motility and viable sperm were lowest at age 51 to 70 years (P < 0.05); on the other hand, sperm concentration was lowest at age 10 to 19 years (P < 0.05). Percentage of sperm with normal morphology was highest at age 23 to 43 years. The levels of SrT3, SrTest, SpTest and SpZn were lowest at age 51 to 70 years, whereas SrT4 was lowest at age 23 to 43 years. Seasonality significantly affected semen characteristics in which percentage of viable sperm and cell concentration were highest during rainy season and lowest during summer months (P < 0.05). However, percentage of sperm with normal morphology was highest in summer and lowest in rainy season (P < 0.05). Seasonality significantly influenced SrTest with elevated concentrations observed in rainy season and winter (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study indicates that age and seasonality had influence on semen characteristics in the Asian elephant. The knowledge obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the reproductive biology of this species. PMID:18346275

2008-01-01

373

The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G{sup n}E/G{sup n}M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic {sup 2}H({rvec e},e/{rvec n}){sup 1}H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} lies slightly above the Galster parameterization.

Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-07-30

374

Determination of the kerma factors in tissue-equivalent plastic, C, Mg, and Fe for 14.7-MeV neutrons.  

PubMed

Microdosimetric measurements were made with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), C-, Mg-, and Fe-walled proportional counters filled with propane-based tissue equivalent (TE) gas and Ar gas and irradiated with 14.7-MeV neutrons. A theoretical model was used for the analysis of energy deposition in spherical detectors. An effective average mass stopping-power ratio and a W correction were calculated to convert the gas ionization to the kerma in the wall material. The neutron fluence at the position of microdosimetric measurements was determined with an associated particle chamber mounted with surface barrier detectors. The experimental measurements along with the calculated correction factors yielded kerma factors of 0.660 X 10(-8) cGy cm2 for TEP, 0.219 X 10(-8) cGy cm2 for C, 0.122 X 10(-8) cGy cm2 for Mg, and 0.479 X 10(-9) cGy cm2 for Fe. The estimated uncertainties are 8.0% for TEP, 10.5% for C, and 9.3% for Mg and Fe. PMID:3696064

Wuu, C S; Milavickas, L R

1987-01-01

375

Comparison of two indices of diet quality with acculturation factors and demographics in Haitian Americans.  

PubMed

This study examined associations of language preference and length of stay in the United States and diet among 132 Haitian Americans aged ?35, born in Haiti. Two dietary indices, Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), were used to assess dietary quality. Years in the United States (>15 years; B?=?0.063, p = .012) and female gender (B?=?5.63, p = .028) were positively associated with AHEI. Lower HEI scores were associated with speaking no English (B =?-6.11, p = .026). Participants reporting an income under 20,000/yr had lower AHEI scores (B =?-7.63, p = .014). Concurrent use of these indices would provide a screening tool for nutrition intervention. Public health programs targeting low-cost resources, such as community gardening, are recommended to reduce health disparities among this population. PMID:24437543

Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Zarini, Gustavo G; Dixon, Zisca

2014-01-01

376

Factors controlling the distribution of reservoir quality in the Pennsylvanian bend conglomerate fan-delta system  

SciTech Connect

Chert conglomerates, and associated sediments, of the Bend Conglomerate in Taylor Draw field, Upton Co., Texas, were deposited in a series of fan deltas that prograded into an open-marine system. The distribution of reservoir quality in these deposits is facies controlled. Permeabilities range from near zero to 30,000 md. Low-permeability conglomerates contain either a mud matrix or abundant calcite fossil fragments. The calcite grains serve as nucleation sites for calcite cementation and, through dissolution, as a source of calcite cement. High-permeability, sandy (chert and quartz) conglomerates have no mud matrix or calcite grains. Some of them are cemented with a thin rim of chalcedony, while others have no cement and show strong pressure solution at grain contacts. They are commonly friable and are recovered as loose gravels in the core barrel. The mineralogy of matrix gains is related to the distribution of the depositional facies within the fan delta. The low-permeability conglomerates were deposited in the subaerial to subaqueous distal fan-delta complex where calcareous marine organisms or mud were mixed with the conglomerate. The high-permeability conglomerates were deposited as thick channel-gravels in the subaerial proximal and mid-fan sections of the fan deltas. Depositional facies within the fan-delta complex controlled the distribution of calcite grains in the matrix and hence reservoir quality. The fossiliferous conglomerates became tightly cemented with calcite during burial, whereas the nonfossiliferous conglomerates remained permeable. Facies maps of the fan-delta complex therefore can be used to delineate high-permeability conglomeratic reservoirs.

Loucks, R.G. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States)); Troschinetz, J. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Miland, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

377

Students' experiences concerning course workload and factors enhancing and impeding their learning – a useful resource for quality enhancement in teaching and curriculum planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to deepen our understanding of factors which students experience as important in learning, in order to improve the quality of teaching and curriculum planning. A total of 132 veterinary students participated in the study by answering a questionnaire containing open?ended questions. Most of the comments on factors enhancing learning were associated with teaching practices.

Mirja Ruohoniemi

2009-01-01

378

Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. Methods Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. Study selection: To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. Results We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or its effectiveness). Forty instruments were included for full review, many with a strong theoretical basis. Evidence supporting measurement properties was limited. Conclusions Existing instruments cover many of the factors hypothesized to contribute to QI success. With further testing, use of these instruments measuring team factors in evaluations could aid our understanding of the influence of teamwork on CQI outcomes. Greater consistency in the factors measured and choice of measurement instruments is required to enable synthesis of findings for informing policy and practice. PMID:23410500

2013-01-01

379

Factors affecting binder properties between production and construction and their impact on quality assurance programs  

E-print Network

Design Change in FTIR Test Results Row Response Variable, Y Row Response Variable, Y 10 12 44. 1258 67. 5379 21. 9269 25. 4264 28. 0152 40. 91 91 64. 9939 74 3979 41. 8599 41. 7744 48. 3903 36. 2221 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22... trials only one third of that number was tested. In the resulting design, presented in Table 3, each row corresponds to a factor-level combination or treatment. 19 TABLE 3 Fractional Factorial Randomized Block Experimental Design Row Supplier 10 12...

Arambula Mercado, Edith

2002-01-01

380

Fabrication of an integrated high-quality-factor (high-Q) optofluidic sensor by femtosecond laser micromachining.  

PubMed

We report on fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality factor (i.e., Q-factor of ~3.24 × 10(6) measured under the critical coupling condition) integrated in a microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. Coupling of light into and out of the microresonator has been realized with a fiber taper that is reliably assembled with the microtoroid. The assembly of the fiber to the microtoroid is achieved by welding the fiber taper onto the sidewall of the microtoroid using CO2 laser irradiation. The integrated microresonator maintains a high Q-factor of 3.21 × 10(5) as measured in air, which should still be sufficient for many sensing applications. We test the functionality of the integrated optofluidic sensor by performing bulk refractive index sensing of purified water doped with tiny amount of salt. It is shown that a detection limit of ~1.2 × 10(-4) refractive index unit can be achieved. Our result showcases the capability of integration of high-Q microresonators with complex microfluidic systems using femtosecond laser 3D micromachining. PMID:24977574

Song, Jiangxin; Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Liao, Yang; He, Fei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

2014-06-16

381

Factors Influencing the Quality of Carbon Coatings onLiFePO4  

SciTech Connect

Several LiFePO4/C composites were prepared and characterizedelectrochemically in lithium half-cells. Pressed pellet conductivitiescorrelated well with the electrochemical performance in lithiumhalf-cells. It was found that carbon structural factors such as sp2/sp3,D/G, and H/C ratios, as determined by Raman spectroscopy and elementalanalysis, influenced the conductivity and rate behavior strongly. Thestructure of the residual carbon could be manipulated through the use ofadditives during LiFePO4 synthesis. Increasing the pyromellitic acid (PA)content in the precursor mix prior to calcination resulted in asignificant lowering of the D/G ratio and a concomitant rise in thesp2/sp3 ratio of the carbon. Addition of both iron nitrate and PAresulted in higher sp2/sp3 ratios without further lowering the D/Gratios, or increasing carbon contents. The best electrochemical resultswere obtained for LiFePO4 processed with both ferrocene and PA. Theimprovement is attributed to better decomposition of the carbon sources,as evidenced by lower H/C ratios, a slight increase of the carbon content(still below 2 wt. percent), and more homogeneous coverage. A discussionof the influence of carbon content vs. structural factors on thecomposite conductivities and, by inference, the electrochemicalperformance, is included.

Wilcox, James D.; Doeff, Marca M.; Marcinek, Marek; Kostecki,Robert

2006-10-11

382

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Nandong karst underground river system in Yunan, China.  

PubMed

The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst agriculture dominated area in the southeast Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role for social and economical development in the area. However, with the rapid increase in population and expansion of farm land, groundwater quality has degraded. 42 groundwater samples collected from springs in the NURS showed great variation of chemical compositions across the study basin. With increased anthropogenic contamination in the area, the groundwater chemistry has changed from the typical Ca-HCO(3) or Ca (Mg)-HCO(3) type in karst groundwater to the Ca-Cl (+NO(3)) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+NO(3)), and Ca-Cl (+NO(3)+SO(4)) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+NO(3)+SO(4)) type, indicating increases in NO(3)(-), Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) concentrations that were caused most likely by human activities in the region. This study implemented the R-mode factor analysis to investigate the chemical characteristics of groundwater and to distinguish the natural and anthropogenic processes affecting groundwater quality in the system. The R-mode factor analysis together with geology and land uses revealed that: (a) contamination from human activities such as sewage effluents and agricultural fertilizers; (b) water-rock interaction in the limestone-dominated system; and (c) water-rock interaction in the dolomite-dominated system were the three major factors contributing to groundwater quality. Natural dissolution of carbonate rock (water-rock interaction) was the primary source of Ca(2+) and HCO(3)(-) in groundwater, water-rock interaction in dolomite-dominated system resulted in higher Mg(2+) in the groundwater, and human activities were likely others sources. Sewage effluents and fertilizers could be the main contributor of Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+) and K(+) to the groundwater system in the area. This study suggested that both natural and anthropogenic processes contributed to chemical composition of groundwater in the NURS, human activities played the most important role, however. PMID:19717207

Jiang, Yongjun; Wu, Yuexia; Groves, Chris; Yuan, Daoxian; Kambesis, Pat

2009-10-13

383

Treatment Factors Affecting Longitudinal Quality of Life in New Onset Pediatric Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objectives?Recognizing the importance of patient-reported outcomes, this longitudinal, prospective study examined: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over seven months following antiepileptic drug (AED) initiation and the relationship of seizures, AED side-effects, and AED type to HRQOL. Method?Parents of 124 children with newly diagnosed epilepsy completed measures of HRQOL and side-effects at each clinic visit. Treatment information was also collected.?Results?HRQOL remained stable over time; however, seizures and AED side-effects significantly affected multiple HRQOL domains. Higher seizure activity was associated with decreased Physical HRQOL. Side-effects were negatively associated with all HRQOL domains. Children taking carbamazepine who experienced higher side-effects early in therapy demonstrated declining emotional functioning compared to children experiencing no/some side-effects.?Conclusions?AED side-effects, AED type, and seizure frequency were associated with longitudinal HRQOL in children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy. Routine assessment of AED side-effects and HRQOL may be useful for clinical decision making. PMID:21278379

Ingerski, Lisa M.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Glauser, Tracy A.

2011-01-01

384

Encapsulated Annealing: Enhancing the Plasmon Quality Factor in Lithographically–Defined Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Lithography provides the precision to pattern large arrays of metallic nanostructures with varying geometries, enabling systematic studies and discoveries of new phenomena in plasmonics. However, surface plasmon resonances experience more damping in lithographically–defined structures than in chemically–synthesized nanoparticles of comparable geometries. Grain boundaries, surface roughness, substrate effects, and adhesion layers have been reported as causes of plasmon damping, but it is difficult to isolate these effects. Using monochromated electron energy–loss spectroscopy (EELS) and numerical analysis, we demonstrate an experimental technique that allows the study of these effects individually, to significantly reduce the plasmon damping in lithographically–defined structures. We introduce a method of encapsulated annealing that preserves the shape of polycrystalline gold nanostructures, while their grain-boundary density is reduced. We demonstrate enhanced Q–factors in lithographically–defined nanostructures, with intrinsic damping that matches the theoretical Drude damping limit. PMID:24986023

Bosman, Michel; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Huigao; Tan, Shu Fen; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Qiu, Cheng–Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

2014-01-01

385

Is experimental data quality the limiting factor in predicting the aqueous solubility of druglike molecules?  

PubMed

We report the results of testing quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) that were trained upon the same druglike molecules but two different sets of solubility data: (i) data extracted from several different sources from the published literature, for which the experimental uncertainty is estimated to be 0.6-0.7 log S units (referred to mol/L); (ii) data measured by a single accurate experimental method (CheqSol), for which experimental uncertainty is typically <0.05 log S units. Contrary to what might be expected, the models derived from the CheqSol experimental data are not more accurate than those derived from the "noisy" literature data. The results suggest that, at the present time, it is the deficiency of QSPR methods (algorithms and/or descriptor sets), and not, as is commonly quoted, the uncertainty in the experimental measurements, which is the limiting factor in accurately predicting aqueous solubility for pharmaceutical molecules. PMID:24919008

Palmer, David S; Mitchell, John B O

2014-08-01

386

Encapsulated Annealing: Enhancing the Plasmon Quality Factor in Lithographically-Defined Nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithography provides the precision to pattern large arrays of metallic nanostructures with varying geometries, enabling systematic studies and discoveries of new phenomena in plasmonics. However, surface plasmon resonances experience more damping in lithographically-defined structures than in chemically-synthesized nanoparticles of comparable geometries. Grain boundaries, surface roughness, substrate effects, and adhesion layers have been reported as causes of plasmon damping, but it is difficult to isolate these effects. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and numerical analysis, we demonstrate an experimental technique that allows the study of these effects individually, to significantly reduce the plasmon damping in lithographically-defined structures. We introduce a method of encapsulated annealing that preserves the shape of polycrystalline gold nanostructures, while their grain-boundary density is reduced. We demonstrate enhanced Q-factors in lithographically-defined nanostructures, with intrinsic damping that matches the theoretical Drude damping limit.

Bosman, Michel; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Huigao; Tan, Shu Fen; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Qiu, Cheng–Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

2014-07-01

387

Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

2003-01-01

388

Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy. PMID:21695030

Shyu, Guey-Shin; Cheng, Bai-You; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

2011-01-01

389

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet allows a student to visually explore the concept of factors by creating different rectangular arrays for a number. The user constructs the array by clicking and dragging on a grid. The length and width of the array are factors of the number. A student can elect an option of a randomly selected number or the student selects his own number between 2 and 50. Exploration questions are included to promote student discovery of mathematical concepts with factors.

2000-01-01

390

Quality of life and factors predictive of burden among primary caregivers of chronic liver disease patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic liver disease increases the socioeconomic and emotional burden on the patient’s caregiver. This is important because a patient’s adherence to therapy and transplant eligibility is dependent on the caregiver’s ability to handle these challenges. Methods This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 50 primary caregivers of patients with advanced liver disease. Caregivers completed the RAND 36-item (Short Form [SF-36]) Health Survey and the Zarit Burden Scale survey. Caregiver quality of life, based on the SF-36, was compared using t-tests with the scores of the National reference population as controls. Results In our cohort, the mean age of caregivers was 56.9±11.4 years, 40 (83.3%) were female, and 34 (70.8%) were spouses/significant others of the patient. Compared with the adjusted National norm data, caregivers scored substantially lower in categories of role limitations due to emotional problems (P<0.001), vitality (P=0.025), mental health (P=0.005), and social functioning (P=0.002). While the adjusted physical component score of the caregivers was comparable to the National mean, the mental component score (MCS) was lower than the National average (42.4±13.3 vs. 50.0±10, P<0.001). Though only 8 of 50 (16.0%) subjects reported a formal diagnosis of depression or anxiety, 23 (46.0%) had MCS <42, a strong predictor of clinical depression, based on previous studies. Conclusions Primary caregivers of patients with advanced liver disease have significantly lower SF-36 mental health scores compared with the general population. Comparison of SF-36 scores to caregiver history suggests under recognition of mental health problems in this population. PMID:25608915

Nguyen, Douglas L.; Chao, Daniel; Ma, Grace; Morgan, Timothy

2015-01-01

391

The Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant.

Demiral, Ayse Nur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ayse.demiral@deu.edu.tr; Sen, Mehmet [Cookridge Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Demiral, Yuecel [Department of Public Health, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey); Kinay, Muenir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dokuz Eyluel University Medical School, Izmir (Turkey)

2008-01-01

392

Sex Disparities in the Quality of Diabetes Care: Biological and Cultural Factors May Play a Different Role for Different Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the quality of type 2 diabetes care according to sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Clinical data collected during the year 2009 were extracted from electronic medical records; quality-of-care indicators were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the likelihood of women versus men to be monitored for selected parameters, to reach clinical outcomes, and to be treated with specific classes of drugs. The intercenter variability in the proportion of men and women achieving the targets was also investigated. RESULTS Overall, 415,294 patients from 236 diabetes outpatient centers were evaluated, of whom 188,125 (45.3%) were women and 227,169 (54.7%) were men. Women were 14% more likely than men to have HbA1c >9.0% in spite of insulin treatment (odds ratio 1.14 [95% CI 1.10–1.17]), 42% more likely to have LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) ?130 mg/dL (1.42 [1.38–1.46]) in spite of lipid-lowering treatment, and 50% more likely to have BMI ?30 kg/m2 (1.50 [1.50–1.54]). Women were less likely to be monitored for foot and eye complications. In 99% of centers, the percentage of men reaching the LDL-C target was higher than in women, the proportion of patients reaching the HbA1c target was in favor of men in 80% of the centers, and no differences emerged for blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Women show a poorer quality of diabetes care than men. The attainment of the LDL-C target seems to be mainly related to pathophysiological factors, whereas patient and physician attitudes can play an important role in other process measures and outcomes. PMID:23835692

Rossi, Maria Chiara; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Gentile, Sandro; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Manicardi, Valeria; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pellegrini, Fabio; Suraci, Concetta; Giorda, Carlo

2013-01-01

393

Quality of Life and its Related Factors Among Iranian Patients with Metastatic Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Context: Quality of life (QoL) is an important issue in all cancer patients; especially in patients with metastatic cancer. But there is very little information available about QoL in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and its associated factors among Iranian patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tract cancer were recruited from the one oncology center related to the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, between March 2012 and August 2013. Their QoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire (Persian version). Results: In this study, the overall QoL score of patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer was 57.63, which was relatively optimal. There was a statistically significant relationship between symptoms scale and general health status domains of quality of life with age (P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant association between patients’ gender and their social functioning (P = 0.017) and also their emotional functioning (P = 0.015). Conclusions: The findings suggest that in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers, the most affected functions in their QoL were social and emotional functioning which get worse with age. Thus, providing psychological counseling and psychotherapy services to deliver culturally appropriate mental health care and social support for these patients and their families’ which can lead to the improvement of QoL in these patients is strongly recommended. PMID:25191010

Fard, Jabbar Heydari; Janbabaei, Ghasem

2014-01-01

394

[Factor impact and indexing in bibliographic databases: comparison of these quality criteria for the assessment of pharmaceutical journals].  

PubMed

In spite of limits, the impact factor (IF) of Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of Science Citation Index (SCI) edited by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) is the most currently used bibliometric factor by scientists. Otherwise, bibliographic systems select and index scientific journals with their own quality criterion. In order to bring scientists and information professionals some new journal evaluation developments, we studied and compared pharmaceutical journal IF and the number of bibliographic systems in which they were indexed. We firstly have given our definition of pharmaceutical journal and then evaluated these journals by giving one point each time they were indexed in one of the five following bibliographic systems: Index Medicus/Medline, Excerpta Medica/Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents. We then compared their results with IF. We selected 292 journals: 14.4% scored 5 points, 22.3% scored 4 points, 27.7% scored 3 points, 18.8% scored 2 points, 16.8% scored 1 point. We also showed that the more journals scored highly, the more they had chances of being taken by JCR. We studied the first hundred journals indexed by JCR and having the highly IF: 31, 40, 21, 6 and 2 journals were respectively indexed by 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 bibliographic systems. We showed that there was a significant difference between the two classifications. So, we can say that people who take IF as the one and only journal quality criterion have in fact a very partial representation of the edition of scientific papers. PMID:9609967

Bador, P; Petit, O

1998-01-01

395

Sport-specific and anthropometric factors of quality in junior male water polo players.  

PubMed

There is evident lack of studies which examined anthropological determinants of success in water polo. The aim of this investigation was to study the physical fitness differences between two qualitative levels of junior water polo players (males; 16-18 years of age; 6+ year of experience in water polo). The sample (N = 54) comprised of 13 members of the junior national-squad (5 centers and 8 perimeter players), and 41 team-athletes (11 centers and 30 perimeter players). The sample of variables included: four anthropometric measures (body height, body mass, BMI and body fat percentage), and five sport-specific fitness tests (20-meters-sprint-swimming, maximal dynamometric force in eggbeater kick, in-water vertical jump, drive-shoot-speed, and sport-swimming-endurance). Discriminant analysis and t-test revealed no significant differences between national-squad and team-players for center players. The national-squad perimeters were advanced over their team-level peers in most of the fitness capacities and body-height. The result highlights the necessity of the playing-position-specific approach in defining anthropological factors of success in team-sports. PMID:24611343

Idrizovi?, Kemal; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Ban, Divo; Spasi?, Miodrag; Rausavljevi?, Nikola

2013-12-01

396

Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications  

SciTech Connect

Neutron generators based on the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He and {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >10{sup 9} n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 10{sup 14} n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The neutron flux required for positron production could not be provided with a single D-T neutron generator. Therefore, a subcritical fission multiplier was designed to increase the neutron yield. The neutron flux was increased by a factor of 25. A D-D driven fission multiplier was also studied for BNCT and a gain of 17 was obtained. The fission multiplier system gain was shown to be limited by the neutron absorption in the fuel and the reduction of source brightness. A brief discussion was also given regarding the neutron generator applications for fast neutron brachytherapy and neutron interrogation systems. It was concluded that new designs of compact D-D/D-T neutron generators are feasible and that superior quality neutron beams could be produced and used for various applications.

Lou, Tak Pui

2003-05-01

397

Lack of Radiation Dose or Quality Dependence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor {beta}  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype that alters cell morphology, disrupts morphogenesis, and increases motility. Our prior studies have shown that the progeny of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) irradiated with 2 Gy undergoes transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta})-mediated EMT. In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT. Methods and Materials: HMECs were cultured on tissue culture plastic or in Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and exposed to low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and TGF-{beta} (400 pg/mL). Image analysis was used to measure membrane-associated E-cadherin, a marker of functional epithelia, or fibronectin, a product of mesenchymal cells, as a function of radiation dose and quality. Results: E-cadherin was reduced in TGF-{beta}-treated cells irradiated with low-LET radiation doses between 0.03 and 2 Gy compared with untreated, unirradiated cells or TGF-{beta} treatment alone. The radiation quality dependence of TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT was determined by use of 1 GeV/amu (gigaelectron volt / atomic mass unit) {sup 56}Fe ion particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Radiation Laboratory. On the basis of the relative biological effectiveness of 2 for {sup 56}Fe ion particles' clonogenic survival, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs were irradiated with equitoxic 1-Gy {sup 56}Fe ion or 2-Gy {sup 137}Cs radiation in monolayer. Furthermore, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs irradiated with either high- or low-LET radiation exhibited similar loss of E-cadherin and gain of fibronectin and resulted in similar large, poorly organized colonies when embedded in Matrigel. Moreover, the progeny of HMECs exposed to different fluences of {sup 56}Fe ion underwent TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT even when only one-third of the cells were directly traversed by the particle. Conclusions: Thus TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT, like other non-targeted radiation effects, is neither radiation dose nor quality dependent at the doses examined.

Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Costes, Sylvain V. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chou, William S. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Ravani, Shraddha A.; Park, Howard [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen, E-mail: mhbarcellos-hoff@nyumc.or [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2011-04-01

398

Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients {<=}50 years vs. {>=}65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed.

Movsas, Benjamin [Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)]. E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Scott, Charles [RTOG Headquarters, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-07-01

399

Epidemiologic Studies of Psychosocial Factors Associated With Quality of Life Among Patients With Chronic Diseases in Japan  

PubMed Central

A link between affective disturbances and physical disorders has been suggested since the Greco–Roman era. However, evidence supporting an association between mind and body is limited and mostly comes from North America and Europe. Additional local epidemiologic studies are needed so that more evidence can be collected on effective treatments and health management. Epidemiologic studies of Japanese with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those on chronic hemodialysis examined the association between psychosocial factors and patient quality of life (QOL). Strong associations among depression, social support, and patient QOL were confirmed, which supports the findings of studies performed in Western countries. In addition, disparities between the perspectives of patients with RA and their doctors were observed. Alexithymia, a personality construct that reflects a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotion, had a stronger independent association with increased risk of 5-year mortality than did depression among patients with chronic hemodialysis. Physiological, biological, and psychosocial factors are associated and independently and interactively determine our health. Epidemiology is a powerful tool for identifying effective points of intervention, after considering all possible confounders. Future studies must clarify how health can be improved by using a psychosocial approach. PMID:22156289

Kojima, Masayo

2012-01-01

400

Effect of boron and gadolinium concentration on the calculated neutron multiplication factor of U(3)O/sub 2/ fuel pins in optimum geometries  

SciTech Connect

The KENO-Va improved Monte Carlo criticality program is used to calculate the neutron multiplication factor for TMI-U2 fuel compositions in a variety of configurations and to display parametric regions giving rise to maximum reactivity contributions. The lattice pitch of UO/sub 2/ fuel pins producing a maximum k/sub eff/ is determined as a function of boron concentrations in the coolant for infinite and finite systems. The characteristics of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-coolant mixtures of interest to modeling the rubble region of the core are presented. Several disrupted core configurations are calculated and comparisons made. The results should be useful to proposed defueling of the TMI-U2 reactor.

Thomas, J.T.

1984-10-01

401

Indoor Air Quality in a Middle School, Part II: Development of Emission Factors for Particulate Matter and Bioaerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality

Peter A. Scheff; Vidas K. Paulius; Luke Curtis; Lorraine M. Conroy

2000-01-01

402

Association between maternal and fetal factors and quality of cord blood as a source of stem cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives To comparatively analyze maternal and fetal factors and quality markers of blood samples in a public umbilical cord blood bank. Method This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that revisited 458 records of donations from September 2009 to March 2013 at the Hemocentro de Santa Catarina. The means of markers were used to define cutoff points for the quality of cord blood. Results Most donations came from women with ages between 18 and 29 years (62.8%), gestational age ? 40 weeks (55.2%), vaginal delivery (51.3%), primiparous (41.4%), and with male newborns (54.4%) weighing between 3000 and 3499 g (41.8%). The volume of the donations ranged from 71.6 to 275.2 mL, the total nucleated cell count ranged from 4.77 × 108 to 31.0 × 108 cells and CD34+ cells ranged from 0.05 to 1.23%. There were statistically significant differences in the volume with respect to gestation age > 38 weeks (p-value = 0.001), cesarean section (p-value < 0.001) and birth weight > 3500 g (p-value < 0.001). The total nucleated cell count was positively affected by cesarean section (p-value = 0.022) and birth weight > 3500 g (p-value < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the variables and the percentage of CD34+ cells. Conclusions Delivery route and birth weight influence the volume of cord blood and the total nucleated cell count. Gestational age influences only the volume of cord blood. PMID:25638766

Nunes, Rodrigo Dias; Zandavalli, Flávia Maria

2014-01-01

403

Neutronic reactor  

DOEpatents

A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

1983-01-01

404

Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

2013-10-01

405

Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China  

PubMed Central

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

406

Effect of dielectric properties of solvents on the quality factor for a beyond 900 MHz cryogenic probe model.  

PubMed

A previous report by Kelly et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (2002) 12013] indicated that the ionic conductivity of aqueous solution produces a significant contribution to the sensitivity loss in high-resolution NMR equipped with a cryogenically cooled probe. The loss in a sample solution contains two contributions: one from the ionic conductivity and the other from the dielectric loss; the latter is especially important at high frequencies such as above 900 MHz. Here, we investigated the effect of the dielectric conductivity on the quality factor of a 930 MHz cryogenic probe model; in particular, it deals with the ionic aqueous solutions and organic solvents commonly used for NMR in biological research and the chemistry of natural compounds. The sample quality factor, Qs, at first increases with the real part of the relative dielectric permittivity epsilon' and then saturates. In the case of polar organic solvents, the transverse electric field on the sample decreases with epsilon', resulting in an increase of Qs. In the case of non-polar organic solvents, the dielectric conductivity is so small that the gradient of the increase is steep, resulting in much larger Qs though the epsilon' is small. The effect of the transverse electric field is negligible if the epsilon' becomes large, thus the loss for ionic aqueous solution is mainly governed by a loop current induced in the sample solution. As the induced electromotive force is independent of the epsilon', the Qs is saturated at high values of epsilon'. Based on the Qs obtained with the cryogenic probe model, the sensitivity for the cryogenic probe is expected to be as follows: the loss in sensitivity by loading water is more than 66%, i.e., the effect of the dielectric conductivity of water is remarkable at high frequencies; polar organic solvent suffers much larger losses, which is due to the enhancement of the effective sample resistance by the effect of epsilon'; a non-polar organic solvent is nearly free of the sensitivity loss as the dielectric conductivity is negligible; the reverse micelle behaves similarly. PMID:15809170

Horiuchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Masato; Kikuchi, Jun; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Hideaki

2005-05-01

407

Neutron dosimetry in low-earth orbit using passive detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes neutron dosimetry measurements made by the USF Physics Research Laboratory aboard US and Russian LEO spacecraft over the past 20 years using two types of passive detector. Thermal/resonance neutron detectors exploiting the 6Li(n,T) alpha reaction were used to measure neutrons of energies <1 MeV. Fission foil neutron detectors were used to measure neutrons of energies above 1 MeV. While originally analysed in terms of dose equivalent using the NCRP-38 definition of quality factor, for the purposes of this paper the measured neutron data have been reanalyzed and are presented in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Dose equivalent rate for neutrons <1 MeV ranged from 0.80 microSv/d on the low altitude, low inclination STS-41B mission to 22.0 microSv/d measured in the Shuttle's cargo bay on the highly inclined STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. In one particular instance a detector embedded within a large hydrogenous mass on STS-61 (in the ECT experiment) measured 34.6 microSv/d. Dose equivalent rate measurements of neutrons >1 MeV ranged from 4.5 microSv/d on the low altitude STS-3 mission to 172 microSv/d on the 6 year LDEF mission. Thermal neutrons (<0.3 eV) were observed to make a negligible contribution to neutron dose equivalent in all cases. The major fraction of neutron dose equivalent was found to be from neutrons >1 MeV and, on LDEF, neutrons >1 MeV are responsible for over 98% of the total neutron dose equivalent. Estimates of the neutron contribution to the total dose equivalent are somewhat lower than model estimates, ranging from 5.7% at a location under low shielding on LDEF to 18.4% on the highly inclined (82.3 degrees) Biocosmos-2044 mission. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

2001-01-01

408

Prediction of In-Phantom Dose Distribution Using In-Air Neutron Beam Characteristics for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy  

SciTech Connect

A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study was carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures of merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the skin-absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the bone-absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment and that (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce the particle transport simulation time by a factor of 10 by modeling the moderator only.

Verbeke, Jerome M. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Chen, Allen S. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Vujic, Jasmina L. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Leung, Ka-Ngo [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

2000-08-15

409

Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors  

SciTech Connect

There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

2007-10-01

410

Neutron spectral measurements in an intense photon field associated with a high-energy x-ray radiotherapy machine.  

PubMed

High-energy x-ray radiotherapy machines in the supermegavoltage region generate complex neutron energy spectra which make an exact evaluation of neutron shielding difficult. Fast neutrons resulting from photonuclear reactions in the x-ray target and collimators undergo successive collisions in the surrounding materials and are moderated by varying amounts. In order to examine the neutron radiation exposures quantitatively, the neutron energy spectra have been measured inside and outside the treatment room of a Sagittaire medical linear accelerator (25-MV x rays) located at Yale-New Haven Hospital. The measurements were made using a Bonner spectrometer consisting of 2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10- and 12-in.-diameter polyethylene spheres with 6Li and 7Li thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips at the centers, in addition to bare and cadmium-covered chips. The individual TLD chips were calibrated for neutron and photon response. The spectrometer was calibrated using a known PuBe spectrum Spectrometer measurements were made at Yale Electron Accelerator Laboratory and results compared with a neutron time-of-flight spectrometer and an activation technique. The agreement between the results from these independent methods is found to be good, except for the measurements in the direct photon beam. Quality factors have been inferred for the neutron fields inside and outside the treatment room. Values of the inferred quality factors fall primarily between 4 and 8, depending on location. PMID:412048

Holeman, G R; Price, K W; Friedman, L F; Nath, R

1977-01-01

411

Calculation of effective dose from measurements of secondary neutron spectra and scattered photon dose from dynamic MLC IMRT for 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV beam energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective doses were calculated from the delivery of 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate treatment plans. ICRP-60 tissue weighting factors were used for the calculations. Photon doses were measured in phantom for all beam energies. Neutron spectra were measured for 15 MV and 18 MV and ICRP-74 quality conversion factors used to

Rebecca M. Howell; Nolan E. Hertel; Wang Zhonglu; Jesson Hutchinson; Gary D. Fullerton

2006-01-01

412

New Method for Determining the Quality Factor and Resonance Frequency of Superconducting Micro-Resonators from Sonnet Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithographed superconducting microwave resonators (micro-resonators) are useful in a number of important applications, including microwave kinetic inductance detectors (Day et al., Nature 425:817, 2003), as memory elements in quantum information circuits, and as readouts of qubits and nanomechanical resonators. One of the major tasks in designing these devices is to find the resonance frequency (f) and quality factor (Q) for these microwave circuits using EM simulation software such as Sonnet. The traditional method iteratively runs simulations over successively smaller frequency ranges. In this way the simulated transmission S data is zoomed in on to yield a well-sampled resonance curve of a circuit. Designing microwave resonators in this manner is often time consuming since it requires many simulation runs. In this work, we show a new—and much faster—method for determining f and Q by adding an internal (virtual) port in the Sonnet model and examining the input impedance through the added port. Accurate f and Q values can be retrieved from a single simulation with a wide frequency sweep. This method works on many types of resonance circuits and dramatically reduces the simulation time.

Wisbey, D. S.; Martin, A.; Reinisch, A.; Gao, J.

2014-08-01

413

Do Demographic Factors, School Functioning, and Quality of Student-Teacher Relationships as Rated by Teachers Predict Internalising and Externalising Problems among Norwegian Schoolchildren?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored the association between child internalising and externalising problems in schools and demographic factors (sex and age), school functioning (academic performance and adaptive functioning) and teacher-reported student-teacher relationship quality in a cross-sectional study using structural equation modelling. The study…

Drugli, May Britt; Klokner, Christian; Larsson, Bo

2011-01-01

414

Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

415

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

416

Quality Child Care and Socio-Emotional Risk Factors: No Evidence of Diminishing Returns for Urban Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that quality improvements in early childhood centers experience diminishing returns as the quality of the classroom rises with regards to concurrent socio-emotional outcomes. This hypothesis lies at the core of Scarr's argument that public policy should concentrate on improving low quality

Montes, Guillermo; Hightower, A. Dirk; Brugger, Lauri; Moustafa, Eman

2005-01-01

417

Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces, geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

1996-01-01

418

Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic com