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1

Neutron quality factor  

SciTech Connect

Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

NONE

1995-06-01

2

Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body.  

PubMed

Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from (252)Cf and (244)Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. PMID:22908356

Endo, Akira; Sato, Tatsuhiko

2013-04-01

3

Quality factor measurements at NTF  

SciTech Connect

The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements.

Vaziri, K.; Krueger, F.; Kroc, T.; Lauten, G.; Lennox, A.; Leveling, T.

1993-12-17

4

Important Water Quality Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

5

[Beam quality conversion factor].  

PubMed

This report describes the update of the beam quality conversion factor k(Q,Q0) of the standard dosimetry protocol in Japan. The k(Q,Q0) corrects for the difference between the response of an ionization chamber in the reference beam quality Q0 used for calibrating the chamber and in the actual user beam quality Q. All changes of k(Q,Q0) were caused by the perturbation correction factors which were recalculated by Monte Carlo simulation. With a calculation process, unsolved problems in this update are also discussed here. PMID:24893494

Kawachi, Toru; Katayose, Tetsurou

2013-01-01

6

Neutron Buildup Factors for Multilayered-Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The buildup factors for high energy neutrons of 14.1 MeV in a two-layered medium are calculated using the Monte Carlo method. Neutrons from planar monodirectional source are assumed to be incident on the surface of the multilayered-medium. A systematic study is carried out for the two cases: carbon-iron medium and iron-carbon medium. The value of the buildup factor is strongly

M. Abou Mandour; M. Hassan

1987-01-01

7

Factors influencing healthcare service quality  

PubMed Central

Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

2014-01-01

8

Experienced quality factors: qualitative evaluation approach to audiovisual quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective evaluation is used to identify impairment factors of multimedia quality. The final quality is often formulated via quantitative experiments, but this approach has its constraints, as subject's quality interpretations, experiences and quality evaluation criteria are disregarded. To identify these quality evaluation factors, this study examined qualitatively the criteria participants used to evaluate audiovisual video quality. A semi-structured interview was

Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö; Jukka Häkkinen; Göte Nyman

2007-01-01

9

Pediatric intensive care quality factors.  

PubMed

Intensive care has been in the forefront of quality investigations. Outcomes researchers have taken advantage of reliable and robust methods to adjust for severity of illness and other case mix variables, and readily identifiable relevant outcomes (survival and death) to investigate quality factors associated with improved risk-adjusted outcomes. Current studies are limited by using databases of convenience, use of historical controls, small sample sizes, and inadequate case-mix adjustment. Only one study has focused on the comparative advantage of pediatric versus adult intensive care units for injured children; it demonstrated substantially improved risk-adjusted mortality rates. The effect of volume on quality of pediatric intensive care has been the subject of multiple evaluations, although each of these studies has serious limitations. Other studies have demonstrated that the experience of the bedside caregiver is important in patient outcomes. PMID:18091207

Pollack, Murray M

2007-12-01

10

Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-05-01

11

Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

2007-10-01

12

Quality factor control for micromechanical resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of very high Q microelectromechanical filters, constructed of spring-coupled or parallel resonators, requires strict control over the quality factor of the constituent resonators. This report details electrostatic feedback techniques which allow precise control of the quality factor of a micromechanical resonator device, independent of the ambient operating pressure of the micromechanical system. Theoretical formulas governing Q-control are derived

C. T.-C. Nguyen; R. T. Howe

1992-01-01

13

Quality factors in interventional neuroradiology.  

PubMed

The interest we take in medical economics and strategy is like the one we take in politics: we may scorn politics, but it cannot be denied that it commands our entire life. For this reason, we must try to determine the conditions required to evaluate the quality of interventional neuroradiology, its operators, its practice, its advances, its teaching, and to maintain this quality. It is probably vital to the freedom of our future therapeutic decisions that we contribute effectively to this discussion before the standard is forced upon us by an exclusively economical or administrative logic. On the other hand, any advance can only be turned into progress if it is diffused and applied. There is no doubt that several levels of quality are acceptable, thus the best approach will be to look for and identify the minimum standard for quality or the limits of non-quality. We shall refrain from suggesting that the level of excellence at a given moment should be imposed upon all operators and constitute the standard level of practice. Practice is based on knowledge and competence. The most skilled surgical act cannot guarantee safe medical treatment if it is not supported by sufficient knowledge about the diseases and their symptoms. Mastership of the decision process requires a thorough vision of the therapeutic decision tree involved. Quality is a composition of global view and detailed analysis to allow a fuzzy gestion of the performance. Regardless of the plan chosen, openmindedness should be kept to allow adaptation, correction or interruption of a given therapeutic process in view of unpredicted pieces of information. Such input is a predictable possibility that should be explained to the patient prior to starting the procedure. Dealing with human beings, the attitude along with the technical management will be of paramount importance in the overall quality assessment. PMID:11840701

Lasjaunias, P

2001-01-01

14

SPECTRAL CORRECTION FACTORS FOR CONVENTIONAL NEUTRON DOSEMETERS USED IN HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRON ENVIRONMENTS.  

PubMed

High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6? standard sphere). PMID:25280480

Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

2014-10-01

15

FACTORS AFFECTING CARCASS COMPOSITION AND BEEF QUALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Factors affecting carcass composition and beef quality have been outlined in this chapter by looking at ways in which the true value of two finished cattle- beasts can differ at the same final live weight, and at the same time and place. True value is taken to be determined by the quantity of lean saleable beef produced, the quality

Roger Purchas

16

Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

1980-07-01

17

Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields  

SciTech Connect

The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering-Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30 St, P.O.BOX MG-6,Magurele, cod 077125 (Romania)

2013-12-16

18

Factors affecting quality of informed consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the factors influencing quality of informed consent. DESIGN--Prospective study comprising interviews with patients and patients' completing standard questionnaires. SETTING--Academic surgical unit of large teaching hospital. PATIENTS--265 patients undergoing intrathoracic, intraperitoneal, and vascular surgical procedures. Of these patients, 192 have been followed up for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' recall of information at various points in the study; this

C Lavelle-Jones; D J Byrne; P Rice; A Cuschieri

1993-01-01

19

Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.  

PubMed

The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-03-01

20

A study of measuring the critical factors of quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saraph et al. systematically attempted to organize and synthesize the various perceptions offered by other authors on the critical factors of quality management. The authors provided a synthesis of the quality literature by identifying eight critical factors of quality management in a business unit. They stated that the measures were both valid and reliable. In the light of this, empirically

Masood A. Badri; Donald Davis; Donna Davis

1995-01-01

21

DENSITES DE MOMENTS ET NEUTRONS POLAR~SES THE MAGNETIC FORM FACTOR OF TERBIUM (*)  

E-print Network

DENSITES DE MOMENTS ET NEUTRONS POLAR~SES THE MAGNETIC FORM FACTOR OF TERBIUM (*) T. 0.BRUN Ames, Argonne, Illinois R6sumB. -Le facteur de forme magnktique du Terbium a kt6 mesurk avec des neutrons magnetic form factor of terbium has been measured with polarized neutrons using single crystals held

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

23

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

SciTech Connect

The ratio G{sub c}{sup n}/G{sub m}{sup n} of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron has been measured by analyzing the polarization of the recoiling neutron in quasi-elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium at the Q{sup 2} values of 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The experiment has been performed in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. With G{sub m}{sup n} being known G can be deduced. The preliminary results show that the lowest Q{sup 2} points follow the Galster parameterization and that the 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} point rises above this parameterization.

T. Reichelt; R. Madey; A.Yu. Semenov; S. Taylor; A. Aghalarian; E. Crouse; G. MacLachlan; B. Plaster; S. Tajima; W. Tireman; C.Y. Yan; A. Ahmidouch; B.D. Anderson; R. Asaturian; O. Baker; A.R. Baldwin; H. Breuer; R. Carlini; E. Christy; S. Churchwell; L. Cole; S. Danagulian; D. Day; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; H. Fenker; J.M. Finn; L. Gan; K. Garrow; P. Gueye; C. Howell; B. Hu; M.K. Jones; J.J. Kelly; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; W.Y. Kim; S. Kowalski; A. Lung; D. Mack; D.M. Manley; P. Markowitz; J. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchian; A.K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; Y. Sato; W. Seo; N. Simicevic; G. Smith; S. Stepanian; V. Tadevosian; L. Tang; P. Ulmer; W. Vulcan; J.W. Watson; S. Wells; F. Wesselmann; S. Wood; C. Yan; S. Yang; L. Yuan; W.M. Zhang; H. Zhu; X. Zhu; H. Arenhovel

2003-10-22

24

Quality factor concept in piezoceramic transformer performance description  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new general approach based on the quality factor concept to piezoceramic transformer (PT) performance description is proposed. The system's quality factor, material elastic anisotropy, and coupling factors of the input and output sections of an electrically excited and electrically loaded PT fully characterize its resonance and near-resonance behavior. The PT efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output power were

Alex V. Mezheritsky

2006-01-01

25

Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron  

SciTech Connect

The 2H(e,e'n)1H quasielastic cross section was measured at Q2 values of 0.109, 0.176, and 0.255 (GeV/c)2. The neutron detection efficiency was determined by the associated particle technique with the 2H( gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. These 2H(e,e'n) measurements of the coincidence cross sections are the first at low Q2. The cross sections are sensitive primarily to the neutron magnetic form factor GnM at these kinematics. The extracted GnM values have smaller uncertainties than previous data and are consistent with the dipole parametrization at the two higher momentum transfers; at the lowest momentum transfer, the value of GnM is ~10% higher than t

Baldwin, Alan; Ni, Benwen; Anderson, Brian; Flanders, Bruce; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Hyde, Charles; Manley, D.; Tieger, Daniel; Barkhuff, David; Keane, Declan; Dodson, George; Arenhovel, Hartmuth; Kelly, James; Mougey, Jean; Cameron, John; Dow, Karen; Beard, Kevin; Weinstein, Lawrence; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Spraker, Mark; Finn, Michael; Rutt, Paul; Ulmer, Paul; Markowitz, Pete; Pella, Peter; Whitney, R.; Madey, Richard; Lourie, Robert; Van Verst, Scott; Kowalski, Stanley; Eden, Thomas; Payerle, Thomas; Reichelt, Tilmann; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Bertozzi, William; Turchinetz, William; Watson, William; Korsch, Wolfgang

1992-01-01

26

Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality  

E-print Network

Influence factors on safety of indoor air quality (IAQ) were analyzed in this paper. Some regeneration compositions resulting from potential indoor chemical reactions may be more harmful to habitants. A few building flaws may be key factors...

Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

2006-01-01

27

Quality-factor enhancement of supermodes in coupled microdisks.  

PubMed

We investigate the optical modes in a coupled pair of semiconductor microdisks in symmetric and asymmetric configurations both experimentally and theoretically. While the quality factors of coupled first- and second-order whispering gallery modes (WGMs) show a conventional crossing, the quality factors of the same-order WGMs reveal an interesting splitting behavior, leading to the formation of high- and low-quality supermodes. Our results are reproduced by numerical simulations, and an explanation based on optical interference is suggested. Quality-factor splitting is a subtle phenomenon that might help to design microarchitectures for efficient optical coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamic experiments. PMID:21499342

Benyoucef, M; Shim, J-B; Wiersig, J; Schmidt, O G

2011-04-15

28

Challenges for Addressing Quality Factors in Model Transformation Eugene Syriani  

E-print Network

Challenges for Addressing Quality Factors in Model Transformation Eugene Syriani Department, critical require- ments for model transformation are to (1) provide a sound, optimal and efficient solution- lenges to address quality factors for model transformation. Figure 1 illustrates the overall approach

Gray, Jeffrey G.

29

Understanding the Institutional-Level Factors of Urban School Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article addresses which school-level factors contribute to school quality. Previous research has focused on assessing the effects of school-level variables on student-level quality (e.g., achievement). However, the field has been limited in not evaluating the effects of school-level factors directly on measured…

Gottfried, Michael A.

2012-01-01

30

Dynamic Factor Analysis of Surface-Water Quality Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic factor model and an autoregressive model for factor scores are used for modeling surface-water quality data. The former takes into account all time-lagged covariance matrices and the latter includes the autocorrelation of factors. The combined model permits the state-space formulation of the system and the use of the Kalman filter for estimating the time series of water quality

Shimin Zou; Yun-Sheng Yu

1993-01-01

31

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

32

Neutron-proton asymmetry dependence of spectroscopic factors in Ar isotopes  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton rich 34Ar and neutron rich 46Ar using the (p,d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

Jenny Lee; M. B. Tsang; D. Bazin; D. Coupland; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; M. Kilburn; W. G. Lynch; A. Rogers; A. Sanetullaev; A. Signoracci; Z. Y. Sun; M. Youngs; K. Y. Chae; R. J. Charity; H. K. Cheung; M. Famiano; S. Hudan; P. OMalley; W. A. Peters; K. Schmitt; D. Shapira; L. G. Sobotka

2010-02-24

33

Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences  

PubMed Central

The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

2013-01-01

34

The structure of 3He and the neutron electric form factor from polarization observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

As there are no free neutron targets one has to resort to the nuclear targets deuterium or helium. In order to reduce nuclear effects blurring the information on nuclear form factors the technique of double polarization experiments had been developed. Recent experiments at MAMI measuring the electric form factor of the neutron are discussed. In addition, other single and double

P. Grabmayr

2008-01-01

35

Factors Affecting the Eating Quality of Pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade studies with the specific objective of improving the sensory quality of pork have come to the forefront of meat research, likely a result of consumer complaints of blandness levelled against modern lean meat and the frequent reference to the more strongly flavored meat that was available years ago. Regardless of the lack of scientific evidence to

Tania M. Ngapo; Claude Gariépy

2008-01-01

36

Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

Lee, Pen-Nan

1991-01-01

37

Measuring Project Quality Factors Critical to Project Success  

E-print Network

Measuring Project Quality ­ Factors Critical to Project Success Presented by Thomas Howe P available to measure and track project cost (cheap) and schedule (fast), the measurement and monitoring of project quality (good) is at best underdeveloped. While qualitative measures of project cost and schedule

Calgary, University of

38

Measuring Banks' Automated Service Quality: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated service quality has been recognised as the factor which determines the suc cess or failure of electronic commerce. Those models current ly available to measure automated service quality are limited in their focus, encompassing only one electronic channel - the internet - thereby ignoring attributes of the other automated service channels. In relation to the banking sector, research has

Mohammed Al-Hawari; Nicole Hartley; Tony Ward

2005-01-01

39

[Effect of ecological factors on citrus fruit quality].  

PubMed

This paper summarized the research advance on the physiological foundation of citrus fruit's major quality factors such as color formation and organic acid and sugar accumulation, and analyzed the effects of main ecological factors such as temperature, sunshine, water, soil, terrain and landforms on them. The existing problems and the research prospects of citrus ecology were expounded, and a useful proposal on the quality sub-distribution of citrus in China was put forward. PMID:15574012

Bao, Jiangfeng; Xia, Renxue; Peng, Shu'ang

2004-08-01

40

High quality factor single-crystal diamond mechanical resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal diamond is a promising material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) because of its low mechanical loss, compatibility with extreme environments, and built-in interface to high-quality spin centers. But its use has been limited by challenges in processing and growth. We demonstrate a wafer bonding-based technique to form diamond on insulator, from which we make single-crystal diamond micromechanical resonators with mechanical quality factors as high as 338 000 at room temperature. Variable temperature measurements down to 10 K reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of quality factor on temperature. These resonators enable integration of single-crystal diamond into MEMs technology for classical and quantum applications.

Ovartchaiyapong, P.; Pascal, L. M. A.; Myers, B. A.; Lauria, P.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.

2012-10-01

41

Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

Chiang, R. T. [AREVA NP Inc., 6399 San Ignacio Ave., San Jose, CA 95119 (United States)

2012-07-01

42

Photon attenuation and neutron moderation correction factors for the inspection of cargo containers with tagged neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system uses 14MeV neutrons produced by the D(T,n ?) reaction to detect explosives in cargo containers. Fast-neutron-induced reactions inside the container produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle. The definition of the neutron path and the time-of-flight measurement allow positioning the source of the gamma ray

C. Carasco; B. Perot; G. Viesti; V. Valkovic; D. Sudac; S. Bernard; A. Mariani; J.-L. Szabo; G. Sannie; M. Lunardon; C. Bottosso; S. Moretto; S. Pesente; P. Peerani; V. Sequeira; M. Salvato

2007-01-01

43

The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

Bradley Plaster

2004-02-01

44

Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  

PubMed

This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

45

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

46

High quality factor, fully switchable THz superconducting metasurface  

E-print Network

We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q=54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with an high Q and inductive elements with an high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

Scalari, Giacomo; Cibella, Sara; Leoni, Roberto; Faist, Jerome

2014-01-01

47

Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors  

E-print Network

Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are calculated for three types of finger and wrist extremity phantoms: (1) the polymethyl methacrylate models specified by the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program...

Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

1997-01-01

48

Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

2014-11-01

49

Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety  

PubMed Central

Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

2013-01-01

50

Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety.  

PubMed

Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P

2014-01-01

51

Quality of Working Life of Nurses and its Related Factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Nurses as the largest group of health care providers should enjoy a satisfactory quality of working life to be able to provide quality care to their patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to the nurses’ working life. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the quality of nurses' working life in Kashans' hospitals during 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses during 2012. The data-gathering instrument consisted of two parts. The first part consisted of questions on demographic information and the second part was the Walton’s quality of work life questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. For statistical analysis T test and one way ANOVA were used. Results: The results of the study showed that 60% of nurses reported that they had moderate level of quality of working life while 37.1% and 2% had undesirable and good quality of working life, respectively. Nurses with associate degrees reported a better quality of working life than others. A significant relationship was found between variables such as education level, work experience, and type of hospital with quality of working life score (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between quality of working life score of nurses with employment status (P = 0.061), salary (P = 0.052), age, gender and marital status (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Nurses' quality of work life was at the moderate level. As quality of work life has an important impact on attracting and retaining employees, it is necessary to pay more attention to the nurses’ quality of work life and its affecting factors. PMID:25414904

Moradi, Tayebeh; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Azizi-Fini, Ismail

2014-01-01

52

Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

Hamazaki, Takashi

1992-01-01

53

The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2004-01-01

54

Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

55

Mechanical quality factor of a sapphire fiber at cryogenic temperatures  

E-print Network

A mechanical quality factor of $1.1 \\times 10^{7}$ was obtained for the 199 Hz bending vibrational mode in a monocrystalline sapphire fiber at 6 K. Consequently, we confirm that pendulum thermal noise of cryogenic mirrors used for gravitational wave detectors can be reduced by the sapphire fiber suspension.

T. Uchiyama; T. Tomaru; D. Tatsumi; S. Miyoki; M. Ohashi; K. Kuroda; T. Suzuki; A. Yamamoto; T. Shintomi

2000-07-27

56

Carbon Nanotubes as Ultrahigh Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators  

E-print Network

Carbon Nanotubes as Ultrahigh Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Andreas K. Hu¨ttel, Gary A mode of suspended carbon nanotubes at millikelvin temperatures by measuring the single- electron tunneling current. The suspended nanotubes are actuated contact-free by the radio frequency electric field

57

Bismuth Layer Structured Ferroelectric Ceramics with High Mechanical Quality Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piezoelectric properties in some bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric (BLSF) ceramics were investigated focusing on a mechanical quality factor, Qm. Many BLSF compositions with various Curie temperature, Tc, were selected in this study, and the Qm values of (33) mode were plotted as a function of their Curie temperature, Tc. The Qm increased with increasing the Tc in the low Tc

Hajime Nagata; Yuji Hiruma; Muneyasu Suzuki; Tadashi Takenaka

2007-01-01

58

Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

1984-01-01

59

Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

60

Neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion factors for active marrow of the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Calculation of the absorbed dose to active marrow is a complex problem because charged particle equilibrium may not exist near a soft tissue-bone interface and it is difficult to model the intricate intermixture of soft tissue and bone in the skeleton. This study provides the first definitive calculations for a variety of bones and a wide range of neutron and photon energies. We avoid the assumption of a special geometry by using measured chord-length distributions to represent the microstructure of trabecular bone which contains the active marrow. Results of our calculations for neutrons and photons with energies up to 20 MeV are presented as dose response factors. The response factors can be applied in radiation transport calculations of absorbed dose in active marrow from photons and neutrons externally incident on the body and photons produced by neutrons interactions within the body. 34 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Kerr, G.D.; Eckerman, K.F.

1984-01-01

61

Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

2013-07-01

62

Optimized Quality Factor of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced PVC Nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite films were prepared by solution blending. The homogeneity of GO dispersion with PVC was confirmed by an optical microscope. Quality factor ( Q-factor) as a function of temperature (40-150 °C) was measured within a broadband frequency range of 50-35 MHz. The controlled GO loading demonstrates a crucial impact on the optimization of the Q-factor, resonance frequency ( f 0) and wide bandwidth. This nanocomposite may be well suited for electronic applications. The further development of GO-reinforced polymer nanocomposites based on an optimized Q-factor may result in a material for electromagnetic frequency radiation shields for radar and communication towers/devices.

Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

2014-04-01

63

High quality factor nonpolar GaN photonic crystal nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality factor a-plane nonpolar GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities on r-plane sapphire substrates have been demonstrated. Nonpolar GaN PC nanocavities on a thin membrane structure were realized by using e-beam lithography to define the PC patterns and focused-ion beam milling to fabricate the suspended thin membrane. A dominant resonant mode at 388 nm with a high quality factor of approximately 4300 has been demonstrated at 77 K by the micro-photoluminescence system. Moreover, the degree of polarization of the emission from the non-polar GaN PC nanocavity was measured to be 64% along the m crystalline direction.

Wu, Tzeng-Tsong; Lo, Sheng-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Tsao, Che-Wei; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung

2013-05-01

64

Dissipation in Ultrahigh Quality Factor SiN Membrane Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the mechanical properties of stoichiometric SiN resonators through a combination of spectroscopic and interferometric imaging techniques. At room temperature, we demonstrate ultrahigh quality factors of 5×107 and a f×Q product of 1×1014 Hz. To our knowledge, these correspond to the largest values yet reported for mesoscopic flexural resonators. Through a comprehensive study of the limiting dissipation mechanisms as a function of resonator and substrate geometry, we identify radiation loss through the supporting substrate as the dominant loss process. In addition to pointing the way towards higher quality factors through optimized substrate designs, our work realizes an enabling platform for the observation and control of quantum behavior in a macroscopic mechanical system.

Chakram, S.; Patil, Y. S.; Chang, L.; Vengalattore, M.

2014-03-01

65

Method for determining formation quality factor from seismic data  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for calculating the quality factor Q from a seismic data trace. The method includes calculating a first and a second minimum phase inverse wavelet at a first and a second time interval along the seismic data trace, synthetically dividing the first wavelet by the second wavelet, Fourier transforming the result of the synthetic division, calculating the logarithm of this quotient of Fourier transforms and determining the slope of a best fit line to the logarithm of the quotient.

Taner, M. Turhan; Treitel, Sven

2005-08-16

66

Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the transparent optical crystals. The larger values of F and Q result in the enhancement of various nonlinear processes. Low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations based on these resonators have been recently demonstrated. Theory predicts a possibility of nearly 10(exp 14) room-temperature optical Q-factors of optical crystalline WGM resonators, which correspond to finesse levels higher than 10(exp 9). Experiments have shown numbers a thousand times lower than that. The difference occurs due to media imperfections. To substantially reduce the optical losses caused by the imperfections, a specific, multi-step, asymptotic processing of the resonator is implemented. The technique has been initially developed to reduce microwave absorption in dielectric resonators. One step of the process consists of mechanical polishing performed after high temperature annealing. Several steps repeat one after another to lead to significant reduction in optical attenuation and, as a result, to the increase of Q-factor as well as finesse of the resonator which demonstrates a CaF2 WGM resonator with F greater than 10(exp 7) and Q greater than 10(exp 11).

Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir

2008-01-01

67

Ultra high quality factor resonators for kinetic inductance detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of a kinetic inductance detector is determined by the performance of the cavity circuit and therefore a high quality factor and low phase noise are required. We developed superconducting niobium coplanar waveguide resonators for kinetic inductance detectors at a resonance frequency of 6 GHz. The length of the resonators is adjusted to a quarter of a wavelength which corresponds to ? 5.3 mm in our geometry. Different layouts with coplanar waveguide transmission line topology for the resonator were designed and simulated. Some parameters of the device fabrication process were varied. The niobium thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrates kept at ambient temperature. The resonators were patterned by photolithography and reactive ion etching and measured at helium temperatures. Because of the quarter wave geometry with one shorted end the reflection parameter was measured. We have studied the influence of the coupling capacitances on quality factor. The optimization includes microwave simulations and implementation in different resonator structures. The measurements of optimized devices showed a very high quality factor above one million (106). The obtained results and perspective on further development of resonators will be discussed.

Hammer, G.; Wuensch, S.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.

2008-02-01

68

Microscopic structure factor of liquid hydrogen by neutron-diffraction measurements  

SciTech Connect

The center-of-mass structure factor of liquid para hydrogen has been measured, using neutron diffraction, in four thermodynamic states close to the triple point. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out at the same temperatures and densities. The present experimental data are in reasonable quantitative agreement with the simulations and closer to these results than previous neutron determinations available in the literature. The thermodynamic derivatives of the structure factor, from both experiment and simulation, have been compared to previous measurements obtaining a quantitative consistency.

Celli, M.; Bafile, U.; Zoppi, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Formisano, F. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Operative Group in Grenoble, c/o Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Guarini, E. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Unita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Magli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica, e Biotecnologie per la Medicina, Universita di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 93, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Unita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Neumann, M. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Wien, Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2005-01-01

69

His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany.  

PubMed

Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men's satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women's satisfaction, but men's satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men's satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

2014-08-01

70

Monte Carlo calculation of epithermal neutron resonance self-shielding factors in wires of different materials.  

PubMed

Epithermal neutron resonance self-shielding factors in wires of materials used as activation detectors or as targets for radionuclide production have been calculated using the MCNP code. The energy dependent self-shielding factor depends on the ratio scattering/capture cross sections. The self-shielding factors for cobalt and gold have been compared with available values. The self-shielding factor depends on various physical and nuclear parameters. However, an adimensional variable can be adopted that describes the self-shielding factors of different materials by a quasi "universal curve". PMID:11545495

Gonçalves, I F; Martinho, E; Salgado, J

2001-10-01

71

Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.  

PubMed

The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources. PMID:25748505

De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

2015-01-01

72

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

PubMed

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

73

Recent and Future Measurements of the Neutron Electric Form Factor  

SciTech Connect

I review recently conducted measurements of G{sub E}{sup n} as well as precision form factor experiments at high momentum transfer that will be performed with the 11 GeV electron beam at Jefferson Lab.

Semenov, Andrei [University of Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)

2010-08-05

74

Microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic damping  

E-print Network

Microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factor limited by thermoelastic 19 February 2013) Thin-film microcrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with mechanical quality factor limited by thermoelastic dissipation in the diamond film are demonstrated. Surface

Lin, Liwei

75

Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

2014-01-01

76

Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators  

PubMed Central

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality factor or Q. This term describes the photon lifetime (?o) within the resonator, which is directly related to the resonator's optical losses. Therefore, an optical resonator with a high Q factor has low optical losses, long photon lifetimes, and very low photon decay rates (1/?o). As a result of the long photon lifetimes, it is possible to build-up extremely large circulating optical field intensities in these devices. This very unique property has allowed these devices to be used as laser sources and integrated biosensors.10 A unique sub-class of resonators is the whispering gallery mode optical microcavity. In these devices, the light is confined in circular orbits at the periphery. Therefore, the field is not completely confined within the device, but evanesces into the environment. Whispering gallery mode optical cavities have demonstrated some of the highest quality factors of any optical resonant cavity to date.9,11 Therefore, these devices are used throughout science and engineering, including in fundamental physics studies and in telecommunications as well as in biodetection experiments. 3-7,12 Optical microcavities can be fabricated from a wide range of materials and in a wide variety of geometries. A few examples include silica and silicon microtoroids, silicon, silicon nitride, and silica microdisks, micropillars, and silica and polymer microrings.13-17 The range in quality factor (Q) varies as dramatically as the geometry. Although both geometry and high Q are important considerations in any field, in many applications, there is far greater leverage in boosting device performance through Q enhancement. Among the numerous options detailed previously, the silica microsphere and the silica microtoroid resonator have achieved some of the highest Q factors to date.1,9 Additionally, as a result of the extremely low optical loss of silica from the visible through the near-IR, both microspheres and microtoroids are able to maintain their Q factors over a wide range of testing wavelengths.18 Finally, because silica is inherently biocompatible,

Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

77

g-Factor Measurements Of Isomeric States In Neutron Rich Nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the first application of the TDPAD method to measure the g factor of neutron-rich isomeric states, produced and aligned in a projectile fragmentation reaction. The feasibility of similar measurement opens up a new, unexplored region of the nuclear chart for studies of the magnetic moments of microsecond isomers. Nuclei around 68Ni were produced following the fragmentation of

G. Georgiev; G. Neyens; M. Hass; D. L. Balabanski; C. Bingham; C. Borcea; N. Coulier; R. Coussement; J. M. Daugas; G. de France; F. De Oliveira Santos; M. Gorska; H. Grawe; R. Grzywacz; M. Lewitowicz; H. Mach; I. Matea; R. D. Page; M. Pfützner; Yu. E. Penionzhkevich; Z. Podolyak; P. H. Regan; K. Rykaczewski; M. Sawicka; N. A. Smirnova; Yu. Sobolev; M. Stanoiu; S. Teughels; K. Vyvey

2003-01-01

78

Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ˜ P-1 behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ˜ Pc with c ? 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ˜ 1.

Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

2014-12-01

79

Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.  

PubMed

The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300?M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20?M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p?=?0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p?=?0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p?=?0.01, p?=?0.05, and p?=?0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p?=?0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p?=?0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p?=?0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p?=?0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

2014-02-01

80

Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data…

Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

2010-01-01

81

Survey of ground state neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Li to Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

The ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 have been extracted by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions from (d,p) and (p,d) reactions. We demonstrate an approach that provides systematic and consistent values with minimum assumptions. For the 61 nuclei that have been described by large-basis shell-model calculations, most experimental spectroscopic factors are reproduced to within 20%.

M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; W. G. Lynch

2005-09-09

82

Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes.  

PubMed

An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an (241)Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF(3) and (3)He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations. PMID:20471278

Mazrou, Hakim; Sidahmed, Tassadit; Allab, Malika

2010-10-01

83

Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors  

PubMed Central

Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life.

Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

2015-01-01

84

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well  

E-print Network

, and local information needs and decisions related to water-quality management and policy (httpThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water-Quality

85

Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

2014-05-01

86

Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV at this location for the first time. The increased air pollution was associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. The glutathione dependent oxidative potential did not increase during the construction period but a significant increase was found when the new widened road was in operation.

Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

2014-05-01

87

Evaluation of quality of life and risk factors affecting quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common disease leading to spinal deformity in children ages 10 and over. With advances in the study of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), greater attention has been given to the quality of life (QoL) of patients with AIS and their perception of deformity instead of just focusing on improving the rate of surgical correction. This article provides an overview of the methods of evaluating HRQoL and it analyzes several main factors affecting QoL, such as severity of disease, method of treatment, gender, and social environment, based on previous studies of patients with AIS. The authors believe that radiological studies should no longer be taken as the only indicator of postoperative therapeutic evaluation and hope to build a new evaluation system with assessment of QoL for patients with AIS. PMID:25674383

Han, Jing; Xu, Qintong; Yang, Yi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Chi

2015-01-01

88

Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

2011-10-01

89

Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum  

PubMed Central

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-01-01

90

Improving the Quality Factor of Microwave Compact Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting microwave resonators are now widely used for coupling to superconducting qubit systems. Compact resonators [1] consisting of an interdigitated capacitance and a meander inductance take up much less space than a typical coplanar waveguide resonator. Since the design of compact resonators and qubits share common features, qubit decoherence mechanisms can be studied through the measurement of resonator loss. We measured of order 100 resonators and have achieved internal quality factors in excess of 300,000. Results indicate loss appears to be due to spurious two level systems. Loss increases when the participation of surfaces in the energy density is increased. Thus a large separation of electrodes is preferred, in agreement with the findings of other groups. Work in progress involves the combination of these resonators with transmon qubits. Work supported by IARPA, ARO and the NSF. [4pt] [1] M.S. Khalil, F.C. Wellstood, and K.D. Osborn, arXiv:1008.2929

Geerlings, K.; Shankar, S.; Edwards, E.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

2011-03-01

91

Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity  

E-print Network

Sub-threshold measurements of a photonic crystal (PC) microcavity laser operating at 1.3 microns show a linewidth of 0.10 nm, corresponding to a quality factor Q ~ 1.3x10^4. The PC microcavity mode is a donor-type mode in a graded square lattice of air holes, with a theoretical Q ~ 10^5 and mode volume Veff ~ 0.25 cubic half-wavelengths in air. Devices are fabricated in an InAsP/InGaAsP multi-quantum well membrane and are optically pumped at 830 nm. External peak pump power laser thresholds as low as 100 microWatts are also observed.

Kartik Srinivasan; Paul E. Barclay; Oskar Painter; Jianxin Chen; Alfred Y. Cho; Claire Gmachl

2003-06-16

92

Open-access colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated factors and quality  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: A population-based analysis of all adult outpatients undergoing a first-time colonoscopy between 1997 and 2007 in Ontario was performed. Colonoscopy was considered to be OA if there were no visits in the preceding five years with the physician performing the colonoscopy. Using logistic regression, patient, physician and institution factors associated with OA colonoscopy were identified. Using propensity score matching, the relationship between OA colonoscopy and incomplete colonoscopy in 2006 was examined. RESULTS: A total of 1,079,259 colonoscopies were performed. Of these, 14% were OA in 1997 compared with 26% in 2007. Patients 50 to 69 years of age, those from higher-income neighbourhoods and those with less comorbidity were more likely to undergo OA colonoscopy. The odds of receiving OA colonoscopy were six times greater in a nonhospital clinic compared with a community hospital. Colonoscopy was more likely to be complete if the procedure was OA (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.4]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OA colonoscopy have increased substantially since 1997. Institution type was most strongly associated with OA colonoscopy. Colonoscopy completeness, a recognized quality indicator, does not appear to be compromised by OA colonoscopy. PMID:23781517

Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

2013-01-01

93

Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G(M)n in the few-GeV2 region.  

PubMed

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q;{2}=1.0-4.8 GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data. PMID:19518944

Lachniet, J; Afanasev, A; Arenhövel, H; Brooks, W K; Gilfoyle, G P; Higinbotham, D; Jeschonnek, S; Quinn, B; Vineyard, M F; Adams, G; Adhikari, K P; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bookwalter, C; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Collins, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; Cummings, J P; Dale, D; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhamija, S; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kageya, T; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Konczykowski, P; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; Maccormick, M; Malace, S; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Mineeva, T; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Mueller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Pereira, S Anefalos; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Sandorfi, A; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Sharov, D; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Starostin, A; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Stopani, K A; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Yurov, M; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

2009-05-15

94

Evaluating the Importance of Service Quality Factors in PMR Based on Grey Relational Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the grey relation theory, the paper presented a grey relational assessment model to evaluate the importance of various quality factors in property management of residence (PMR). First, this study found out twenty main service quality factors that influence overall service quality of property management of residence (SQPMR) based on SERVQUAL instrument and interview with experts and literature review,

Chen Yongqing; Huang Jiatao

2009-01-01

95

Indoor Air Quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building John D. Spengler  

E-print Network

1 Indoor Air Quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building John D. Spengler School of Public of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be used routinely. CFD will be integrated into air quality and risk. 2000. "Indoor air quality factors in designing a healthy building," Annual Review of Energy

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

96

Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)  

SciTech Connect

Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

Derek Glazier

2007-09-30

97

Quality Management Dimensions, Contextual Factors and Performance: An Empirical Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an assessment of the status of quality management dimensions in Queensland businesses, this study has used Powell's (1995) framework of quality management. A mail survey approach was used to collect the information on various dimensions of quality management considered in this study. The results suggest that implementation of quality management practices in Queensland businesses has begun but not much

Bishnu Sharma

2006-01-01

98

Fabrication of silica ultra high quality factor microresonators.  

PubMed

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery. The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.(3-7) The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million). However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. PMID:22805153

Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

2012-01-01

99

Expected quality factor of a simple tuned oscillator.  

PubMed

A positive feedback system oscillating under self-sustained mode is shown to have an extremely high gain. Modeled as one port, the expected Q is much higher than the loaded Q-factor of the resonator. With just thermal noise present, random phase/frequency deviation is linear. Centered about the oscillator frequency omega/(0), noise frequency on both sides is more amplified with decreasing separation distance. Ultimately, frequency pulling may result in synchronous locking with hysteresis, which occurs because a real oscillator displays a truncated limiting curve. Once locked onto a signal, smaller levels are ignored. A new approach to the design and characterization of a simple tuned oscillator is offered: According to the phenomenon of injection locking, there exists an expected quality factor relating the shape of the truncated limiting curve to an ideal curve. In this paper, synthesis and innovative analytical methods of academic interest are revealed: 1) application of the transducer loss method is revised to establish a new method for oscillator characterization; 2) a transparent method of normalizing a two-port network in the presence of white noise is developed; and 3) in quartz crystal controlled oscillators, characterization of the noise originating from an equivalent noise-resistance determined from parameter of the quartz crystal is proposed. It is shown that the two-port model can also be approximated on a one-port basis. In conclusion, a sample of closed-form estimation of expected Q-factor order of magnitude of piezoelectric resonator oscillators is calculated. PMID:21622044

Tan, Kia Hock

2011-05-01

100

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor GEn in quasielastic scattering  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the electric form factor of the neutron, GEn, at two momentum transfers (Q2= 0.5 and Q2= 1.0 GeV/c2) through quasielastic scattering in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. Longitudinally polarized electrons scattered from polarized deuterated ammonia and GEn was extracted from the beam-target asymmetry AVed which, in quasielastic kinematics, is particularly sensitive to GEn and insensitive to MEC and FSI.

Donal Day

2003-07-15

101

Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor in the Few-GeV^2 Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor GM^n has been extracted from quasielastic scattering from deuterium in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous from 1 (GeV\\/c)^2 to nearly 5 (GeV\\/c)^2 in four-momentum transfer squared and eclipses the previous data in this region. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique, where

Gerard Gilfoyle; Jeffrey Lachniet; William Brooks; Brian Quinn; Michael Vineyard; D. Higinbotham; S. Jeschonnek; G. Adams; K. P. Adhikari; M. J. Amaryan; M. Anghinolfi; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; H. Avakian; H. Bagdasaryan; N. Baillie; J. P. Ball; N. A. Baltzell; S. Barrow; V. Batourine; M. Battaglieri; K. Beard; I. Bedlinskiy; M. Bektasoglu; M. Bellis; N. Benmouna; B. L. Berman; A. S. Biselli; B. E. Bonner; C. Bookwalter; S. Bouchigny; S. Boiarinov; R. Bradford; D. Branford; S. Bültmann; V. D. Burkert; J. R. Calarco; S. L. Careccia; D. S. Carman; L. Casey; L. Cheng; P. L. Cole; A. Coleman; P. Collins; D. Cords; P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; V. Crede; J. P. Cummings; D. Dale; A. Daniel; N. Dashyan; R. de Masi; R. de Vita; E. de Sanctis; P. V. Degtyarenko; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; A. Deur; S. Dhamija; K. V. Dharmawardane; K. S. Dhuga; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G. E. Dodge; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; O. P. Dzyubak; H. Egiyan; K. S. Egiyan; L. El Fassi; L. Elouadrhiri; A. Empl; P. Eugenio; R. Fatemi; G. Fedotov; R. Fersch; R. J. Feuerbach; T. A. Forest; A. Fradi; M. Y. Gabrielyan; M. Garçon; G. Gavalian; N. Gevorgyan; K. L. Giovanetti; F. X. Girod; J. T. Goetz; W. Gohn; E. Golovatch; R. W. Gothe; L. Graham; K. A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; N. Guler; L. Guo; V. Gyurjyan; C. Hadjidakis; K. Hafidi; H. Hakobyan; C. Hanretty; J. Hardie; N. Hassall; D. Heddle; F. W. Hersman; K. Hicks; I. Hleiqawi; M. Holtrop; J. Hu; M. Huertas; C. E. Hyde-Wright; Y. Ilieva; D. G. Ireland; B. S. Ishkhanov; E. L. Isupov; M. M. Ito; D. Jenkins; H. S. Jo; J. R. Johnstone; K. Joo; H. G. Juengst; T. Kageya; N. Kalantarians; D. Keller; J. D. Kellie; M. Khandaker; P. Khetarpal; K. Y. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F. J. Klein; M. Klusman; P. Konczykowski; M. Kossov; L. H. Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; J. Kuhn; S. E. Kuhn; S. V. Kuleshov; V. Kuznetsov; J. M. Laget; J. Langheinrich; D. Lawrence; A. C. S. Lima; K. Livingston; M. Lowry; H. Y. Lu; K. Lukashin; M. MacCormick; S. Malace; J. J. Manak; N. Markov; P. Mattione; S. McAleer; M. E. McCracken; B. McKinnon; J. W. C. McNabb; B. A. Mecking; M. D. Mestayer; C. A. Meyer; T. Mibe; K. Mikhailov; T. Mineeva; R. Minehart; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Mokeev; B. Moreno; K. Moriya; S. A. Morrow; M. Moteabbed; J. Mueller; E. Munevar; G. S. Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; R. Nasseripour; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; B. B. Niczyporuk; M. R. Niroula; R. A. Niyazov; M. Nozar; G. V. O'Rielly; M. Osipenko; A. I. Ostrovidov; E. Pasyuk; C. Paterson; S. Anefalos Pereira; S. A. Philips; J. Pierce; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; I. Popa; S. Pozdniakov; B. M. Preedom; J. W. Price; Y. Prok; D. Protopopescu; L. M. Qin; B. A. Raue; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; M. Ripani; B. G. Ritchie; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P. D. Rubin; F. Sabatié; M. S. Saini; J. Salamanca; C. Salgado; A. Sandorfi; J. P. Santoro; V. Sapunenko; D. Schott; R. A. Schumacher; V. S. Serov; Y. G. Sharabian; D. Sharov; J. Shaw; N. V. Shvedunov; A. V. Skabelin; E. S. Smith; L. C. Smith; D. I. Sober; D. Sokhan; A. Starostin; A. Stavinsky; S. Stepanyan; B. E. Stokes; P. Stoler; K. A. Stopani; I. I. Strakovsky; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D. J. Tedeschi; R. Thompson; A. Tkabladze; S. Tkachenko; M. Ungaro; A. V. Vlassov; D. P. Watts; X. Wei; L. B. Weinstein; D. P. Weygand; M. Williams; E. Wolin; M. H. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; M. Yurov; L. Zana; J. Zhang; B. Zhao; Z. W. Zhao

2009-01-01

102

Gamma-ray and neutron dose-equivalent buildup factors for infinite slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper gamma-ray and neutron dose-equivalent buildup factors are calculated for six common shielding materials in a point-source, infinite-slab, point-detector geometry using a decomposition of the solution to the transport problem into single- and multiple-scatter components. A rigorous solution for the single-scatter component is constructed and a Monte Carlo model for the multiple-scatter component is employed. Simplified models are

W. L. Dunn; A. M. Yacout; F. OFoghludha; G. Riel

1992-01-01

103

Patient, Provider, and Treatment Factors Associated with Poor-Quality Care for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions are needed to improve the quality of care for schizophrenia. However, in designing these interventions it would be helpful to understand better which patients are at highest risk for poor-quality care and why care for this disorder is often of poor quality. We study the extent to which patient and treatment factors are associated with poor-quality care in 224

Alexander S. Young; Greer Sullivan; Naihua Duan

1999-01-01

104

Survey of excited state neutron spectroscopic factors for Z=8-28 nuclei  

E-print Network

We have extracted 565 neutron spectroscopic factors of sd and fp shell nuclei by systematically analyzing more than 2000 measured (d,p) angular distributions. We are able to compare 125 of the extracted spectroscopic factors to values predicted by large-basis shell-model calculations and evaluate the accuracies of spectroscopic factors predicted by different shell-model interactions in these regions. We find that the spectroscopic factors predicted for most excited states of sd-shell nuclei using the latest USDB or USDA interactions agree with the experimental values. For fp shell nuclei, the inability of the current models to account for the core excitation and fragmentation of the states leads to considerable discrepancies. In particular, the agreement between data and shell-model predictions for Ni isotopes is not better than a factor of two using either the GXPF1A or the XT interaction.

M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; S. C. Su; J. Y. Dai; M. Horoi; H. Liu; W. G. Lynch; S. Warren

2009-01-14

105

Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality (60)Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for (60)Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent-being higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other-except for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 ± 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber. PMID:25813370

Gomà, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bénédicte; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

2015-04-21

106

Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

2014-01-01

107

Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized [sup 3]He  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a measurement of the asymmetry in spin-dependent quasielastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized [sup 3]He target. The neutron magnetic form factor [ital G][sup [ital n

H. Gao; J. Arrington; E. J. Beise; B. Bray; R. W. Carr; B. W. Filippone; A. Lung; R. D. McKeown; B. Mueller; M. L. Pitt; C. E. Jones; D. DeSchepper; G. Dodson; K. Dow; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; J. Hansen; W. Korsch; L. H. Kramer; K. Lee; N. Makins; R. G. Milner; D. R. Tieger; T. P. Welch; E. Candell; J. Napolitano; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; C. Tripp; W. Lorenzon

1994-01-01

108

Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized 3He  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a measurement of the asymmetry in spin-dependent quasielastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized 3He target. The neutron magnetic form factor GnM has been extracted from the measured asymmetry based on recent PWIA calculations using spin-dependent spectral functions. This experiment represents the first measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor using spin-dependent electron scattering.

H. Gao; J. Arrington; E. J. Beise; B. Bray; R. W. Carr; B. W. Filippone; A. Lung; R. D. McKeown; B. Mueller; M. L. Pitt; C. E. Jones; D. Deschepper; G. Dodson; K. Dow; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; J.-O. Hansen; W. Korsch; L. H. Kramer; K. Lee; N. Makins; R. G. Milner; D. R. Tieger; T. P. Welch; E. Candell; J. Napolitano; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; C. Tripp; W. Lorenzon

1995-01-01

109

Bismuth Layer Structured Ferroelectric Ceramics with High Mechanical Quality Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The piezoelectric properties in some bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric (BLSF) ceramics were investigated focusing on a mechanical quality factor, Qm. Many BLSF compositions with various Curie temperature, Tc, were selected in this study, and the Qm values of (33) mode were plotted as a function of their Curie temperature, Tc. The Qm increased with increasing the Tc in the low Tc compositions below 500°C. It is considered to relate with the domain wall pinning because the coercive field, Ec also increased with increasing the Tc. However, in the high Tc compositions above 750°C, the Qm decreased with increasing the Tc contrary, because of the difficulties in poling treatment due to the Ec. On the other hand, high Qm values more than 10,000 were obtained in the intermediate Tc compositions between at 500 to 750°C. These values are quite high as the piezoelectric ceramics. The key point of the high Qm in these compositions is the poling process at high temperature of 300°C.

Nagata, Hajime; Hiruma, Yuji; Suzuki, Muneyasu; Takenaka, Tadashi

110

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

111

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

112

Measured neutron carbon kerma factors from 14. 1 MeV to 18 MeV  

SciTech Connect

For A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, the total neutron kerma is dominated by the hydrogen kerma. Tissue kerma is inferred with reasonable accuracy by normalization to the kerma factor ratio between tissue and A-150 plastic. Because of the close match in the hydrogen abundance in these materials, the principal uncertainty is due to the kerma factors of carbon and oxygen. We have measured carbon kerma factor values of 0.183 +- 0.015 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ and 0.210 +- 0.16 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ at 14.1-MeV and 15-MeV neutron energy, respectively. A preliminary value of 0.297 +- 0.03 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ has been determined at 17.9 MeV. A recent microscopic cross section measurement of the (n,n'3..cap alpha..) reaction in carbon at 14.1-MeV energy gives a kerma factor of 0.184 +- 0.019 10/sup 8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ in agreement with the present result. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Deluca, P.M. Jr.; Barschall, H.H.; Haight, R.C.; McDonald, J.C.

1984-01-01

113

Removal of scattered thermal neutrons using antiscatter grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the significant factors of neutron radiographic image degradation is scattering blur from the object. A practical method is described to enhance image quality by eliminating the overlapping of scattered thermal neutrons component from the objects in ETRR-2 neutron radiography facility, using aluminum Gd-coated antiscatter grid. The MCNP code was used to determine the optimum grid dimensions that will

M. A. Mandour; M. K. Shaat; A. A. Badawi; T. Mongy; Nader. M. A. Mohamed

2006-01-01

114

Total quality management—the critical success factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the key elements of TQM and the critical factors that influence the TQM implementation process. An extensive literature survey suggests that there are eight critical TQM factors. A survey was carried out to evaluate the experiences of a range of organizations against the identified critical factors. The survey indicated that the eight critical factors can be arranged

Leslie J. Porter; Adrian J. Parker

1993-01-01

115

City Air Quality Forecasting and Impact Factors Analysis Based on Grey Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important environmental problem, air quality influences urban population's health and economic development. To investigate air quality changing trend and main factors affecting the quality of Tianjin in China, we employed grey dynamic model group and grey relational analysis. For forecasting, we first use model group to fit the annual average air pollution concentration of Tianjin from 2001–2009, the

Lin Pan; Baosheng Sun; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

116

Color: A Crucial Factor for Aesthetic Quality Assessment in a Subjective Dataset of Paintings  

E-print Network

Color: A Crucial Factor for Aesthetic Quality Assessment in a Subjective Dataset of Paintings Seyed different features used to evaluate the aesthetic quality of a painting or photograph, color plays a crucial of paintings in our dataset. · An in-depth analysis of the role of color in the aesthetic quality assessment

Knüpfer, Christian

117

Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 ?m thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

2015-01-01

118

As2S3 Microspheres With Near Absorption-Limited Quality Factor  

E-print Network

As2S3 Microspheres With Near Absorption-Limited Quality Factor Francis Vanier1, Pablo Bianucci1@polymtl.ca Abstract--We present As2S3 microsphere optical resonators made out of high purity fiber. The quality factor in the fiber. Keywords--Microsphere, Optical resonators, Chalcogenide glass. I. INTRODUCTION Whispering gallery

Peter, Yves-Alain

119

Effect of Viscoelasticity on Quality Factor of Microcantilever Chemical Sensors: Optimal Coating  

E-print Network

Effect of Viscoelasticity on Quality Factor of Microcantilever Chemical Sensors: Optimal Coating. In this paper, an analytical expression for the viscoelastic losses in the coating, hence the quality factor increases. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate through rigorous analysis of a hybrid (elastic/viscoelastic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Submicrometer diameter micropillar cavities with high quality factor and ultrasmall mode volume  

E-print Network

Submicrometer diameter micropillar cavities with high quality factor and ultrasmall mode volume 105451); published March 17, 2009 We theoretically demonstrate high quality factor Q 3 106 micropillar.3948, 270.0270, 140.7260. Micropillar optical cavities, typically used in low- threshold vertical

Loncar, Marko

121

High-quality factor optical microcavities using oxide apertured micropillars N. G. Stoltz,a ,b  

E-print Network

High-quality factor optical microcavities using oxide apertured micropillars N. G. Stoltz,a ,b M in a micropillar structure. This method overcomes the limitations due to sidewall scattering loss typical in semiconductor etched micropillars. High cavity quality factors Q up to 48 000 are determined by external Fabry

Coldren, Larry A.

122

Evaluation of gamma-ray exposure buildup factors and neutron shielding for bismuth borosilicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray exposure buildup factor (EBF) values and neutron shielding effectiveness of bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glass systems in composition (50-x)SiO2:15B2O3:2Al2O3:10CaO:23Na2O:xBi2O3 (where x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%) were calculated. The EBF values were computed for photon energy 0.015-15 MeV up to penetration depths of 40 mfp (mean free path) by the geometrical progression (G-P) method. The EBF values were found dependent upon incident photon energy, penetration and bismuth molar concentration. In low- and high-energy photon regions, the EBF values were minimum whereas maximum in the intermediate-energy region. The fast neutron removal cross sections for energy 2-12 MeV were calculated by the partial density method. The BBS glass with 20 mol% Bi2O3 is found to be superior gamma-ray and neutron transparent shielding. The EBF values of the BBS glasses were compared with steel-magnetite concrete and lead. The investigation was carried out to explore the advantages of the BBS glasses in different radiation shielding applications.

Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.; Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

2014-05-01

123

Drawing conclusions about causes from systematic reviews of risk factors: The Cambridge Quality Checklists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic reviews summarize evidence about the effects of social interventions on crime, health, education, and social welfare.\\u000a Social scientists should also use systematic reviews to study risk factors, which are naturally occurring predictors of these\\u000a outcomes. To do this, the quality of risk factor research needs to be evaluated. This paper presents three new methodological\\u000a quality checklists to identify high-quality

Joseph Murray; David P. Farrington; Manuel P. Eisner

2009-01-01

124

Calculations of anisotropy factors for radionuclide neutron sources due to scattering from source encapsulation and support structures.  

PubMed

A model has been developed for calculating the angular neutron fluence distributions for radionuclide neutron sources that are heavily encapsulated or surrounded by source support structures as a source holder and a source movement system. These structures may cause an anisotropic neutron fluence distribution. This should be taken into account in the neutron-measuring instruments calibration procedure. The calculations were made for two types of widely used neutron sources, (241)Am-Be and (252)Cf, by combining an in-house code simulating the (9)Be(alpha,n) reactions and the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4C. As a result, anisotropy factors in the direction perpendicular to the source capsule axis for bare neutron sources were evaluated to be 1.012, 1.030 and 1.039 for (252)Cf in a standard Amersham X1 capsule, (241)Am-Be in a X3 capsule and (241)Am-Be in a X4 capsule, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with the published data. If the support structures are included in the MCNP simulation, the anisotropy factors for these neutron sources increase by approximately 10%. PMID:17575299

Tsujimura, N; Yoshida, T; Momose, T

2007-01-01

125

Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

2014-06-10

126

Microdosimetric specification of the radiation quality of a d(48.5)+Be fast neutron therapy beam produced by a superconducting cyclotron.  

PubMed

The proportional counter microdosimetric technique has been employed to quantify variations in the quality of a d(48.5)+Be fast neutron beam passing through a homogeneous water phantom. Single event spectra have been measured as a function of spatial location in the water phantom and field size. The measured spectra have been separated into component spectra corresponding to the gamma, recoil proton and alpha plus heavy recoil ion contribution to the total absorbed dose. The total absorbed dose normalized to the "monitor units" used in daily clinical use has been calculated from the measured spectra and compared to the data measured with calibrated ion chambers. The present measurements agree with the ion chamber data to within 5%. The RBE of the neutron beam is assumed to be proportional to the microdosimetric parameter y* for the dose ranges pertinent to fractionated neutron therapy. The relative variations in y*, assumed to be representative of variations in the RBE are mapped as a function of field size and spatial location in the phantom. A variation in the RBE of about 4% for points within and 8% for points outside a 10 cm x 10 cm field is observed. The variations in the RBE within the beam are caused by an increase in the gamma component with depth. An increase in the RBE of about 4% is observed with increasing field size which is attributed to a change in the neutron spectrum. Compared to the uncertainties in the prescribed dose, associated with uncertainties in the clinically used RBE, variation in the RBE between various tissues, and other dosimetric uncertainties caused by factors such as patient inhomogeneities, patient setup errors, patient motion, etc., the measured spatial RBE variations are not considered significant enough to be incorporated into the treatment planning scheme. PMID:8892257

Kota, C; Maughan, R L

1996-09-01

127

Planar superconducting resonators with internal quality factors above one million  

E-print Network

, with the best low power results approaching 2 Â 106 , corresponding to $1 photon in the resonator. These quality' aluminum metallization and the underlying single crystal sapphire substrate. Additionally, we describe apparatus with minimal stray magnetic fields and infrared light at the sample,8 here we show that careful

Martinis, John M.

128

Factors Influencing Assessment Quality in Higher Vocational Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education institute. Per course, 4-11 teachers and 3-10…

Baartman, Liesbeth; Gulikers, Judith; Dijkstra, Asha

2013-01-01

129

Assessing factors influencing the postharvest quality of California mandarins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mandarins are becoming increasingly popular with consumers but sometimes suffer from the development of off-flavor during storage. To investigate this problem the influence of fruit maturity, storage time and holding temperature on flavor quality were investigated. Mandarins were obtained once in Fe...

130

Factors Affecting Quality and Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However,

G. A. Francis; A. Gallone; G. J. Nychas; J. N. Sofos; G. Colelli; M. L. Amodio; G. Spano

2012-01-01

131

Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

2013-01-01

132

Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

1980-08-01

133

Associations between Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Factors and Health Outcomes in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure of subjective sleep disturbance in clinical populations, including individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the severity of sleep disturbance is generally represented by a global symptom score, recent factor analytic studies suggest that the PSQI is better characterized by a two- or three-factor model than a one-factor model. This study examined the replicability of two- and three-factor models of the PSQI, as well as the relationship between PSQI factors and health outcomes, in a female sample with PTSD. Methods The PSQI was administered to 319 women with PTSD related to sexual or physical assault. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the relative fit of one-, two-, and three-factor solutions. Bivariate correlations were performed to examine the shared variance between PSQI sleep factors and measures of PTSD, depression, anger, and physical symptoms. Results Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor model with Sleep Efficiency, Perceived Sleep Quality, and Daily Disturbances as separate indices of sleep quality. The severity of symptoms represented by the PSQI factors was positively associated with the severity of PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms. However, these health outcomes correlated as much or more with the global PSQI score as with PSQI factor scores. Conclusions These results support the multidimensional structure of the PSQI. Yet, the global PSQI score has as much or more explanatory power as individual PSQI factors in predicting health outcomes. PMID:22542787

Casement, Melynda D.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.; Resick, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

134

Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

2010-05-01

135

Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

2014-03-01

136

Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

2014-09-01

137

System theoretic approach for determining causal factors of quality loss in complex system design  

E-print Network

Identifying the factors that could lead to the loss of quality is difficult for large, complex systems. Traditional design methods such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Robust ...

Goerges, Stephanie L

2013-01-01

138

Perceived factors of family planning clinic performance and service quality.  

PubMed

As part of a larger operations research project, this 1990 study analyzed the performance of the Philippine Department of Health's (DOH) family planning (FP) clinics. Specific study objectives were 1) to measure acceptor targets, servicing capacity utilization, outreach, and costs; 2) to determine what providers believed affected performance; 3) to record which quality indicator providers use; and 4) to determine the perceptions of acceptors about clinic personnel, the clinic as a FP outlet, FP service processing, and FP service quality. Data were gathered from clinic records and from sample surveys in 25 clinics in four specified locations. Eight clients were sampled from each of the 100 clinics. It was found that clinic staff accepted low attainment of FP acceptor targets and that clinic capacity utilization levels were at 25% of capacity. Providers were unaware of the number of potential FP acceptors in their areas and had no information about the costs of running their clinics. The FP clinic managers identified 34 major determinants of clinic performance, but more than half reported that they had very little control over these determinants. The providers described quality service from the point of view of the acceptors and described the quality of a clinic in terms of the minimal physical characteristics required. The acceptor survey revealed that acceptor satisfaction depends upon 1) clinic accessibility and lay-out, 2) intensive personal contact, and 3) clinic infrastructure. The study uncovered a need for the DOH to institute management training programs for clinic managers and to provide managers with the resources and personnel to shift priorities in favor of FP coverage and prevalence. Managers, who are resource allocators, must also receive information about the costs of FP services in their clinics. In addition, the DOH's determination that its FP program would be facility- rather than community-based should be modified to incorporate community outreach elements. The DOH can also make a big impact on perceptions of quality (of both providers and acceptors) by improving clinic conditions to meet basic standards. Once these basic needs are met, additional needs of acceptors can and must be addressed. PMID:12320234

Roberto, E L

1993-01-01

139

Quality management and safety culture in medicine – Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?  

PubMed Central

In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report “To err is human: building a safer healthcare system” highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety. PMID:20049068

Wischet, Werner; Schusterschitz, Claudia

2009-01-01

140

Neutron structure factors of in-vivo deuterated amorphous protein C-phycocyanin  

PubMed Central

Neutron powder diffraction measurements of fully deuterated protein C-phycocyanin have been made at three temperatures, 295, 200, and 77 K, using dry and partially hydrated samples. The average coherent structure factors and the corresponding radial distribution functions d(r) are determined. The changes in d(r) functions observed in hydrated samples depend strongly on the level of hydration and most of these changes are due to water-protein interactions. At 0.365 gram D2O per gram of protein, the water crystallized into hexagonal ice at 200 K and below, but at 0.175 gram D2O per gram of protein, no crystallization of water was observed. At the higher hydration a peak appears in the radial distribution function which indicates that the average distance of the water molecule in the first hydration shell from the amino acid residues is 3.5 Å. PMID:19431896

Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Lal, J.; Bradley, K. F.; Chen, S. H.

1993-01-01

141

Solvent quality as a key factor for shear-induced mixing in biopolymer emulsions  

E-print Network

Solvent quality as a key factor for shear-induced mixing in biopolymer emulsions Y.A. Antonov a in ternary two-phase biopolymer emulsions. Aqueous emulsions on the basis of two proteins, two of emulsion and phase viscosity ratio (PVR) on the phase behavior and emulsion morphology. The solvent quality

142

Frontline employees' views on organizational factors that affect the delivery of service quality in call centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to report on a study that investigated employees' views on the organizational factors that affect their ability to deliver service quality to customers. The study is important because call centers represent unique work environments and they have not been used in the development of service quality theory. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ten focus groups of frontline employees

Alison M. Dean; Al Rainnie

2009-01-01

143

Visual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research  

E-print Network

Visual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research particles in real time, providing unprecedented rich data sets for air quality research. Typical instru Hamann, Member, IEEE and Hans Hagen, Member, IEEE Abstract-- The study of aerosol composition for air

Hamann, Bernd

144

VI.B. A Delphi Study of Factors Affecting the Quality of NORMAN C. DALKEY  

E-print Network

of life is a function of the individual's location in a "quality space"; that is, the sense of well- being existence; the other can be living an exciting life, with a high sense of achievement, and lonely, and each383 VI.B. A Delphi Study of Factors Affecting the Quality of Life NORMAN C. DALKEY 1. Earlier

Bieber, Michael

145

Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

2009-01-01

146

Factors Influencing the Reporting of Adverse Perioperative Outcomes to a Quality Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality management programs have used several data reporting sources to identify adverse perioperative out- comes. We compared reporting sources and identified factors that might improve data capture. Adverse periop- erative outcomes between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were reported to the Department of Anesthesiol- ogy Quality Management program by anesthesiologists, hospital chart reviewers, and other hospital personnel us-

Robert I. Katz; Robert S. Lagasse

2000-01-01

147

On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1987-01-01

148

AlAs\\/GaAs micropillar cavities with quality factors exceeding 150.000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on AlAs\\/GaAs micropillar cavities with unprecedented quality factors based on high reflectivity distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). Due to an increased number of mirror pairs in the DBRs and an optimized etching process record quality (Q) factors up to 165.000 are observed for micropillars with diameters of 4 mum. Optical studies reveal a very small ellipticity of 5×10-4

S. Reitzenstein; C. Hofmann; A. Gorbunov; M. Strauß; S. H. Kwon; C. Schneider; A. Löffler; S. Höfling; M. Kamp; A. Forchel

2007-01-01

149

Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

RELATIONSHIP AMONG RELIGIOUS COPING, PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES A Dissertation by JULIA M. LAGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2006 Major Subject: Health Education RELATIONSHIP AMONG RELIGIOUS COPING, PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN INDIVIDUALS...

Lager, Julia M.

2009-06-02

150

Identifying Items to Assess Methodological Quality in Physical Therapy Trials: A Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous tools and individual items have been proposed to assess the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The frequency of use of these items varies according to health area, which suggests a lack of agreement regarding their relevance to trial quality or risk of bias. Objective The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the underlying component structure of items and (2) to determine relevant items to evaluate the quality and risk of bias of trials in physical therapy by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Design A methodological research design was used, and an EFA was performed. Methods Randomized controlled trials used for this study were randomly selected from searches of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Two reviewers used 45 items gathered from 7 different quality tools to assess the methodological quality of the RCTs. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using the principal axis factoring (PAF) method followed by varimax rotation. Results Principal axis factoring identified 34 items loaded on 9 common factors: (1) selection bias; (2) performance and detection bias; (3) eligibility, intervention details, and description of outcome measures; (4) psychometric properties of the main outcome; (5) contamination and adherence to treatment; (6) attrition bias; (7) data analysis; (8) sample size; and (9) control and placebo adequacy. Limitation Because of the exploratory nature of the results, a confirmatory factor analysis is needed to validate this model. Conclusions To the authors' knowledge, this is the first factor analysis to explore the underlying component items used to evaluate the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in physical therapy. The items and factors represent a starting point for evaluating the methodological quality and risk of bias in physical therapy trials. Empirical evidence of the association among these items with treatment effects and a confirmatory factor analysis of these results are needed to validate these items. PMID:24786942

Cummings, Greta G.; Fuentes, Jorge; Saltaji, Humam; Ha, Christine; Chisholm, Annabritt; Pasichnyk, Dion; Rogers, Todd

2014-01-01

151

Quality of information on risk factors reported by ski patrols  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the reliability of reporting of information on risk factors from a standard accident report form used by ski patrols and a follow up mail questionnaire or telephone interview among injured skiers and snowboarders. Setting: 19 ski areas in the Canadian province of Quebec between November 2001 and April 2002. Participants: 4377 injured skiers and snowboarders seen by the ski patrol, who completed a follow up mail questionnaire or telephone interview. Main outcome measures: ? and weighted ? statistics were used to measure the chance corrected agreement for self reported ability, age, skiing time on day of injury, lessons, type of practice, use of helmet at time of injury, and hill difficulty. Results: The ? value for helmet use at the time of injury was 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.90) and for other risk factors ranged from 0.45 (skiing time on day of injury) to 0.98 (age). Few differences were seen in reporting by body region of injury. Reporting consistency was lower for respondents who completed telephone interviews compared with those who completed mail questionnaires and those who responded more than four months after the injury. Conclusions: Moderate to almost perfect agreement, depending on the risk factor, exists between ski patrols' accident report forms and follow up information. Ski patrol reports can be a reliable and readily available source of information on risk factors for skiing and snowboarding. PMID:15470006

Hagel, B; Pless, I; Goulet, C; Platt, R; Robitaille, Y

2004-01-01

152

No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio ?PSNR?? Mean Square Error?MSE? and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

2014-05-01

153

Key quality factors in Web site design and use: an examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the research described in this paper was to identify the key quality factors in Web site design and use. From the factors identified, a conceptual model has been developed to assess how a Web site can deliver what its users expect. The model is based on: ease of use, customer confidence, on-line resources, and relationship services. These

J. Cox; B. G. Dale

2002-01-01

154

Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

2010-01-01

155

Factor Structure of Patient and Caregiver Ratings on the Dementia Quality of Life Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary evidence suggests that quality of life reports from patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) are as reliable and valid as data provided by caregivers. To date, no studies compared the factor structure of data provided by caregivers and patients. Factor analyses are important to conduct because they are an indicator of validity. This

Rebecca E. Ready; Brian R. Ott; Janet Grace

2007-01-01

156

Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

Deur, Alexandre P. [JLAB

2013-11-01

157

Stress fractures in military men and bone quality related factors.  

PubMed

The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, and many risk factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stress fractures, factors and biochemical markers related to bone metabolism, and calcaneal stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound in a case control study including male military personnel beyond basic training. Thirty-two male patients with stress fractures were matched with 32 uninjured-healthy volunteers by age, height, body weight and level of physical performance. A questionnaire concerning the calcium intake, alcohol consumption and smoking was completed, the values of several biochemical markers were measured from blood samples, and calcaneal quantitative ultrasound was measured by heel ultrasound for all participants. Statistically significant higher levels of albumin (4.59 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.40 +/- 0.25, p = 0.006) and lower levels of serum osteocalcin (6.26 +/- 1.74 vs. 7.40 +/- 1.80, p = 0.012), mean values of T-scores (- 0.21 +/- 0.95 vs. 0.33 +/- 0.82, p = 0.018) and Z-scores (- 0.14 +/- 0.81 vs. 0.33 +/- 0.71, p = 0.016) were found among patients compared to controls. Based on the results, it seems that a decreased bone turnover and a low calcaneal stiffness index may be related to the incidence of stress fractures amongst male military personnel. PMID:18543161

Chatzipapas, C N; Drosos, G I; Kazakos, K I; Tripsianis, G; Iatrou, C; Verettas, D-A J

2008-11-01

158

Poor Sleep Quality of Third-Trimester Pregnancy is a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether poor sleep quality of third-trimester pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Material/Methods Third-trimester pregnant women (T0, n=293) were tested using the first socio-demographic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessments, and received a diagnosis of depression. Three months (T1, n=223) after delivery, scale filling was finished and the structured interview was performed again. Results We found that 73 persons (32.7%) were low income, 84 persons (37.7%) were middle-income, and 66 persons (29.6%) were higher income. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 9.4% (21 persons). After controlling for other factors, age, household income, marital satisfaction, and sleep quality were significantly related to postpartum depression, in which age and sleep quality scores (a higher score was associated with poorer sleep quality) were positively related to postpartum depression, and household income and marital satisfaction were negatively related to postpartum depression. Moreover, third-trimester sleep quality score was positively related to postpartum depressive symptoms. Conclusions Poor third-trimester subjective sleep quality is a risk factor for postpartum depression. PMID:25526703

Wu, Meifen; Li, Xiaoyi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Hao; Qiu, Chunbo; Zhang, Weifeng

2014-01-01

159

KAOS-V code: An evaluation tool for neutron kerma factors and other nuclear responses  

SciTech Connect

The accurate evaluation of neutron fluence-to-kerma factors from microscopic nuclear data is the subject of this report. The algorithms developed for this purpose combine in a consistent manner the two basic methods for computing kerma factors, namely kinematics and direct energy balance. These algorithms are implemented in the code KAOS-V which was used as the main evaluation tool to construct the response function library KAOS/LIB-V. KAOS-V uses data from the evaluated nuclear data files ENDF/B/V. Auxiliary nuclear data bases, e.g., the Japanese evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-2 can be used as a source of isotopic cross sections when these data are not provided in ENDF/B-V files for a natural element. These are needed mainly to estimate average quantities such as effective Q-values for the natural element. The code has the ability to compare the different results which aids in the choice of a consistent set of algorithms to evaluate kerma factors. Data in ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V format can be processed. For resonance treatment, the code has the ability to access NJOY and NPTXS interface files in formatted or binary forms. No input instructions are necessary to run the code interactively. The user can simply respond to the interactive messages sent by the code if an INPUT file is absent. An INPUT file is automatically generated following an interactive run, and can be edited and used to rerun or produce different results. Grouped and point output data can be produced along with graphic representation. These features are instrumental in detecting and understanding energy balance deficiencies and other problems in the nuclear data files. 60 refs., 4 figs.

Farawila, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Maynard, C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

1989-09-01

160

First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.a [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Crivello, Martin [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires(Argentina); Perona, Marina [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto [Department of Instrumentation and Control, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano [Argentina Reactor, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casal, Mariana [Institute of Oncology 'Angel H. Roffo', University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kahl, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario Alberto [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-01-01

161

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population  

PubMed Central

The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices - AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p< .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

2014-01-01

162

Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for High Quality factor ring resonators  

E-print Network

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonators are critical for a variety of photonic devices. However the intrinsically high film stress of silicon nitride has limited both the optical confinement and quality factor (Q) of ring resonators. We show that stress in Si3N4 films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating photonic devices from propagating cracks. We demonstrate a Si3N4 ring resonator with an intrinsic quality factor of 7 million, corresponding to a propagation loss of 4.2 dB/m. This is the highest quality factor reported to date for high confinement Si3N4 ring resonators in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

Luke, Kevin; Poitras, Carl B; Lipson, Michal

2013-01-01

163

Quantum Limit of Quality Factor in Silicon Micro and Nano Mechanical Resonators  

PubMed Central

Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit. PMID:24247809

Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A.; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J.; Ahn, Chae H.; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

164

Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta

2014-01-01

165

The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

2014-03-01

166

Quality of life in chronic haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in Turkey and related factors.  

PubMed

Turkey is the fifth country in Europe with regard to the number of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD). However, only a limited number of studies have comparatively investigated the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, as well as providing a comparison of quality of life between these groups. In this cross-sectional study, Quality of Life Scale and a data form was completed by 300 dialysis patients who received treatment at five hospital-based dialysis units in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were evaluated using arithmetic mean values, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, percentages, independent groups t-tests, Spearman correlation analyses and one-way variance analyses. The quality of life values in peritoneal dialysis patients were found to be higher than those of haemodialysis patients (P?quality of life in chronic dialysis patients was affected by various factors. PMID:24330205

Oren, Besey; Enç, Nuray

2013-12-01

167

Comparison of mean quality factors proposed by ICRP, ICRU and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts are exposed to primary cosmic-rays and secondary particles produced by them through interaction with the atoms of the spacecraft material and those of the human body. For the radiation risk estimation of astronauts, not only organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated, since radiation weighting factor as defined by ICRP60 is not suitable for use in space dosimetry due to its very simplified concept. Three relationships were proposed for expressing the radiation quality by different organizations; (1) International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined the quality factor based on LET in water, Q(L), in ICRP60, (2) in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, a quality factor Q(y) is defined as a function of lineal energy, y, for spherical liquid water of 1 mm in diameter, Q(y), and (3) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) proposed those for solid cancer and leukemia separately based on charge and energy of particles, QNASA(Z,E), in NASA/TP-2011-216155. The Q(L) relationship is most simple and widely used in space dosimetry, but the latter two relationships consider the difference of the track structure of the various heavy ions in tissue due to the production of d-rays, which is very important in the risk estimation for the HZE-particle exposure. We therefore calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in the ICRP reference voxel phantoms for various particles, using the PHITS code coupled with the ICRP, ICRU and NASA Q-functions. An isotropic irradiation of the phantom was assumed in the calculation. The details of the calculation procedure will be described, together with the comparison of mean quality factors obtained from the 3 relationships.

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Endo, Akira

2012-07-01

168

[Influence of socioeconomic factors on the quality of life of elderly hypertensive individuals].  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the association between socioeconomic variables and the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients treated under the Family Health Program in the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. An analytical cross study was conducted in a representative sample of 294 elderly hypertensive patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire on socioeconomic characteristics and quality of life (MINICHAL). The data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kuskall-Wallis tests. The results showed that marital status, religion and education affect the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients in a statistically significant way. Elderly hypertensive patients who were single/divorced/widowed, evangelical, spiritualist and belonging to other religious bodies, illiterate achieved lower scores in terms of quality of life. For the remaining variables, there was no statistical association. The conclusion, drawn is that socioeconomic factors such as marital status, education and religion influence the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:25119088

Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Rios, Lorena Roseli; Teixeira, Larissa Silva; Vieira, Fernanda Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Silveira, Marise Fagundes

2014-08-01

169

Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.  

PubMed

The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

2010-06-01

170

Poor sleep quality as a risk factor for lapse following a cannabis quit attempt.  

PubMed

Treatments for cannabis dependence are associated with high rates of lapse/relapse, underscoring the importance of identifying malleable risk factors that are associated with quit failure. Whereas research has demonstrated that poor sleep quality following cannabis discontinuation is related to subsequent use, there has yet to be an examination of whether poor sleep quality prior to a quit attempt results in a similar pattern of lapse. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of pre-quit sleep quality on early lapse to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, among 55 cannabis dependent military veterans. Results indicated that participants who experienced poor pre-quit sleep quality had greater risk for lapse within the first 2 days (out of 7) following their quit attempt. Findings are discussed in terms of improving treatments for individuals who report poor sleep quality prior to a cannabis quit attempt. PMID:23098380

Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Harris, Alex H; Stickle, Timothy R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2013-04-01

171

Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator  

SciTech Connect

Selectively patterned graphene is integrated onto a silicon ring resonator to investigate the quality factor (Q factor) variation. The Q factor sharply decreases from 7900 to 1200 as the patterned graphene length increases from 0 to 20??m. A numerical estimation, which takes into account optical absorption by graphene, shows an exponential damping of the Q factor with increasing graphene length and is consistent with the experimental result. We expect these fundamental characterizations to be helpful in developing graphene-integrated silicon photonics applications.

Kou, Rai, E-mail: takahashi.rai@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinichi; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji [NTT Nanophotonics Center, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Nakajima, Hirochika [Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

2014-03-03

172

[Temporal variation of water quality and driving factors in Yanghe watershed of Zhangjiakou].  

PubMed

Yanghe is an important water source for Guanting Reservoir, which once supplied the Beijing city with drinking water, industrial process water and water-use in landscape. Based on the data of water quality monitored by Yanghe watershed monitoring stations from 1992 to 2009, 11 pollutants were selected for analysis. The trends of changes in water quality were figured out, and the major pollutants and driving factors were measured by the integrated standard index and grey correlation analytical methods. The results showed that there were two stages of water quality change in Yanghe watershed of Zhangjiakou. Firstly, the water was polluted seriously but recovered rapidly from 1992 to 1996. Secondly, although light pollution occurred in the watershed from 1997 to 2009, the pollution factors were still above the limits. The main pollution factors are ammonia nitrogen, petroleum, permanganate index, BOD5, Cr6+ and Cd. The main driving factor of water quality is the change of land use type, and the agricultural land showed less impact on water quality than the industrial land. PMID:23487965

Pang, Bo; Wang, Tie-Yu; Lü, Yong-Long; Du, Li-Yu; Luo, Wei

2013-01-01

173

Compartmentalization of endoplasmic reticulum quality control and ER-associated degradation factors.  

PubMed

Recent studies are delineating a detailed picture of the architecture and function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the early secretory pathway, showing the existence of dynamic compartmentalization of ER quality control and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) factors. The compartmentalization is regulated by ER protein load and in turn regulates protein processing and cell fate. This compartmentalization is intimately linked to the protein quality control processes, protein disposal through ERAD, the unfolded protein response, and the initiation of apoptosis. It includes novel compartments, the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), vesicles implicated in "ERAD-tuning," and the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). PMID:23194074

Leitman, Julia; Ron, Efrat; Ogen-Shtern, Navit; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

2013-01-01

174

Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life in chronic portuguese patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic illnesses are diseases of long duration and generally of slow progression. They cause significant quality of life impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse psychosocial predictors of quality of life and of subjective well-being in chronic Portuguese patients. Methods Chronic disease patients (n?=?774) were recruited from central Portuguese Hospitals. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and outcome variables: quality of life (HRQL) and subjective well-being (SWB). MANCOVA analyses were used to test psychosocial factors as determinants of HRQL and SWB. Results After controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables, results showed that dispositional optimism, positive affect, spirituality, social support and treatment adherence are significant predictors of HRQL and SWB. Similar predictors of quality of life, such as positive affect, treatment adherence and spirituality, were found for subgroups of disease classified by medical condition. Conclusions The work identifies psychosocial factors associated with quality of life. The predictors for the entire group of different chronic diseases are similar to the ones found in different chronic disease subgroups: positive affect, social support, treatment adherence and spirituality. Patients with more positive affect, additional social support, an adequate treatment adherence and a feel-good spirituality, felt better with the disease conditions and consequently had a better quality of life. This study contributes to understanding and improving the processes associated with quality of life, which is relevant for health care providers and chronic diseases support. PMID:24405802

2014-01-01

175

Creating a high quality factor negative epsilon photonic material from two level resonant systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A densely arranged matrix of passive resonant two-level system is analyzed, aiming at a medium with negative macroscopic epsilon with significantly lower losses than current materials. A quality factor is used to compare the proposed material with prevalent current negative epsilon ones. Requirements are derived on two-level system parameters in terms of spatial dipole density, dipole moment and transversal relaxation times in order to obtain negative epsilon in the range of -2 to -0 and quality factors more than an order of magnitude larger than currently used materials such as silver.

Thylen, Lars

2015-02-01

176

Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion  

E-print Network

An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

2014-01-01

177

High quality factor and high confinement silicon resonators using etchless process.  

PubMed

We demonstrate high quality factor and high confinement in a silicon ring resonator fabricated by a thermal oxidation process. We fabricated a 50 ?m bending radius racetrack resonator, with a 5 ?m coupling region. We achieved an intrinsic quality factor of 760,000 for the fundamental TM mode, which corresponds to a propagation loss of 0.9 dB/cm. Both the fundamental TE and TM modes are highly confined in the waveguide, with effective indices of 3.0 for the TE mode and 2.9 for the TM mode. PMID:23037257

Griffith, Austin; Cardenas, Jaime; Poitras, Carl B; Lipson, Michal

2012-09-10

178

Optical bistability in a quantum dots/micropillar device with a quality factor exceeding 200 000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical bistability is demonstrated in a micropillar cavity with a record quality factor of 215 000, embedding a few thousand quantum dots. A power threshold of 380?W is obtained, with an on/off response contrast of 5.6 dB. We characterize the saturation of the quantum dots absorption and the cavity mode frequency shift through coherent reflection spectroscopy. We show that a near-unity coupling efficiency is achieved and that the planar quality factor Q0 is around 450 000.

Arnold, Christophe; Loo, Vivien; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Krebs, Olivier; Voisin, Paul; Senellart, Pascale; Lanco, Loïc

2012-03-01

179

Creating a high quality factor negative epsilon photonic material from two level resonant systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A densely arranged matrix of passive resonant two-level system is analyzed, aiming at a medium with negative macroscopic epsilon with significantly lower losses than current materials. A quality factor is used to compare the proposed material with prevalent current negative epsilon ones. Requirements are derived on two-level system parameters in terms of spatial dipole density, dipole moment and transversal relaxation times in order to obtain negative epsilon in the range of -2 to -0 and quality factors more than an order of magnitude larger than currently used materials such as silver.

Thylen, Lars

2015-04-01

180

Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, ?-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for ?-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in ?-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in ?-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. PMID:23744724

Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Wyss, Gabriela S; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Birlouez-Aragone, Inès; Kahl, Johannes

2013-08-30

181

230 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Effect of Coating Viscoelasticity on Quality Factor  

E-print Network

230 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Effect of Coating Viscoelasticity on Quality accounts for viscoelastic losses in the coating. This expression explains the observed decrease), microcantilevers, polymer coatings, quality factor, resonant frequency, sensitivity, viscoelastic losses. I

Boyer, Edmond

182

High-Selectivity Switched-Capacitor Bandpass Filter with QuasiContinuous Quality Factor Tunability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a second-order switched-capacitor (SC) bandpass (BP) filter with very wide quality factor (Q) programmability range. The filter selectivity is digitally programmed by varying the effective sampling frequency of an SC branch, without modifying any capacitor value. The proposed approach allows a quasi-continuous Q-factor tunability avoiding, in principle, the inherent quantization error asso-

J. L. AUSIN; J. F. DUQUE-CARRILLO; G. TORELLI

2002-01-01

183

High-Selectivity Switched-Capacitor Bandpass Filter with QuasiContinuous Quality Factor Tunability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a second-order switched-capacitor (SC) bandpass (BP) filter with very wide quality factor (Q) programmability range. The filter selectivity is digitally programmed by varying the effective sampling frequency of an SC branch, without modifying any capacitor value. The proposed approach allows a quasi-continuous Q-factor tunability avoiding, in principle, the inherent quantization error associated

J. L. Ausín; J. F. Duque-Carrillo; G. Torelli; R. Pérez-Aloe; E. Sánchez-Sinencio

2002-01-01

184

Space radiation quality factor investigations with “NAUSICAA”-device on board the “MIR” space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of radiation quality factor in space flights is a serious problem of space dosimetry. The solution of this problem is based on LET-spectra measurements. The “NAUSICAA”-device installed on the “MIR” station has a detector with a large geometric factor, that gives the possibility of measuring LET-spectra with sufficient statistic in relatively short time interval and hence the corresponding

V. V. Benghin; V. M Petrov; Yu. V. Ivanov; V. A Shurshakov; S. B Kozlova; V. D Nguyen; J. F Bottollier; M. Siegrist

1996-01-01

185

Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized 3He  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a measurement of the asymmetry in spin-dependent quasielastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized 3He target. The neutron magnetic form factor GnM has been extracted from the measured asymmetry based on recent PWIA calculations using spin-dependent spectral functions. This work represents the first measurement of GnM using spin-dependent electron scattering.

H. Gao; J. Arrington; E. J. Beise; B. Bray; R. W. Carr; B. W. Filippone; A. Lung; R. D. McKeown; B. Mueller; M. L. Pitt; C. E. Jones; D. DeSchepper; G. Dodson; K. Dow; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; J.-O. Hansen; W. Korsch; L. H. Kramer; K. Lee; N. Makins; R. G. Milner; D. R. Tieger; T. P. Welch; E. Candell; J. Napolitano; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; C. Tripp; W. Lorenzon

1995-01-01

186

Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from Inclusive Quasielastic Scatttering of Polarized Electrons from Polarized HELIUM3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in quasielastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electron from polarized ^3He target are reported. The neutron magnetic form factor at Q^2 = 0.19 (GeV\\/c)^2 has been extracted from the measured asymmetry and is reported in this thesis work. The experiment was performed at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center with an incident electron

Haiyan Gao; J. Arrington; E. J. Beise; B. Bray; R. W. Carr; B. W. Filippone; A. Lung; R. D. McKeown; B. Mueller; M. L. Pitt; C. E. Jones; D. Deschepper; G. Dodson; K. Dow; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; J.-O. Hansen; W. Korsch; L. H. Kramer; K. Lee; N. Makins; R. G. Milner; D. R. Tieger; T. P. Welch; E. Candell; J. Napolitano; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; C. Tripp; W. Lorenzon

1994-01-01

187

Time-of-flight neutron diffraction investigation of temperature factors in the Zn blende semiconductor InP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural investigation of the Zn blende structure semiconductor InP has been carried out using the single crystal diffractometer SXD at the pulsed neutron facility ISIS. The ability to measure structure factors accurately at large Q values even with highly absorbing materials such as InP is demonstrated. Measurements were performed on a single crystal of InP at 293, 100 and

C. Ferrari; C. Bocchi; O. Moze; C. C. Wilson; R. Fornari

1992-01-01

188

A precision measurement of the transverse asymmetry AT̳' from quasi-elastic ³sHe [right arrow] (e [right arrow], e') process and the neutron magnetic form factor Gn̳m̳ at low Q²  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities in describing the underlying electromagnetic structure of nucleons. While proton electromagnetic form factors have been determined with good precision, neutron form ...

Xu, Wang, 1971-

2002-01-01

189

Factor analysis as a tool in groundwater quality management: two southern African case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although developed as a tool in the social sciences, R-mode factor analysis, a multivariate statistical tool, has proven highly effective in studies of groundwater quality. The technique examines the relationships between variables (such as chemical parameters in groundwater), which are shown by a number of cases (such as sampling points). In this study, two examples are presented. The first is of groundwater around a southern African iron ore mine and the second is of groundwater in the vicinity of a southern African municipal sewage disposal works. Groundwater samples were collected, their chemistry analysed and factor analysis was performed on each of the chemical datasets. In the first case study, factor analysis successfully separated signatures due to uncontaminated groundwater (calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate), agricultural activities (potassium and ammonium) and mining activities (sodium, chloride and sulphate). In the second case study, factor analysis did identify a chemical signature (nitrate and phosphate; minor iron) related to the sewage works-but since this signature involved parameters that were within regulated limits, the finding was of limited value for management purposes. Thus although R-mode factor analysis can be a valuable tool studies of groundwater quality, this is not always the case. Multivariate statistical techniques like factor analysis should thus be used as supplementary to, but not in replacement of, conventional groundwater quality data treatment methods.

Love, David; Hallbauer, Dieter; Amos, Amos; Hranova, Roumiana

190

A method for assessing the quality of life of cancer patients: replication of the factor structure.  

PubMed Central

The psychometric properties of a method of measuring the quality of life of cancer patients based on multiple linear analogue scales have been assessed in a group of 294 patients with breast cancer attending one clinical unit. The method was found to be readily managed by patients although a small number of scales presented difficulties of understanding to patients and difficulties of analysis. The scales distinguished readily between patients of different disease and treatment status. Factor analysis revealed a 5 factor structure which we interpret as relating to physical activities of everyday living, emotional disturbance, alimentary disturbances, appearance and cosmetic problems and a fifth factor which is more difficult to interpret and includes impairment of speech, writing and concentration. We feel the essential factors determining quality of life in cancer patients have been demonstrated in this and our earlier studies and there is now a substantial level of agreement in the factors that have been identified by groups taking quite different approaches. The major factors determining quality of life in cancer patients are now known and should be assessed in clinical research and clinical trials. The method by which they should be assessed is not as yet so clear. PMID:1616871

Bliss, J. M.; Selby, P. J.; Robertson, B.; Powles, T. J.

1992-01-01

191

Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production  

SciTech Connect

Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

1981-01-01

192

Quality of Life and the Associated Psychological Factors in Caregivers of Children with PKU  

PubMed Central

Objectives The main objective of this study was to investigate the association of psychological factors and life stressors with quality of life in caregivers of children with PKU. Methods Participants were caregivers of children with PKU who were referred to a child and adolescent consultation-liaison psychiatry clinic for a clinical follow up. Their demographic characteristics were recorded at first. WHOQOL-BREF and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS) were used to assess quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress in participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-11.5 statistical software. Results A total number of 49 caregivers were enrolled for the study. The mean age of participants and their children were 35.63±8.82, and 9.84±6.62 respectively. Of the participants, 59.2% were mothers and 40.8% were fathers. Of the children, 51% were girls and 49% were boys. According to the results, 57.1, 50.1 and 57.1 percent of the participants had mild to severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress scores respectively. The most associated factors with quality of life were as follows: caregivers’ occupation; anxiety; and depression mean scores. Conclusion Results of the current study showed that caregivers of children with PKU have lower levels of quality of life in comparison with the general population; and the most correlated factors with quality of life were the caregivers’ occupation (especially unemployment), and high levels of depression and anxiety. PMID:22952524

Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mostafavi, Saeedeh

2011-01-01

193

Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators  

E-print Network

Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators Kevin Luke,1 Avik University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA * ml292@cornell.edu Abstract: Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonators that stress in Si3N4 films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating photonic devices

Lipson, Michal

194

Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for High Quality factor ring resonators  

E-print Network

Overcoming Si3N4 film stress limitations for High Quality factor ring resonators Kevin Luke1 , Avik, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA * ml292@cornell.edu Abstract: Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring show that stress in Si3N4 films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating

Lipson, Michal

195

Micromachined Fabry-Perot resonator combining submillimeter cavity length and high quality factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate experimentally optical quality factor of nearly 9000 in a micromachined Fabry-Pérot resonator based on free space propagation of light and direct coupling to optical fibers. This result is obtained on long cavity resonators (L>250 mum), a usually difficult case in terms of power loss, but very useful configuration for experiments requiring either long optical path or enough space

M. Malak; N. Pavy; F. Marty; Y.-A. Peter; A. Q. Liu; T. Bourouina

2011-01-01

196

Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

2011-01-01

197

Implementation and characterization of a quality-factor-controllable micromachined inductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates a novel tunable quality factor, self-assembly inductor and packaging using an alternating magnetic flux. The merit of the design is to tilt the inductor from the lossy substrate and localize welding for assembly simultaneously using the magnetic film. A localized induction heating approach by an embedded heater was presented to prevent thermal problems during bonding. To demonstrate

Yu-Che Huang; Ben-Hwa Jang; Weileun Fang

2011-01-01

198

A method of "weak resonance" for quality factor and coupling coefficient measurement in piezoelectrics.  

PubMed

In the absolute-immittance spectrum of a piezoelectric resonator (PR), if the relative resonance-antiresonance frequency interval of a high-intensity resonance is basically determined by the coefficient of electromechanical coupling (CEMC), the relative resonance-antiresonance frequency interval of a low-intensity resonance with the resonance-antiresonance attenuation less than 15 dB, regardless of the reason, is determined by the quality factor Q of the resonance, and its intensity is proportional to the CEMC. The technique for the quality factor and CEMC determination based on the "weak resonance" (WR) concept has been formulated and then applied to low-Q and/or low-CEMC piezoelectrics, including the initial stage of piezoceramics polarization, and to piezotransducers under electrical or mechanical loading with maximum efficiency. The WR method allows one to determine the quality factor on PRs under specific conditions, such as arbitrary PR shape resulting to a broken frequency spectrum; PRs with an extremely large or extremely low electrical capacitance; at high-order PR harmonics; electrodeless piezoelements under mechanically contactless electrical excitation; determining the local thickness-mode material quality factor value and its distribution along the surface of a thin electrodeless piezoplate--all this where the traditional methods show a poor performance or do not work at all. PMID:16422426

Mezheritsky, Alex V

2005-11-01

199

Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

2013-01-01

200

Quality factor enhancement in lamb wave resonators utilizing AlN plates with convex edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel Lamb wave resonator utilizing an aluminum nitride (AlN) plate with convex edges to enhance the quality factor (Q) is demonstrated for the first time. The finite element analysis (FEA) simulation results show that the mechanical energy can be more efficiently confined in the center of the AlN Lamb wave resonator by using the convex edges instead of the

Chih-Ming Lin; Yun-Ju Lai; Ting-Ta Yen; Jin-Chen Hsu; Yung-Yu Chen; Debbie G. Senesky; Albert P. Pisano

2011-01-01

201

Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

2012-01-01

202

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

2008-01-01

203

Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

2011-01-01

204

Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students' college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various…

Richmond, Lori M.

2011-01-01

205

The impact of institutional factors on student academic results: implications for ‘quality’ in universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper situates the topic of student assessment and the moderation of assessment within a broader context of policy debates about the quality of teaching and learning in universities. The focus and discussion grew out of a research project that aimed to investigate factors related to academic success and failure in a Faculty of Arts. The study, initially, identified a

Kerry Wimshurst; Richard Wortley; Merrelyn Bates; Troy Allard

2006-01-01

206

Measurement Model Quality, Sample Size, and Solution Propriety in Confirmatory Factor Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sample size recommendations in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have recently shifted away from observations per variable or per parameter toward consideration of model quality. Extending research by Marsh, Hau, Balla, and Grayson (1998), simulations were conducted to determine the extent to which CFA model convergence and parameter estimation…

Gagne, Phill; Hancock, Gregory R.

2006-01-01

207

Effects of age and environmental factors on semen production and semen quality of Austrian Simmental bulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 90% of the breeding stock of Austrian dual purpose Simmental cows is artificially inseminated. Knowledge of factors affecting sperm production and semen quality is of importance with regard to reproductive efficiency and thus genetic improvement as well as for the productivity and profitability of AI centers. Hence, semen data from two Austrian AI centres collected in the years

Birgit Fuerst-Waltl; Hermann Schwarzenbacher; Christa Perner; Johann Sölkner

2006-01-01

208

Scales to measure and benchmark service quality in tourism industry : A second-order factor approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate scales to measure and benchmark service quality (SQ) in tourism industry. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The second-order confirmatory factor analysis is employed to validate the instrument. SQ dimensions have been modeled which have significant impact on customer satisfaction (CS) separately from those which do not have a significant impact. Findings

Bindu Narayan; Chandrasekharan Rajendran; L. Prakash Sai

2008-01-01

209

Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

Spokus, Diane

2008-01-01

210

Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

2014-01-01

211

Hearing the patient's voice? Factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement. Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature. Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care. Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers). Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas. Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with technical expertise with the data. PMID:16326789

Davies, E; Cleary, P

2005-01-01

212

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-01-01

213

Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

1993-01-01

214

Aspects of radiation beam quality and their effect on the dose response of polymer gels: Photons, electrons and fast neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer gels are generally assumed to exhibit no significant dependence of the dose response on the energy or type of irradiation for clinically used beam qualities. Based on reports on differences in dose response for low energy photons and particle beams with high linear energy transfer (LET) we here investigate the dose response and energy dependence for a normoxic methacrylic acid polymer gel (MAGAT) for X-rays (100 kV), high energy photon beams (E = 1.2 MeV (60Co), 6 MV and 15 MV) and for three different electron energies (4, 12 and 20 MeV). Due to the possible impact also the sensitivity of the dose response to the dose rate is reported. A reduction in polymer gel relaxation rate has been observed for proton and carbon beams due to the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of these types of radiations. We here report on the dose response of an acryl-amide polymer gel (PAG) in a fast neutron field along with collimation as proposed for Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

Berg, Andreas; Bayreder, Christian; Georg, Dietmar; Bankamp, Achim; Wolber, Gerd

2009-05-01

215

Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.  

PubMed

Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

2011-10-10

216

Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:19447996

Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

2009-06-01

217

Clinically relevant quality measures for risk factor control in primary care: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of the proportion of patients with well controlled cardiovascular risk factors underestimates the proportion of patients receiving high quality of care. Evaluating whether physicians respond appropriately to poor risk factor control gives a different picture of quality of care. We assessed physician response to control cardiovascular risk factors, as well as markers of potential overtreatment in Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare coverage but without systematic quality monitoring, annual report cards on quality of care or financial incentives to improve quality. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1002 randomly selected patients aged 50–80 years from four university primary care settings in Switzerland. For hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, we first measured proportions in control, then assessed therapy modifications among those in poor control. “Appropriate clinical action” was defined as a therapy modification or return to control without therapy modification within 12 months among patients with baseline poor control. Potential overtreatment of these conditions was defined as intensive treatment among low-risk patients with optimal target values. Results 20% of patients with hypertension, 41% with dyslipidemia and 36% with diabetes mellitus were in control at baseline. When appropriate clinical action in response to poor control was integrated into measuring quality of care, 52 to 55% had appropriate quality of care. Over 12 months, therapy of 61% of patients with baseline poor control was modified for hypertension, 33% for dyslipidemia, and 85% for diabetes mellitus. Increases in number of drug classes (28-51%) and in drug doses (10-61%) were the most common therapy modifications. Patients with target organ damage and higher baseline values were more likely to have appropriate clinical action. We found low rates of potential overtreatment with 2% for hypertension, 3% for diabetes mellitus and 3-6% for dyslipidemia. Conclusions In primary care, evaluating whether physicians respond appropriately to poor risk factor control, in addition to assessing proportions in control, provide a broader view of the quality of care than relying solely on measures of proportions in control. Such measures could be more clinically relevant and acceptable to physicians than simply reporting levels of control. PMID:25027581

2014-01-01

218

An investigation of the hard and soft quality management factors of Australian SMEs and their association with firm performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the key “hard” and “soft” quality management factors used by Australian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their association with organisational performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey questionnaire was constructed for this research using Powell's quality management framework. The respondents were required to indicate their degree of implementation of quality management

David Gadenne; Bishnu Sharma

2009-01-01

219

Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.  

PubMed

Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

2015-03-01

220

Mass higher educations affect the quality of higher education in China and the countermeasures of the main factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the hierarchical index system of factors for the teaching quality of high education is established. Firstly, the critical factors influencing teaching quality has been analyzed. Further, the author discusses the current situation of our higher education and points out the negative effect of enrollment expansion and shortage of teachers are the main reason-hat have caused the drop

Rong Wang

2010-01-01

221

Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1.  

PubMed

A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement. PMID:11537535

Badhwar, G D; Braby, L A; Cucinotta, F A; Atwell, W

1992-07-01

222

Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.  

PubMed

Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

2014-01-01

223

Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

1989-01-01

224

Tunable and high quality factor SrTiO3 surface acoustic wave resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated a tunable surface acoustic wave resonator in the 2 GHz-frequency range by depositing and patterning 2 ?m-wide pitch inter-digitated Al electrodes on SrTiO3 (STO) paraelectric substrate. We took advantage of the electrostrictive behavior of STO, whose properties are nonlinear with respect to the applied electric field, to induce tunability of the resonance frequency. The obtained frequency tunability reaches 0.7% at 0.5 MV/cm. Besides, the main advantage of this device is its high acoustic quality factor Q reaching 2450 at 2 GHz, thanks to the single-crystal nature of STO. This is one order of magnitude larger than the typical quality factor of its tunable bulk acoustic wave resonators counterparts.

Alzuaga, Sébastien; Daniau, William; Salut, Roland; Baron, Thomas; Ballandras, Sylvain; Defay, Emmanuel

2014-08-01

225

Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend to cite more papers than those published a decade ago. We analyzed citation data from 75,312 papers from 70 ecological journals published during 1998â??2007. We found that papers published in 2007 cited an average of seven more papers than those published a decade earlier. This increase accounts for about 80% of the observed impact factor inflation rate of 0.23. In examining the 70 journals we found that nearly 50% showed increases in their impact factors, but at rates lower than the background inflation rate. Therefore, although those journals appear to be increasing in quality as measured by the impact factor, they are actually failing to keep pace with inflation.

Bryan Neff (University of Western Ontario; Department of Biology)

2010-06-01

226

Factors affecting the quality of sound recording for speech and voice analysis.  

PubMed

The importance and utility of objective evidence-based measurement of the voice is well documented. Therefore, greater consideration needs to be given to the factors that influence the quality of voice and speech recordings. This manuscript aims to bring together the many features that affect acoustically acquired voice and speech. Specifically, the paper considers the practical requirements of individual speech acquisition configurations through examining issues relating to hardware, software and microphone selection, the impact of environmental noise, analogue to digital conversion and file format as well as the acoustic measures resulting from varying levels of signal integrity. The type of recording environment required by a user is often dictated by a variety of clinical and experimental needs, including: the acoustic measures being investigated; portability of equipment; an individual's budget; and the expertise of the user. As the quality of recorded signals is influenced by many factors, awareness of these issues is essential. This paper aims to highlight the importance of these methodological considerations to those previously uninitiated with voice and speech acoustics. With current technology, the highest quality recording would be made using a stand-alone hard disc recorder, an independent mixer to attenuate the incoming signal, and insulated wiring combined with a high quality microphone in an anechoic chamber or sound treated room. PMID:21271920

Vogel, Adam P; Morgan, Angela T

2009-01-01

227

[Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].  

PubMed

By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-12-01

228

A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.  

PubMed

We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

2014-01-01

229

A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization  

PubMed Central

We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

2014-01-01

230

A study of factors involved in quality of homestyle potato chips  

E-print Network

of fzesh and stored crop potatoes and chips derived f zom those lots were studied foz factors involved in the finished quality. Potatoes were measured for specific gravity, moisture, starch, and amylose content, starch granule size distribution, starch..., as cell size increased textuze also increased for stored potatoes. Also. increased starch density or middle size granule percentage had an inverse effect on chip texture. Moisture content between 1. 9 to 3. 26 did have a corzelation to texture. When...

Schoelles, Dale Brian

1987-01-01

231

Sub-micron diameter micropillar cavities with high Quality factors and ultra-small mode volumes  

E-print Network

We theoretically demonstrate high Quality factor micropillar cavities with record low mode volumes based on the TiO2/SiO2 material system. The proposed cavities have Q/V three orders of magnitude larger than previously reported ones. We show that our cavity embedded with diamond nanocrystal provides a feasible platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in the strong coupling limit.

Zhang, Yinan

2009-01-01

232

Submicrometer diameter micropillar cavities with high quality factor and ultrasmall mode volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

We theoretically demonstrate high Quality factor micropillar cavities with record low mode volumes based on the TiO2\\/SiO2 material system. The proposed cavities have Q\\/V three orders of magnitude larger than previously reported ones. We show that our cavity embedded with diamond nanocrystal provides a feasible platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in the strong coupling limit.

Yinan Zhang; Marko Loncar

2009-01-01

233

Seismic quality factors across a bottom simulating reflector in the Makran Accretionary Prism, Arabian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrate-bearing sediments above the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) are associated with low attenuation or high quality factor (Q), whereas underlying gas-bearing sediments exhibit high attenuation. Hence, estimation of Q can be important for qualifying whether a BSR is related to gas hydrates and free-gas. This property is also useful for identifying gas hydrates where detection of BSR is dubious.

Kalachand Sain; Anoop Kumar Singh

2011-01-01

234

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Quality of Life Among Individuals Attending Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this multicenter study was to explore associations between psychosocial factors (general self-efficacy, perceived availability of social support, cancer-related distress) and health-related quality of life, among individuals at risk for hereditary cancer. One-hundred and twenty one participants with a family history of breast-cancer or colorectal cancer answered a questionnaire 2–4 weeks prior to genetic counseling. The two dimensions

Anniken Hamang Carlsson; Cathrine Bjorvatn; Lars Fredrik Engebretsen; Gunilla Berglund; Gerd Karin Natvig

2004-01-01

235

Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. METHODS: We measured perceived quality of life (QOL) in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions

Beatriz Rodriguez-Salgado; Helen Dolengevich-Segal; Manuel Arrojo-Romero; Paola Castelli-Candia; Mercedes Navio-Acosta; Maria M Perez-Rodriguez; Jeronimo Saiz-Ruiz; Enrique Baca-Garcia

2006-01-01

236

Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors - Data driven approaches.  

PubMed

Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

2015-03-15

237

Effects of weak noise on oscillating flows: Linking quality factor, Floquet modes, and Koopman spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many fluid flows, such as bluff body wakes, exhibit stable self-sustained oscillations for a wide range of parameters. Here we study the effect of weak noise on such flows. In the presence of noise, a flow with self-sustained oscillations is characterized not only by its period, but also by the quality factor. This measure gives an estimation of the number of oscillations over which periodicity is maintained. Using a recent theory [P. Gaspard, J. Stat. Phys. 106, 57 (2002)], we report on two observations. First, for weak noise the quality factor can be approximated using a linear Floquet analysis of the deterministic system; its size is inversely proportional to the inner-product between first direct and adjoint Floquet vectors. Second, the quality factor can readily be observed from the spectrum of evolution operators. This has consequences for Koopman/Dynamic mode decomposition analyses, which extract coherent structures associated with different frequencies from numerical or experimental flows. In particular, the presence of noise induces a damping on the eigenvalues, which increases quadratically with the frequency and linearly with the noise amplitude.

Bagheri, Shervin

2014-09-01

238

A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale)  

PubMed Central

Objective The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Design Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. Study sample 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. Results We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed “speech understanding”, “spatial perception”, and “clarity, separation, and identification”. Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, “effort and concentration”, representing two more questions. Conclusions These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores. PMID:24417459

2014-01-01

239

Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Hemodialysis Patients in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0–100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m2) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1±19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0±8.6 and 39.6±8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life. PMID:24358336

Md. Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

2013-01-01

240

Factors associated with quality of life among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0-100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m(2)) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1 ± 19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0 ± 8.6 and 39.6 ± 8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life. PMID:24358336

Md Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

2013-01-01

241

Improving Quality of Surgical Care and Outcomes: Factors Impacting Surgical Site Infection after Colorectal Resection  

PubMed Central

Surgical site infections (SSIs) result in patient morbidity and increased costs. The purpose of this study was to determine reasons underlying SSI to enable interventions addressing identified factors. Combining data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project with medical record extraction, we evaluated 365 patients who underwent colon resection from January 2009 to December 2012 at a single institution. Of the 365 patients, 84 (23%) developed SSI. On univariate analysis, significant risk factors included disseminated cancer, ileostomy, patient temperature less than 36°C for greater than 60 minutes, and higher glucose level. The median number of cases per surgeon was 36, and a case volume below the median was associated with a higher risk of SSI. On multivariate analysis, significant risks associated with SSI included disseminated cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.31; P < .001); surgery performed by a surgeon with less than 36 cases (OR, 2.19; P = .008); higher glucose level (OR, 1.06; P =.017); and transfusion of five units or more of blood (OR, 3.26; P =.029). In this study we found both modifiable and unmodifiable factors associated with increased SSI. Identifying modifiable risk factors enables targeting specific areas to improve the quality of care and patient outcomes. PMID:25105393

SHAFFER, VIRGINIA OLIVA; BAPTISTE, CAITLIN D.; LIU, YUAN; SRINIVASAN, JAHNAVI K.; GALLOWAY, JOHN R.; SULLIVAN, PATRICK S.; STALEY, CHARLES A.; SWEENEY, JOHN F.; SHARMA, JOE; GILLESPIE, THERESA W.

2015-01-01

242

Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

Lai, P P; Say, Y H

2013-06-01

243

Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic heart failure in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Sleep disorders are common among patients with chronic heart failure (HF), and it can have a significant effect on patients’ daily activities as well as their health. The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and its predictors in Iranian patients with chronic HF. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 patients with HF in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to November 2009. These patients completed a demographic questionnaire, and their sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and Linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients (n = 158) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5). The range of global PSQI scores was 3–20. Also, a significant relationship was found between PSQI scores and patients’ age (p<0.004), gender (p< 0.042), educational level (p< 0.001), occupational status (p< 0.038), number of hospitalizations (p< 0.005), type of referral (p< 0.001), non-cardiac diseases (p< 0.001), diuretic use (p< 0.021) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p< 0.015). Three predictors were identified using regression analyses with stepwise methods, and included age, type of referral and educational level. Conclusion: The high prevalence of poor sleep quality highlighted the importance of sleep disorders in HF patients. There are many factors associated with sleep quality and sleep disorders that health providers should recognize for improved and effective management. PMID:25695007

Moradi, Mina; Mehrdad, Neda; Nikpour, Soghra; Haghani, Hamid; Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Sharifi, Farshad

2014-01-01

244

A time-domain Discontinuous Galerkin method for mechanical resonator quality factor computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations are becoming increasingly important in the design of micromechanical resonators, in particular for the prediction of complex frequency response in high quality devices where damping is controlled by anchor losses. Frequency based approaches have been shown to predict these accurately, however, they require the solution of eigenvalue problems or the inversion of Helmholtz-type operators which are known to be very difficult for large-scale iterative solvers. We propose using a time-domain approach instead, where a broadband input signal is propagated through the system with a local explicit time-stepper. This is achieved using a new high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization for the linear elasticity equations, in particular a second-order formulation with Compact DG fluxes and a Runge-Kutta time integrator, where the block-diagonal mass matrices allow for efficient, stable, and accurate time stepping. Our solver scales well on distributed parallel computers, even in three spatial dimension and for large problem sizes. The resulting output signal is analyzed using a well-known filter diagonalization method, which is capable of finding accurate frequencies and quality factors for as little as a hundred periods of data. We validate the properties of our scheme on model problems, and demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed analysis process on two high quality factor disk resonators, using an axisymmetric formulation as well as full three dimensional simulations which is shown to scale well.

Govindjee, Sanjay; Persson, Per-Olof

2012-08-01

245

Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

2014-02-01

246

Analysis of Ecological Quality of the Environment and Influencing Factors in China during 2005–2010  

PubMed Central

Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005–2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005–2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005–2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

2014-01-01

247

Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

2014-01-01

248

Neutron spectroscopic factors of 7Li and astrophysical 6Li(n,g)7Li reaction rates  

E-print Network

Angular distributions of the 7Li(6Li,6Li)7Li elastic scattering and the 7Li(6Li,7Li_{g.s.})6Li, 7Li(6Li,7Li*_{0.48})6Li transfer reactions at Ec.m. = 23.7 MeV were measured with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph. The optical potential of 6Li+7Li was obtained by fitting the elastic scattering differential cross sections. Based on the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) analysis, spectroscopic factors of 7Li=6Li+n were determined to be 0.73 +- 0.05 and 0.90 +- 0.09 for the ground and first exited states in 7Li, respectively. Using the spectroscopic factors, the cross sections of the 6Li(n,g)7Li direct neutron capture reactions and the astrophysical 6Li(n,g)7Li reaction rates were derived.

Jun Su; Zhihong Li; Bing Guo; Xixiang Bai; Zhichang Li; Jiancheng Liu; Youbao Wang; Gang Lian; Sheng Zeng; Baoxiang Wang; Shengquan Yan; Yunju Li; Ertao Li; Qiwen Fan; Weiping Liu

2010-01-25

249

Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better understanding of this occurrence. Methods Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), was reviewed and discussed. Results Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana, where a larger number and variety of anti-malarials were sampled. Poor quality was more frequent in the private and informal sector than in the public sector, posing a greater threat to the populations at risk, which are mostly located in hard to reach areas with scarce public facilities. Stock-outs identified in the public sector in Guyana could enhance the need to access those alternative sectors, exacerbating the risk of utilizing poor quality medicines. The availability of monotherapies and other non-recommended therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, could also have contributed to the diminished efficacy. The type of quality deficiencies identified -reduced content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or poor dissolution- and the irrational use of non-recommended treatments could result in non-sustained or lower levels of API in blood, favouring survival of more resistant mutants by exposing parasites to sub-lethal doses of the active ingredient. Conclusions The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described in Guyana and Suriname. However, also other factors need to be considered and a more comprehensive and extensive assessment on quality and pharmaceutical management is necessary to establish a tighter cause-effect correlation. Nevertheless, relevant authorities in these and neighbouring countries should take into consideration the reviewed data to properly address the problem when implementing corrective actions. PMID:24581434

2014-01-01

250

Local quality functions for graph clustering with non-negative matrix factorization.  

PubMed

Many graph clustering quality functions suffer from a resolution limit, namely the inability to find small clusters in large graphs. So-called resolution-limit-free quality functions do not have this limit. This property was previously introduced for hard clustering, that is, graph partitioning. We investigate the resolution-limit-free property in the context of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for hard and soft graph clustering. To use NMF in the hard clustering setting, a common approach is to assign each node to its highest membership cluster. We show that in this case symmetric NMF is not resolution-limit free, but that it becomes so when hardness constraints are used as part of the optimization. The resulting function is strongly linked to the constant Potts model. In soft clustering, nodes can belong to more than one cluster, with varying degrees of membership. In this setting resolution-limit free turns out to be too strong a property. Therefore we introduce locality, which roughly states that changing one part of the graph does not affect the clustering of other parts of the graph. We argue that this is a desirable property, provide conditions under which NMF quality functions are local, and propose a novel class of local probabilistic NMF quality functions for soft graph clustering. PMID:25615154

van Laarhoven, Twan; Marchiori, Elena

2014-12-01

251

Local quality functions for graph clustering with non-negative matrix factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many graph clustering quality functions suffer from a resolution limit, namely the inability to find small clusters in large graphs. So-called resolution-limit-free quality functions do not have this limit. This property was previously introduced for hard clustering, that is, graph partitioning. We investigate the resolution-limit-free property in the context of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for hard and soft graph clustering. To use NMF in the hard clustering setting, a common approach is to assign each node to its highest membership cluster. We show that in this case symmetric NMF is not resolution-limit free, but that it becomes so when hardness constraints are used as part of the optimization. The resulting function is strongly linked to the constant Potts model. In soft clustering, nodes can belong to more than one cluster, with varying degrees of membership. In this setting resolution-limit free turns out to be too strong a property. Therefore we introduce locality, which roughly states that changing one part of the graph does not affect the clustering of other parts of the graph. We argue that this is a desirable property, provide conditions under which NMF quality functions are local, and propose a novel class of local probabilistic NMF quality functions for soft graph clustering.

van Laarhoven, Twan; Marchiori, Elena

2014-12-01

252

Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.  

PubMed

The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

2011-01-01

253

Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

2009-12-01

254

Neutron radiography  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography is becoming a well established nondestructive testing (NDT) method. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recognized the method through its recommended practice SNT-TCIA which outlines training, knowledge, and experience necessary to obtain levels of competency in the method. Certification of nondestructive testing personnel is also covered in a military standard. Technical publications in the field of NDT and nuclear technology carry articles on neutron radiography and technical meetings include papers or even entire sessions on neutron radiography. There is an on-going series of international conferences on neutron radiography. Many books are available to provide introductory and advanced material on neutron radiographic techniques and applications. Neutron radiography as a service for hire is available, similar to that offered for other NDT services. The method is being adopted to solve NDT problems in specialty areas. The objective of this report is to provide a brief survey of the current state of the art in the use of neutron radiography. The survey will include information on the technique including principles of the method, sources of neutrons, detection methodology, standards and image quality indicators, and representative applications. An extensive reference list provides additional information for those who wish to investigate further and a Glossary is included which provides definitions for terms used in Neutron Radiography.

Berger, H.; Iddings, F.

1998-08-01

255

The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²  

E-print Network

The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with ...

Plaster, Bradley R. (Bradley Robert), 1976-

2004-01-01

256

Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

2014-01-01

257

Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

Voroshilova, Anna A.

2015-01-01

258

Studies on kinetics of water quality factors to establish water transparency model in Neijiang River, China.  

PubMed

The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency. PMID:24813007

Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling

2014-05-01

259

High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24?±?3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz–8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

Najar, Hadi, E-mail: hnajar@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Chan, Mei-Lin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Horsley, David A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2014-04-14

260

Quality assurance procedures for the neutron beam monitors at the FiR 1 BNCT facility.  

PubMed

In order to assure the stability of the beam, the reliability of the beam monitoring system and the quality of the patient dose delivered, several procedures are followed at the FiR 1 epithermal beam in Finland. Routine procedures include in-phantom activation measurements before each patient treatment and a long-term follow-up of the results. The sensitivity of the beam monitors to external objects in the beam and to variations in the control rod positions in the reactor has been checked and found insignificant. The linearity of the beam monitor channels has been checked with activation measurements. It was found that due to saturation effects a correction of 11% has to be applied when extrapolating results from experiments at low power to full power using the reference monitor channel. The correction is even larger for other channels with higher count rates. PMID:15308185

Auterinen, I; Serén, T; Kotiluoto, P; Uusi-Simola, J; Savolainen, S

2004-11-01

261

Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

1996-01-01

262

Quality of life and the related factors in spouses of veterans with chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Background The quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injuries may be affected by several factors. Moreover, this issue is yet to be documented fully in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health related quality of life of spouses who act as primary caregivers of veterans with chronic spinal cord injuries in Iran. Methods The study consisted of 72 wives of 72 veterans who were categorized as spinal cord injured patients based on the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification. Health related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Pearson's correlation was carried out to find any correlation between demographic variables with SF-36 dimensions. To find the effect of the factors like age, employment status, duration of care giving, education, presence or absence of knee osteoarthritis, and mechanical back pain on different domains of the SF-36 health survey, Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.7 years. According to the ASIA classification 88.9% and 11.1% of the veterans were paraplegic and tetraplegic respectively. Fifty percent of them had a complete injury (ASIA A) and 85% of the spouses were exclusive care givers. All of the SF-36 scores of the spouses were significantly lower than the normal population. Pearson's correlation demonstrated a negative significant correlation between both age and duration of caring with the PF domain. The number of children had a negative correlation with RE and VT. Conclusion The burden of caregiving can impact the QOL of caregivers and cause health problems. These problems can cause limitations for caregiver spouses and it can lead to a decrease in the quality of given care. PMID:23506336

2013-01-01

263

Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of the management and active, inspirational team leadership appear to be important. Not only patient outcomes but also the performance indicators of monitoring and screening/assessment showed improvement in many but not all of the QI teams with such characteristics. More studies are needed to identify factors associated with the impact of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in mental healthcare. PMID:22230594

2012-01-01

264

Symmetric reflection line resonator and its quality factor modulation by a two-dimensional electron gas  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.

Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Jiang, Hong-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Siddiqi, Irfan [Quantum Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-02-24

265

Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a diamond photonics platform with integrated suspended waveguide-cavity structures and two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) cavities. PhC cavities with quality factors exceeding 2800 have been fabricated using a top-down approach from thin nanocrystalline diamond films. The developed technological process allows one to access these cavities in a fully planar geometry, including light injection and collection from the outside using lensed-fibers. This diamond platform opens the road to large scale fabrication of photonics devices including optical sensor chips.

Checoury, X.; Néel, D.; Boucaud, P.; Gesset, C.; Girard, H.; Saada, S.; Bergonzo, P.

2012-10-01

266

Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million  

SciTech Connect

We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ? 2?×?10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

Lai, Y.; Badolato, A., E-mail: antonio.badolato@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Minkov, M.; Savona, V. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Nanosystems, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-06-16

267

Quality of life and its influencing factors among medical professionals in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The present study is to evaluate quality of life (QOL) among Chinese medical professionals and explore its main influencing\\u000a factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected from two provinces by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese\\u000a version of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure QOL; Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R)\\u000a was used for occupational

Siying Wu; Wei Zhu; Huangyuan Li; Ignatius Tak-Sun Yu; Sihao Lin; Xiaorong Wang; Shujuan Yang

2010-01-01

268

Factors affecting health related quality of life of rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery.  

PubMed

Maintaining quality of life (QOL) is one of the important aims of cancer treatment. Quality of life of a cancer patient is affected by various factors, which may be disease related, patient related, or treatment related. To study changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) brought about by treatment of rectal cancer and factors affecting the changes using Malayalam translation of FACT-C (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal) Questionnaire. Also to detect the minimally important clinical changes (MICC) in health-related quality of life of patients with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone surgery. Forty-five patients diagnosed with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone curative surgery, were studied. HRQOL was assessed at baseline 2 weeks after surgery and 3 months after surgery. The changes in scores were correlated with various demographic factors like age, sex, marital status, number of children, number of married children, and education and occupation of the patient and spouse. Also the treatment-related factors like presence of stoma, presence of morbidity, previous treatment, stage of disease, and administration of chemotherapy before and after surgery were correlated. All the subscales of FACT-C tool, except emotional well-being, were significantly reduced 2 weeks after surgery and increased slightly above pre-treatment level 3 months after surgery. The Chronbach ? values were 0.88, 0.89 and 0.86 on three occasions, respectively, establishing internal validity of the test. Baseline HRQOL scores were better in males compared to females. Among the various subscales, the drops in SWB, FWB, FACT-G, total Score and TOI were significant (P?

Nair, C Krishnan; George, P S; Rethnamma, K S; Bhargavan, R; Abdul Rahman, S; Mathew, A P; Muralee, M; Cherian, K; Augustine, P; Ahamed, M I

2014-12-01

269

Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

Olsson, R. H., III

2012-03-01

270

Factors influencing the quality of life of Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to investigate the factors influencing the quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4) Generic Score Scales, in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and June 2012, covering children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) seen at the consultations of El Ayachi Hospital and Children's Hospital of the University Hospital of Rabat. Quality of life is assessed by the PedsQL4 which is a questionnaire composed of 23 items, completed by the child and the parent; the response to each item ranges from 0 to 100, so that higher scores indicate a better quality of life. The functional impact is assessed by the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), and the disease activity by the number of tender and swollen joints, visual analogue scale (VAS) activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein. Forty-seven patients are included; the average age of the patients is 11?±?3.35 years, and 40.4 % are females, with a median disease duration of 4 (2; 6) years. The oligoarticular form presents 26.7 %, the systemic form 24.4 %, and the enthesic form 22.2 %. The median of PedsQL4 is 80.43 (63.19; 92.93), and the median of the CHAQ is 0 (0; 1). Our study shows that some clinical and biological characteristics have significant effects on PedsQL by both parent and child reports. This study suggests that the achievement of the quality of life of our patients with JIA depends on the disease activity measured by swollen joints, the number of awakenings, parent VAS, physician VAS, patient VAS, and the ESR. PMID:24445385

Ezzahri, M; Amine, B; Rostom, S; Badri, D; Mawani, N; Gueddari, S; Shyen, S; Wabi, M; Moussa, F; Abouqal, R; Chkirate, B; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

2014-11-01

271

Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons)  

E-print Network

? How to make lots of neutrons. Interesting properties of ultracold neutrons (UCN) Supercool source of ultracold neutrons #12; What are neutrons? Neutrons are a basic constituent of matter. ­ The atomic nucleus is made of neutrons and protons. property neutron proton electric charge 0 1e

Martin, Jeff

272

Student Motivation and the "Feel Good" Factor: An Empirical Examination of Motivational Predictors of University Service Quality Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination…

Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

2015-01-01

273

The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential

S. Boateng

2006-01-01

274

A Friend in NeedThe Role of Friendship Quality as a Protective Factor in Peer Victimization and Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined friendship quality as a possible moderator of risk factors in predicting peer victimization and bullying. Children (50 boys and 49 girls, ages 10 to 13 years) reported on the quality of their best friendship, as well as their bullying and victimization tendencies. Parents reported on their child’s internalizing and externalizing behaviors, in addition to bullying and victimization

Julie M. Bollmer; Richard Milich; Monica J. Harris; Melissa A. Maras

2005-01-01

275

High quality-factor optical nanocavities in bulk single-crystal diamond.  

PubMed

Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. PMID:25511421

Burek, Michael J; Chu, Yiwen; Liddy, Madelaine S Z; Patel, Parth; Rochman, Jake; Meesala, Srujan; Hong, Wooyoung; Quan, Qimin; Lukin, Mikhail D; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-01-01

276

Realizing the frequency quality factor product limit in silicon via compact phononic crystal resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-Q (quality factor) resonators are a versatile class of components for radio frequency micro-electromechanical systems . Phononic crystals provide a promising method of producing these resonators. In this article, we present a theoretical study of the Q factor of a cavity resonator in a two-dimensional phononic crystal comprised of tungsten rods in a silicon matrix. One can optimize the Q of a phononic crystal resonator by varying the number of inclusions or the cavity harmonic number. We conclude that using higher harmonics marginally increases Q while increasing crystal length via additional inclusions causes Q to increase by orders of magnitude. Incorporating loss into the model shows that the silicon material limit on Q is achievable using a two-dimensional phononic crystal design with a reasonable length. With five layers of inclusions on either side of the cavity, the material limit on Q is achieved, regardless of the harmonic number.

Goettler, Drew; Su, Mehmet; Leseman, Zayd; Soliman, Yasser; Olsson, Roy; El-Kady, Ihab

2010-10-01

277

High quality-factor optical nanocavities in bulk single-crystal diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-crystal diamond, with its unique optical, mechanical and thermal properties, has emerged as a promising material with applications in classical and quantum optics. However, the lack of heteroepitaxial growth and scalable fabrication techniques remains the major limiting factors preventing more wide-spread development and application of diamond photonics. In this work, we overcome this difficulty by adapting angled-etching techniques, previously developed for realization of diamond nanomechanical resonators, to fabricate racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical quality factors, in excess of 105, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics.

Burek, Michael J.; Chu, Yiwen; Liddy, Madelaine S. Z.; Patel, Parth; Rochman, Jake; Meesala, Srujan; Hong, Wooyoung; Quan, Qimin; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-12-01

278

Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

2015-01-01

279

Methods of incorporation of biomagnification and bioavailability into Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative bioaccumulation factors  

SciTech Connect

In the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative, the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) accounts for bioavailability and food chain biomagnification. A summary of the derivation and uses of these methodologies will be made. The method for determining the freely dissolved (bioavailable) portion of the chemical in the ambient water is based upon a three compartment partitioning model which consists of the freely dissolved chemical, and chemical sorbed to dissolved and particulate organic carbon. The methodology accounting for food chain biomagnification in the prediction of BAFs uses food chain multipliers to adjust bioconcentration factors to BAFS. The food chain multipliers were developed using the food chain model of Gobas (1993) and Great Lakes data.

Burkhard, L.; Cook, P. [Environmental Protection Agency., Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1995-12-31

280

Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

1994-12-31

281

Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from inclusive quasielastic scattering of polarized electrons from polarized 3HE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in quasielastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electron from polarized 3He target are eported. The neutron magnetic form factor at Q2=0.19 (GeV/c)2 has been extracted from the measured asymmetry and is reported in this thesis work. The experiment was performed at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center with an incident electron beam energy of 370 MeV. Two magnetic spectrometers, MEPS and OHIPS, were used to detect the scattered electrons independently, with MEPS at the kinematics maximally sensitive to the spin-dependent transverse response function, RT', at Q2=0.19 (GeV/c)2 and OHIPS at the kinematics maximally sensitive to the spin-dependent transverse-longitudinal response function, RTL', at Q2=0.14 (GeV/c)2. The elastic asymmetry and the quasielastic asymmetry ATL' in the threshold region for three-body breakup have also been measured in OHIPS and reported. A cryogenic polarized 3He gas target using a metastability-exchange optical pumping technique was employed in this experiment. The target was operated at 13K during the experiment with an average target thickness of 3.3x10(18)cm(-2) MEPS and 1.6x10(19)cm(-2) (OHIPS). The average target polarization with 25 µA average beam current was over 38%. A GaAs source produced the polarized electrons and a Wien spin rotator was employed to rotate the spin to give longitudinally polarized electrons at the 3He target. The average beam polarization for the experiment was 36.5%.The measured 3He elastic asymmetry agrees very well with the calculated values using the 3He form factors measured by Rosenbluth separation. The measured spin-dependent transverse asymmetry, AT', which is expected to be sensitive to the neutron magnetic form factor is in good agreement with recent PWIA calculations using a spin-dependent spectral function. The neutron magnetic form factor at Q2=0.19(GeV/c)2 has been extracted from the measured asymmetry based on the recent PWIA calculations. The extracted GnM value agrees very well with the standard dipole parametrization at this Q2. This experiment represents the first measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor using spin-dependent electron scattering. The uncertainty of the extracted GnM2 is dominated by the statistical uncertainty and the uncertainty due to model dependence is found to be comparatively small. The measured ATL' in the threshold region has shown very large positive asymmetry close to the three-body breakup threshold. To interpret the AT' data, a complete calculation of the 3He asymmetry ATL' in the elastic-threshold region using a spin-dependent spectral function with final state interactions (FSI) and meson exchange currents (MEC) taken into account is probably necessary.

Gao, Haiyan

282

Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

Muir, B. R., E-mail: Bryan.Muir@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 ColonelBy Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2014-11-01

283

Using condition factor and blood variable biomarkers in fish to assess water quality.  

PubMed

The condition factor and blood variables, including erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in two ecologically distinct fish species (Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus) were evaluated at five sites in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir (Brazil) to assess water quality. Aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide, and metolachlor were detected at different concentrations in four of the sites. Condition factor was not directly affected by such contaminants. A negative correlation between hematocrit and heptachlor was detected in P. maculatus. Positive correlations between red blood cells and heptachlor as well as an interactive effect of metolachlor and aldrin/dieldrin were detected in A. fasciatus. The erythrocytes of both species collected from the contaminated sites showed high levels of LPO, an increase in SOD and GPx activities and a decrease in CAT activity. Although the leukocyte number and the differential percentage of leukocytes varied among the sites, the hematological variables, the LPO levels, and the antioxidant enzyme activities could be used to assess water quality, regardless of the differences in the responses of the fish species. PMID:21152972

Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise M; Paulino, Marcelo G; Fernandes, Marisa N

2011-10-01

284

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Pain Care Quality Surveys (PainCQ©)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the reliability and validity and to decrease the battery of items in the Pain Care Quality (PainCQ©) Surveys. Data Sources/Study Setting Patient-reported data were collected prospectively from 337 hospitalized adult patients with pain on medical/surgical oncology units in four hospitals in three states. Study Design This methodological study used a cross-sectional survey design. Each consenting patient completed two PainCQ© Surveys, the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and demographic questions. Clinical data were extracted from the medical record. Data Collection/Extraction Methods All data were double entered into a Microsoft Access database, cleaned, and then extracted into SPSS, AMOS, and Mplus for analysis. Principal Findings Confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modeling supported the initial factor structure. Modification indices guided decisions that resulted in a superior, parsimonious model for the PainCQ-Interdisciplinary Care Survey (six items, two subscales) and the PainCQ-Nursing Care Survey (14 items, three subscales). Cronbach's alpha coefficients all exceeded .80. Conclusions Cumulative evidence supports the reliability and validity of the companion PainCQ© Surveys in hospitalized patients with pain in the oncology setting. The tools may be relevant in both clinical research and quality improvement. Future research is recommended in other populations, settings, and with more diverse groups. PMID:23205503

Pett, Marjorie A; Beck, Susan L; Guo, Jia-Wen; Towsley, Gail L; Brant, Jeannine M; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Berry, Patricia H; Donaldson, Gary W

2013-01-01

285

Factors affecting fertilisation and early embryo quality in single- and superovulated dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Data on fertilisation and embryo quality in dairy cattle are presented and the main factors responsible for the low fertility of single-ovulating lactating cows and embryo yield in superovulated dairy cattle are highlighted. During the past 50 years, the fertility in high-producing lactating dairy cattle has decreased as milk production increased. Recent data show conception rates to first service to be approximately 32% in lactating cows, whereas in heifers it has remained above 50%. Fertilisation does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in single-ovulating cows, because it has remained above 80%. Conversely, early embryonic development is impaired in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first week after fertilisation. However, in superovulated dairy cattle, although fertilisation failure is more pronounced, averaging approximately 45%, the percentage of fertilised embryos viable at 1 week is quite high (>70%). Among the multifactorial causes of low fertility in lactating dairy cows, high feed intake associated with low concentrations of circulating steroids may contribute substantially to reduced embryo quality. Fertilisation failure in superovulated cattle may be a consequence of inappropriate gamete transport due to hormonal imbalances. PMID:20003858

Sartori, Roberto; Bastos, Michele R; Wiltbank, Milo C

2010-01-01

286

An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Qd) than the Ohmic quality factor (Qohm). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Qd and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Qd accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Qd with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

Huang, Y. J.; Yeh, L. H.; Chu, K. R.

2014-10-01

287

An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities  

SciTech Connect

Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Q{sub d}) than the Ohmic quality factor (Q{sub ohm}). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Q{sub d} and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Q{sub d} accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Q{sub d} with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R., E-mail: krchu@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yeh, L. H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2014-10-15

288

Health-Related Quality of Life and its Predictive Factors among Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its predictive factors among infertile women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on infertile women referring to Majidi Infertility Center (Tabriz, Iran). The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires including clinical and demographic characteristics and the Persian version of 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). One-sample t-test, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, 1012 infertile women were studied. The quality of life scores of infertile women in all eight subscales were significantly lower than normative data for Iranian women. Low physical component summary was more frequent in younger [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.96], less educated (AOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.27-2.41), and low income (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.06-2.16) participants. It was less frequent in individuals whose infertility duration was 3-9 years (AOR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86), had male (AOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43-0.78) or female and male factors infertility (AOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30-0.78), or had a history of 1-2 in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Low mental component summary was associated with low income (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.11-2.18) and unexplained cause of infertility (AOR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32-0.56). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated low quality of life among infertile women. The findings suggested the need for providing this group, especially those at higher risk such as low educated or low income females, with necessary support. PMID:25276691

Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Sekineh; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mahzad Sedaghiani, Mehrzad; Montazeri, Ali; Dehghanpour Mohammadian, Elham

2012-01-01

289

QUALITY OF LIFE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG ADULTS IN A COMMUNITY IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA  

PubMed Central

Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important measure in the assessment of population well being and health status. However despite locally validated measuring tools, little is known about the quality of life and associated factors in Nigerian adults. Objective: This study therefore aimed to assess QoL and contributory factors among adults residing in a sub urban Nigerian community. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 527 adults, in Oru community was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from the WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was used to obtain information from respondents. Associations were explored with the chi square test; multivariate analysis was done with logistic regression at 5% level of significance. Results: Respondents mean age was 33.3 ±8.1 years. In all, 46.5 % were currently married or cohabiting. Christianity was the dominant religion, 72.7%. In all, 81.6% had good QoL. Predictors of good QoL were respondents less than 25 years [OR: 3.5 (1.264-9.508)], having educational level that is secondary and above [OR: 4.2 (1.810-9.762)]. Being Unemployed [OR: 1.9 (1.099- 3.351)], living in flats and other bigger apartments [OR: 1.8 (1.121- 3.04)], currently ill [OR: 3.7 (2.096- 6.509)], and lack of involvement in religious activities [OR: 3.1 (1.166- 8.045)] were also shown to be predictors of good QoL. Conclusion: The majority of those evaluated had good QoL. Further surveys involving larger samples sizes are required to explore the QoL in distinct sub-populations and in currently ill patients to strengthen the results of this study. PMID:25161411

Akinyemi, O.O.; Owoaje, E.T.; Popoola, O.A.; Ilesanmi, O.S.

2012-01-01

290

An Epidemiological Study on Trigger Factors and Quality of Life in Psoriatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: to evaluate the role of stress, tobacco, drugs, infections, allergies, heredity, alcohol, hormones and skin aggressions as trigger factors and the impact on quality of life in a sample of psoriasis patients. Methods: a transversal study performed in 90 patients affected by psoriasis between January and November 2012 at the “Nene Tereza” University Hospital, Tirane, Albania, based on two scored questionnaires. Results: more than 70 % of patients reported that stressful events caused a flare- up of their psoriasis (p< 0.05). More than 60% of males and 20% of females were smokers (p< 0.05). About 20% of our patients were taking one or more of the medications listed in the questionnaire (p> 0.05). About 20% of patients reported having had recurrent infections (p<0,05). About 80% of males patients consumed alcohol (p<0,05). More than 40% reported a relative with psoriasis. Statistical comparison of the group that reported skin aggressions with the group that did not revealed a significant difference (p<0,05). Only a few of them reported to have allergies (p>0,05). About 36% of females reported that hormonal changes (puberty and menopause) exacerbated their psoriasis (p<0,05). More than 40% of patients reported that psoriasis seriously affects their quality of life. Conclusion: stress, tobacco, infections, heredity, alcohol, hormonal changes and skin aggressions were confirmed as trigger factors for psoriasis in the present sample. Allergies and the investigated drugs seemed not to have any influence in flare-ups. We found that psoriasis had a serious impact in the quality of life in over of 40% of the patients interviewed. PMID:25126009

Xhaja, Alert; Shkodrani, Entela; Frangaj, Silvan; Kuneshka, Loreta; Vasili, Ermira

2014-01-01

291

Neutron electric form factor up to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 GeV/c{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G{sub En}/G{sub Mn} , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic {sup 2}H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q{sup 2} = 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; S. Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; E Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; G. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; J. W. Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-07-15

292

Factors influencing health-related quality of life of Asians with anxiety disorders in Singapore.  

PubMed

As little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Asians with anxiety disorders, we assessed HRQoL in Singaporeans with anxiety disorders and identified factors influencing their HRQoL. Outpatients with anxiety disorders (n = 119) attending a hospital psychiatric clinic completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). SF-36 score reduction from population norms (quantified as the number of standard deviations below the mean) in these subjects was compared with existing data on Singaporeans with various medical conditions and Americans with panic disorder (PD). Factors influencing HRQoL were examined using stepwise multiple linear regression models. SF-36 score reduction in these subjects (0.3-1.4 SD) was greater than that in Singaporeans with systemic lupus erythematosus or thyroid cancer survivors for seven scales but similar to that in Americans with PD (0.5-1.7 SD). BAI and GHQ-12 scores, presence of PD/generalized anxiety disorder, presence of chronic medical conditions, being married or increasing age accounted for 19-61% of the variance in six selected SF-36 scales. In conclusion, it can be said that Singaporeans with anxiety disorders experience clinically important reductions in HRQoL; both clinical and socio-demographic factors influence HRQoL in such subjects. PMID:15085928

Luo, Nan; Fones, Calvin Soon-Leng; Thumboo, Julian; Li, Shu-Chuen

2004-03-01

293

Prognostic factors of quality of life after transoral laser microsurgery for laryngeal cancer.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate factors influencing quality of life (QOL) after transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) of laryngeal cancer. Four hundred and one consecutive disease-free patients were evaluated 1 year after treatment using the University of Washington-QOL v4, the SF-12 (short form of SF-36), and a questionnaire about self-rated health status. The importance of age, gender, tumor location, tumor size, tumor stage, neck dissection and adjuvant treatment were evaluated. One year after TLM patients had a good QOL, with only 6 % of patients reporting a worsening in their health status. Radiation therapy (p = 0.000) and neck dissection (p = 0.000) were negative factors for disease-specific QOL, whereas age ?70 (p = 0.01) was a positive independent factor for mental score of SF-12. Speech was negatively influenced by tumor size (p = 0.001) as was swallowing by age (p = 0.001) and postoperative radiation (p = 0.000). Patients treated with TLM present a good QOL 1 year after surgery. Radiation and neck dissection negatively impact QOL. Elderly patients cope better with their disabilities. PMID:24728230

Vilaseca, Isabel; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Him, Ruth; Mandry, Alexandra; Lehrer, Eduardo; Blanch, José Luis

2015-05-01

294

Tapered Photonic Crystal Microcavities Embedded in Photonic Wire Waveguides With Large Resonance Quality-Factor and High Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a microcavity that exhibits simultaneously high transmission and large resonance quality-factor (Q-factor). This microcavity is formed by a single-row photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a 500-nm-wide photonic wire waveguide - and is based on silicon-on-insulator. A normalized transmission of 85%, together with a Q-factor of 18 500, have been achieved experimentally through

Marco Gnan; Harold M. H. Chong; Marc Sorel; Richard M. De La Rue

2008-01-01

295

The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic {sup 3}{ovr He}({rvec e}, e{prime}) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

2000-10-01

296

A measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor Gn?M? form quasi-elastic ²[right arrow]H ([right arrow]e, e') at low Q²  

E-print Network

The neutron magnetic form factor GnM has been measured using the inclusive electro-disintegration 2H(e, e') of the deuteron for the first time. The longitudinally polarized electron beam of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator ...

Meitanis, Nikolas (Nikolas C.)

2006-01-01

297

Quality factor effect on the wireless range of microstrip patch antenna strain sensors.  

PubMed

Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S T; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H; Ghorbani, Kamran

2014-01-01

298

Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors  

PubMed Central

Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

2014-01-01

299

Factors influencing trust in doctors: a community segmentation strategy for quality improvement in healthcare  

PubMed Central

Background Trust is a forward-looking covenant between the patient and the doctor where the patient optimistically accepts his/her vulnerability. Trust is known to improve the clinical outcomes. Objectives To explore the factors that determine patients’ trust in doctors and to segment the community based on factors which drive their trust. Setting Resource-poor urban and rural settings in Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 625 adult community-dwelling respondents from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India, chosen by multistage sampling strategy. Outcome measures The outcomes were to understand the main domains of factors influencing trust in doctors and to segment the community based on which of these domains predominantly influenced their trust. Results Factor analysis revealed five main categories, namely, comfort with the doctor, doctor with personal involvement with the patient, behaviourally competent doctor, doctor with a simple appearance and culturally competent doctor, which explained 49.3% of the total variance. Using k-means cluster analysis the respondents were segmented into four groups, namely, those who have ‘comfort-based trust’, ‘emotionally assessed trust’, who were predominantly older and belonging to lower socioeconomic status, those who had ‘personal trust’, who were younger people from higher socioeconomic strata of the community and the group who had ‘objectively assessed trust’, who were younger women. Conclusions Trust in doctors seems to be influenced by the doctor's behaviuor, perceived comfort levels, personal involvement with the patient, and to a lesser extent by cultural competence and doctor's physical appearance. On the basis of these dimensions, the community can be segmented into distinct groups, and trust building can happen in a strategic manner which may lead to improvement in perceived quality of care. PMID:24302512

Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

300

Fracture History in Osteoporosis: Risk Factors and its Effect on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background: Fractures are one of the main outcomes in osteoporosis and have an important effect on the general health status. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of major fracture history on quality of life. We also investigated the important risk factors and their effect on bone mineral density and fracture history. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We recruited 105 patients who were admitted to an osteoporosis outpatient clinic. Medical history, family history, calcium intake, physical activity level and biochemical tests were evaluated. Lumbar spine and femur neck bone mineral density were measured. The Qualeffo-41 questionnaire was also used for evaluating quality of life. Results: The average age of the 105 patients included in the study was 56.04±13.73 and 89% of them were post-menopausal women. The average body mass index was 26.84±5.99, which means that the women were overweight. Also, 48.5% of the patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis and 51.5% of them were diagnosed as low bone density. A total of 34 patients had a fracture history with minor trauma and some of the patients had more than one fracture (12 ankle and foot, 10 forearm, 9 vertebral, 4 hand, 3 hip, 2 rib, 1 tibial). When the patients with and without fracture history were compared, the mean Qualeffo-41 score in patients with fracture was 43.85±2.57 and in the non-fracture group was 36.27±2.01. Conclusion: Forearm, ankle and foot fractures can be commonly seen in osteoporosis patients with fracture history. We suggest that it is important to recognise osteoporosis prior to first fracture and disease-specific quality of life assessment should be done. PMID:25667782

Kuru, P?nar; Akyüz, Gülseren; Cer?it, Hülya Peynirci; Çelenlio?lu, Alp Eren; Cumhur, Ahmet; Biricik, ?efikcan; Kozan, Seda; Gök?en, Aylin; Özdemir, Mikail; Lüleci, Emel

2014-01-01

301

Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Obese Students in Hangzhou, China  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of overweight and obese middle or high school students and identify relevant factors influencing their QOL scores. Methods 716 students were recruited from 6 middle or high schools in Hangzhou, China. The Chinese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument–Weight Module (YQOL-W) was self administered. The YQOL-W scores were compared among different BMI groups, gender, educational status, annual household income, parental education and recruitment community using t test or one-way analysis of variance. The independent association of these variables with QOL among overweight and obese students was examined using multivariable linear regression modeling. Results Overweight and obese students reported lower total scores, self, social and environment scores than their normal weight peers (all P<0.001). The QOL of overweight and obese middle and high school students was associated with BMI value, gender, educational status, parental education, and recruitment community. Girls had lower total scores, self, social and environment domain scores than boys (all P<0.001); high school students had lower total and three domain scores than middle school students (all P<0.05). Students whose fathers had higher education reported higher total scores, self and social scores than students with less educated fathers (all P<0.05). Students whose mothers had higher education reported higher environment scores than students with less educated mothers (P = 0.01). Students from migrant communities reported significantly lower total scores, self and social scores than those from rural communities (all P<0.05), but comparable scores with those from urban communities (P>0.05). Students from migrant communities reported comparable environment scores with those from rural and urban communities (P>0.05). Conclusions Overweight and obesity have negative effects on students’ quality of life. Therefore weight specific QOL could be included in weight reduction interventions as a relevant outcome. PMID:25799275

Chen, Ying-Ping; Wang, Hong-Mei; Edwards, Todd C.; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Lv, Yi-Ran; Patrick, Donald L.

2015-01-01

302

Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

2014-01-01

303

Pressure dependence of the quality factor of a micromachined cantilever in rarefied gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the damping behavior of monocrystalline silicon cantilevers in different rarefied gas regimes. Mechanical quality factors Q were analyzed at controlled ambient pressures in the range of 0.01 Pa to 100 Pa. Emphasis was laid on the investigation of the fundamental vibration mode. Hence, the test structures were harmonically excited by the Lorentz force acting on the current carrying lead attached to the top surface of the cantilever. The micromachined clamped-free cantilevers featuring a length of 2 mm, a width of 1.5 mm and a thickness of 20 ?m, were manufactured in SOI technology. The experimental results were compared with existing theories revealing an underestimate of the damping parameter for the Knudsen range Kn = 0.1 to 10. So far, squeeze-film damping by free molecular flow and kinetic damping were taken into account in damping models for the quasi-molecular regime. However, our measurements indicate that also the ongoing molecular flow around the test structures has to be considered. Hence the damping coefficient has to be calculated with methods of the free molecular aerodynamics. Thus, we used an algorithm based on the random walk model that allows the usage of already available knowledge in the field of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo. With this approach the quality factor of a squeezed-film damped cantilever in the quasi-molecular regime was derived. The results were compared with the most recent stochastic model, where the theoretical predictions and the experimental investigations indicate significant squeezing up to a Knudsen number of 10. In a superposition of both damping mechanisms, kinetic and squeeze-film damping, a satisfactory characterization of the damping behavior of an oscillating cantilever in the quasi-molecular regime with Knudsen numbers in the range of 10 down to 0.02 was achieved.

Stifter, Michael; Sachse, Matthias; Sauter, Thilo; Hortschitz, Wilfried; Keplinger, Franz

2012-05-01

304

Factors affecting the use of patient survey data for quality improvement in the Veterans Health Administration  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about how to use patient feedback to improve experiences of health care. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) conducts regular patient surveys that have indicated improved care experiences over the past decade. The goal of this study was to assess factors that were barriers to, or promoters of, efforts to improve care experiences in VA facilities. Methods We conducted case studies at two VA facilities, one with stable high scores on inpatient reports of emotional support between 2002 and 2006, and one with stable low scores over the same period. A semi-structured interview was used to gather information from staff who worked with patient survey data at the study facilities. Data were analyzed using a previously developed qualitative framework describing organizational, professional and data-related barriers and promoters to data use. Results Respondents reported more promoters than barriers to using survey data, and particularly support for improvement efforts. Themes included developing patient-centered cultures, quality improvement structures such as regular data review, and training staff in patient-centered behaviors. The influence of incentives, the role of nursing leadership, and triangulating survey data with other data on patients' views also emerged as important. It was easier to collect data on current organization and practice than those in the past and this made it difficult to deduce which factors might influence differing facility performance. Conclusions Interviews with VA staff provided promising examples of how systematic processes for using survey data can be implemented as part of wider quality improvement efforts. However, prospective studies are needed to identify the most effective strategies for using patient feedback to improve specific aspects of patient-centered care. PMID:22151714

2011-01-01

305

Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.  

PubMed

Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

2015-02-01

306

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

307

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from a series of simulation and flight investigations undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks were analyzed to assess handling-quality factors common to both tasks. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping and rotor-system cross-coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate-command, attitude-command, and control-input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. NOE agility and instrument flying handling-quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

308

Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 GeV2/c2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from measurements of the d?(e?,e'n)p reaction for quasielastic kinematics. Polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND3) target in which the deuteron polarization was perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle detector. We find GnE=0.0526±0.0033(stat)±0.0026(sys) and 0.0454±0.0054±0.0037 at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)2, respectively.

Warren, G.; Wesselmann, F.; Zhu, H.; McKee, P.; Savvinov, N.; Zeier, M.; Aghalaryan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Arenhövel, H.; Asaturyan, R.; Ben-Dayan, I.; Bloch, F.; Boeglin, W.; Boillat, B.; Breuer, H.; Brower, J.; Carasco, C.; Carl, M.; Carlini, R.; Cha, J.; Chant, N.; Christy, E.; Cole, L.; Coman, L.; Coman, M.; Crabb, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Duek, K.; Dunne, J.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Farrell, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fawcett, D.; Fenker, H.; Forest, T.; Garrow, K.; Gasparian, A.; Goussev, I.; Gueye, P.; Harvey, M.; Hauger, M.; Herrera, R.; Hu, B.; Jaegle, I.; Jones, M.; Jourdan, J.; Keith, C.; Kelly, J.; Keppel, C.; Khandaker, M.; Klein, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kramer, L.; Krusche, B.; Kuhn, S.; Liang, Y.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindgren, R.; Liu, J.; Lung, A.; Mack, D.; MacLachlan, G.; Markowitz, P.; McNulty, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nasseripour, R.; Niculescu, I.; Normand, K.; Norum, B.; Opper, A.; Piasetzky, E.; Pierce, J.; Pitt, M.; Prok, Y.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Rohe, D.; Rondon, O.; Sacker, D.; Sawatzky, B.; Seely, M.; Sick, I.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Steinacher, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Stout, J.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tajima, S.; Tang, L.; Testa, G.; Trojer, R.; Vlahovic, B.; Vulcan, B.; Wang, K.; Wells, S.; Woehrle, H.; Wood, S.; Yan, C.; Yanay, Y.; Yuan, L.; Yun, J.; Zihlmann, B.

2004-01-01

309

Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q^2=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)^2  

E-print Network

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from measurements of the \\vec{d}(\\vec{e},e' n)p reaction for quasielastic kinematics. Polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized deuterated ammonia target in which the deuteron polarization was perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle detector. We find G_E^n = 0.0526 +/- 0.0033 (stat) +/- 0.0026 (sys) and 0.0454 +/- 0.0054 +/- 0.0037 at Q^2 = 0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)^2, respectively.

G. Warren; F. R. Wesselmann; H. Zhu; D. Day; P. McKee; N. Savvinov; M. Zeier

2004-02-02

310

Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H- beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited).  

PubMed

Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of ?50 mA H(-) ions from the ion source with a ?5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of ?3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to ?170 °C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H(-) beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 °C. PMID:22380241

Stockli, Martin P; Han, B X; Hardek, T W; Kang, Y W; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Piller, C; Santana, M; Welton, R

2012-02-01

311

Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.  

PubMed

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

2013-07-01

312

Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

2013-07-01

313

Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools  

SciTech Connect

During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

Caldwell, Barrett S. [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)], E-mail: bscaldwell@purdue.edu

2008-05-01

314

Factors Associated With Nursing Assistant Quality-of-Life Ratings for Residents With Dementia in Long-Term Care Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We identify resident, nursing assistant, and facility factors associated with nursing assistant quality-of-life ratings for residents with dementia in long-term care. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey of 143 nursing assistants providing care to 335 residents in 38 residential care\\/assisted living (RC\\/AL) facilities and nursing homes in four states. We assessed resident quality of life by using

Gary S. Winzelberg; Christianna S. Williams; John S. Preisser; Sheryl Zimmerman; Philip D. Sloane

2005-01-01

315

Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG  

E-print Network

Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: 1) record quality factors $Q > 2\\times10^{11}$ up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; 2) $Q\\sim3\\times10^{10}$ at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

Romanenko, A; Crawford, A C; Sergatskov, D A; Melnychuk, O

2014-01-01

316

Effect of intense lifestyle modification and cardiac rehabilitation on psychosocial cardiovascular disease risk factors and quality of life.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (n = 507 28), CR (n = 28), or a control group (n = 28). Twelve psychosocial risk factors and quality of life variables were collected from all three groups at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At 3 and 6 months, Ornish group participants demonstrated significant improvements in all 12 outcome measures. The rehabilitation group improved in 7 of the 12, and the control group showed significant improvements in 6 of the variables. Intensive lifestyle modification programs significantly affect psychosocial risk factors and quality of life. PMID:16723428

Aldana, Steven G; Whitmer, William R; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W

2006-07-01

317

Effect of Threading Dislocations on the Quality Factor of InGaN/GaN Microdisk Cavities  

PubMed Central

In spite of the theoretical advantages associated with nitride microcavities, the quality factors of devices with embedded indium gallium nitride (InGaN) or gallium nitride (GaN) optical emitters still remain low. In this work we identify threading dislocations (TDs) as a major limitation to the fabrication of high quality factor devices in the nitrides. We report on the use of cathodoluminescence (CL) to identify individual TD positions within microdisk lasers containing either InGaN quantum wells or quantum dots. Using CL to accurately count the number, and map the position, of dislocations within several individual cavities, we have found a clear correlation between the density of defects in the high-field region of a microdisk and its corresponding quality factor (Q). We discuss possible mechanisms associated with defects, photon scattering, and absorption, which could be responsible for degraded device performance.

2014-01-01

318

Factors Related to Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Independent Brazilian Elderly  

PubMed Central

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the factors associated with the impact of oral health on the quality of life in a sample of 504 Brazilian independent elderly. Data collection included oral examinations and structured interviews. The simplified form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dental services, and subjective measures of health was collected. Poisson regression within a hierarchical model was used to data analyses. The following variables were associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL: female gender (PR?=?1.40; CI 95%: 1.11–1.77); lower class (PR?=?1.58; CI 95%: 1.13–2.20); up to 3 occluding pairs of posterior teeth (PR?=?1.88; CI 95%: 1.13–3.14); at least one untreated caries (PR?=?1.28; CI 95%: 1.06–1.54); curative reasons for the last dental appointment (PR?=?1.52; CI 95%: 1.15–2.00); poor self-perception of oral health (PR?=?2.49; CI 95%: 1.92–3.24); and poor perception of dental care provided (PR?=?1.34; CI 95%: 1.12–1.59). The younger elderly also noticed this negative impact. These findings showed that the clinical, sociodemographic, and subjective factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL in elderly people. Health authorities must address all these factors when planning interventions on oral health for this population. PMID:23533414

Ulinski, Karla Giovana Bavaresco; do Nascimento, Mariele Andrade; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Fracasso, Marina Lourdes Calvo; Maciel, Sandra Mara

2013-01-01

319

Duration of participation in continuous quality improvement: a key factor explaining improved delivery of Type 2 diabetes services.  

PubMed

BackgroundIt is generally recognised that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs support development of high quality primary health care systems. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating their system-wide effectiveness. We examined variation in quality of Type 2 diabetes service delivery in over 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres participating in a wide-scale CQI project over the past decade, and determined the influence of health centre and patient level factors on quality of care, with specific attention to health centre duration of participation in a CQI program.MethodsWe analysed over 10,000 clinical audit records to assess quality of Type 2 diabetes care of patients in 132 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community health centres in five states/territories participating in the ABCD project for varying periods between 2005 and 2012. Process indicators of quality of care for each patient were calculated by determining the proportion of recommended guideline scheduled services that were documented as delivered. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the amount of variation in Type 2 diabetes service delivery attributable to health centre or patient level factors and to identify those factors associated with greater adherence to best practice guidelines.ResultsHealth centre factors that were independently associated with adherence to best practice guidelines included longer participation in the CQI program, remoteness of health centres, and regularity of client attendance. Significantly associated patient level variables included greater age, and number of co-morbidities and disease complications. Health centre factors explained 37% of the differences in level of service delivery between jurisdictions with patient factors explaining only a further 1%.ConclusionsAt the health centre level, Type 2 diabetes service delivery could be improved through long term commitment to CQI, encouraging regular attendance (for example, through patient reminder systems) and improved recording and coordination of patient care in the complex service provider environments that are characteristic of non-remote areas. PMID:25408165

Matthews, Veronica; Schierhout, Gill; McBroom, James; Connors, Christine; Kennedy, Catherine; Kwedza, Ru; Larkins, Sarah; Moore, Elizabeth; Thompson, Sandra; Scrimgeour, David; Bailie, Ross

2014-11-19

320

Experimental double-differential cross sections and derived kerma factors for oxygen at incident neutron energies from reaction thresholds to 65 MeV.  

PubMed

The double-differential cross sections (energy spectra) for the (n, px), (n, dx), (n, tx) and (n, rx) reactions on oxygen have been measured for nine incident neutron energies in the range 25 to 65 MeV at lab angles between 20 degrees and 160 degrees in steps of 10 degrees. From these measurements, the energy differential cross sections have been determined and consequently the partial and total kerma factors. Based on the obtained experimental partial kerma factors in the incident neutron energy range 25-65 MeV, a procedure is proposed for the extrapolation of these values to the reaction threshold energy of each measured reaction channel. Results of the experimental double-differential, energy differential and total cross sections are presented. The deduced partial and total kerma factors of the present work are compared with results of previous measurements and theoretical predictions. PMID:9869022

Benck, S; Slypen, I; Meulders, J P; Corcalciuc, V

1998-12-01

321

The Ephithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter Design and Performance Manual: More Rapid Plutonium and Uranium Inventory Verifications by Factors of 5-20  

SciTech Connect

Thermal neutron multiplicity counters (TNMCs) assay {sup 240}Pu-effective mass, isolating spontaneous-fission (SF), induced-fission, and ({alpha},n) neutrons emitted from plutonium metal, oxide, scrap, and residue items. Three independent parameters are measured: single, double, and triple neutron-pulse-coincidence count rates. TNMC assays can become precision limited by high ({alpha},n) neutron rates arising from low-Z impurities and {sup 241}Am. TNMCs capture thermal neutrons in 4-atm {sup 3}He tubes after fast-source-neutron moderation by polyethylene. TNMCs are {approximately}50% efficient with {approximately}-{micro}s die-away times. Simultaneously increasing efficiency and reducing die-away time dramatically improve assay precision. Using 10-atm {sup 3}He tubes, they've developed and performance-tested the first of a new generation of neutron assay counters for a wide range of plutonium items. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) has an efficiency of 65% and a 22-{micro}s die-away time. The ENMC detects neutrons before thermalization using higher {sup 3}He pressure counters and less moderator than TNMCs. A special insert raises efficiency to 80% for small samples. For five bulk samples containing 50 to 875 g of {sup 240}Pu-effective, ENMC assay times are reduced by factors of 5 to 21, compared with prior state-of-the-art TNMCs. The largest relative gains are for the most impure items, where gains are needed most. In active mode, the ENMC assay times are reduced by factors of 5 to 11, compared with the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The ENMC, with high precision and low multiplicity dead time (37 ns), can be used in standards verification mode to precisely and accurately characterize plutonium standards and isotopic sources. The ENMC's performance is very competitive with calorimetry. This report describes the ENMC; presents results of characterization, calibration, and verification measurements; and shows the clear performance and economic advantages of implementing the ENMC for nuclear materials control and accountability.

J. E. Stewart; H. O. Menlove; D. R. Mayo; W. H. Geist; L. A. Carrillo; G. D. Herrera

2000-08-01

322

Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q^2=0.45 and 1.13 (GeV/c)^2  

SciTech Connect

Precise measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, over a wide range of the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q2, are important for understanding nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. In the non-relativistic limit, the electric and magnetic form factors are related to the charge and magnetization distribution inside a nucleon, respectively. The measured values of the form factors also serve as an important test for nucleon models. Among the four nucleon form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, is the most difficult one to measure and therefore has been very poorly known especially in the region Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2 due to the lack of a free neutron target and the small value of Gn E. The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gn E/Gn M, at three acceptance-averaged Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 using the quasi-elastic 2H({approx}e, e0{approx}n)1H reaction. In our experiment, an electron was scattered quasielastically from a neutron in a liquid-deuterium target, and the electron was detected in an electron spectrometer in coincidence with the neutron which was detected in a neutron polarimeter. The polarimeter was used to analyze the polarization of the recoil neutrons by measuring the np elastic scattering asymmetry. The experiment was performed in Hall-C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the period from September 2000 to April 2001. The value of g was determined from the measured ratio of the sideways and longitudinal components of the neutron polarization vector. The values for Gn E were computed from our measured values of g = Gn E/Gn M using the Gn M values obtained from a fit to the world data. The E93-038 collaboration reported the first measurements of Gn E using polarization techniques at Q2 greater than 1 (GeV/c)2. Furthermore, our measurements of Gn E at the two higher Q2 values of 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 are more precise than prior measurements at lower Q2. In this dissertation, the data analyses and our results for g and Gn E at Q2=0.45 (GeV/c)2 and Q2=1.13 (GeV/c)2 are given. Our high-accuracy data are included with the ?world? data for Gn E to form an improved data set that was fit with an empirical function to give a simple parameterization of Gn E as a function of Q2. In addition, the data for the ratio Gn E/Gn M are compared to theoretical models of the nucleon. We found that no theoretical model predicts both proton and neutron form factor data.

Shigeyuki Tajima

2003-12-31

323

Neutron spectra and dose equivalents calculated in tissue for high-energy radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Neutrons are by-products of high-energy radiation therapy and a source of dose to normal tissues. Thus, the presence of neutrons increases a patient's risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Although neutrons have been thoroughly studied in air, little research has been focused on neutrons at depths in the patient where radiosensitive structures may exist, resulting in wide variations in neutron dose equivalents between studies. In this study, we characterized properties of neutrons produced during high-energy radiation therapy as a function of their depth in tissue and for different field sizes and different source-to-surface distances (SSD). We used a previously developed Monte Carlo model of an accelerator operated at 18 MV to calculate the neutron fluences, energy spectra, quality factors, and dose equivalents in air and in tissue at depths ranging from 0.1 to 25 cm. In conjunction with the sharply decreasing dose equivalent with increased depth in tissue, the authors found that the neutron energy spectrum changed drastically as a function of depth in tissue. The neutron fluence decreased gradually as the depth increased, while the average neutron energy decreased sharply with increasing depth until a depth of approximately 7.5 cm in tissue, after which it remained nearly constant. There was minimal variation in the quality factor as a function of depth. At a given depth in tissue, the neutron dose equivalent increased slightly with increasing field size and decreasing SSD; however, the percentage depth-dose equivalent curve remained constant outside the primary photon field. Because the neutron dose equivalent, fluence, and energy spectrum changed substantially with depth in tissue, we concluded that when the neutron dose equivalent is being determined at a depth within a patient, the spectrum and quality factor used should be appropriate for depth rather than for in-air conditions. Alternately, an appropriate percent depth-dose equivalent curve should be used to correct the dose equivalent at the patient surface.

Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2009-04-15

324

Neutron spectra and dose equivalents calculated in tissue for high-energy radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Neutrons are by-products of high-energy radiation therapy and a source of dose to normal tissues. Thus, the presence of neutrons increases a patient's risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Although neutrons have been thoroughly studied in air, little research has been focused on neutrons at depths in the patient where radiosensitive structures may exist, resulting in wide variations in neutron dose equivalents between studies. In this study, we characterized properties of neutrons produced during high-energy radiation therapy as a function of their depth in tissue and for different field sizes and different source-to-surface distances (SSD). We used a previously developed Monte Carlo model of an accelerator operated at 18 MV to calculate the neutron fluences, energy spectra, quality factors, and dose equivalents in air and in tissue at depths ranging from 0.1 to 25 cm. In conjunction with the sharply decreasing dose equivalent with increased depth in tissue, the authors found that the neutron energy spectrum changed drastically as a function of depth in tissue. The neutron fluence decreased gradually as the depth increased, while the average neutron energy decreased sharply with increasing depth until a depth of approximately 7.5 cm in tissue, after which it remained nearly constant. There was minimal variation in the quality factor as a function of depth. At a given depth in tissue, the neutron dose equivalent increased slightly with increasing field size and decreasing SSD; however, the percentage depth-dose equivalent curve remained constant outside the primary photon field. Because the neutron dose equivalent, fluence, and energy spectrum changed substantially with depth in tissue, we concluded that when the neutron dose equivalent is being determined at a depth within a patient, the spectrum and quality factor used should be appropriate for depth rather than for in-air conditions. Alternately, an appropriate percent depth-dose equivalent curve should be used to correct the dose equivalent at the patient surface. PMID:19472632

Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Salehpour, Mohammad; Followill, David S

2009-04-01

325

Characterization of maize elongation factor 1A and its relationship to protein quality in the endosperm.  

PubMed Central

The protein synthesis elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is a multifunctional protein in eukaryotic cells. In maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm eEF1A co-localizes with actin around protein bodies, and its accumulation is highly correlated with the protein-bound lysine (Lys) content. We purified eEF1A from maize kernels by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and chromatofocusing. The identify of the purified protein was confirmed by microsequencing of an endoproteinase glutamic acid-C fragment and by its ability to bundle actin. Using purified eEF1A as a standard, we found that this protein contributes 0.4% of the total protein in W64A+ endosperm and approximately 1% of the protein in W64Ao2. Because eEF1A contains 10% Lys, it accounts for 2.2% of the total Lys in W64A+ and 2.3% of the Lys in W64Ao2. However, its concentration predicts 90% of the Lys found in endosperm proteins of both genotypes, indicating that eEF1A is a key component of the group of proteins that determines the nutritional quality of the grain. This notion is further supported by the fact that in floury2, another high-Lys mutant, the content of eEF1A increases with the dosage of the floury2 gene. These data provide the biochemical basis for further investigation of the relationship between eEF1A content and the nutritional quality of cereals. PMID:9390440

Sun, Y; Carneiro, N; Clore, A M; Moro, G L; Habben, J E; Larkins, B A

1997-01-01

326

Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization. PMID:23514260

Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

2013-04-01

327

High quality factor nitride-based optical cavities: microdisks with embedded GaN/Al(Ga)N quantum dots.  

PubMed

We compare the quality factor values of the whispering gallery modes of microdisks (?-disks) incorporating GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown on AlN and AlGaN barriers by performing room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL measurements show a large number of high Q factor resonant modes on the whole spectrum, which allows us to identify the different radial mode families and to compare them with simulations. We report a considerable improvement of the Q factor, which reflects the etching quality and the relatively low cavity loss by inserting QDs into the cavity. GaN/AlN QDs-based ?-disks show very high Q values (Q>7000) whereas the Q factor is only up to 2000 in ?-disks embedding QDs grown on the AlGaN barrier layer. We attribute this difference to the lower absorption below bandgap for AlN barrier layers at the energies of our experimental investigation. PMID:21685967

Mexis, M; Sergent, S; Guillet, T; Brimont, C; Bretagnon, T; Gil, B; Semond, F; Leroux, M; Néel, D; David, S; Chécoury, X; Boucaud, P

2011-06-15

328

The Influence of Environmental Factors on Sleep Quality in Hospitalized Medical Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep–wake disturbances are common in hospitalized patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight-saving time. Methods: Between March and April 2013, 118 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76?±?11?years; hospitalization: 8?±?7?days) enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results: Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2–59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half-way down for most of the 24?h. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e., 222?±?72 vs. 174?±?85 lux, p?quality and bed position/light exposure, which is worthy of further study. PMID:25566173

Bano, Milena; Chiaromanni, Federica; Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; De Rui, Michele; Amodio, Piero; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Mazzotta, Gabriella; Costa, Rodolfo; Montagnese, Sara

2014-01-01

329

Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

1994-01-01

330

Effects of age and environmental factors on semen production and semen quality of Austrian Simmental bulls.  

PubMed

More than 90% of the breeding stock of Austrian dual purpose Simmental cows is artificially inseminated. Knowledge of factors affecting sperm production and semen quality is of importance with regard to reproductive efficiency and thus genetic improvement as well as for the productivity and profitability of AI centers. Hence, semen data from two Austrian AI centres collected in the years 2000 and 2001 were evaluated. In total, 3625 and 3654 ejaculates from 147 and 127 AI bulls, respectively, were analysed regarding ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, percentage of viable spermatozoa in the ejaculate, total spermatozoa per ejaculate and motility. Effects accounted for were the bull (random), age of bull, collection interval, number of collection on collection day, bull handler, semen collector, temperature on day of semen collection, in the course of epididymal maturation (average temperature of days 1-11 before collection) and during spermatogenesis (average temperature of days 12-65 before collection). Age of bull significantly affected all traits (P<0.01 to P<0.001) except motility score in center 2. Ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased with age of bull while sperm concentration was lower in higher age classes (center 1). The collection team was also found to significantly influence semen quality traits. With increasing collection interval ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.001) while collection intervals between 4-9 days and 1-6 days were superior with regard to sperm concentration and percentage of viable spermatozoa, respectively (P<0.10 to P<0.001). First ejaculates were superior with respect to ejaculate volumes, sperm concentrations and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (P<0.001). Temperature, either on day of semen collection or during epididymal maturation or spermatogenesis, had important but inconsistent effects on semen production and sperm quality. Overall, however, ambient temperatures in the range of 5-15 degrees C were found to be optimal for semen production. PMID:16207516

Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Perner, Christa; Sölkner, Johann

2006-09-01

331

Sharp whispering-gallery modes in rolled-up vertical SiO2 microcavities with quality factors exceeding 5000.  

PubMed

Record high quality (Q) factors of 5400 in vertical microtube ring resonators operated in emission mode are demonstrated. This is achieved by rolling-up a differentially strained SiO2 layer. We also present a theoretical model to investigate the limit of the Q factor. This model especially includes the effect of interlayer voids in the rolled-up geometry, which is found to have a larger effect than scattering due to notches in the spiral shape. PMID:23258030

Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Trommer, Jens; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Schmidt, Oliver G

2012-12-15

332

Rotating night shift work, sleep quality, selected lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration in nurses and midwives.  

PubMed

The pattern of secretion of many hormones, including prolactin, is dependent on the circadian rhythm. Night shift work involves exposure to artificial light at night and sleep deficiency, which in turn can affect prolactin synthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between night shift work characteristics, sleep quality, lifestyle factors and prolactin concentration, using data from a cross-sectional study of nurses and midwives. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 327 nurses and midwives currently working on rotating night shifts, and 330 nurses and midwives working during the day (aged 40-60 years) (388 premenopausal and 269 postmenopausal). Information about night shift work characteristics, lifestyle, reproductive factors, sleep pattern and other covariates was collected through a face-to-face interview, and from a one-week work and sleep diary completed by the subjects. Weight and height were measured. Prolactin concentration was measured in the morning blood sample using the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay method. Associations were analyzed using linear regression models adjusted for important confounders. Analyses were carried out separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the night shift work or sleep characteristics was significantly associated with prolactin concentration. Prolactin concentration was significantly (p?

Bukowska, Agnieszka; Sobala, Wojciech; Peplonska, Beata

2015-04-01

333

Ultra High Quality Factor Microtoroid for Chemical and Biomedical Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have drawn attentions in various types of sensing, such as chemical- and bio-sensing. Even though various types of microcavity geometries have been investigated, research about on-chip WGM toroidal resonator has been discontinued for the sensing applications in aquatic environment. The strong benefits of the microtoroid are ultra-high-Q and small mode volume leading to high sensitivity to small change of environment, surrounding media refractive index change or light scatterer induced effective refractive index change. By using this ultra high-Q WGM resonator, radius >75nm polystyrene nanoparticle are detected in aquatic environment. In addition to polystyrene nanoparticle sensing, individual synthetic hemozoin crystals are detected and its size is measured. The hemozoin crystal sensing ultimately leads to malaria infection diagnose. A sol-gel method fabricated microlaser, co-work with Lina He, extended the sensing capability, detecting >30nm radius polystyrene nanoparticle. Since the water experiment is challenging and tackling the difficulty is main task, theoretical investigations are performed about WGM resonance quality factor, resonator mode volume, and noise to minimum detectable particle size. The research described in this dissertation will shed light on advanced chemical- and bio-sensor developments.

Kim, Woosung

334

Quality of life and related factors among the women undergoing mastectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and 81% of therapeutic surgery performed for breast cancer in Iran is mastectomy. Following mastectomy, the patients suffer from many problems which lead to several disorders and decrease in their quality of life (QOL). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 105 breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy, selected with a convenient sampling method. A questionnaire containing three parts was used to collect data. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 14 using descriptive and analytical statistical methods. Results: Spearman test showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between QOL and education level and also fatigue. Moreover, Spearman test indicated a statistically significant correlation between age and the mental dimension of QOL. There was no significant relationship between QOL with marital and employment status. Conclusions: Based on the findings, we can suggest that nurses should be educated about the factors affecting QOL. They can receive the necessary knowledge in various areas such as meeting the patients, optimum management of patients’ problems, improvement of their health, and finally help to increase the cancer patients’ QOL.

Musarezaie, Amir; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

2015-01-01

335

Factors affecting the relationship between psychological status and quality of life in COPD patients  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to (i) evaluate the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and (ii) identify the effect modifiers of this relationship in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A total of 337 clinically stable COPD patients answered the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) (assessing HRQoL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Socio-demographic information, lung function, and other clinical data were collected. Results Most patients (93%) were male; they had a mean (SD) age of 68 (9) years and mild to very severe COPD (post-bronchodilator FEV1 52 (16)% predicted). Multivariate analyses showed that anxiety, depression, or both conditions were associated with poor HRQoL (for all SGRQ domains). The association between anxiety and total HRQoL score was 6.7 points higher (indicating a worse HRQoL) in current workers than in retired individuals. Estimates for patients with "both anxiety and depression" were 5.8 points lower in stage I-II than in stage III-IV COPD, and 10.2 points higher in patients with other comorbidities than in those with only COPD. Conclusions This study shows a significant association between anxiety, depression, or both conditions and impaired HRQoL. Clinically relevant factors affecting the magnitude of this association include work status, COPD severity, and the presence of comorbidities. PMID:20875100

2010-01-01

336

Livestock drinking water microbiology and the factors influencing the quality of drinking water offered to cattle.  

PubMed

The microbial quality of livestock drinking water was evaluated in 473 cattle water troughs located at 99 different cattle operations. The mean log10-transformed coliform and Escherichia coli concentrations per milliliter of trough water were 1.76 +/- 1.25 (SD) and 0.98 +/- 1.06 (SD), respectively. The degree of E. coli contamination was positively associated with the proximity of the water trough to the feedbunk, protection of the trough from direct sunlight, lower concentrations of protozoa in the water, and warmer weather. Salmonella sp. were isolated from 2/235 (0.8%) troughs and shigatoxigenic-E. coli O157 was recovered from 6/473 (1.3%) troughs. Four experimental microcosms simulating cattle water troughs were used to further evaluate the effects of protozoal populations on the survival of E. coli O157 in cattle water troughs. Escherichia coli O157 of bovine fecal origin proliferated in all microcosms. Reduction of protozoal populations by treatment with cycloheximide was associated with increased persistence of E. coli O157 concentrations in the microcosms. Water troughs are a major source of exposure of cattle to enteric bacteria, including a number of foodborne pathogens, and this degree of bacterial contamination appeared to be associated with potentially controllable factors. PMID:11518311

LeJeune, J T; Besser, T E; Merrill, N L; Rice, D H; Hancock, D D

2001-08-01

337

Constant tip-surface distance with atomic force microscopy via quality factor feedback.  

PubMed

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful and widely used instrument to image topography and measure forces at the micrometer and nanometer length scale. Because of the high degree of operating accuracy required of the instrument, small thermal and mechanical drifts of the cantilever and piezoactuator systems hamper measurements as the AFM tip drifts spatially relative to the sample surface. To compensate for the drift, we control the tip-surface distance by monitoring the cantilever quality factor (Q) in a closed loop. Brownian thermal fluctuations provide sufficient actuation to accurately determine cantilever Q by fitting the thermal noise spectrum to a Lorentzian function. We show that the cantilever damping is sufficiently affected by the tip-surface distance so that the tip position of soft cantilevers can be maintained within 40 nm of a setpoint in air and within 3 nm in water with 95% reliability. Utilizing this method to hover the tip above a sample surface, we have the capability to study sensitive interactions at the nanometer length scale over long periods of time. PMID:22380098

Fan, Lin; Potter, Daniel; Sulchek, Todd

2012-02-01

338

Transient cavitation in high-quality-factor resonators at high static pressures.  

PubMed

It is well known that cavitation collapse can generate intense concentrations of mechanical energy, sufficient to erode even the hardest metals and to generate light emissions visible to the naked eye [sonoluminescence (SL)]. Considerable attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL) in which a single stable cavitation bubble radiates light flashes each and every acoustic cycle. Most of these studies involve acoustic resonators in which the ambient pressure is near 0.1 MPa (1 bar), and with acoustic driving pressures on the order of 0.1 MPa. This study describes a high-quality factor, spherical resonator capable of achieving acoustic cavitation at ambient pressures in excess of 30 MPa (300 bars). This system generates bursts of violent inertial cavitation events lasting only a few milliseconds (hundreds of acoustic cycles), in contrast with the repetitive cavitation events (lasting several minutes) observed in SBSL; accordingly, these events are described as "inertial transient cavitation." Cavitation observed in this high pressure resonator is characterized by flashes of light with intensities up to 1000 times brighter than SBSL flashes, as well as spherical shock waves with amplitudes exceeding 30 MPa at the resonator wall. Both SL and shock amplitudes increase with static pressure. PMID:20550245

Gaitan, D Felipe; Tessien, Ross A; Hiller, Robert A; Gutierrez, Joel; Scott, Corey; Tardif, Henry; Callahan, Brant; Matula, Thomas J; Crum, Lawrence A; Holt, R Glynn; Church, Charles C; Raymond, Jason L

2010-06-01

339

Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

2014-01-01

340

Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter ?1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with ?1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of ?1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. PMID:25554312

Melnychuk, O; Grassellino, A; Romanenko, A

2014-12-01

341

Higher-Order Factor Analytic Perspectives on Users' Perceptions of Library Service Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SERVQUAL measure was developed by Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml (SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64, 12–40) to measure perceptions of service quality, originally in the retailing sector. Libraries and other educational institutions, however are also service providers. Librarians, in particular, have recently become increasingly interested in measuring quality of service

Colleen Cook; Bruce Thompson

2000-01-01

342

Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

343

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

2013-01-01

344

Classification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification of indoor air pollution determinant factors  

E-print Network

of indoor air pollution determinant factors Jean-Baptiste Masson1,2 * , Gérard Govaert2 , Corinne Mandin1 representing different types of indoor air pollution. We restrain to the 20 variables corresponding to indoorClassification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

2006-01-01

346

The drivers of perception: Identifying the driving factors of resident perceptions of municipal service quality in cities of South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of comparative performance assessment is crucial. Recent study findings show that in South Florida the use by most municipalities of external benchmarks for performance comparison is virtually non-existent. On one level this study sought to identify the factors impacting resident perceptions of municipal service quality. On a different and more practical level, this study sought to identify a

Augusto L. Newell

2005-01-01

347

The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

2012-01-01

348

Factors Associated with Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School-Based Sexual Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual…

Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.

2013-01-01

349

Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components. Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05). Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health. PMID:24558275

Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.

2014-01-01

350

Characterization of the CR-39 neutron track etch dosimeter and evaluation of a combination CR-39/thermoluminescent dosimeter badge  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . Objectives . THEORY 2 5 9 12 14 Charged Particle Interactions and Damage Track Formation Neutron Converters The Etching Process Background Effects The Quality Factor MATERIALS AND METHODS 14 16 18 21 22 31 CR-39 Supply . CR-39... in application due to the wide spectra of neutron energies and mixed radiation fields encountered in practical environments. The most common nuclear track emulsion dosimeter used is the Kodak Personnel Neutron Monitoring Film Type A, or simply NTA film...

Hoover, Paul Steven

1989-01-01

351

From Social Structural Factors to Perceptions of Relationship Quality and Loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. Methods We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Results Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Discussion Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness. PMID:19092047

Hawkley, Louise C.; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J.; Masi, Christopher M.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

2009-01-01

352

Neutron interactions with biological tissue. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of neutrons with tissue through the ejected secondary charged particles. The authors used theoretical calculations whose input includes neutron cross section data; range, stopping power, ion yield, and straggling information; and geometrical properties. Outputs are initial and slowing-down spectra of charged particles, kerma factors, average values of quality factors, microdosimetric spectra, and integral microdosimetric parameters such as {bar y}{sub F}, {bar y}{sub D}, y{sup *}. Since it has become apparent that nanometer site sizes are also relevant to radiobiological effects, the calculations of event size spectra and their parameters were extended to these smaller diameters. This information is basic to radiological physics, radiation biology, radiation protection of workers, and standards for neutron dose measurement.

NONE

1998-02-17

353

Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to examine the contributions of coping and social constraint to disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to examine group differences in disease activity and HRQOL between patients with high versus low anxiety or depression symptoms in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis in which disease activity was measured with either the Harvey-Bradshaw Index or the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index. HRQOL was measured with the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Coping was measured with a modified COPE questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Social constraint was measured with the Social Constraint Questionnaire. Correlational and regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between social constraint, coping, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and HRQOL and disease activity. Results: Data from 80 adults with IBD were reviewed. Social constraint, disengagement coping, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms were inversely correlated with HRQOL. Disengagement coping was positively correlated with disease activity. Regression analyses showed that smokers had significantly worse HRQOL than nonsmokers and that greater use of engagement coping was associated with significantly diminished HRQOL. Regression analyses also showed that patients diagnosed between 17 and 40 years of age were significantly less likely to have active disease than patients diagnosed before 16 years of age and that greater use of disengagement coping was associated with increased odds of having active disease. Conclusions: Medical providers should be aware that coexisting social constraint and symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in patients with IBD. Screening for these factors, as well as patients' coping styles, should be strongly considered, and patients should be referred to mental health providers as appropriate. PMID:22675279

Faust, Alejandra H.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2012-01-01

354

Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

2011-01-01

355

Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific radiation type (Z = 1 to 28). Because the anomalous response has been observed at large event sizes in the experiment due to the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta-rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume cavity, Monte Carlo simulation was also made for the response of a walled-TEPC with wall thickness 2 mm and density 1 g/cm(exp 3). The radius of cavity was set to 6.35 mm and a gas density 7.874 x 10(exp -5) g/cm(exp 3). The response of the walled- and the wall-less counters were compared. The average quality factor Q(sub ave)(y) for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrated the good agreement between the model calculations and flight TEPC data as shown. Using an integrated space radiation model (this includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions of walled-TEPC from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. The Q(sub ave)(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Q(sub ave)(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Q(sub ave)(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis for a proper interpretation of data supports the use of TEPCs for monitoring space radiation environment.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

356

Quality attributes of porcine musculature as related to structural muscle components, carcass traits and certain production factors  

E-print Network

, there was an increase in finely dispersed fat cells. Extreme variation in the fat content of different areas of the pork ~3' ' d ' I 9 t d. 61 t, 1. (19633 noticed a "definite" s!arbling pattern in beef l. dorsi muscle. Appreciable marbling variation between... associations between some quantitative carcass tr'aits and pork muscle quality. 3. To relate some production factors with pork quality attributes. 16 CHAPTER IV EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES The samples that were used in this study were obtained from swine...

Lopez, Ali Leonidas

1969-01-01

357

Study of Factors Affecting the Surface Quality in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an investigation of the process factors and the material factors affecting the surface roughness in ultra-precision diamond turning. The process factors involve cutting conditions, tool geometry, and relative tool-work vibration which are related to the cutting geometry and the dynamic characteristics of the cutting process. The material factors considered are material anisotropy, swelling, and crystallographic orientation

C. F. Cheung; W. B. Lee

2000-01-01

358

Electron beam quality k(Q,Q0) factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with PENELOPE.  

PubMed

In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor k(Q,Q0) for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code PENELOPE/PENEASY have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor f(c,Q) for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a (60)Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm(2) and 20 × 20 cm(2) have been considered. The k(Q,Q0) factors have been calculated as the ratio between f(c,Q) and f(c,Q0). Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The k(Q,Q0) values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427-44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors. PMID:25325343

Erazo, F; Brualla, L; Lallena, A M

2014-11-01

359

Differentiation among Schools as a Factor of the Quality of General Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Russian schools differ widely in the quality of education they provide and in the socioeconomic status of the students they teach. More needs to be done to provide quality education for children from all social strata, including provision of remedial or extra tutoring where necessary. General school education provides the basic body of knowledge…

Kozochkina, T. L.

2009-01-01

360

Is smoking a risk factor for decreased semen quality? A cross-sectional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a deleterious effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality, but their results have not been consistent. We studied the association between current smoking and semen characteristics and hormonal levels in a large group of healthy men. METHODS: From 1987 to 2004, seven separate occupational or environmental semen quality studies were co-ordinated by our department. A total

C. H. Ramlau-Hansen; A. M. Thulstrup; A. S. Aggerholm; M. S. Jensen; G. Toft; J. P. Bonde

2006-01-01

361

Organizational factors associated with quality of care in US teaching hospitals.  

PubMed

This study is unique because it uses multiple regression and data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate teaching hospital quality. The results support the premise that teaching hospital leadership through the effective allocation of resources can improve the quality of care. This study has managerial implications by demonstrating the positive correlation between HMO market penetration and improved clinical quality outcomes. This would suggest that improved efficiency caused by limited HMO reimbursement and tight utilization controls encourage hospitals to cut waste as well as improve their clinical care processes. Additionally, our research found that teaching hospitals with higher levels of long-term debt also had improved quality. This shows that increased investments in facilities and advanced technology at teaching hospitals can lead to enhanced quality. PMID:22329326

Harrison, Jeffrey P; Lambiase, Louis R; Zhao, Mei

2010-01-01

362

The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction  

E-print Network

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-04-08

363

Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 2: bacteria count-specific risk factors.  

PubMed

A case-control study was conducted to identify specific on-farm risk factors that influence bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Total aerobic (TAC), preliminary incubation (PIC), laboratory pasteurization (LPC), and coliform (CC) counts were used to assess the bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Four case-control groups were defined based on the last 6 results of each test before on farm evaluation. A herd was classified as a TAC, PIC, or CC case when the herd had at least 4 high TAC, PIC, or CC counts out of the last 6 analyses for each test, respectively. For the LPC case group, a herd was required to have at least 3 high results out of the last 6 analyses. Control groups had low counts in the last 6 analyses for each test in the corresponding case group (TAC, PIC, CC, and LPC). The results of the study showed that TAC and PIC were mainly associated with cow and stall hygiene: washing the teats with water, not using teat predip, and dirty teats were risk factors. The LPC and CC were related to equipment hygiene, with high counts being associated with low temperature of the cleaning solution, high water-hardness score, and high alkalinity of alkaline detergent wash. Based on the findings of this study it can be concluded that TAC, PIC, LPC, and CC counts are of considerable value in identifying practices that could influence milk quality. PMID:19447997

Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

2009-06-01

364

Neutron capture autoradiography for a study on boron neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the study on boron neutron capture therapy, CR-39 plastic track detectors attached with the whole-body sections of tumor bearing mice infused with 10B were exposed to thermal and cold neutron beams. Neutron capture autoradiographic images obtained by the cold neutron irradiation were extremely superior in quality than that of the thermal neutron beams, which possibly are contaminated by the

K Ogura; A Yamazaki; H Yanagie; M Eriguchi; E. H Lehmann; G Küehne; G Bayon; K Maruyama; H Kobayashi

2001-01-01

365

Estimation of gas hydrate saturation using isotropic and anisotropic models at the location selected after measurement of seismic quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition (NGHP) 01 discovered gas hydrate in unconsolidated sediments at several drilling sites along the continental margins of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India. Presence of gas hydrate reduces the attenuation of travelling seismic waves which can be measured by estimation of seismic quality factor (Dasgupta and Clark, 1998). Here, we use log spectral ratio method (Sain et al, 2009) to compute quality factor at three locations, among which two have strong and one has no bottom simulating reflector (BSR), along seismic cross-line near one of the drilling site. Interval quality factor for three submarine sedimentary layers bounded by seafloor, BSR, one reflector above and another reflector below the BSR has been measured. To compute quality factor, unprocessed pre-stack seismic data has been used to avoid any influence of processing sequence. We have estimated that interval quality factor lies within 200-220 in the interval having BSR while it varies within 90-100 in other intervals. Thereby, high interval quality factor ascertains that observed BSR is due to presence of gas hydrates. We have performed rock physics modelling by using isotropic and anisotropic models, to quantitatively estimate gas hydrate saturation at one of the location where an interval has high quality factor. Abruptly high measured resistivity and high P-wave velocity in the interval, leads to towering hydrate saturation (Archie,1942 and Helegrud et al, 1999) in comparison to lower gas hydrate saturations estimated by pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Overestimation of saturation is attributed to presence of near vertical fractures that are identified from logging-while-drilling resistivity images. We have carried out anisotropic modeling (Kennedy and Herrick, 2004 and Lee,2009) by incorporating fracture volume and fracture porosity to estimate hydrate saturation and have observed that modeled gas hydrate saturations agree with the lower gas hydrate saturations obtained from pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Therefore, we find that 1) quality factor is significantly higher in the interval bearing gas hydrates and is a useful tool to discover hydrate deposits, 2) anisotropy due to presence of near vertical hydrate filled fractures translates into elevated saturation because of high measured resistivity and velocity and 3) anisotropic model greatly corrects the saturation estimates in fractured medium. References: Archie, G.E., 1942. Petroleum Transactions of AIME, 146, 54-62. Dasgupta, R., Clark, R.A., 1998. Geophysics 63, 2120-2128. Kennedy, W.D., Herrick, D.C., 2004. Petrophysics 45, 38-58. Lee, M.W., 2009. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5141, 13. Sain, K., Singh, A.K., Thakur, N.K., Khanna, R.K., 2009.Marine Geophysical Researches 30, 137-145.

Mundhra, A.; Sain, K.; Shankar, U.

2012-12-01

366

Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization  

DOEpatents

A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of compressional velocity and shear velocity, and determining reservoir parameters of subsurface Earth formations, at least including density, from data obtained from a wellbore penetrating the formations. A quality factor for the subsurface formations is calculated from the velocity, the density and the water saturation. A synthetic seismogram is calculated from the calculated quality factor and from the velocity and density. The synthetic seismogram is compared to a seismic survey made in the vicinity of the wellbore. At least one parameter is adjusted. The synthetic seismogram is recalculated using the adjusted parameter, and the adjusting, recalculating and comparing are repeated until a difference between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic survey falls below a selected threshold.

Walls, Joel; Taner, M. Turhan; Dvorkin, Jack

2006-08-08

367

Modeling of High-Quality Factor XNOR Gate Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers at 1 Tb/s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor (Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of ˜1 Tb/s.

Kotb, Amer

2015-03-01

368

Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI).  

PubMed

We present experimental results on photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavity structures that demonstrate further enhancement of the quality-factor (Q-factor)--up to approximately 149,000--in the fibre telecommunications wavelength range. The Q-values and the useful transmission levels achieved are due, in particular, to the combination of both tapering within and outside the micro-cavity, with carefully designed hole diameters and non-periodic hole placement within the tapered section. Our 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation approach shows good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:18679482

Zain, Ahmad R; Johnson, Nigel P; Sorel, Marc; De La Rue, Richard M

2008-08-01

369

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009.  

PubMed

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095

Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

2012-08-01

370

Quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease in remission: the impact of IBS-like symptoms and associated psychological factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Quality of life is reduced in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Whether or not this is true in IBD patients in long-standing remission is unclear. Symptoms compatible with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in IBD patients in remission. The importance of psychological factors in this process is a matter of controversy.METHODS:Forty-three patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 40 with Crohn's

Magnus Simrén; Jenny Axelsson; Rolf Gillberg; Hasse Abrahamsson; Jan Svedlund; Einar S. Bjornsson

2002-01-01

371

Individual Quality of Life Factors Distinguishing Low-Burden and High-Burden Caregivers of Dementia Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dementia patient (n = 72) and caregiver characteristics and individual quality of life (IQoL) factors distinguishing low- and high-burden caregivers were evaluated. Measures included patient cognitive, functional and behavioural status, and caregiver burden, well-being, social support appraisal and IQoL. The caregivers were divided by median split into low- and high-burden groups. In the high-burden group daughters were over-represented, psychological morbidity

Robert F. Coen; Ciaran A. O’Boyle; Davis Coakley; Brian A. Lawlor

2002-01-01

372

Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man  

SciTech Connect

Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

Straume, T.

1982-11-01

373

Can the tidal quality factors of terrestrial planets and moons scale as positive powers of the tidal frequency?  

E-print Network

In geophysics and seismology, it is a common knowledge that the quality factors Q of the mantle and crust materials scale as the tidal frequency to a positive fractional power (Karato 2007, Efroimsky and Lainey 2007). In astronomy, there exists an equally common belief that such rheological models introduce discontinuities into the equations and thus are unrealistic at low frequencies. We demonstrate that, while such models indeed make the conventional expressions for the tidal torque diverge for vanishing frequencies, the emerging infinities reveal not the impossible nature of one or another rheology, but a subtle flaw in the underlying mathematical model of friction. Flawed is the common misassumption that the tidal force and torque are inversely proportional to the quality factor. In reality, they are proportional to the sine of the tidal phase lag, while the inverse quality factor is commonly identified with the tangent of the lag. The sine and tangent of the lag are close everywhere {\\it{except in the vicinity of the zero frequency}}. Reinstating of this detail tames the fake infinities and rehabilitates the "impossible" scaling law (which happens to be the actual law the mantles obey). This preprint is a pilot paper. A more comprehensive treatise on tidal torques is to be published (Efroimsky and Williams 2009).

Michael Efroimsky

2012-02-27

374

Health related quality of life in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and factors with impact: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has been applied as a significant outcome indicator for patients with chronic diseases. No HRQOL study, however, has looked at HRQOL in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. This paper focuses on comparing HRQOL in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers and examining the factors that influence the HRQOL of such patients. Results can be used for making decisions in clinical trials as well as aiding individual management and preventive care of these diseases. Methods The Chinese version of the SF-36 (CSF-36) was administered twice to 244 patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Mean scores across the two disease groups were compared using t-tests, change over time was analyzed with paired samples t-tests, and factors predicting HRQOL were investigated using the univariate general linear model. Results The mean domain scores of patients with chronic gastritis were lower than those for patients with peptic ulcers, with the exception of physical functioning. Both groups had lower HRQOL compared with population norms. Mean domain scores increased after treatment in both groups. HRQOL in patients with these two chronic diseases differed by age, education level, marriage, income, and gender, but their explanatory power was relatively low. Conclusion Quality of life of patients with chronic gastritis was lower than that of patients with peptic ulcers, which was lower than population norms. Quality of life in both patients groups was associated with socio-demographic risk factors. PMID:25141760

2014-01-01

375

Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

E-print Network

that maintain acceptable seed sizes. Increasing the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid (O/L) in peanut oil and reducing the long chain saturated fatty acid concentration (which includes arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acids) produces high quality, stable...

Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

2013-08-02

376

Evaluating Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as Modifying Factor in Designing Public School Buildings in Jordan  

E-print Network

The most fundamental goal in the design of educational facilities is to provide an environment that encourages learning achievement for students and teachers. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can negatively affect student health, comfort...

Ali, H. H.; Al-Momani, H.

2004-01-01

377

Partnering as Success Factor: Optimal Design Quality Through The Early Integration of Construction and Operation Competences  

E-print Network

on an interdisciplinary basis. The advantage is a win-win situation for all those involved in the project because costs, deadlines and quality can be presented transparently and flexibly through a thorough and coordinated design...

Simsch, G.

2008-01-01

378

Cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen: factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality  

E-print Network

Centrifugation of stallion semen is an integral part of the cryopreservation procedure, primarily allowing for the concentration of sperm and removal of seminal plasma. In addition, centrifugation is required for maximizing spermatozoal quality...

Waite, Jessica Arlene

2009-05-15

379

Cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen: factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality  

E-print Network

Centrifugation of stallion semen is an integral part of the cryopreservation procedure, primarily allowing for the concentration of sperm and removal of seminal plasma. In addition, centrifugation is required for maximizing spermatozoal quality...

Waite, Jessica Arlene

2008-10-10

380

CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, JANUARYFEBRUARY 2011 323 Turfgrass quality is evaluated by integrating factors of can-  

E-print Network

pratensis L., `Apollo') and in a KBG × Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.) hybrid (HBG; `Thermal Blue normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and visual quality ratings in Kentucky blue- grass (KBG; Poa

381

Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients. PMID:23521364

Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

2013-08-01

382

Neutron scatter camera  

DOEpatents

An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

2010-06-22

383

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualize factors through building rectangular areas on a grid. First enter all the factorizations of a number, then draw each factor set as an area on the grid. Factorize is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

384

Application of positive matrix factorization to source apportionment of surface water quality of the Daliao River basin, northeast China.  

PubMed

Surface water monitoring networks play an important role in the stream water quality management. Since a time series of data is obtained from the monitoring network, multivariate statistical techniques can be used to identify important factors or pollution sources of water system. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is an improved factor analysis tool that has had limited application to water systems. The objective was to apply PMF to monitoring data to apportion water pollution sources in the Daliao River (DLR) basin. The DLR basin includes the Hun and Taizi River catchments in northeast China. This basin is densely populated and heavily industrialized. Fourteen monitoring stations located on the two rivers were used for monitoring 13 physical and chemical parameters from 1990 to 2002. Results show that five sources/processes in the Hun River and four in the Taizi River were identified by marker species and spatial-temporal variations of resolved factors, including point and nonpoint sources for both rivers. In addition, the industrial pollution source emission inventory data were used to compare with the resolved industrial sources. Results reveal that chemical transformations have influenced some chemical species. However, this influence is small compared with observed seasonal variations. Therefore, identification of pollution point and nonpoint sources by their seasonal variations is possible, which will also aid in water quality management. The spatial variation of the industrial pollutants typically corresponded with the urban industrial pollution source inventories. PMID:25655122

Li, Huiying; Hopke, Philip K; Liu, Xiande; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

2015-03-01

385

Comparison of coronary risk factors and quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with versus without diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) can make comprehensive lifestyle changes that produce similar changes in coronary risk factors and quality of life compared with patients with CAD and without DM. We examined medical characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life by diabetic status and gender in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project (MLDP), a study of 440 nonsmoking patients with CAD (347 men, 55 with DM; 15.9%; 93 women, 36 with DM; 38.7%). Patients met in groups to improve lifestyle (plant-based, low-fat diet; exercise; stress management) for 1 year. Follow-ups were conducted at 3 and 12 months. At baseline, body mass and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher among patients with DM. Men with DM had a worse medical history (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CAD) than did those without DM. Patients with DM, especially women, reported poorer quality of life than did patients without DM. The 2 groups of patients were able to adhere to the recommended lifestyle, as demonstrated by significant improvements in weight (mean -5 kg), body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, exercise capacity, and quality of life. No significant changes in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were noted. By the end of 12 months, improvements in glucose-lowering medications (i.e., discontinuation or a change from insulin to oral hypoglycemic agents) were noted for 19.8% (n = 18) of patients with DM. In conclusion, patients with CAD and DM are able to follow a comprehensive lifestyle change program and show similar improvements in coronary risk factors and quality of life as those without DM. PMID:16635593

Pischke, Claudia R; Weidner, Gerdi; Elliott-Eller, Melanie; Scherwitz, Larry; Merritt-Worden, Terri A; Marlin, Ruth; Lipsenthal, Lee; Finkel, Robert; Saunders, Donald; McCormac, Patty; Scheer, Judith M; Collins, Richard E; Guarneri, Erminia M; Ornish, Dean

2006-05-01

386

The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13114

Pausder, H.-J.; Gerdes, R. M.

1982-01-01

387

The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-Earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment.

Pausder, H. J.; Gerdes, R. M.

1982-01-01

388

Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

2014-05-01

389

Impacts of preharvest factors during kernel development on rice quality and functionality.  

PubMed

Rice quality and functionality are characterized in many ways, depending largely on the industry segment using the rice. These characteristics include appearance, milling, and cooking parameters. Recently, variable quality of rice grown in the United States has been reported, but the cause was not well documented. Agronomic impacts include planting time, irrigation and fertility, cultivar selection, and harvest conditions. However, recent research suggests that ambient air temperature, specifically elevated nighttime air temperature (NTAT) during grain filling, dramatically affects the variability of rice milling quality, in terms of milled- and head-rice yields; appearance, in terms of chalkiness; and functional characteristics, including viscosity profiles, gelatinization temperatures, and proximate concentrations. Future research is needed to develop cultivars that are resistant to stress resulting from elevated NTAT during the critical period of grain filling, and, for the near term, to develop altered production management practices that mitigate elevated-temperature stress. PMID:23464570

Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Grigg, Brandon C; Lanning, Sarah B

2013-01-01

390

Factors affecting surface quality in diamond turning of oxygen-free high-conductance copper.  

PubMed

In identical cutting conditions, it has been shown that the surface quality of ultraprecisely machined oxygen-free high-conductance copper samples, for which a single-point diamond tool is used, depends on the microstructure and properties of the materials, as well as the processing sequence. It has been found that samples subjected to colddeformation-recrystallization annealing have the best surface quality after being diamond turned. In addition, crystal uniformity and the processing sequence affect the roughness and residual stress of the finished surface. PMID:20885541

Zhang, H; Zhang, X

1994-04-01

391

Influence of natural factors on the quality of midwestern streams and rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams flowing through cropland in the Midwestern Corn Belt differ considerably in their chemical and ecological characteristics, even though agricultural land use is highly intensive throughout the entire region. These differences likely are attributable to differences in riparian vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology. This conclusion is based on results from a study of the upper Midwest region conducted during seasonally low-flow conditions in August 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report summarizes significant results from the study and presents some implications for the design and interpretation of water-quality monitoring and assessment studies based on these results.

Porter, Stephen D.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

392

Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Factor analysis is applied to 28 groundwater samples collected from wells in the coastal blackfoot disease area of Yun-Lin, Taiwan. Correlations among 13 hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A two-factor model is suggested and explains over 77.8% of the total groundwater quality variation. Factor 1 (seawater salinization) includes concentrations of EC, TDS, Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), K(+) and Mg(2+), and Factor 2 (arsenic pollutant) includes concentrations of Alk, TOC and arsenic. Maps are drawn to show the geographical distribution of the factors. These maps delineate high salinity and arsenic concentrations. The geographical distribution of the factor scores at individual wells does not reveal the sources of the constituents, which are instead, deduced from geological and hydrological evidence. The areas of high seawater salinization and arsenic pollution correspond well to the groundwater over-pumping area. Over-pumping of the local groundwater causes land subsidence and gradual salinization by seawater. The over-pumping also introduces excess dissolved oxygen that oxidizes the immobile minerals, releases arsenic by reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides and increases the arsenic concentration in water. The over-extraction of groundwater is the major cause of groundwater salinization and arsenic pollution in the coastal area of Yun-Lin, Taiwan. PMID:12922062

Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lin, Kao-Hung; Kuo, Yi-Ming

2003-09-01

393

The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential (urban) whereas that of Woolper Creek is agricultural and residential (rural). Two testing sites were selected along the Banklick Creek; one site was upstream the confluence with an overflow stream from an adjacent lake; the second site was downstream the confluence. Most of the drainage into the lake is over a near-by industrial park and the urban residential areas of the cities of Elsmere and Erlanger, Kentucky. Four sampling locations were selected within the Woolper Creek watershed to evaluate the effect of channelization and subsequent sedimentation on the health of the creek. Water quality parameters tested for include dissolved oxygen, phosphates, chlorophyll, total suspended sediments (TSS), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), nitrates, and electrical conductivity. Sampling and testing were conducted weekly and also immediately after storm events that occurred before the regular sampling dates. Sampling and testing proceeded over a period of 29 weeks. Biological impact was determined, only in Woolper Creek watershed, by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates once every four weeks. The results showed significant differences in the water quality between the two sites within the Banklick Creek. The water quality may be affected by the stream overflow from the dammed lake. Also, channelization in the Woolper Creek seemed to have adverse effects on the water quality. A retention pond, constructed to prevent sediments from flowing into the Woolper Creek, did not seem to be effective. This is because the water quality downstream of the retention pond was significantly worse than that of the upstream site. The benthic macroinvertebrates sampled indicate worse water quality downstream of the sediment retention pond. Overall, landuse and the channelization have some effect on the water quality in the two creeks.

Boateng, S.

2006-05-01

394

Quality of life in relation to social and disease factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic patients are more than twice as costly to manage as non-diabetic patients, due mainly to the high costs associated with management of diabetic complications. As in most nations of the world, the number of patients with DM is increasing every year in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to determine relation between quality of the life and disease and social factors of patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania. Material/Methods Independently prepared questions about the subjects of the survey were: gender; age; weight; education; social and marital status; duration of the disease (in years); treatment method; complications; morbidity with arterial hypertension; change in dietary habits after diagnosis of diabetes (started to eat accordingly to recommendations of the therapist); how often nourishment is taken accordingly to recommendations of the therapist; if beginning to exercise after diagnosis of the diabetes; and if exercising, exercises at least 2–3 times per week. Body mass index was calculated as the relation between body mass in kg and height m square (BMI=kg/m2). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale was used for the evaluation of depression and anxiety. Quality of life of patients was evaluated with the SF-36 questionnaire. We surveyed 1022 patients with type 2 diabetes (372 men and 650 women). Association between quality of the life and explanatory parameters (disease and social factors) were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results We found that women had lower scores than men in all fields of quality of life (p<0.001). Peroral treatment had a positive impact on the quality of life (QL) fields of the role limitations due to emotional problems (ORa 0.16. 95% CI 0.07–0.34; p<0.001). Treatment with insulin had a positive effect on restriction of activity because of emotional problems (ORa ? 0.23. 95% CI 0.11–0.49; p<0.001) and mental health (ORa ? 0.38. 95% CI 0.19–0.78; p=0.008), but had a negative impact on bodily pain (ORa ? 3.95. 95% CI 1.41–11.09; p=0.009) and physical health (ORa ? 4.14. 95% CI 2.03–8.47; p<0.001). Conclusions Age and BMI are less important factors that can influence quality of life. Peroral treatment positively acted on the role limitations due to emotional problems, bodily pain, and mental health, but had a strong negative effect on emotional state. PMID:23462804

Mikaili?kštien?, Aldona; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Narkauskait?, Laura; Žagminas, K?stutis; S?lyga, Jonas; Stukas, Rimantas

2013-01-01

395

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Mr Clark

2012-10-31

396

Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

2014-01-01

397

Knee Pain and Its Severity in Elderly Koreans: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the epidemiology (prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life) of knee pain and its severity in elderly Koreans. The subjects (n=3,054) were participants aged ?50 yr from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010. Knee pain was defined as pain in the knee lasting ?30 days during the most recent 3 months; severity was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. EQ-5D was used to measure quality of life. The prevalence of knee pain was 23.1% (11.7% in men, 31.9% in women). The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe knee pain were 4.3%, 9.1%, and 9.7%, respectively (2.8%, 5.4%, and 3.5% in men and 5.4%, 12.0%, and 14.4% in women). Old age, female gender, a low level of education, a manual occupation, obesity, and radiographic osteoarthritis were risk factors for knee pain, and were associated with increased severity of knee pain. Excluding men with mild knee pain, people with knee pain had significantly lower quality of life than those without knee pain. Early interventional approaches are needed to reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of knee pain in elderly Koreans. PMID:24339713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Sung, Nak-Jeong

2013-01-01

398

Perforated diode neutron sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel design of neutron sensor was investigated and developed. The perforated, or micro-structured, diode neutron sensor is a concept that has the potential to enhance neutron sensitivity of a common solid-state sensor configuration. The common thin-film coated diode neutron sensor is the only semiconductor-based neutron sensor that has proven feasible for commercial use. However, the thin-film coating restricts neutron counting efficiency and severely limits the usefulness of the sensor. This research has shown that the perforated design, when properly implemented, can increase the neutron counting efficiency by greater than a factor of 4. Methods developed in this work enable detectors to be fabricated to meet needs such as miniaturization, portability, ruggedness, and adaptability. The new detectors may be used for unique applications such as neutron imaging or the search for special nuclear materials. The research and developments described in the work include the successful fabrication of variant perforated diode neutron detector designs, general explanations of fundamental radiation detector design (with added focus on neutron detection and compactness), as well as descriptive theory and sensor design modeling useful in predicting performance of these unique solid-state radiation sensors. Several aspects in design, fabrication, and operational performance have been considered and tested including neutron counting efficiency, gamma-ray response, perforation shapes and depths, and silicon processing variations. Finally, the successfully proven technology was applied to a 1-dimensional neutron sensor array system.

McNeil, Walter J.

399

Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

2011-01-01

400

Factors affecting quality of temperature models for the pre-appearance interval of forensically useful insects.  

PubMed

In the case of many forensically important insects an interval preceding appearance of an insect stage on a corpse (called the pre-appearance interval or PAI) is strongly temperature-dependent. Accordingly, it was proposed to estimate PAI from temperature by using temperature models for PAI of particular insect species and temperature data specific for a given case. The quality of temperature models for PAI depends on the protocols for PAI field studies. In this article we analyze effects of sampling frequency and techniques, temperature data, as well as the size of a sample on the quality of PAI models. Models were created by using data from a largely replicated PAI field study, and their performance in estimation was tested with external body of PAI data. It was found that low frequency of insect sampling distinctly deteriorated temperature models for PAI. The effect of sampling techniques was clearly smaller. Temperature data from local weather station gave models of poor quality, however their retrospective correction clearly improved the models. Most importantly, current results demonstrate that sample size in PAI field studies may be substantially reduced, with no model deterioration. Samples consisting of 11-14 carcasses gave models of high quality, as long as the whole range of relevant temperatures was studied. Moreover, it was found that carcasses exposed in forests and carcasses exposed in early spring are particularly important, as they ensure that PAI data is collected at low temperatures. A preliminary best practice model for PAI field studies is given. PMID:25541074

Matuszewski, Szymon; M?dra, Anna

2015-02-01

401

Multi-scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon  

EPA Science Inventory

Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattl...

402

Psychological factors and asthma quality of life: a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reports of psychological conditions in asthmatic subjects have been limited to certain population groups or convenience samples. A study was undertaken of the prevalence of psychological distress in asthma in the general population and its associations with quality of life.Methods: The WANTS Health and Well-being Survey is a population household interview survey of adults (age ?18) in Western Australia,

R J Adams; D H Wilson; A W Taylor; A Daly; E Tursan d’Espaignet; E Dal Grande; R E Ruffin

2004-01-01

403

Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the quality of the relationship between children of incarcerated mothers and their kinship caregivers, to investigate whether perceived levels of warmth and acceptance were related to assessments of the children's behaviors. The sample consisted of 69 children (6 to 12 years) with currently incarcerated mothers who attended a…

Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.; Kennon, Suzanne S.

2006-01-01

404

Children of Incarcerated Mothers and Their Caregivers: Factors Affecting the Quality of Their Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the quality of the relationship between children of incarcerated mothers and their kinship caregivers, to investigate whether perceived levels of warmth and acceptance were related to assessments of the children's behaviors. The sample consisted of 69 children (6 to 12 years) with currently incarcerated mothers who attended a recreational summer camp, and 25 of their caregivers. Children who

Virginia H. Mackintosh; Barbara J. Myers; Suzanne S. Kennon

2006-01-01

405

Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,…

Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

2007-01-01

406

Genetic and management factors affecting beef quality in grazing Hereford steers.  

PubMed

Attributes contributing to differences in beef quality of 206 Hereford steers finished on pasture were assessed. Beef quality traits evaluated were: Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness and muscle and fat color at one and seven days after slaughter and trained sensory panel traits (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and marbling) at seven days. Molecular markers were CAPN1 316 and an SNP in exon 2 on the leptin gene (E2FB). Average daily live weight gain, ultrasound monthly backfat thickness gain and rib-eye area gain were estimated. Molecular markers effects on meat quality traits were analyzed by mixed models. Association of meat quality with post weaning growth traits was analyzed by canonical correlations. Muscle color and marbling were affected by CAPN1 316 and E2FB and Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness by the former. The results confirm that marker assisted selection for tenderness is advisable only when beef aging is a common practice. The most important sources of variation in tenderness and color of meat remained unaccounted for. PMID:22818350

Melucci, L M; Panarace, M; Feula, P; Villarreal, E L; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Soria, L A; Mezzadra, C A; Arceo, M E; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Corva, P M; Irurueta, M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Miquel, M C

2012-12-01

407

Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

408

Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider…

Sprang, Ginny; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Clark, James J.

2007-01-01

409

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, a national treasure and the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority, and documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality conditions in a tributary of the Chesapeake, the Choptank R...

410

Factors Affecting Professional Job Mastery: Quality of Study or Work Experience?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students and for society a core aspect of higher education is to prepare for future employment. Employability, however, goes beyond getting a job and this paper focuses on the quality of job performance, or job mastery. Employability is understood as a process and a product of learning both in higher education and in work life. The paper…

Aamodt, Per Olaf; Havnes, Anton

2008-01-01

411

How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

2011-01-01

412

Factors Affecting the Quality of Texas Butter as Revealed by a Statewide Survey.  

E-print Network

VALLEY x CREAMERIES CONTR~BUTEO SIMPLES DURlNO ENTIRE I?-MONTH PERIOD. Locntion of Creameries in Sections of Texas Which Were Represented in the Butter Quality Survey. ULLETIN I NO. 670, T EXAS AGR ,m " . LL EXPERI hods :MENT ST: ION A...

Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendell Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

1945-01-01

413

Electron beam quality kQ,Q0 factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with penelope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code penelope/penEasy have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor fc,Q for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a 60Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2 have been considered. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} factors have been calculated as the ratio between fc,Q and {{f}\\text{c,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} . Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427–44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors.

Erazo, F.; Brualla, L.; Lallena, A. M.

2014-11-01

414

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: Factors influencing water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy.

Whitall, D.; Hively, W.D.; Leight, A.K.; Hapeman, C.J.; McConnell, L.L.; Fisher, T.; Rice, C.P.; Codling, E.; McCarty, G.W.; Sadeghi, A.M.; Gustafson, A.; Bialek, K.

2010-01-01

415

Quality-factor and reflection-coefficient estimation using surface-wave ghost reflections from subvertical structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic interferometry can retrieve the Green's function between receivers from the cross-correlation and summation of recordings from a boundary of surrounding sources. Having the sources only along a boundary is sufficient if the medium is lossless. If the medium is dissipative, the retrieved result using cross-correlation contains non-physical (ghost) arrivals. When using receivers at the surface and transient sources in the subsurface for the retrieval of the reflection response in a dissipative medium, it has been shown that the retrieved ghost reflections are characteristic of the quality factor of the subsurface. The ghost reflections are caused by internal reflections inside subsurface layers. It has been shown with numerical examples for recordings in a borehole from a surface source that a ghost reflection can be discriminated from physical reflections and tied to a specific subsurface layer. After connecting the ghost reflection to a specific layer, the quality factor of the medium above this layer and the reflection coefficient at the layer interface can be estimated. In this article, we show how the above principles can be adapted and applied for surface waves. Due to intrinsic losses in the medium, surface-wave ghost reflections are retrieved from internal scattering between subvertical boundaries. We demonstrate the method on an ultrasonic dataset recorded on a sample composed of a PVC block and an aluminum block. The aluminum block has a groove parallel to the PVC/aluminum interface. Using a surface-wave ghost reflection between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, we estimate the quality factor of the PVC and the reflection coefficient at the PVC/aluminum interface. We also show that the ghost reflection can be identified and tied to the layer between the groove and the PVC/aluminum interface, thus confirming previous numerical findings.

Draganov, Deyan; Ruigrok, Elmer; Ghose, Ranajit; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper

2015-01-01

416

A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Information on emissions is available for these calculations; however, it is often incomplete or difficult to find. Tables and computer models can also provide some of this information, but the quality and applicability of the data to a specific site are unknown. In conjunction with three research projects developing new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Resource Conservation and Climate Change Program Area of the Department of Defense's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately the vetted database will be available on the Internet and will contain emissions information that has been developed from laboratory and field-scale measurements and has been published.

Lincoln, Emily; Hao, WeiMin; Baker, S.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Urbanski, Shawn; Miller, J. Wayne; Weise, David; Johnson, Timothy J.

2010-12-20

417

Traditional and emerging forms of dental practice. Cost, accessibility, and quality factors.  

PubMed Central

The traditional and predominant manner of delivering dental care is through a fee-for-service, private practice system. A number of alternative dental care delivery systems have emerged and are being tested, and others are just emerging. These systems include department store practices, hospital dental services, health maintenance organizations, the independent practice of dental hygiene, and denturism. Although it is too soon to draw final conclusions about the efficacy and effectiveness of these systems, we examine them for their potential to compete with and change the way dental care is currently delivered. Using the parameters of cost, accessibility, and quality, we compare these systems to traditional dental practice. Some of these emerging forms clearly have the potential to complete favorably with traditional practice. Other seem less likely to alter the existing system substantially. The system which can best control costs, increase accessibility, and enhance quality will gain the competitive edge. PMID:7091453

Rovin, S; Nash, J

1982-01-01

418

Analysis of some predictive factors of quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Considering the chronic nature of diabetes and its significant effect on quality of life of patients, the present study was conducted to evaluate predictors of quality of life in these patients in order to facilitate planning health promotion intervention programs. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed as a cross-sectional study on 140 type 2 diabetic patients of Om-ol-Banin Diabetes Center of Isfahan. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire including demographic and disease related data (12 items), the standard scale for diabetes distress (17 items), the standard scale for self-efficacy in diabetic patients (8 items), and standard scale for specific quality of life of diabetic patients (15 items). Collected data were evaluated by SPSS version 11.5 using the Chi-square test, Independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Results showed that the quality of life of diabetic patients had a statistically significant correlation with diabetes distress variable (P < 0.001) and self-efficacy variable (P < 0.001). In this study R2 (predictive power) was 0.66. Multivariate regression model indicated diabetes distress (? = -0.277, P = 0.01) and self-efficacy (? = -0.161, P < 0.001) as variables influencing adjusted self-management for other variables. Conclusion: The result of the present study urges that in planning health promotion interventions in the field of diabetes, more attention be paid to self-efficacy and diabetes distress variables in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the interventions carried out.

Tol, Azar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Eslami, Ahmadali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Alhani, Fatemeh; Tehrani, Mohamadreza Mohajeri

2015-01-01

419

Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents\\u000a experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with\\u000a BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a semi-structured clinical\\u000a interview, the Young

Donna J. Roybal; Kiki D. Chang; Michael C. Chen; Meghan E. Howe; Ian H. Gotlib; Manpreet K. Singh

420

Understanding Critical Factors for the Quality and Shelflife of MAP Fresh Meat: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas

Preeti Singh; Ali Abas Wani; Sven Saengerlaub; Horst-Christian Langowski

2011-01-01

421

Factors affecting quality of life of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: First, to compare the quality of life (QL) and perceived self-competence of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease with that of reference groups. Second, to identify predictors of QL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 491 patients with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease were sent a questionnaire, which assessed QL (mental, physical), disease-specific functioning (defecation-related), perceived

Esther E Hartman; Frans J Oort; Mirjam AG Sprangers; Marianne JG Hanneman; Heurn van L. W. E; Zacharias J. de Langen; Gerard C. Madern; Paul NMA Rieu; David C. van der Zee; Nic Looyaard; Marina van Silfhout-Bezemer; Daniel C Aronson

2008-01-01

422