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Sample records for neutron quality factor

  1. Neutron quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

  2. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  3. Neutrons in proton pencil beam scanning: parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Uwe; Hälg, Roger A; Baiocco, Giorgio; Lomax, Tony

    2016-08-21

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons produced during proton therapy in inducing cancer is unknown, but potentially large. In particular, since neutron biological effectiveness is energy dependent, it is necessary to estimate, besides the dose, also the energy spectra, in order to obtain quantities which could be a measure of the biological effectiveness and test current models and new approaches against epidemiological studies on cancer induction after proton therapy. For patients treated with proton pencil beam scanning, this work aims to predict the spatially localized neutron energies, the effective quality factor, the weighting factor according to ICRP, and two RBE values, the first obtained from the saturation corrected dose mean lineal energy and the second from DSB cluster induction. A proton pencil beam was Monte Carlo simulated using GEANT. Based on the simulated neutron spectra for three different proton beam energies a parameterization of energy, quality factors and RBE was calculated. The pencil beam algorithm used for treatment planning at PSI has been extended using the developed parameterizations in order to calculate the spatially localized neutron energy, quality factors and RBE for each treated patient. The parameterization represents the simple quantification of neutron energy in two energy bins and the quality factors and RBE with a satisfying precision up to 85 cm away from the proton pencil beam when compared to the results based on 3D Monte Carlo simulations. The root mean square error of the energy estimate between Monte Carlo simulation based results and the parameterization is 3.9%. For the quality factors and RBE estimates it is smaller than 0.9%. The model was successfully integrated into the PSI treatment planning system. It was found that the parameterizations for neutron energy, quality factors and RBE were independent of proton energy in the investigated energy range of interest for proton therapy. The pencil beam algorithm has

  4. Quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Photon and neutron dose contributions and mean quality factors in phantoms of different size irradiated by monoenergetic neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, G.; Siebert, B.R.L.

    1994-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 60 introduced important changes in the concept of risk-related quantities. For external neutron radiation in particular the introduction of the equivalent dose with the radiation weighting factor w{sub R} instead of the dose equivalent concept with the quality factor Q(L) has many consequences. The value of w{sub R} is defined by the external neutron radiation field, while the radiation quality in the phantom depends on the radiation field at the position of interest and hence on the size of and the position in the phantom. It has been investigated to what extent the size of the phantom influences the mean irradiation quality in the phantoms. For incident monoenergetic neutrons, mean photon dose contributions and mean quality factors have been calculated. Results are presented for various phantoms which characterize the conditions for a mouse, a rat, the ICRU sphere and a human body. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Options for the modified radiation weighting factor of neutrons.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Leuthold, G; Mares, V; Schraube, H

    2004-01-01

    The recent ICRP Report 92 has noted that the current radiation weighting factor, wR, depends on the energy of the incident neutrons in a manner that differs substantially from the dependence, which results from the current convention, QL. At all neutron energies, but most conspicuously below 1 MeV, the values of wR exceed those of the effective quality factor, qE. The discrepancy is largely due to the fact that--in the absence of computed values of the effective quality factor for neutrons--wR has been patterned after the values of the ambient quality factor, which accounts insufficiently for the low-linear energy transfer (LET) gamma ray component from neutron capture in the human body. There are different options to remove the discrepancy. Option 1 is to reduce wR substantially at all neutron energies to make it equal to qE for a standard condition, such as isotropic incidence of the neutrons. Since such a reduction may cause problems in those countries where the current wR values are already legally implemented, ICRP 92 has proposed what is here termed Option 2. It recommended to replace QL by the increased value 1.6 QL - 0.6 and, accordingly, to make the radiation weighting factor equal to 1.6 qE - 0.6. With Option 2 the radiation weighting factor needs to be decreased appreciably at low neutron energies, but for fission neutron spectra the overall changes are minor. To guide--regardless which option is chosen--the selection of the numerical values, the effective quality factor, qE, is computed here for different directional distributions of neutrons incident on the anthropomorphic phantoms ADAM and EVA. None of the sex averaged numerical values is found to deviate much from those for isotropic incidence. Isotropic incidence can, thus, be used as an adequate standard condition. A numerical approximation is proposed for the standard qE that is nearly equivalent to a formula invoked by ICRP 92, but is somewhat simpler and provides realistic values of qE even for

  7. Analyzing the effect of geometric factors on designing neutron radiography system.

    PubMed

    Amini, Moharam; Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Neutron radiography is one of the main applications of research reactors. It is a powerful tool to conduct nondestructive testing of materials. The parameters that affect the quality of a radiographic image must be considered during the design of a neutron radiography system. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effect of geometric factors on the quality of the neutron radiography system. The results show that the performance of the mentioned system can be increased by regulating the geometric factors. PMID:26343340

  8. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Crawford, C. B.

    2011-05-15

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G{sub E}{sup n}, vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}. Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G{sub E}{sup n} data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G{sub E}{sup n} (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  9. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  10. Electric Form Factor of the Neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Feuerbach, Robert

    2007-10-13

    Recent polarization-based precision measurements of the nucleons' elastic electric form factors have led to surprising results. The measurement of the ratio of the proton's electromagnetic form factors, $\\mu_p G_E^p/G_M^p$, was found to drop nearly linearly with $Q^2$ out to at least $5 \\mathrm{GeV}^2$, inconsistent with the older Rosenbluth-type experiments. A recent measurement of $G_E^n$, the neutron's electric form-factor saw $G_E^n$ does not fall off as quickly as commonly expected up to $Q^2 \\approx 1.5 \\mathrm{GeV}^2$. Extending this study, a precision measurement of $G_E^n$ up to $Q^2=3.5 \\mathrm{GeV}^2$ was completed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The ratio $G_E^n/G_M^n$ was measured through the beam-target asymmetry $A_\\perp$ of electrons quasi-elastically scattered off polarized neutrons in the reaction ${}^{3}\\overrightarrow{He}(\\overrightarrow{e},e' n)$. The experiment took full advantage of the electron beam, recent target developments, as well as two detectors new to Jefferson Lab. The measurement used the accelerator's 100\\% duty-cycle high-polarization (typically 84\\%) electron beam and a new, hybrid optically-pumped polarized ${}^{3}\\overrightarrow{He}$ target which achieved in-beam polarizations in excess of 50\\%. A medium acceptance (80msr) open-geometry magnetic spectrometer (BigBite) detected the scattered electron, while a geometrically matched neutron detector observed the struck neutron. Preliminary results from this measurement will be discussed and compared to modern calculations of $G_E^n$.

  11. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  12. Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

    2007-10-01

    Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

  13. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6″ standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  14. Human factors and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Handyside, James; Suresh, Gautham

    2010-03-01

    Human factors analysis (HFE) presents a formidable contribution to quality improvement (QI) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The science behind the fundamental principles concerning the design of work systems that match the needs of the people who work in them is sound and is applied widely in other safety critical situations. Early application of HFE in NICUs has shown the usefulness of these methods for frontline teams working to improve quality, reliability, and safety. The inclusion of human factors considerations in the design of structure and process has the potential to improve outcomes for patients and families and to improve the comfort and usability of work systems for providers who work in them. New technologies and continual change must be informed and designed through the application of HFE methods and principles to realize the full potential of QI. PMID:20363451

  15. Towards in vivo monitoring of neutron distributions for quality control of BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbakel, W. F. A. R.; Hideghety, K.; Morrissey, J.; Sauerwein, W.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.

    2002-04-01

    Dose delivery in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is complex because several components contribute to the dose absorbed in tissue. This dose is largely determined by local boron concentration, thermal neutron distribution and patient positioning. In vivo measurements of these factors would considerably improve quality control and safety. During therapy, a γ-ray telescope measures the γ-rays emitted following neutron capture by hydrogen and boron in a small volume of the head of a patient. Scans of hydrogen γ-ray emissions could be used to verify the actual distribution of thermal neutrons during neutron irradiation. The method was first tested on different phantoms. These measurements showed good agreement with calculations based on thermal neutron distributions derived from a treatment planning program and from Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) simulations. Next, the feasibility of telescope scans during patient irradiation therapy was demonstrated. Measurements were reproducible between irradiation fractions. In theory, this method can be used to verify the positioning of the patient in vivo and the delivery of thermal neutrons in tissue. However, differences between measurements and calculations based on a routine treatment planning program were observed. These differences could be used to refine the treatment planning. Further developments will be necessary for this method to become a standard quality control system.

  16. Parameters affecting image quality with Time-Resolved Optical Integrative Neutron (TRION) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, I.; Vartsky, D.; Feldman, G.; Dangendorf, V.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Bromberger, B.; Weierganz, M.; Brandis, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated by simulations and experimentally the parameters that affect image quality (contrast and spatial-resolution) of the fast neutron TRION detector. A scintillating fiber screen with 0.5×0.5 mm 2 square fibers, few centimeters thick, provides superior spatial-resolution to that of a slab scintillator of the same thickness. A detailed calculation of the neutron interaction processes that influence the point-spread function (PSF) in the scintillating screen has been performed using the GEANT 3.21 code. The calculations showed that neutron scattering within the screen accounts for a significant loss of image contrast. The factors that limit the spatial-resolution of the image are the cross-sectional scintillating-fiber dimensions within the screen and the spatial response of the image-intensifier. A deconvolution method has been applied for restoring the contrast and the spatial-resolution of the fast neutron image.

  17. DIANE stationary neutron radiography system image quality and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluzeau, S.; Huet, J.; Le Tourneur, P.

    1994-05-01

    The SODERN neutron radiography laboratory has operated since February 1993 using a sealed tube generator (GENIE 46). An experimental programme of characterization (dosimetry, spectroscopy) has confirmed the expected performances concerning: neutron flux intensity, neutron energy range, residual gamma flux. Results are given in a specific report [2]. This paper is devoted to the image performance reporting. ASTM and specific indicators have been used to test the image quality with various converters and films. The corresponding modulation transfer functions are to be determined from image processing. Some industrial applications have demonstrated the capabilities of the system: corrosion detection in aircraft parts, ammunitions filling testing, detection of polymer lacks in sandwich steel sheets, detection of moisture in a probe for geophysics, residual ceramic cores imaging in turbine blades. Various computerized electronic imaging systems will be tested to improve the industrial capabilities.

  18. Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine; Clasie, Benjamin; Kry, Stephen F.; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-01

    In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of Hp(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

  19. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  20. Quality factors in interventional neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Lasjaunias, P

    2001-01-01

    The interest we take in medical economics and strategy is like the one we take in politics: we may scorn politics, but it cannot be denied that it commands our entire life. For this reason, we must try to determine the conditions required to evaluate the quality of interventional neuroradiology, its operators, its practice, its advances, its teaching, and to maintain this quality. It is probably vital to the freedom of our future therapeutic decisions that we contribute effectively to this discussion before the standard is forced upon us by an exclusively economical or administrative logic. On the other hand, any advance can only be turned into progress if it is diffused and applied. There is no doubt that several levels of quality are acceptable, thus the best approach will be to look for and identify the minimum standard for quality or the limits of non-quality. We shall refrain from suggesting that the level of excellence at a given moment should be imposed upon all operators and constitute the standard level of practice. Practice is based on knowledge and competence. The most skilled surgical act cannot guarantee safe medical treatment if it is not supported by sufficient knowledge about the diseases and their symptoms. Mastership of the decision process requires a thorough vision of the therapeutic decision tree involved. Quality is a composition of global view and detailed analysis to allow a fuzzy gestion of the performance. Regardless of the plan chosen, openmindedness should be kept to allow adaptation, correction or interruption of a given therapeutic process in view of unpredicted pieces of information. Such input is a predictable possibility that should be explained to the patient prior to starting the procedure. Dealing with human beings, the attitude along with the technical management will be of paramount importance in the overall quality assessment. PMID:11840701

  1. Neutron and Gamma-Ray Kerma Factors Based on LLNL Nuclear Data Files.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-07-08

    Version 00 Kerma factors are used extensively in biomedical applications. Specifically, neutron kerma factors are used in determining heating in materials of interest from neutron-induced reactions in fission or fusion power applications.

  2. Neutron Spectroscopic factors of 56Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Lynch, W. G.; Bazin, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, Daniel; Hodges, R.; Lee, Jenny; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Clement, R. R. C.; Howard, M. E.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Manning, B.; Charity, R. J.; Charity, L. G.; Shapira, D.; Shmitt, K. T.

    2011-10-01

    The exact shell-structure of the unstable doubly-magic nucleus 56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if 56Ni is a good core, 56Ni(p, d)55Ni transfer reactions were measured using 56Ni beam at two different energies, 37 MeV/u and 80 MeV/u, in inverse kinematics in two experiments. The second measurement was done in order to test the sensitivity of reaction cross sections and models to reaction energies. The measurements were performed at NSCL using HiRA array and S800 spectrometer. Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the first experiment. The results show good agreement with shell-model calculations. Preliminary results of the measurements with 80 MeV/u beam will be presented as well. This work is funded by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0606007.

  3. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M.

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  4. Neutron kerma factors and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P; Badiger, N M; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-09-01

    The Kerma factors and Kerma relative to the air and water of 24 compounds that are used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energies ranging from 2.53×10(-8) to 29 MeV. The Kerma ratios of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies of 100 eV. The Kerma ratio relative to the air for poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon were nearest to unity at very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV, respectively. It was found that the natural rubber was a water-equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the Kerma factors in our investigation show good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the Kerma factors and Kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds were approximately the same, but though the differences were large for energies below 100 eV. PMID:26073270

  5. Factors Affecting the Quality of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Larry O.

    A review of the literature concerning the effectiveness and quality of staff development programs focuses on factors that affect the success of such programs. These factors include: individual concerns, training activities, applications, qualifications of consultants, scheduling, strategies, facilities, feedback, collaboration, and outcomes. It is…

  6. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  7. Nonmotion factors which can affect ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Data pertaining to nonmotion factors affecting ride quality of transport aircraft were obtained as part of NASA in-house and sponsored research studies carried out onboard commuter-airline and research aircraft. From these data, quantitative effects on passenger discomfort of seat width, seat legroom, change in cabin pressure, and cabin noise are presented. Visual cue effects are also discussed.

  8. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  9. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  10. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  11. The Neutron Magnetic Form Factor at High Q{sup 2}: Experimental Status, Future Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Will Brooks

    2002-05-01

    Recent progress in improving our knowledge of the four nucleon form factors G{sup p}{sub M}, G{sup p}{sub E}, G{sup n}{sub M}, G{sup n}{sub E} at high momentum transfer is stimulating a new wave of theoretical efforts to describe these fundamental quantities. Both model calculations and lattice QCD can predict the elastic form factors; a definitive, stringent test of these efforts is to predict all of them simultaneously. However, the limited range and quality of the data for the neutron magnetic form factor G{sup n}{sub M} presently reduce the discriminating power of such a test. The present status of our knowledge of G{sup n}{sub M} is discussed, and prospects for future improvements are presented.

  12. [Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802

  13. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality...

  14. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality...

  15. Neutron-Proton Asymmetry Dependence of Spectroscopic Factors in Ar Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, M. B.; Bazin, D.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Lynch, W. G.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Signoracci, A.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Chae, K. Y.; Charity, R. J.; Cheung, H. K.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; O'Malley, P.; Peters, W. A.; Schmitt, K.; Shapira, D.; Sobotka, L. G.

    2010-03-01

    Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton-rich Ar34 and neutron-rich Ar46 using the (p, d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton-rich nucleus Ar34 compared to that of Ar46. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

  16. Neutron-Proton Asymmetry Dependence of Spectroscopic Factors in Ar Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, Betty; Shapira, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton-rich 34Ar and neutron-rich 46Ar using the (p, d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton-rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

  17. Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R. T.

    2012-07-01

    The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

  18. Vocal quality factors: analysis, synthesis, and perception.

    PubMed

    Childers, D G; Lee, C K

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine several factors of vocal quality that might be affected by changes in vocal fold vibratory patterns. Four voice types were examined: modal, vocal fry, falsetto, and breathy. Three categories of analysis techniques were developed to extract source-related features from speech and electroglottographic (EGG) signals. Four factors were found to be important for characterizing the glottal excitations for the four voice types: the glottal pulse width, the glottal pulse skewness, the abruptness of glottal closure, and the turbulent noise component. The significance of these factors for voice synthesis was studied and a new voice source model that accounted for certain physiological aspects of vocal fold motion was developed and tested using speech synthesis. Perceptual listening tests were conducted to evaluate the auditory effects of the source model parameters upon synthesized speech. The effects of the spectral slope of the source excitation, the shape of the glottal excitation pulse, and the characteristics of the turbulent noise source were considered. Applications for these research results include synthesis of natural sounding speech, synthesis and modeling of vocal disorders, and the development of speaker independent (or adaptive) speech recognition systems. PMID:1837797

  19. Improvements in the Image Quality of Neutron Radiograms of NUR Neutron Radiography Facility by Using Several Exposure Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zergoug, T.; Nedjar, A.; Mokeddem, M. Y.; Mammou, L.

    2008-03-01

    Since the construction of NUR reactor neutron radiography facility in 1991, only transfer exposure method was used as a non destructive technique. The reason is the excess of gamma rays in the neutron beam. To improve radiation performances of the NR system, a stainless steal hollow conical cylinder is introduced at the bottom of the facility beam port, this filter reduce gamma infiltration through the edges of the NR structure without disturbing neutron beam arriving from the in pool divergent collimator. First results confirm our prediction; a gamma rays diminution and a relatively stable neutron flux at the point object are confirmed, consequently the n/γ ratio reaches a value of 2.104 n/cm2 mR. Radiograms obtained by using the direct exposure method reveal the feasibility of the technique in the new NR configuration facility, but a weak resolution and contrast of the image is observed. In this paper, we describe a procedure to improve the image quality obtained by direct exposure technique. The process consists of using digitized images obtained by several exposure techniques (NR, gamma radiography or X radiography) for a comparison study and then better image definition can be attained.

  20. Improvements in the Image Quality of Neutron Radiograms of NUR Neutron Radiography Facility by Using Several Exposure Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Zergoug, T.; Nedjar, A.; Mokeddem, M. Y.; Mammou, L.

    2008-03-17

    Since the construction of NUR reactor neutron radiography facility in 1991, only transfer exposure method was used as a non destructive technique. The reason is the excess of gamma rays in the neutron beam. To improve radiation performances of the NR system, a stainless steal hollow conical cylinder is introduced at the bottom of the facility beam port, this filter reduce gamma infiltration through the edges of the NR structure without disturbing neutron beam arriving from the in pool divergent collimator. First results confirm our prediction; a gamma rays diminution and a relatively stable neutron flux at the point object are confirmed, consequently the n/{gamma} ratio reaches a value of 2.104 n/cm{sup 2} mR. Radiograms obtained by using the direct exposure method reveal the feasibility of the technique in the new NR configuration facility, but a weak resolution and contrast of the image is observed. In this paper, we describe a procedure to improve the image quality obtained by direct exposure technique. The process consists of using digitized images obtained by several exposure techniques (NR, gamma radiography or X radiography) for a comparison study and then better image definition can be attained.

  1. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-09-01

    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. PMID:25883309

  2. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster

    2004-02-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

  3. Comment on ``Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, F. C.

    1997-12-01

    The procedure proposed by Mohr et al. [Phys. Rev. C 55, 1591 (1997)] for extracting the spectroscopic factor for a bound s-wave neutron state from the scattering length appears to be of doubtful validity and accuracy.

  4. Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

  5. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

  6. Interpreting the neutron's electric form factor: Rest frame charge distribution or foldy term?

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-12-01

    The neutron's electric form factor contains vital information on nucleon structure, but its interpretation within many models has been obscured by relativistic effects. The author demonstrates that, to leading order in the relativistic expansion of a constituent quark model, the Foldy term cancels exactly against a contribution to the Dirac form factor F{sub 1} to leave intact the naive interpretation of G{sup n}{sub E} as arising from the neutron's rest frame charge distribution.

  7. Calculation of self-shielding factor for neutron activation experiments using GEANT4 and MCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Barrientos, Jaime; Molina, F.; Aguilera, Pablo; Arellano, H. F.

    2016-07-01

    The neutron self-shielding factor G as a function of the neutron energy was obtained for 14 pure metallic samples in 1000 isolethargic energy bins from 1.10-5eV to 2.107eV using Monte Carlo simulations in GEANT4 and MCNP6. The comparison of these two Monte Carlo codes shows small differences in the final self-shielding factor mostly due to the different cross section databases that each program uses.

  8. Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

  9. Calculated neutron KERMA factors based on the LLNL ENDL data file. Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron KERMA factors calculated from the LLNL ENDL data file are tabulated for 15 composite materials and for the isotopes or elements in the ENDL file from Z = 1 to Z = 29. The incident neutron energies range from 1.882 x 10/sup -5/ to 20. MeV for the composite materials and from 1.30 x 10/sup -9/ to 20. MeV for the isotopes and elements.

  10. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  11. Neutron spectroscopic factors of Ar34 and Ar46 from (p,d) transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, M. B.; Bazin, D.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Lynch, W. G.; Rogers, A. M.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; O'Malley, P.; Peters, W. A.; Chae, K. Y.; Schmitt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Single-neutron-transfer measurements using (p,d) reactions have been performed at 33 MeV per nucleon with proton-rich Ar34 and neutron-rich Ar46 beams in inverse kinematics. The extracted spectroscopic factors are compared to the large-basis shell-model calculations. Relatively weak quenching of the spectroscopic factors is observed between Ar34 and Ar46. The experimental results suggest that neutron correlations have a weak dependence on the asymmetry of the nucleus over this isotopic region. The present results are consistent with the systematics established from extensive studies of spectroscopic factors and dispersive optical-model analyses of Ca40-49 isotopes. They are, however, inconsistent with the trends obtained in knockout-reaction measurements.

  12. Factors Associated With Sleep Quality Among Operating Engineers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Pohl, Joanne M.; Redman, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Blue collar workers generally report high job stress and are exposed to loud noises at work and engage in many of the health behavioral factors, all of which have been associated with poor sleep quality. However, sleep quality of blue collar workers has not been studied extensively, and no studies have focused Operating Engineers (heavy equipment operators) among whom daytime fatigue would place them at high risk for accidents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine variables associated with sleep quality among Operating Engineers. This was a cross-sectional survey design with a dependent variable of sleep quality and independent variables of personal and related health behavioral factors. A convenience sample of 498 Operating Engineers was recruited from approximately 16,000 Operating Engineers from entire State of Michigan in 2008. Linear regression was used to determine personal and related health behavior factors associated with sleep quality. Multivariate analyses showed that personal factors related to poor sleep quality were younger age, female sex, higher pain, more medical comorbidities and depressive symptoms and behavioral factors related to poor sleep quality were nicotine dependence. While sleep scores were similar to population norms, approximately 34% (n=143) showed interest in health services for sleep problems. While many personal factors are not changeable, interventions to improve sleep hygiene as well as interventions to treat pain, depression and smoking may improve sleep quality resulting in less absenteeism, fatal work accidents, use of sick leave, work disability, medical comorbidities, as well as subsequent mortality. PMID:23393021

  13. Reduced neutron spectroscopic factors when using potential geometries constrained by Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jenny; Brown, B.A.; Delaunay, F.; Lynch, W.G.; Saelim, M. J.; Tsang, M.B.; Tostevin, J.A.

    2006-04-15

    We carry out a systematic analysis of angular distribution measurements for selected ground-state to ground-state (d,p) and (p,d) neutron transfer reactions, including the calcium isotopes. We propose a consistent three-body model reaction methodology in which we constrain the transferred-neutron bound state and nucleon-target optical potential geometries using modern Hartree-Fock calculations. Our deduced neutron spectroscopic factors are found to be suppressed by {approx}30% relative to independent-particle shell-model values, from {sup 40}Ca through {sup 49}Ca. The other nuclei studied, ranging from B to Ti, show similar average suppressions with respect to large-basis shell-model expectations. Our results are consistent with deduced spectroscopic strengths for neutrons and protons from intermediate-energy nucleon knockout reactions and for protons from (e,e{sup '}p) reactions on well-bound nuclei.

  14. Microscopic structure factor of liquid hydrogen by neutron-diffraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Bafile, U.; Cuello, G. J.; Formisano, F.; Guarini, E.; Magli, R.; Neumann, M.; Zoppi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The center-of-mass structure factor of liquid para hydrogen has been measured, using neutron diffraction, in four thermodynamic states close to the triple point. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out at the same temperatures and densities. The present experimental data are in reasonable quantitative agreement with the simulations and closer to these results than previous neutron determinations available in the literature. The thermodynamic derivatives of the structure factor, from both experiment and simulation, have been compared to previous measurements obtaining a quantitative consistency.

  15. Exploring Sleep Quality and Related Factors in Chinese Midlife Women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qunyan; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Hui; Jing, Jianling

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the percentage of women with poor sleep quality and its related factors among mainland Chinese women. Sleep quality and menopausal status were self-reported. We explored the contribution of possible risk factors, including sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, lifestyle, psychological status, stressful life events, and vasomotor symptoms. We found that 38.6% of midlife Chinese women were poor sleepers. This percentage was higher in comparison with women from other Asian countries. Our multiple logistic regression showed that anxiety, comorbidities, perceived stress, and vasomotor symptoms were risk factors for poor sleep quality. PMID:25868869

  16. Microdosimetric measurements of radiation quality variations in homogeneous phantoms irradiated by fast neutron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, J.L.; Milavickas, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Dual Radiation Action Theory of Kellerer and Rossi (DRA), along with presently available microdosimetric techniques, is applied to the detrmination of radiation quality variation within tissue equivalent phantoms irradiated by collimated fast neutron beams. The neutron beams investigated were produced by the bombardment of 22.5 and 16 MeV d+ on beryllium and by the T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction (15-MeV neutrons). Microdosimetric spectra were obtained at points of varying depth and lateral distance from the central axis within a tissue equivalent phantom, including points within the penumbra. From the microdosimetric spectra the parameter RQ, a first approximation to RBE derived from DRA theory, is calculated for each point. All RQ values are calculated for the same level of effect. For these three different beams the results show that the RQ values for the total radiation spectrum of neutron and gamma radiation remain fairly constant with depth and with lateral distance from the beam axis at 2 and 10 cm depths. The largest central axis variation in RQ is 8% for the d(16)+Be beam. The largest variation between a penumbra and an on-axis RQ value is 4% at 2 cm depth in the d(22.5)+Be beam. The results for the d(22.5)+Be beam disagree with previously reported radiobiological results while the 15 MeV beam results are in good agreement.

  17. Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pen-Nan

    1991-01-01

    Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

  18. Gamete quality in fish: evaluation parameters and determining factors.

    PubMed

    Valdebenito, Iván I; Gallegos, Patricia C; Effer, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    The quality of fish gametes, both male and female, are determined by several factors (age, management, feeding, chemical and physical factors, water quality, etc.) that have an impact on the survivability of embryos, larvae and/or fry in the short or long term. One of the most important factors is gamete ageing, especially for those species that are unable to spawn naturally in hatcheries. The chemical and physical factors in hatcheries and the nutrition that they provide can significantly alter harvest quality, especially from females; as a rule, males are more tolerant of stress conditions produced by inadequate feeding, management and/or poor water conditions. The stress produced on broodstock by inadequate conditions in hatcheries can produce adverse effects on gamete quality, survival rates, and the embryonic eggs after hatching. PMID:24229714

  19. Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')

    SciTech Connect

    Dipangkar Dutta

    2000-12-12

    A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

  20. Approaching Safety through Quality: Factors Influencing College Student Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, S K; Mosher, G A

    2016-04-01

    Quality management practices have been identified by previous literature as a factor that could potentially reduce the level of safety incidents and hazards in agricultural work environments. The present study used multivariate analysis to examine the effect of independent variables such as quality and safety awareness, work experience, safety and quality management experience, and the perceived importance of safety and quality on the role of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents in agriculture. Variables were measured on a five-point scale using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected from approximately 900 undergraduates enrolled in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at a large land grant university in the U.S. The level of student work experience and student perceptions of the importance of quality explained a significant amount of the variance in student views of quality management practices as a mitigating factor for safety hazards and incidents. The findings of this study provide further evidence for using quality management practices as a basis for safety interventions targeted at the agricultural workforce. PMID:27373063

  1. Improving Qubit Quality Factors Through Exotic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Victoria

    In the time since the first qubits were successfully fabricated, the coherence times of superconducting Josephson junction qubits have improved by several orders of magnitude. Yet as the quantum information and computation field moves forward, these coherence times still need further improvement. We are now finding that in some superconducting systems, non-thermal equilibrium quasiparticles are becoming the limiting factor in qubit lifetimes. For SIS superconducting qubits, the T1 and T2* values may be improved by the use of materials with higher superconducting band gap, EG, for which low values may allow for quasiparticles to break up cooper pairs more easily, leading to a shorter lifetime. At this time, Al-Al2Ox3-Al transmons are very well characterized and understood and will therefore serve as an appropriate baseline with which to compare the more exotic junction materials. Using tantalum and niobium, which have Eg values of 3 times and 10 times that of aluminum respectively, we expect the T1 and T2* values to increase significantly for the Al-Al2Ox3-Nb, Al-Al2Ox3-Ta, and Ta-Ta2Ox5-Nb qubits.

  2. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  3. Precise Determination of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor to Higher Q{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    William K. Brooks; Jeffery D. Lachniet

    2004-10-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} has been extracted from quasielastic scattering from deuterium in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, CLAS. The kinematic coverage of the measurement is continuous over a broad range, extending from below 1 GeV{sup 2} to nearly 5 GeV{sup 2} in four-momentum transfer squared. High precision is achieved by employing a ratio technique in which most uncertainties cancel, and by a simultaneous in-situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency, the largest correction to the data. Preliminary results are shown with statistical errors only.

  4. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

    2014-05-21

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small. PMID:24778349

  5. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

    2014-05-01

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  6. Efficient prediction of the quality factors of micromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jinbok; Cho, Maenghyo; Rhim, Jaewook

    2010-01-01

    A high quality factor (Q-factor) is one of the major requirements of high-performance resonators. An understanding of the dissipation mechanism is crucial for maximizing the quality factor by reducing the energy loss. Thermoelastic damping has been well-known as the important intrinsic dissipation that affects the quality factor of micro-resonators. In this study, a finite element formulation based on the weak form of fully coupled thermoelastic problems is suggested. The coupled thermoelastic equation usually leads to a large-size complex eigenvalue problem, which is very massive and time-consuming to solve. Therefore, we also applied the model order reduction (MOR) scheme to this coupled multiphysical problem in order to achieve computational efficiency. The present approach is validated by comparing the numerical results and analytical solutions.

  7. Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

    2011-10-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

  8. Nanodosimetry-based quality factors for radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Reinhard W; Wroe, Andrew J; Bashkirov, Vladimir A; Garty, Guy Y; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, Rachel; Shchemelinin, Sergei; Gargioni, Elisabetta; Grosswendt, Bernd; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation and monitoring of the cancer risk from space radiation exposure is a crucial requirement for the success of long-term space missions. One important task in the risk calculation is to properly weigh the various components of space radiation dose according to their assumed contribution to the cancer risk relative to the risk associated with radiation of low ionization density. Currently, quality factors of radiation both on the ground and in space are defined by national and international commissions based on existing radiobiological data and presumed knowledge of the ionization density distribution of the radiation field at a given point of interest. This approach makes the determination of the average quality factor ofa given radiation field a rather complex task. In this contribution, we investigate the possibility to define quality factors of space radiation exposure based on nanodosimetric data. The underlying formalism of the determination of quality factors on the basis of nanodosimetric data is described, and quality factors for protons and ions (helium and carbon) of different energies based on simulated nanodosimetric data are presented. The value and limitations of this approach are discussed. PMID:19205298

  9. Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor GMn in the Few-GeV2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, J.; Afanasev, A.; Arenhövel, H.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Higinbotham, D.; Jeschonnek, S.; Quinn, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Adams, G.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Batourine, V.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bookwalter, C.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Casey, L.; Cheng, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Collins, P.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; Cummings, J. P.; Dale, D.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Masi, R.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Deur, A.; Dhamija, S.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hardie, J.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Huertas, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kageya, T.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klusman, M.; Konczykowski, P.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Lima, A. C. S.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, M.; Malace, S.; Manak, J. J.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McAleer, S.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mibe, T.; Mikhailov, K.; Mineeva, T.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrow, S. A.; Moteabbed, M.; Mueller, J.; Munevar, E.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Paterson, C.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Philips, S. A.; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Popa, I.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Sandorfi, A.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sharov, D.; Shaw, J.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Starostin, A.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Stopani, K. A.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thompson, R.; Tkabladze, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Yurov, M.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2009-05-01

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q2=1.0-4.8GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data.

  10. Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G(M)n in the few-GeV2 region.

    PubMed

    Lachniet, J; Afanasev, A; Arenhövel, H; Brooks, W K; Gilfoyle, G P; Higinbotham, D; Jeschonnek, S; Quinn, B; Vineyard, M F; Adams, G; Adhikari, K P; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bookwalter, C; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Collins, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; Cummings, J P; Dale, D; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhamija, S; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kageya, T; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Konczykowski, P; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; Maccormick, M; Malace, S; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Mineeva, T; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Mueller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Pereira, S Anefalos; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Sandorfi, A; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Sharov, D; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Starostin, A; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Stopani, K A; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Yurov, M; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2009-05-15

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q;{2}=1.0-4.8 GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data. PMID:19518944

  11. Updating the tritium quality factor: the argument for conservatism

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J E; Etnier, E L; Meyer, H R

    1980-01-01

    Estimated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor (Q) chosen for tritium beta radiation. In 1969 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended using 1 as the Q for all low energy beta radiation. Considerable improvements have been made in evaluating exposures to tritium at very low dose rates and in refining physiological and biological endpoints since the 1969 ICRP recommendations. This study summarizes recent experiments to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium. Based upon our study of published data related to quality factor, its importance in the calculation of dose, and the currently accepted conservative philosophy in radiation protection, it is concluded that a value of 2 would seem to be more defensible for environmental assessments and that a reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed.

  12. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  13. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; McBeth, Rafe A.; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA (Z , β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA (Z , β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA (Z , β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The

  14. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach.

    PubMed

    Borak, Thomas B; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Townsend, Lawrence W; McBeth, Rafe A; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA(Z,β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA(Z,β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA(Z,β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The revised

  15. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  16. Quality of Working Life of Nurses and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Azizi-Fini, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses as the largest group of health care providers should enjoy a satisfactory quality of working life to be able to provide quality care to their patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to the nurses’ working life. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the quality of nurses' working life in Kashans' hospitals during 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses during 2012. The data-gathering instrument consisted of two parts. The first part consisted of questions on demographic information and the second part was the Walton’s quality of work life questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. For statistical analysis T test and one way ANOVA were used. Results: The results of the study showed that 60% of nurses reported that they had moderate level of quality of working life while 37.1% and 2% had undesirable and good quality of working life, respectively. Nurses with associate degrees reported a better quality of working life than others. A significant relationship was found between variables such as education level, work experience, and type of hospital with quality of working life score (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between quality of working life score of nurses with employment status (P = 0.061), salary (P = 0.052), age, gender and marital status (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Nurses' quality of work life was at the moderate level. As quality of work life has an important impact on attracting and retaining employees, it is necessary to pay more attention to the nurses’ quality of work life and its affecting factors. PMID:25414904

  17. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  18. Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Glazier

    2007-09-30

    Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

  19. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  20. The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.

  1. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is

  2. Measurement of the neutron electric form factor GEn in quasielastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Donal Day

    2003-07-15

    We have measured the electric form factor of the neutron, GEn, at two momentum transfers (Q2= 0.5 and Q2= 1.0 GeV/c2) through quasielastic scattering in Jefferson Lab's Hall C. Longitudinally polarized electrons scattered from polarized deuterated ammonia and GEn was extracted from the beam-target asymmetry AVed which, in quasielastic kinematics, is particularly sensitive to GEn and insensitive to MEC and FSI.

  3. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  4. Nuclear reaction effects in use of newly recommended quality factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The biological risk for energetic ion exposure cannot be reliably estimated exclusive of the target nuclear reaction products produced within the local tissue. A theoretical basis is derived for evaluating target fragment contributions that are evaluated for the newly proposed quality factor.

  5. Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

  6. Journal quality metrics: options to consider other than impact factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Journal quality metrics (also referred to as bibliometrics), such as impact factors, are increasingly being used as a measure of researchers' and educators' success and prestige. Occupational therapists who submit articles to peer-reviewed journals may face a professional and research dilemma: Do they submit their articles to journals that largely have a professional audience and potentially do not have an impact factor, or do they opt not to publish their research material in occupational therapy-oriented journals? Occupational therapy authors can consider other journal quality metric alternatives, in addition to the impact factor option, including the Eigenfactor Score, Article Influence Score, h-index, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP), and discipline-specific generated journal quality measures. These other journal quality metrics can be important reference points for occupational therapists who publish and may encourage authors to publish in journals relevant to the discipline. This process, in turn, will build the occupational therapy body of knowledge as well as provide an essential, growing reference source for evidence-based practice. PMID:21675341

  7. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  8. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  9. A polarized target measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    N. Savvinov

    2004-09-01

    The experiment E93-026 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sub E}{sup n} through quasielastic {rvec d}({rvec e},e'n)p scattering using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a frozen polarized {sup 15}N D{sub 3} target. The knocked out neutrons were detected in a segmented plastic scintillator detector in coincidence with the scattered electrons. The G{sub E}{sup n} was extracted by comparing the experimental beam-target asymmetry with full theoretical calculations based on different values of G{sub E}{sup n}. Preliminary results of the Fall 2001 run are reported.

  10. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, α) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

  11. Measurement of the anomalous neutron orbital g factor in /sup 190//sup m/Os

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.; Eder, R.; Hagn, E.; Zech, E.

    1987-12-28

    The magnetic moment of /sup 190//sup m/Os (I/sup ..pi../ = 10/sup -/; T/sub 1/2/ = 9.9 min; E = 1705 keV configuration chemically bondn/sub 1/9/2(505)n/sub 2/11/2(615)>/sub 10-/ has been measured with the new technique of reorientation--nuclear-orientation. As the spin contributions of the two neutrons to the magnetic moment cancel almost completely, it is possible to determine the anomalous neutron orbital g factor directly. The result, -0.12less than or equal todeltag/sub 1/(n)less than or equal to0.07 (90% confidence level) tends to be larger than deltag/sub 1/(n)approx. =-0.05 adopted up to now.

  12. The study of surgical image quality evaluation system by subjective quality factor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yang, Xirong; Yu, Honggang; Koullick, Edouard

    2016-03-01

    GreenLightTM procedure is an effective and economical way of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); there are almost a million of patients treated with GreenLightTM worldwide. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon or physician will rely on the monitoring video system to survey and confirm the surgical progress. There are a few obstructions that could greatly affect the image quality of the monitoring video, like laser glare by the tissue and body fluid, air bubbles and debris generated by tissue evaporation, and bleeding, just to name a few. In order to improve the physician's visual experience of a laser surgical procedure, the system performance parameter related to image quality needs to be well defined. However, since image quality is the integrated set of perceptions of the overall degree of excellence of an image, or in other words, image quality is the perceptually weighted combination of significant attributes (contrast, graininess …) of an image when considered in its marketplace or application, there is no standard definition on overall image or video quality especially for the no-reference case (without a standard chart as reference). In this study, Subjective Quality Factor (SQF) and acutance are used for no-reference image quality evaluation. Basic image quality parameters, like sharpness, color accuracy, size of obstruction and transmission of obstruction, are used as subparameter to define the rating scale for image quality evaluation or comparison. Sample image groups were evaluated by human observers according to the rating scale. Surveys of physician groups were also conducted with lab generated sample videos. The study shows that human subjective perception is a trustworthy way of image quality evaluation. More systematic investigation on the relationship between video quality and image quality of each frame will be conducted as a future study.

  13. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G. Störmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Lorenz, U.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.; Becker, H.-W.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.

    2015-01-21

    Due to the present shortage of {sup 3}He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with {sup 3}He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid {sup 10}B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical {sup 10}B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black {sup 3}He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of {sup 3}He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative {sup 3}He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  14. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  15. Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875

  16. Measured neutron carbon kerma factors from 14. 1 MeV to 18 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Deluca, P.M. Jr.; Barschall, H.H.; Haight, R.C.; McDonald, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    For A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, the total neutron kerma is dominated by the hydrogen kerma. Tissue kerma is inferred with reasonable accuracy by normalization to the kerma factor ratio between tissue and A-150 plastic. Because of the close match in the hydrogen abundance in these materials, the principal uncertainty is due to the kerma factors of carbon and oxygen. We have measured carbon kerma factor values of 0.183 +- 0.015 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ and 0.210 +- 0.16 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ at 14.1-MeV and 15-MeV neutron energy, respectively. A preliminary value of 0.297 +- 0.03 10/sup -8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ has been determined at 17.9 MeV. A recent microscopic cross section measurement of the (n,n'3..cap alpha..) reaction in carbon at 14.1-MeV energy gives a kerma factor of 0.184 +- 0.019 10/sup 8/ cGy cm/sup 2/ in agreement with the present result. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, O.; Sato, T.; Wissmann, F.

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown.

  18. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes.

    PubMed

    Burda, O; Sato, T; Wissmann, F

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown. PMID:23480894

  19. Method for determining formation quality factor from seismic data

    DOEpatents

    Taner, M. Turhan; Treitel, Sven

    2005-08-16

    A method is disclosed for calculating the quality factor Q from a seismic data trace. The method includes calculating a first and a second minimum phase inverse wavelet at a first and a second time interval along the seismic data trace, synthetically dividing the first wavelet by the second wavelet, Fourier transforming the result of the synthetic division, calculating the logarithm of this quotient of Fourier transforms and determining the slope of a best fit line to the logarithm of the quotient.

  20. Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the

  1. Relationship factors and quality among mixed-orientation couples.

    PubMed

    Kays, Jill L; Yarhouse, Mark A; Ripley, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-orientation couples are defined as a heterosexual couple in which 1 partner experiences same-sex attraction and the other does not. Despite the fact that there is a sizable number of mixed-orientation couples in the U.S. adult population, few researchers have studied this population, and thus, there is limited understanding of these relationships. The authors examined the degree to which relationship commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values were associated with relationship quality, and how these variables predicted relationship quality. The total sample (N = 265) consisted of 2 independent samples-105 sexual minorities (i.e., the spouse who experiences same-sex attraction) and 160 heterosexual spouses. The data were not dyadic. Together, commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values accounted for roughly 43% of the variance in relationship quality. Relationship commitment was found to be the largest single predictor of relationship quality, followed by partner-focused forgivingness. Research and clinical implications are discussed. This study significantly adds to the current research base by quantitatively measuring various variables in these relationships, as well as expanding our understanding of relationship quality in mixed-orientation couples and factors that may play a role. PMID:24328786

  2. Evaluation of gamma-ray exposure buildup factors and neutron shielding for bismuth borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.; Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-05-01

    Gamma-ray exposure buildup factor (EBF) values and neutron shielding effectiveness of bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glass systems in composition (50-x)SiO2:15B2O3:2Al2O3:10CaO:23Na2O:xBi2O3 (where x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%) were calculated. The EBF values were computed for photon energy 0.015-15 MeV up to penetration depths of 40 mfp (mean free path) by the geometrical progression (G-P) method. The EBF values were found dependent upon incident photon energy, penetration and bismuth molar concentration. In low- and high-energy photon regions, the EBF values were minimum whereas maximum in the intermediate-energy region. The fast neutron removal cross sections for energy 2-12 MeV were calculated by the partial density method. The BBS glass with 20 mol% Bi2O3 is found to be superior gamma-ray and neutron transparent shielding. The EBF values of the BBS glasses were compared with steel-magnetite concrete and lead. The investigation was carried out to explore the advantages of the BBS glasses in different radiation shielding applications.

  3. Influence of neutron activation factors on matrix tablets for site specific delivery to the colon.

    PubMed

    Ahrabi, S F; Heinämäki, J; Sande, S A; Graffner, C

    2000-05-01

    The impact of the neutron activation procedure, i.e. incorporation of samarium oxide (Sm(2)O(3)) and neutron irradiation, on the compression properties (including the crushing strength) and in vitro dissolution of potential colonic delivery systems based on matrix tablets of amidated pectin (Am.P) or two types of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was investigated. The neutron activation factors did not influence the compression properties of the tablets. Replacement of magnesium stearate with samarium stearate in directly compressed Am.P tablets to achieve both radiolabelling and lubrication resulted in a greater extent of concentration-dependent reduction of the crushing strength. Dissolution tests demonstrated that irradiation increased the release of the model drug ropivacaine from the tablets. The extent of this increase was unexpectedly low considering the previously observed degradation of the polymer expressed as an irradiation-induced viscosity reduction in solutions prepared from the polymers. Delayed-release coating with Eudragit L 100 protected the HPMC tablets against the release-increasing effect of irradiation until the late phases of release. Sm(2)O(3) retarded the release to a varying extent depending on particle characteristics. Incorporation of Sm(2)O(3) in the coating layer did not influence the release. However, one-third of the radioactivity leached from the coating within 60 min in 0.1 M HCl. PMID:10767600

  4. His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

    2014-08-01

    Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women's relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men's satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women's satisfaction, but men's satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men's satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

  5. Crystal fields in YbInNi4 determined with magnetic form factor and inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severing, A.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Willers, T.; Rotter, M.; Fisk, Z.; Bianchi, A.; Fernandez-Diaz, M. T.; Stunault, A.; Rainford, B. D.; Taylor, J.; Goremychkin, E.

    2011-04-01

    The magnetic form factor of YbInNi4 has been determined via the flipping ratios R with polarized neutron diffraction, and the scattering function S(Q,ω) was measured in an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Both experiments were performed with the aim of determining the crystal-field scheme. The magnetic form factor clearly excludes the possibility of a Γ7 doublet as the ground state. The inelastic neutron data exhibit two almost equally strong peaks at 3.2 meV and 4.4 meV which points, in agreement with earlier neutron data, toward a Γ8 quartet ground state. Further possibilities such as a quasiquartet ground state are discussed.

  6. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Miller

    2009-06-01

    The E02-013 collaboration's precision measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at high momentum took place in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory [1]. Four kinematic points spread in Q2 from 1.2 to 3.5 (GeV/c)2 reach the region of momentum transfer where there is little ambiguity that the form factors are dominated by the valence quarks. The electric form factor provides important constraints on the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon and therefore to understand the currently unknown quark angular orbital moments. The talk presented newly obtained results for GnE including at Q2 of 2.5 (GeV/c)2. These measurements provide access to twice the range of momentum transfer for complete iso-spin decomposition of the nucleon form factors. The form factors of the u and d quarks were also presented. The measurement used a double polarization asymmetry method [2][3] with He polarized up to 55% (provided by a novel hybrid alkali optical pumping scheme utilizing a Rb & K mixture) and the highly polarized (85%) electron beam at CEBAF. A specially constructed detector package consisting of an electron spectrometer, named Big-Bite, with a solid angle of 95 msr and a large neutron detector were used to detect the particles in the reaction {sup 3}H{rvec e}({rvec e},e',h). The experimental apparatus provided more than 100 times better Figure-of-Merit than other GnE experiments utilizing polarized targets; for more information see [4].

  7. Semiconductor nano-gap antennas with high quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemoto, Mitsuharu; Ajiki, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Metallic islands with nano-gap structure are one of the most popular optical antennas. We theoretically propose a new nano-gap antenna utilizing exciton resonance of semiconductor. A light field at the nano-gap (hot spot) formed between two CuCl islands is significantly enhanced by a factor of metallic antennas. However, the hot spot of the semiconducting antenna exhibits much higher quality factor (Q ~104) at T = 40 K than those of metallic antennas which do not exceed Q ~ 100 . Our result suggests the semiconducting antenna would function as a new type of photonic cavity. The calculation method is based on a finite element method which can take into account exciton resonance. We also systematically study the geometry dependence of the enhancement factor and Q factor. In contrast to metallic antenna, blunt edges of semiconducting islands at the gap are preferable in order to achieve high enhancement factor. This is because of the fact that exciton wave function extends near the edge for blunt geometry.

  8. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  9. Reply to ``Comment on `Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, P.; Herndl, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Staudt, G.

    1997-12-01

    In a recent comment Barker [Phys. Rev. C 56, 3423 (1997), the preceding paper] criticized our procedure for the extraction of spectroscopic factors from neutron scattering lengths [Phys. Rev. C 55, 1591 (1997)]. In this reply we compare the R-matrix analysis by Barker to our potential model calculation, and we discuss the applicability of both models for the extraction of spectroscopic factors.

  10. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D.; Chan, K. P.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; Peters, W. A.; Barbieri, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Utsuno, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu), one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,d)Ni55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

  11. Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-12-14

    We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q ∼ P{sup −1} behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q ∼ P{sup c} with c ≈ 0.3 was found instead of c = 0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re ∼ 1.

  12. Quality factor control in a lasing microcavity model

    PubMed

    Triandaf; Schwartz

    2000-04-01

    We consider a dynamics model of lasing microcavities, a class of optical resonators (1-10 &mgr;m in diameter) used in microlasers and for optical coupling of optical fibers. Inside such a cavity light circulates around the perimeter and is trapped by internal reflection. This is known as "whispering gallery" or high-Q modes. The cavity is a deformable cylindrical (or spherical) dielectric and at certain deformations light can escape by refraction. The quality of the resonator or Q factor, is defined as Q=omegatau, where tau is the escape time and omega is the frequency of light. We show that by appropriately deforming the cavity, the Q factor can be controlled by prolonging or shortening the average length of time spent by light trajectories inside the cavity. PMID:11088138

  13. Quality assurance program for the determination of selenium in foods and diets by instrumental neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A.

    1996-12-31

    The biological essentially of selenium for animals was first evidenced in 1957. However, it was not until 1973 that an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase was proven to be a selenoenzyme. At present, selenium is known to be a normal component of several enzymes, proteins, and some aminoacryl transfer nucleic acids. A few selenium compounds have been reported to possess anticarcinogenic properties. There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of selenium in human nutrition and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed in several laboratories for the determination of total and species-specific selenium in whole blood, serum, urine, soft and hard tissues, food, water, proteins, etc. We have developed several instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods using the, Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facility for the determination of parts-per-billion levels of selenium. These methods include cyclic INAA (CINAA) and pseudocyclic INAA (PCINAA) using both conventional and anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. Considering the immense health significance, it is imperative that the selenium levels in foods and diets be measured under an extensive quality assurance program for routine monitoring purposes.

  14. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  15. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  16. Professional quality of life and associated factors among VHA chaplains.

    PubMed

    Yan, Grace W; Beder, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Chaplains play a unique role in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care systems and have numerous responsibilities. Compassion satisfaction (CS), compassion fatigue (CF), and burnout (BO) are three major phenomenons that have been documented in other helping professions, but little is known about VA Chaplains' professional quality of life. This study examines a national sample of VA Chaplains and their professional quality of life along with associated factors. Two-hundred and seventeen VA Chaplains completed an anonymous Internet survey, and regression analyses were conducted to determine which variables affect professional quality of life. On average, participants report high levels of CS and low levels of CF and BO. Gender, perceived support from VA administration, and mental health (MH) integration were significant predictors for CS. MH integration and perceived support significantly affected CF. Age, MH integration, and perceived support affected BO. Significant interaction effects were found for CF and BO. In summary, younger Chaplains and Chaplains who report low levels of collaboration with MH professionals are most likely to develop CF and BO. This supports continued support from the VA for interdisciplinary initiatives and mentorship of younger Chaplains. PMID:23756070

  17. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters. PMID:27075935

  18. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters. PMID:27075935

  19. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  20. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  1. Neutron distribution, electric dipole polarizability and weak form factor of 48Ca from chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Kyle

    2016-03-01

    How large is the 48Ca nucleus? While the electric charge distribution of this nucleus was accurately measured decades ago, both experimental and ab initio descriptions of the neutron distribution are deficient. We address this question using ab initio calculations of the electric charge, neutron, and weak distributions of 48Ca based on chiral effective field theory. Historically, chiral effective field theory calculations of systems larger than 4 nucleons have been plagued by strong systematic errors which result in theoretical descriptions that are too dense and over bound. We address these errors using a novel approach that permits us to accurately reproduce binding energy and charge radius of 48Ca, and to constrain electroweak observables such as the neutron radius, electric dipole polarizability, and the weak form factor. For a full list of contributors to this work, please see ``Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus,'' Nature Physics (2015) doi:10.1038/nphys3529.

  2. Optical Quality and Related Factors in Ocular Hypertension: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-jing; Yang, Yan-ning; Huang, Lin-ying; Wang, Bo; Han, Yu-can; Yan, Jiang-bo

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the optical quality and related factors in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT). Methods. This was a prospective case-control study. A total of 12 eyes with OHT and 20 control eyes underwent testing with Optical Quality Analysis System II (OQAS II) to evaluate the modulation transfer function cut off frequency (MTF cutoff), the Strehl 2D ratio (SR), objective scatter index (OSI), tear-film mean OSI (TFOSI), and the OQAS values (OV100%,OV20%, and OV9%). Results. The optical quality of patients with OHT declined, with lower MTF cutoff (OHT 36.86 ± 7.11 cpd , controls 48.50 ± 4.04 cpd, t = −4.60, P < 0.05), lower SR (OHT 0.22 ± 0.04, controls 0.27 ± 0.05, t = −2.72, P < 0.05), lower OV100% (OHT 1.26 ± 0.25, controls 1.61 ± 0.14, t = −4.03, P < 0.05), lower OV20% (OHT 1.27 ± 0.27, controls 1.72 ± 0.20, t = −4.00, P < 0.05), and lower OV9% (OHT 1.30 ± 0.25, controls 1.69 ± 0.32, t = −2.28, P < 0.05). There were not any statistically significant differences in OSI and TFOSI. The MTF cutoff in patients with OHT was correlated significantly with age (r = −0.59, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Optical quality of patients with OHT is reduced, with lower MTF cutoff, SR, OV100%, OV20%, and OV9%. MTF cutoff is negatively related to age. PMID:27293874

  3. Uranium mass and neutron multiplication factor estimates from time-correlation coincidence counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenxiong; Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Time-correlation coincidence counts of neutrons are an important means to measure attributes of nuclear material. The main deficiency in the analysis is that an attribute of an unknown component can only be assessed by comparing it with similar known components. There is a lack of a universal method of measurement suitable for the different attributes of the components. This paper presents a new method that uses universal relations to estimate the mass and neutron multiplication factor of any uranium component with known enrichment. Based on numerical simulations and analyses of 64 highly enriched uranium components with different thicknesses and average radii, the relations between mass, multiplication and coincidence spectral features have been obtained by linear regression analysis. To examine the validity of the method in estimating the mass of uranium components with different sizes, shapes, enrichment, and shielding, the features of time-correlation coincidence-count spectra for other objects with similar attributes are simulated. Most of the masses and multiplications for these objects could also be derived by the formulation. Experimental measurements of highly enriched uranium castings have also been used to verify the formulation. The results show that for a well-designed time-dependent coincidence-count measuring system of a uranium attribute, there are a set of relations dependent on the uranium enrichment by which the mass and multiplication of the measured uranium components of any shape and size can be estimated from the features of the source-detector coincidence-count spectrum.

  4. Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data…

  5. His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women’s relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men’s satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women’s satisfaction, but men’s satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men’s satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

  6. g-Factors of Isomeric States in the Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, G.; Neyens, G.; Hass, M.; Balabanski, Dimiter Loukanov; Bingham, Carrol R; Borcea, C.; Coulier, N.; Coussenment, R.; Daugas, J. M.; De France, Gilles M; Gorska, M.; Grawe, Hubert H; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Lewitowicz, Marek; Mach, Henryk A; Matea, I.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Page, R. D.; Pfutzner, Marek; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Podolyak, Zsolt F; Regan, Patrick H; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Sawicka, M.; Smirnova, N. A.; Sobolev, Yu.; Stanoiu, M.; Teughels, S.; Vyvey, K.

    2004-02-01

    We report the results from the first experiment to measure gyromagnetic factors of {micro}s isomers in neutron-rich nuclei produced by intermediate-energy projectile-fragmentation reactions. The Time Dependent Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method was applied in combination with the heavy-ion-gamma correlation technique. The nuclides in the vicinity of {sup 68}Ni were produced and spin-oriented following the fragmentation of a {sup 76}Ge, 61.4 MeV/ u beam at GANIL. The results obtained, |g|({sup 69 m}Cu) = 0.225(25) and |g|({sup 67 m}Ni) = 0.125(6) provide another indication of the importance of proton excitation across the Z = 28 shell gap for the description of these states.

  7. Spallation Neutron Source Availability Top-Down Apportionment Using Characteristic Factors and Expert Opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1999-10-01

    Apportionment is the assignment of top-level requirements to lower tier elements of the overall facility. A method for apportioning overall facility availability requirements among systems and subsystems is presented. Characteristics that influence equipment reliability and maintainability are discussed. Experts, using engineering judgment, scored each characteristic for each system whose availability design goal is to be established. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to produce a set of weighted rankings for each characteristic for each alternative system. A mathematical model is derived which incorporates these weighting factors. The method imposes higher availability requirements on those systems in which an incremental increase in availability is easier to achieve, and lower availability requirements where greater availability is more difficult and costly. An example is given of applying this top-down apportionment methodology to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility.

  8. Estimation of quality factors by energy ratio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong-Jun; Cao, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Qu, Ying-Ming; Yuan, Dian; Yang, Jin-Hao; Shao, Guan-Ming

    2015-03-01

    The quality factor Q, which reflects the energy attenuation of seismic waves in subsurface media, is a diagnostic tool for hydrocarbon detection and reservoir characterization. In this paper, we propose a new Q extraction method based on the energy ratio before and after the wavelet attenuation, named the energy-ratio method (ERM). The proposed method uses multipoint signal data in the time domain to estimate the wavelet energy without invoking the source wavelet spectrum, which is necessary in conventional Q extraction methods, and is applicable to any source wavelet spectrum; however, it requires high-precision seismic data. Forward zero-offset VSP modeling suggests that the ERM can be used for reliable Q inversion after nonintrinsic attenuation (geometric dispersion, reflection, and transmission loss) compensation. The application to real zero-offset VSP data shows that the Q values extracted by the ERM and spectral ratio methods are identical, which proves the reliability of the new method.

  9. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  10. Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

    2012-05-01

    The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

  11. Enhancing selectivity of infrared emitters through quality-factor matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Enas; Zhou, Zhiguang; Bermel, Peter

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been proposed that designing selective emitters with photonic crystals (PhCs) or plasmonic metamaterials can suppress low-energy photon emission, while enhancing higher-energy photon emission. Here, we will consider multiple approaches to designing and fabricating nanophotonic structures concentrating infrared thermal radiation at energies above a critical threshold. These are based on quality factor matching, in which one creates resonant cavities that couple light out at the same rate that the underlying materials emit it. When this quality-factor matching is done properly, emissivities can approach those of a blackbody, but only within a selected range of thermal photon energies. One potential application is for improving the conversion of heat to electricity via a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system, by using thermal radiation to illuminate a photovoltaic (PV) diode. In this study, realistic simulations of system efficiencies are performed using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to capture both thermal radiation and PV diode absorption. We first consider a previously studied 2D molybdenum photonic crystal with a commercially-available silicon PV diode, which can yield TPV efficiencies up to 26.2%. Second, a 1D-periodic samarium-doped glass emitter with a gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV diode is presented, which can yield efficiencies up to 38.5%. Finally, a 2D tungsten photonic crystal with a 1D integrated, chirped filter and the GaSb PV diode can yield efficiencies up to 38.2%; however, the fabrication procedure is expected to be more challenging. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategy will be discussed.

  12. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  13. Determination and validation of prompt k0-factors with a monochromatic neutron beam at the Dhruva reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, A. G. C.; Acharya, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Reddy, A. V. R.; Goswami, A.

    2006-08-01

    Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) was carried out using a reflected neutron beam of 0.018 eV energy at the Dhruva research reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. The neutron beam characteristics, such as dimension, homogeneity and thermal equivalent flux were evaluated. The prompt k0-factors of about 15 elements were determined versus the 1951.1 keV gamma-ray of the 35Cl(n,γ) reaction. These prompt k0-factors are compared with the recommended k0-values for thermal neutrons and were found to be in good agreement, except for Gd, Cd and Hg. The internal mono-standard method was applied to analyze a meteorite and a stainless steel alloy (SS 316 M) using the recommended k0-values from the literature. As to the alloy, the measured concentrations were in good agreement with the nominal composition. For the meteorite sample, the concentrations of the major elements were in good agreement with the values determined using conventional neutron activation analysis.

  14. Coincidence gate utilization factors for neutron correlation counters with up to three components in the die-away profile

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, S.; McElroy, R.D.; Kane, S.C.

    2007-07-01

    We present analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors (GUFs), up to fourth order, for both signal triggered and random triggered histograms based on a three-component capture time profile. These are useful for refined design performance calculations of passive neutron multiplicity counters using shift register correlation analysis. To our knowledge, these expressions are new. (authors)

  15. Fabrication of silica ultra high quality factor microresonators.

    PubMed

    Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery. The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.(3-7) The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million). However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. PMID:22805153

  16. Factors Influencing the Quality of Encapsulation in Rock Bolting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Naj; Craig, Peter; Mirzaghorbanali, Ali; Nemcik, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Bolt installation quality is influenced by various factors, some are well known and others are less recognised. A programme of field and laboratory studies was undertaken to examine various factors of relevance to the load transfer mechanism between the bolt, resin and rock to ensure test methods truly represent field performance. Short encapsulation tests were undertaken as part of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) funded project (C21011) with the ultimate aim of developing standard test methods for assessing bolt encapsulation with chemical resin anchor installations. The field study consisted of a series of Short Encapsulation Pull Tests (SEPT) carried out in three mines with different geological conditions to determine the most representative and practical method of SEPT. Additional field work included installation of bolts into threaded steel tubes for subsequent removal and laboratory evaluation. A series of pull tests was carried out by installing bolts in overhead rig mounted sandstone block, cast in concrete with controlled encapsulation length. Factors of importance considered included; borehole diameter, resin annulus thickness, installation time (including bolt spin to the back and "spin at back"), the effect of gloving and hole over drill. It was found that the borehole diameter had a detrimental effect on the encapsulation bonding strength. Bolt installation time of approximately 10 s constituted an acceptable time for effective bolt installation and within the resin manufacturers recommended time of 14 s. Maintaining constant length of encapsulation was paramount for obtaining consistency and repeatability of the test results. Finally, a numerical simulation study was carried out to assess the capabilities of FLAC 2D software in simulating the pull testing of rock bolts.

  17. Quality assurance of temporal variability of natural decay chain and neutron induced background for low-level NORM analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yoho, Michael; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2015-09-22

    In this study, twenty-one high purity germanium (HPGe) background spectra were collected over 2 years at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A quality assurance methodology was developed to monitor spectral background levels from thermal and fast neutron flux levels and naturally occurring radioactive material decay series radionuclides. 238U decay products above 222Rn demonstrated minimal temporal variability beyond that expected from counting statistics. 238U and 232Th progeny below Rn gas displayed at most twice the expected variability. Further, an analysis of the 139 keV 74Ge(n, γ) and 691 keV 72Ge(n, n') spectral features demonstrated temporal stability for both thermal and fast neutron fluxes.

  18. Effects of extended storage on egg quality factors.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2005-11-01

    Eggs were collected from a single inline processing facility weekly for 3 wk (replicates). The eggs were stored at 4 degrees C and 80% RH. Sampling began the day after collection and continued each week for 10 wk. During analysis, 24 eggs were examined for egg weight, albumen height, Haugh units (HU), shell strength, and vitelline membrane strength for each replicate. Egg weight decreased (P < 0.0001) from approximately 61 to 57 g after 10 wk of storage. Eggs from the second replicate were significantly (P < 0.0001) heavier than the other replicates by an average of 3 g. On average, albumen height decreased with extended storage (P < 0.0001) from 7.05 to 4.85 mm. Albumen height was approximately 0.2 mm higher for the eggs in replicate 2 compared with the other replicates (P < 0.01). Haugh unit values decreased during cold storage from 82.59 to 67.43 (P < 0.0001). There were no differences between replicates for HU values. No differences were detected for shell strength between replicates or during extended storage. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in detectable vitelline membrane strength between replicates, but this difference was less than 0.05 g. The elasticity of the vitelline membrane decreased during storage (P < 0.01) remaining low after 6 wk. Extended cold storage led to decreases in egg weight, albumen height, and HU. However, average HU values were still within the range for grade A. Shell strength was not affected by extended storage. Vitelline membrane elasticity also decreased, which could lead to yolks more easily rupturing as consumers crack the eggs. The results indicated that although the physical quality factors monitored in this study decreased during storage, egg quality was still acceptable beyond current recommended shelf life guidelines. PMID:16463976

  19. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre P.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

  20. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomà, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bénédicte; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality 60Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for 60Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent—being higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other—except for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 ± 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber.

  1. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  2. A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical factors affecting quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. QoL is a significant indicator guiding the efforts of professionals caring for patients, especially chronically ill ones. The identification of factors affecting the QoL reported by patients, despite their existing condition, is important and useful to provide multidisciplinary care for these patients. Aim To investigate the clinical factors affecting asthma patients’ QoL. Methods The study comprised 100 patients (73 female, 27 male) aged 18–84 years (mean age was 45.7) treated in the Allergy Clinic of the Wroclaw Medical University Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology. All asthma patients meeting the inclusion criteria were invited to participate. Data on sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. In this study, we used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) to assess the QoL of patients with asthma and the Asthma Control Test to measure asthma control. Results Active smokers were shown to have a significantly lower QoL in the “Symptoms” domain than nonsmokers (P=0.006). QoL was also demonstrated to decrease significantly as the frequency of asthma exacerbations increased (R=−0.231, P=0.022). QoL in the domain “Activity limitation” was shown to increase significantly along with the number of years of smoking (R=0.404; P=0.004). Time from onset and the dominant symptom of asthma significantly negatively affected QoL in the “Activity limitation” domain of the AQLQ (R=−0.316, P=0.001; P=0.029, respectively). QoL scores in the “Emotional function” and “Environmental stimuli” subscale of the AQLQ decreased significantly as time from onset increased (R=−0.200, P=0.046; R=−0.328, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusion Patients exhibiting better symptom control have higher QoL scores. Asthma patients’ Qo

  4. Benchmarking Potential Factors Leading to Education Quality: A Study of Cambodian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Yaw; Sok, Phyra; Sok, Keomony

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To study the quality in higher education in Cambodia and explore the potential factors leading to quality in Cambodian higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Five main factors that were deemed relevant in providing quality in Cambodian higher education were proposed: academic curriculum and extra-curricular activities, teachers'…

  5. First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martin; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a

  6. Tissue equivalent proportional counter neutron monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.C.; Strode, J.N.

    1980-06-01

    The Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a sensitive area monitoring instrument that can be used either in place at fixed locations or as a portable neutron exposure measuring device. The system monitors low levels of neutron radiation exposure and has the capability of accurately measuring neutron exposure rates as low as 0.1 mrem/hr. The computerized analysis system calculates the quality factor which is important for situations where the neutron to gamma ratio may vary significantly and irregularly such as in fuel fabrication or handling facilities.

  7. Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor G{sub M}{sup n} in the Few-GeV{sup 2} Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lachniet, J.; Afanasev, A.; Arenhoevel, H.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Higinbotham, D.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Cords, D.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Deur, A.; Gyurjyan, V.; Ito, M. M.; Kageya, T.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lowry, M.; Manak, J. J.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Niczyporuk, B. B.

    2009-05-15

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q{sup 2}=1.0-4.8 GeV{sup 2} with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data.

  8. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

  9. A simple parameterization for quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a simple analytic approximation of the radiation quality factor (Q) as a function of linear energy transfer for use in radiation protection calculations. The paper also presents estimated quality factors in water for protons over a broad range of incident energies. It is shown that the quality factors are less than unity for all proton energies greater than 13 MeV.

  10. Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables…

  11. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  12. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system. PMID:26141293

  13. Quality of returns: Is it a factor in remanufacturing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behret, Hülya; Korugan, Aybek

    2005-11-01

    The return flow of remanufacturing processes is highly variable in terms of the quality of returned products. This fact causes higher variability in remanufacturing processing times. In order to decrease the variability in the process the returns can be inspected and classified according to their quality following their arrival. However this classification will add an extra cost to the remanufacturing process. In this study we investigate the pros and cons of such a classification.

  14. Analysis Supporting Factors and Constraints LPMP Performance in Improving the Quality of Education in Jambi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosadi, Kemas Imron

    2015-01-01

    Development of education in Indonesia is based on three aspects, namely equity and expansion, quality and relevance, as well as good governance. Quality education is influenced by several factors related to quality education managerial leaders, limited funds, facilities, educational facilities, media, learning resources, tools and training…

  15. The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  16. The Use of a Multichannel Analyzer to Investigate Effects of Experimental Factors on Gross-Counting Gamma and Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather M.; Rennie, John A.; Lovejoy, Christopher M.; Martinez, Diana E. R; Dempsey, Michael A.; Livesay, Jake; Lousteau, Angela

    2012-07-12

    Radiation detection technology is invaluable to many fields of study in identifying nuclear materials. However, many detectors use gross-counting methods that give only a relative count rate. Without a spectrum (information on counts over time vs energy), it can be more difficult to discern if an alarm is false, innocent, or real. In particular, we would like to understand better the effect of experimental factors (i.e., external conditions and equipment parameters) on detector data, with possible implications for false alarms. To more thoroughly characterize detector technology, a multichannel analyzer (MCA) was used to record spectra from neutron (helium-3 tubes) and gamma (photomultiplier tubes) gross-counting detectors. Several factors could affect the signal-to-noise ratio of sources. For example, we examined the effects of neutron detector high voltage setting on the appearance of a californium-252 spectrum, the effect of discriminator values on integrated counts in neutron detection, and the effect of gain changes on the gamma spectra from several sources. Possible implications of ambient temperature of the experiment on the data collected will be discussed. The input impedance of the MCA must be considered to ensure that data are not affected by the measurement itself. Moreover, a calibration on the MCA was performed to verify the conversion of a MCA channel number to a voltage. In summary, the series of source spectra collected on an MCA with a variety of experimental conditions allow us to understand factors that affect data better, and assure us that gross-counting neutron and gamma detectors will have minimal false alarms.

  17. [Correlations between wild Polygonatum odoratum quality and main ecological factors].

    PubMed

    Bu, Jing; Li, Deng-Wu; Wang, Dong-Mei

    2012-06-01

    By the methods of stepwise regression, principal component analysis, and grey relational grade analysis, this paper studied the correlations between the effective components (polysaccharides and water- and alcohol-soluble substances) contents and antioxidant activity of wild Polygonatum odoratum in different places and the ecological factors. Among the test ecological factors, the mean air temperature in January and in July, mean annual precipitation, frost-free period, and soil pH and total potassium were the main factors affecting the effective component contents of P. odoratum, with a contribution rate of 99.0%. As compared with soil factors, climatic factors made more contribution to the effective component contents. Soil total potassium was the key factor controlling the effective component contents, mean annual precipitation was the main decision factor, and mean air temperature in January was the main limiting factor. The plant polysaccharides and water-soluble substance contents were the key factors affecting the antioxidant activity of P. odoratum, and the capability of P. odoratum in excavating DPPH free radical increased with increasing contents of polysaccharides and water-soluble substances. PMID:22937629

  18. Advantage and limitations of weighting factors and weighted dose quantities and their units in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Rassow, J; Sauerwein, W; Wittig, A; Bourhis-Martin, E; Hideghéty, K; Moss, R

    2004-05-01

    ICRU/IAEA made proposals, which should be followed by all BNCT groups, to report always the four absorbed dose components, boron dose DB, proton dose Dp, gamma-ray dose Dgamma, and neutron dose Dn, as well as the sum DT of all components, as total absorbed dose, together with the total weighted dose Dw (to be used only for internal purposes, indicating the used weighting factors) at all points of interest and the treatment conditions. PMID:15191301

  19. Aspects of radiation beam quality and their effect on the dose response of polymer gels: Photons, electrons and fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Andreas; Bayreder, Christian; Georg, Dietmar; Bankamp, Achim; Wolber, Gerd

    2009-05-01

    Polymer gels are generally assumed to exhibit no significant dependence of the dose response on the energy or type of irradiation for clinically used beam qualities. Based on reports on differences in dose response for low energy photons and particle beams with high linear energy transfer (LET) we here investigate the dose response and energy dependence for a normoxic methacrylic acid polymer gel (MAGAT) for X-rays (100 kV), high energy photon beams (E = 1.2 MeV (60Co), 6 MV and 15 MV) and for three different electron energies (4, 12 and 20 MeV). Due to the possible impact also the sensitivity of the dose response to the dose rate is reported. A reduction in polymer gel relaxation rate has been observed for proton and carbon beams due to the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of these types of radiations. We here report on the dose response of an acryl-amide polymer gel (PAG) in a fast neutron field along with collimation as proposed for Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

  20. Charge form factor of the neutron at low momentum transfer from the 2H-->(e-->,e'n)1H reaction.

    PubMed

    Geis, E; Kohl, M; Ziskin, V; Akdogan, T; Arenhövel, H; Alarcon, R; Bertozzi, W; Booth, E; Botto, T; Calarco, J; Clasie, B; Crawford, C B; DeGrush, A; Donnelly, T W; Dow, K; Farkhondeh, M; Fatemi, R; Filoti, O; Franklin, W; Gao, H; Gilad, S; Hasell, D; Karpius, P; Kolster, H; Lee, T; Maschinot, A; Matthews, J; McIlhany, K; Meitanis, N; Milner, R G; Rapaport, J; Redwine, R P; Seely, J; Shinozaki, A; Sirca, S; Sindile, A; Six, E; Smith, T; Steadman, M; Tonguc, B; Tschalaer, C; Tsentalovich, E; Turchinetz, W; Xiao, Y; Xu, W; Zhang, C; Zhou, Z; Zwart, T

    2008-07-25

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio GEn/GMn was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry AedV at four-momentum transfers Q2=0.14, 0.20, 0.29, and 0.42 (GeV/c)2. PMID:18764321

  1. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  2. Factors Influencing Assessment Quality in Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Gulikers, Judith; Dijkstra, Asha

    2013-01-01

    The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education institute. Per course, 4-11 teachers and 3-10…

  3. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

  4. Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

  5. Quality assurance of temporal variability of natural decay chain and neutron induced background for low-level NORM analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yoho, Michael; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2015-09-22

    In this study, twenty-one high purity germanium (HPGe) background spectra were collected over 2 years at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A quality assurance methodology was developed to monitor spectral background levels from thermal and fast neutron flux levels and naturally occurring radioactive material decay series radionuclides. 238U decay products above 222Rn demonstrated minimal temporal variability beyond that expected from counting statistics. 238U and 232Th progeny below Rn gas displayed at most twice the expected variability. Further, an analysis of the 139 keV 74Ge(n, γ) and 691 keV 72Ge(n, n') spectral features demonstrated temporal stability for both thermal and fast neutronmore » fluxes.« less

  6. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  7. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-09-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

  8. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  9. Improving the quality factor of cantilevers in viscous fluids by the adaptation of their interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, J.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2012-03-01

    The adaptation of the fluid-microresonator interface enables the operation of cantilevers with high quality factor in viscous fluids. Partial wetting was proposed to implement the adapted interface by meniscus formation. An excellent quality factor of 79 was achieved in water applying the concept of partial wetting to thin film silicon nitride cantilevers. Compared to the quality factor calculated from Sader's theory of the hydrodynamic damping of fully immersed cantilevers, this is an improvement by more than one decade. As a first application the partially wetted cantilevers were employed as mass sensors in water revealing a sensitivity of 2.77 fg/Hz.

  10. Stream network expansion: a riparian water quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigington, P. J., Jr.; Moser, T. J.; Lindeman, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    Little is known about how active stream network expansion during rainstorms influences the ability of riparian buffers to improve water quality. We used aerial photographs to quantify stream network expansion during the wet winter season in five agricultural catchments in western Oregon, USA. Winter stream drainage densities were nearly two orders of magnitude greater than summer stream densities, and agricultural land use was much more abundant along transient portions (e.g. swales, road ditches) of stream networks. Water moving from agricultural fields into expanded stream networks during large hydrologic events has the opportunity to bypass downstream riparian buffers along perennial streams and contribute nonpoint-source pollutants directly into perennial stream channels.

  11. Pediatric Coccidioidomycosis Patients: Perceptions, Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gaab, Erin Mary; Naeem, Fouzia

    2015-01-01

    Research investigating the effects of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) on children and the psychosocial implications of this disease in general is lacking. This study reviews what is known about pediatric coccidioidomycosis patients. It documents the psychological functioning, quality of life, and illness perceptions of a sample of coccidioidomycosis patient families. Primary caregivers of pediatric patients and patients from a major hospital in the San Joaquin Valley of California were interviewed regarding their perceptions of disease detection, access to care and the patient/family experience. PMID:27417796

  12. Taking image quality factor into the OPC model tuning flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Heng; Liu, Qingwei; Zhang, Liguo

    2007-03-01

    All OPC model builders are in search of a physically realistic model that is adequately calibrated and contains the information that can be used for process predictions and analysis of a given process. But there still are some unknown physics in the process and wafer data sets are not perfect. Most cases even using the average values of different empirical data sets will still take inaccurate measurements into the model fitting process, which makes the fitting process more time consuming and also may cause losing convergence and stability. The Image quality is one of the most worrisome obstacles faced by next-generation lithography. Nowadays, considerable effort is devoted to enhance the contrast, as well as understanding its impact on devices. It is a persistent problem for 193nm micro-lithography and will carry us for at least three generations, culminating with immersion lithography. This work is to weight different wafer data points with a weighting function. The weighting function is dependent on the Normal image log slope (NILS), which can reflect the image quality. Using this approach, we can filter wrong information of the process and make the OPC model more accurate. CalibreWorkbench is the platform we used in this study, which has been proven to have an excellent performance on 0.13um, 90nm and 65nm production and development models setup. Leveraging its automatic optical-tuning function, we practiced the best weighting approach to achieve the most efficient and convergent tuning flow.

  13. Associations between Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Factors and Health Outcomes in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Casement, Melynda D.; Harrington, Kelly M.; Miller, Mark W.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure of subjective sleep disturbance in clinical populations, including individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the severity of sleep disturbance is generally represented by a global symptom score, recent factor analytic studies suggest that the PSQI is better characterized by a two- or three-factor model than a one-factor model. This study examined the replicability of two- and three-factor models of the PSQI, as well as the relationship between PSQI factors and health outcomes, in a female sample with PTSD. Methods The PSQI was administered to 319 women with PTSD related to sexual or physical assault. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the relative fit of one-, two-, and three-factor solutions. Bivariate correlations were performed to examine the shared variance between PSQI sleep factors and measures of PTSD, depression, anger, and physical symptoms. Results Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor model with Sleep Efficiency, Perceived Sleep Quality, and Daily Disturbances as separate indices of sleep quality. The severity of symptoms represented by the PSQI factors was positively associated with the severity of PTSD, depression, and physical symptoms. However, these health outcomes correlated as much or more with the global PSQI score as with PSQI factor scores. Conclusions These results support the multidimensional structure of the PSQI. Yet, the global PSQI score has as much or more explanatory power as individual PSQI factors in predicting health outcomes. PMID:22542787

  14. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

    2014-03-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

  15. Characteristics of double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator to increase quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Sei; Kataoka, Mai; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    We have numerically evaluated wavelength characteristics at telecommunication wavelengths by means of a doubleplasmonic-racetrack resonator using the finite-difference time domain method. We investigated the effect of the space between the two plasmonic racetracks of the resonator on the quality factor. The quality factor of the proposed structure is 57 when the space between two racetracks is 600 nm. The quality factor of a double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of a dielectric-filled trench is 1.5 times greater than that of a single-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of an air-filled trench. The phase mismatch of the trench channel plasmon polaritons contributes to the quality factor of the double-plasmonicracetrack resonator.

  16. Investigating the frequency spectrum of mechanical quality factor for piezoelectric materials based on phenomenological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Weijia; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Jie; Yao, Yu; Uchino, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Heat generation due to losses restricts piezoelectric materials from maintaining a high power density, which will further limit the miniaturization of piezoelectric devices. As an evaluation index of the loss level, the mechanical quality factor shows an opposite tendency with losses. The mechanical quality factor should therefore be evaluated. By new methods to determine the mechanical quality factor, the highest mechanical quality factor has been discovered within the working bandwidth other than the resonance and antiresonance frequencies, which is almost double the value at the resonance. In this study, the prime determinant of the maximum value has been experimentally investigated on the basis of the phenomenological model of the admittance phase. The investigation experimentally infers that the change in the tendency of the phase leads to the appearance of the maximum value. Thus, the new phenomenon is experimentally explained for the first time.

  17. Assessment of the neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed AmBe source by means of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed Americium-Beryllium source is experimentally determined and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The measurements were done at the Italian Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations using a long counter neutron detector and a "X.3" type AmBe sealed neutron source. Experimental data are compared to simulations performed with the MCNP code where the precise structure of the source is taken into account starting from its technical design. The contributions of the single structural parts are described to point out the effective sources of the emission anisotropy.

  18. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  19. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  20. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  1. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  2. Measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron at JLab via recoil polarimetry in the reaction: d(e, e-prime n)p

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Finn

    2004-11-01

    Preliminary results are reported for measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, GEn/GMn, obtained via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2H(e, e?n) 1H reaction at Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2. The measurements, conducted in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, together with other recent polarization measurements, are the result of a decade long effort to establish a firm experimental database for the important, but elusive, electric form factor of the neutron.

  3. Microdosimetry of fast neutrons in selected biological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Microdosimetric quantities for selected neutron beams have been determined in muscle, brain, bone, and fat tissue equivalent materials. The quantities of interest were the dose distribution in lineal energy, frequency average lineal energy, dose average lineal energy, and dose average quality factor. A dose response factor was defined to combine the lineal energy dose spectrum with a response function per unit KERMA for an acute biological endpoint in prototype cells in vitro. The dependence of each quantity on material composition and neutron energy was investigated by theoretical calculation and separated into primary and scatter neutron fluence components. Neutron fluences in phantoms were calculated using a standard Monte Carlo code (MCNP). The charged particle fluences and lineal energy dose spectra were obtained using the continuous slowing-down approximation. Calculated microdosimetric spectra agreed with those measured in muscle-equivalent materials. The microdosimetry of primary and scattered neutrons in a large tissue phantom was calculated for three representative uncollimated neutron sources.

  4. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  5. A systematic review and analysis of factors associated with methodological quality in laparoscopic randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Stavros Athanasios; Andreou, Alexandros; Antoniou, George Athanasios; Bertsias, Antonios; Köhler, Gernot; Koch, Oliver Owen; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for assessment of methodological quality in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been developed during the past few years. Factors associated with quality in laparoscopic surgery have not been defined till date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bibliometric and the methodological quality of laparoscopic RCTs. The PubMed search engine was queried to identify RCTs on minimally invasive surgery published in 2012 in the 10 highest impact factor surgery journals and the 5 highest impact factor laparoscopic journals. Eligible studies were blindly assessed by two independent investigators using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool for RCTs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential associations with methodological quality. A total of 114 relevant RCTs were identified. More than half of the trials were of high or acceptable quality. Half of the reports provided information on comparative demo graphic data and only 21% performed intention-to-treat analysis. RCTs with sample size of at least 60 patients presented higher methodological quality (p = 0.025). Upon multiple regression, reporting on preoperative care and the experience level of surgeons were independent factors of quality. PMID:25896540

  6. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. PMID:26717078

  7. Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-09-01

    Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality. PMID:25252342

  8. No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2014-05-01

    The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error(MSE) and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

  9. Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million.

    PubMed

    Moser, J; Eichler, A; Güttinger, J; Dykman, M I; Bachtold, A

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surfaces, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5 × 10(6) in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30 mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method to rapidly detect minuscule vibrations, as well as careful reduction of the noise of the electrostatic environment. We observe that the measured quality factors fluctuate because of fluctuations of the resonant frequency. We measure record-high quality factors, which are comparable to the highest Q values reported in mechanical resonators of much larger size, a remarkable result considering that reducing the size of resonators is usually concomitant with decreasing quality factors. The combination of ultra-low mass and very large Q offers new opportunities for ultra-sensitive detection schemes and quantum optomechanical experiments. PMID:25344688

  10. Personal and contextual factors predicting patients' reported quality of life: exploring congruency with Betty Neuman's assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hinds, C

    1990-04-01

    The search for factors which influence seriously ill people's quality of life continues to generate both interest and research. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 87 patients with lung cancer who ranged between the ages of 38 and 82 years. The purposes of this investigation were to determine whether relationships existed between patients' preferences for illness-related information, their satisfaction with family functioning, their level of learned resourcefulness and their reported quality of life. This paper focuses on the results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis which identified seven factors, namely, prognosis, surgery, current radiotherapy, performance status, self-control skills (learned resourcefulness), preference for information and age-group, which accounted for 30% of explained variance in patients' reported quality of life. No single factor contributed a substantial amount of the variance in this sample's reported quality of life. This observation suggests differences in people's perceptions of these factors and their importance to them. These results support a conclusion that people's evaluation of their quality of life is subjective, changeable and depends on the circumstances they face. Congruence between the assumptions underlying Neuman's health care system model, and the personal and contextual nature of these seven factors in patients' quality of life are explored. These findings are relevant for practice. PMID:2341691

  11. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  12. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  13. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  14. Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  15. Factors that Influence Quality of Life in Rural Children with Asthma and their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn; Land, Cassia; Lewis-Boyer, Lapricia; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Butz, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Among rural children with asthma and their parents, this study examined the relationship between parental and child reports of quality of life and described the relationship of several factors such as asthma severity, missed days of work and asthma education on their quality of life. Method Two hundred and one rural families with asthma were enrolled in a school-based educational program. Intervention parents and children received interactive asthma workshop(s), asthma devices and literature. Parent and child quality of life measurements were obtained pre and post intervention using Juniper's Paediatric Caregivers Quality of Life and Juniper's Paediatric Quality of Life Questionnaires. Asthma severity was measured using criteria from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines. Results There was no association between parent and child total quality of life scores, and mean parental total quality of life scores were higher at baseline and follow-up than those of the children. All the parents' quality of life scores were correlated with parental reports of missed days of work. For all children, emotional quality of life (EQOL) was significantly associated with parental reports of school days missed (p= .03) and marginally associated with parental reports of hospitalizations due to asthma (p=.0.08). Parent's emotional quality of life (EQOL) and activity quality of life (AQOL) were significantly associated with children's asthma severity (EQOL, p=.009, AQOL, p=0.03), but not the asthma educational intervention. None of the child quality of life measurements were associated with asthma severity. Discussion Asthma interventions for rural families should help families focus on gaining and maintaining low asthma severity levels in order for families to enjoy an optimal quality of life. Health care providers should try to assess the child's quality of life at each asthma care visit independently of the parents. PMID:18971080

  16. Study on γ-ray exposure buildup factors and fast neutron-shielding properties of some building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.; El-Khayatt, A. M.

    2014-06-01

    We have computed γ-ray exposure buildup factors (EBF) of some building materials; glass, marble, flyash, cement, limestone, brick, plaster of paris (POP) and gypsum for energy 0.015-15 MeV up to 40 mfp (mfp, mean free path) penetration depth. Also, the macroscopic effective removal cross-sections (ΣR) for fast neutron were calculated. We discussed the dependency of EBF values on photon energy, penetration depth and chemical elements. The half-value layer and kinetic energy per unit mass relative to air of building materials were calculated for assessment of shielding effectiveness. Shielding thicknesses for glass, marble, flyash, cement, limestone and gypsum plaster (or Plaster of Paris, POP) were found comparable with ordinary concrete. Among the studied materials limestone and POP showed superior shielding properties for γ-ray and neutron, respectively. Radiation safety inside houses, schools and primary health centers for sheltering and annual dose can be assessed by the determination of shielding parameters of common building materials.

  17. A summary of ammonia emission factors and quality criteria for commercial poultry production in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David; Cowherd, Savannah; Van Heyst, Bill

    2015-08-01

    Efforts to quantify emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere from poultry housing in North America have been underway for the past two decades. In order to accurately estimate emissions from facilities in each poultry sector, emission factors used to derive the average must be of sufficiently high quality. However, it has become evident that current methods are inadequate and emission factors do not accurately reflect North American poultry production. Using an initial screening, based on measurement methods for ammonia and ventilation rates as well as study duration, a collection of studies have been identified that report the highest quality emission factors currently available. Each study was rated for data quality and then an average emission factor was developed for each sector of poultry production and rated based its ability to represent that sector. The laying hen sector, using deep pit manure storage, received a C (average) emission factor quality rating, which is the highest of all the poultry sectors evaluated. Laying hen with manure belts, broiler chicken, and turkey sectors received quality ratings considered to be below average or poor. This study highlights the need for additional research that needs to be conducted in order to accurately quantify ammonia releases from housing in most poultry sectors in North America.

  18. Influence of the dielectric background on the quality factors of metallo-dielectric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustyantsev, M. A.; Marsal, L. F.; Ferré-Borrull, J.; Pallarès, J.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of varying the dielectric background on the quality factor of two-dimensional metallo-dielectric photonic crystals is theoretically studied. The studied metallo-dielectric photonic crystal consists of a square lattice of circular metallic rods embedded into a dielectric background with a defect rod on the center that creates resonant modes within the photonic band gap. The metal is modeled with the Drude dispersion relation. A combination of the finite-difference time-domain method together with a frequency filtering technique is used to estimate accurately the resonant frequencies and their quality factors. The results show that the quality factors increase with increasing background dielectric constant. If a dielectric background material such as Silicon is used instead of air, an enhancement in the quality factor of up to eight times can be achieved, depending on the resonant mode. We also show that, depending on the modes, there exists an optimal size for the defect rod that gives the maximum quality factor.

  19. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Social-psychological factors in the dietary quality of married and single elderly.

    PubMed

    Schafer, R B; Keith, P M

    1982-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the social-psychological correlates of diet quality of elderly married couples and elderly single women. The social-psychological factors included: personality, social interaction, and social influence variables. Eighty-two married couples (164 respondents) and 69 single women were randomly selected and interviewed. It was found that social influence variables were more important factors in determining quality of diet than either personality or social interaction variables. The elderly single women's higher quality diet was associated with more reliable sources of influence than those of the elderly married, a condition attributed to the independence and competencies required by their single living arrangements. For married couples, role dissatisfaction had negative consequences for wives' diets, and husbands' involvement in family food decisions had positive consequences for their own diet quality. PMID:7086013

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and ambient dose equivalent for a passively scattered proton therapy unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Fontenot, Jonas; Taddei, Phil; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Stray neutron exposures pose a potential risk for the development of secondary cancer in patients receiving proton therapy. However, the behavior of the ambient dose equivalent is not fully understood, including dependences on neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and proton treatment beam characteristics. The objective of this work, therefore, was to estimate neutron exposures resulting from the use of a passively scattered proton treatment unit. In particular, we studied the characteristics of the neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and ambient dose equivalent with Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron spectral fluence contained two pronounced peaks, one a low-energy peak with a mode around 1 MeV and one a high-energy peak that ranged from about 10 MeV up to the proton energy. The mean radiation weighting factors varied only slightly, from 8.8 to 10.3, with proton energy and location for a closed-aperture configuration. For unmodulated proton beams stopped in a closed aperture, the ambient dose equivalent from neutrons per therapeutic absorbed dose (H*(10)/D) calculated free-in-air ranged from about 0.3 mSv/Gy for a small scattered field of 100 MeV proton energy to 19 mSv/Gy for a large scattered field of 250 MeV proton energy, revealing strong dependences on proton energy and field size. Comparisons of in-air calculations with in-phantom calculations indicated that the in-air method yielded a conservative estimation of stray neutron radiation exposure for a prostate cancer patient.

  2. Current risk estimates based on the A-bomb survivors data - a discussion in terms of the ICRP recommendations on the neutron weighting factor.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Walsh, L

    2007-01-01

    Currently, most analyses of the A-bomb survivors' solid tumour and leukaemia data are based on a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 10 that is applied to all survivors, independent of their distance to the hypocentre at the time of bombing. The results of these analyses are then used as a major basis for current risk estimates suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use in international safety guidelines. It is shown here that (i) a constant value of 10 is not consistent with weighting factors recommended by the ICRP for neutrons and (ii) it does not account for the hardening of the neutron spectra in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which takes place with increasing distance from the hypocentres. The purpose of this paper is to present new RBE values for the neutrons, calculated as a function of distance from the hypocentres for both cities that are consistent with the ICRP60 neutron weighting factor. If based on neutron spectra from the DS86 dosimetry system, these calculations suggest values of about 31 at 1000 m and 23 at 2000 m ground range in Hiroshima, while the corresponding values for Nagasaki are 24 and 22. If the neutron weighting factor that is consistent with ICRP92 is used, the corresponding values are about 23 and 21 for Hiroshima and 21 and 20 for Nagasaki, respectively. It is concluded that the current risk estimates will be subject to some changes in view of the changed RBE values. This conclusion does not change significantly if the new doses from the Dosimetry System DS02 are used. PMID:17533156

  3. Quality Factor Measurements of Various Types of Quartz Crystal Resonators Operating Near 4 K.

    PubMed

    Galliou, Serge; Goryachev, Maxim; Abbe, Philippe; Vacheret, Xavier; Tobar, Michael E; Bourquin, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Quartz crystal resonators can exhibit huge quality factors (in excess of 1 billion) at liquid-helium temperature. However, they must satisfy a set of conditions to meet this high level of performance. With the help of experimentation, the main conditions are identified, such as the material quality, the energy trapping due to the vibrational mode structure, as well as the corresponding influence of the support mechanism and the effects of the electrodes. PMID:26701342

  4. Quantum Limit of Quality Factor in Silicon Micro and Nano Mechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A.; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J.; Ahn, Chae H.; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit. PMID:24247809

  5. Factors associated with the quality of laboratory performance in the United Kingdom external quality assessment scheme for serum growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Seth, J; Hanning, I

    1988-05-31

    A search was made for associations between poor performance in the UK External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) for serum growth hormone (GH), and a range of factors including assay method, laboratory workload and staffing, and Internal Quality Control (IQC) procedures. On the basis of the factors identified as being associated with poor performance we recommend the following. 1. Laboratories using RIA for GH should routinely analyse samples at two dilutions and report a mean result. 2. The use of 125I-GH which is 5 or more weeks old should be avoided. Tracer should also be chromatographed to remove aggregate before use. 3. Laboratories using RIA should avoid using a standard curve which covers too wide a range concentration; a curve midpoint (ie GH concentration to reduce the zero standard binding by 50%) of about 8 mU/l or less is probably acceptable. 4. It should be noted that high workloads present a risk of some loss in quality of responsible for checking IQC data. 6. Laboratories which do not have the resources to maintain fully their own RIA as outlined above should carefully consider use of an unbiased, precise IRMA. The UK EQAS has identified two assays (Boots-Celltech Sucrosep, NETRIA) that appear to meet these criteria [2]. The above observations may also be relevant to immunoassays for other peptide hormones. PMID:3383443

  6. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  7. Comparison of mean quality factors proposed by ICRP, ICRU and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Endo, Akira

    2012-07-01

    Astronauts are exposed to primary cosmic-rays and secondary particles produced by them through interaction with the atoms of the spacecraft material and those of the human body. For the radiation risk estimation of astronauts, not only organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated, since radiation weighting factor as defined by ICRP60 is not suitable for use in space dosimetry due to its very simplified concept. Three relationships were proposed for expressing the radiation quality by different organizations; (1) International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined the quality factor based on LET in water, Q(L), in ICRP60, (2) in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, a quality factor Q(y) is defined as a function of lineal energy, y, for spherical liquid water of 1 mm in diameter, Q(y), and (3) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) proposed those for solid cancer and leukemia separately based on charge and energy of particles, QNASA(Z,E), in NASA/TP-2011-216155. The Q(L) relationship is most simple and widely used in space dosimetry, but the latter two relationships consider the difference of the track structure of the various heavy ions in tissue due to the production of d-rays, which is very important in the risk estimation for the HZE-particle exposure. We therefore calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in the ICRP reference voxel phantoms for various particles, using the PHITS code coupled with the ICRP, ICRU and NASA Q-functions. An isotropic irradiation of the phantom was assumed in the calculation. The details of the calculation procedure will be described, together with the comparison of mean quality factors obtained from the 3 relationships.

  8. Poor sleep quality as a risk factor for lapse following a cannabis quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Harris, Alex H; Stickle, Timothy R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-04-01

    Treatments for cannabis dependence are associated with high rates of lapse/relapse, underscoring the importance of identifying malleable risk factors that are associated with quit failure. Whereas research has demonstrated that poor sleep quality following cannabis discontinuation is related to subsequent use, there has yet to be an examination of whether poor sleep quality prior to a quit attempt results in a similar pattern of lapse. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of pre-quit sleep quality on early lapse to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, among 55 cannabis dependent military veterans. Results indicated that participants who experienced poor pre-quit sleep quality had greater risk for lapse within the first 2 days (out of 7) following their quit attempt. Findings are discussed in terms of improving treatments for individuals who report poor sleep quality prior to a cannabis quit attempt. PMID:23098380

  9. Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

  10. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population

    PubMed Central

    Dobing, Selina; Frolova, Natalia; McAlister, Finlay

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep. Methods GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH) questionnaire, to characterize the previous night’s sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use. Results Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001). Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371), effectiveness (190), and supplementation (115) subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%), nursing interruptions (30%), uncomfortable beds (18%), bright lights (16%), unfamiliar surroundings (14%), and pain (9%). Conclusions Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients. PMID:27280292

  11. Anomalous thickness dependence of quality factor in TiN film resonators grown on functionalized Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Kohler, Tim; Lock, Evgeniya; Rosen, Yaniv; Ramanayaka, Aruna; Guchhait, Samaresh; Osborn, Kevin

    Various properties affect the quality factor of superconducting resonators at millikelvin temperatures including the presence of nanoscale interfacial dielectric films and residual quasiparticles. Superconducting titanium nitride is polycrystalline such that growth phases may also affect the resonator quality. Here, we functionalize Si substrates in different hydrophobic and hydrophilic plasma environments, sputter titanium nitride on top and pattern the latter films into resonators. For each functionalization we study the quality factor dependence on the superconducting film thickness, where the thicknesses are changed only between 25 and 50 nm. As expected, most functionalizations reveal very little quality factor dependence on superconducting film thickness. However, other functionalizations dramatically, and even anomalously, increase or decrease the quality with thickness. For example, oxygen plasma functionalization causes the quality factor to increase by a factor of more than ten at single photon power with increased thickness. We report on the progress towards finding the intrinsic reason for strong quality factor dependences on surface functionalization.

  12. Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life in chronic portuguese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic illnesses are diseases of long duration and generally of slow progression. They cause significant quality of life impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse psychosocial predictors of quality of life and of subjective well-being in chronic Portuguese patients. Methods Chronic disease patients (n = 774) were recruited from central Portuguese Hospitals. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and outcome variables: quality of life (HRQL) and subjective well-being (SWB). MANCOVA analyses were used to test psychosocial factors as determinants of HRQL and SWB. Results After controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables, results showed that dispositional optimism, positive affect, spirituality, social support and treatment adherence are significant predictors of HRQL and SWB. Similar predictors of quality of life, such as positive affect, treatment adherence and spirituality, were found for subgroups of disease classified by medical condition. Conclusions The work identifies psychosocial factors associated with quality of life. The predictors for the entire group of different chronic diseases are similar to the ones found in different chronic disease subgroups: positive affect, social support, treatment adherence and spirituality. Patients with more positive affect, additional social support, an adequate treatment adherence and a feel-good spirituality, felt better with the disease conditions and consequently had a better quality of life. This study contributes to understanding and improving the processes associated with quality of life, which is relevant for health care providers and chronic diseases support. PMID:24405802

  13. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  14. Pressure dependence of quality factors of graphene nano-mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaksaran, M. Hadi; Yanik, Cenk; Karakan, M. Cagatay; Ari, Atakan Bekir; Hanay, M. Selim; Kaya, Ismet I.

    In recent few years, low mass density and high stiffness of graphene has drawn attention for developing high frequency mechanical resonators with high quality factor at the same time. As a single-atom thick material, graphene has many desirable properties for high-frequency sensor applications compared to top-down nano-mechanical resonators . In this work we address the energy dissipation in graphene resonators due to viscous damping. We experimentally measure the pressure dependence of the quality factor of a graphene nano-mechanical resonator to understand its interaction with fluids at high frequencies. This work is supprted by TUBITAK under Grant Number 112T990.

  15. Quality-Factor Enhancement of Nanoelectromechanical Systems by Capacitive Driving Beyond Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barois, T.; Perisanu, S.; Poncharal, P.; Vincent, P.; Purcell, S. T.; Ayari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems are considered as ultrasensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to dc electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano-optomechanically and electrically by applying an ac capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We develop an analytical model of the phenomenon and show that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity.

  16. Bioaccumulation factor portions of the proposed water quality guidance for the Great Lakes system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Bioaccumulation factors are being proposed to be used in the derivation of human health and wildlife criteria specific for the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative (GLWQI). Adopting the use of bioaccumulation factors instead of bioconcentration factors presents a significant change from current Agency guidance. Because there is not an established procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors, national guidance may be eventually modeled on the proposed GLWQI Guidance. The document was produced to facilitate review of and comment on the proposed procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors by persons who may not keep abreast of Federal Register notices, including the larger scientific community. The document is composed of two chapters and one appendix. Chapter 1 describes the development of the proposed procedure for determining bioaccumulation factors; Chapter 2 presents the proposed methodology for development of bioaccumulation factors.

  17. The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

  18. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  19. Neutron measurements onboard the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Keith, J. E.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation environment inside a shielded volume is highly complex, consisting of both charged and neutral particles. Since the inception of human space flights, the charged particle component has received virtually all of the attention. There is however, a significant production of secondary neutrons, particularly from the aluminum structure in low earth orbiting spacecrafts. The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and solar energetic particles with the earth's atmosphere produce a non-isotropic distribution of albedo neutrons. Inside any reasonable habitable module, the average radiation quality factor of neutrons is about 4-5 times larger than the corresponding average quality factor of charged particles. The measurement of neutrons and their energy spectra is a difficult problem due the intense sources of charged particles. This paper reviews the results of Shuttle flight experiments (made during both solar maximum and solar minimum) to measure the contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent, as well as theoretical calculations to estimate the appropriate range of neutron energies that contribute most to the dose equivalent. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Neutron measurements onboard the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Keith, J E; Cleghorn, T F

    2001-06-01

    The radiation environment inside a shielded volume is highly complex, consisting of both charged and neutral particles. Since the inception of human space flights, the charged particle component has received virtually all of the attention. There is however, a significant production of secondary neutrons, particularly from the aluminum structure in low earth orbiting spacecrafts. The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and solar energetic particles with the earth's atmosphere produce a non-isotropic distribution of albedo neutrons. Inside any reasonable habitable module, the average radiation quality factor of neutrons is about 4-5 times larger than the corresponding average quality factor of charged particles. The measurement of neutrons and their energy spectra is a difficult problem due the intense sources of charged particles. This paper reviews the results of Shuttle flight experiments (made during both solar maximum and solar minimum) to measure the contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent, as well as theoretical calculations to estimate the appropriate range of neutron energies that contribute most to the dose equivalent. PMID:11852943

  1. Neutron dosimetry in low-earth orbit using passive detectors.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V; Frank, A L

    2001-06-01

    This paper summarizes neutron dosimetry measurements made by the USF Physics Research Laboratory aboard US and Russian LEO spacecraft over the past 20 years using two types of passive detector. Thermal/resonance neutron detectors exploiting the 6Li(n,T) alpha reaction were used to measure neutrons of energies <1 MeV. Fission foil neutron detectors were used to measure neutrons of energies above 1 MeV. While originally analysed in terms of dose equivalent using the NCRP-38 definition of quality factor, for the purposes of this paper the measured neutron data have been reanalyzed and are presented in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Dose equivalent rate for neutrons <1 MeV ranged from 0.80 microSv/d on the low altitude, low inclination STS-41B mission to 22.0 microSv/d measured in the Shuttle's cargo bay on the highly inclined STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. In one particular instance a detector embedded within a large hydrogenous mass on STS-61 (in the ECT experiment) measured 34.6 microSv/d. Dose equivalent rate measurements of neutrons >1 MeV ranged from 4.5 microSv/d on the low altitude STS-3 mission to 172 microSv/d on the ~6 year LDEF mission. Thermal neutrons (<0.3 eV) were observed to make a negligible contribution to neutron dose equivalent in all cases. The major fraction of neutron dose equivalent was found to be from neutrons >1 MeV and, on LDEF, neutrons >1 MeV are responsible for over 98% of the total neutron dose equivalent. Estimates of the neutron contribution to the total dose equivalent are somewhat lower than model estimates, ranging from 5.7% at a location under low shielding on LDEF to 18.4% on the highly inclined (82.3 degrees) Biocosmos-2044 mission. PMID:11852945

  2. Space Radiation Quality Factors and the Delta Ray Dose and Dose-Rate Reduction Effectiveness Factor.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna; Alp, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors recommend that the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor used for space radiation risk assessments should be based on a comparison of the biological effects of energetic electrons produced along a cosmic ray particles path in low fluence exposures to high dose-rate gamma-ray exposures of doses of about 1 Gy. Methods to implement this approach are described. PMID:26808878

  3. Factors predicting team climate, and its relationship with quality of care in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Quality of care in general practice may be affected by the team climate perceived by its health and non-health professionals. Better team working is thought to lead to higher effectiveness and quality of care. However, there is limited evidence available on what affects team functioning and its relationship with quality of care in general practice. This study aimed to explore individual and practice factors that were associated with team climate, and to explore the relationship between team climate and quality of care. Methods Cross sectional survey of a convenience sample of 14 general practices and their staff in South Tyneside in the northeast of England. Team climate was measured using the short version of Team Climate Inventory (TCI) questionnaire. Practice characteristics were collected during a structured interview with practice managers. Quality was measured using the practice Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores. Results General Practitioners (GP) had a higher team climate scores compared to other professionals. Individual's gender and tenure, and number of GPs in the practice were significantly predictors of a higher team climate. There was no significant correlation between mean practice team climate scores (or subscales) with QOF scores. Conclusion The absence of a relationship between a measure of team climate and quality of care in this exploratory study may be due to a number of methodological problems. Further research is required to explore how to best measure team functioning and its relationship with quality of care. PMID:19653911

  4. The quality of risk factor screening during antenatal consultations in Niger.

    PubMed

    Prual, A; Toure, A; Huguet, D; Laurent, Y

    2000-03-01

    A decade after the first International Conference on Safe Motherhood, maternal mortality remains very high in most West African countries, even in capital cities. The detection of high risk pregnancies, known as the risk approach, during antenatal consultations has been the basis of most maternal and child health programmes over the last decade. The effectiveness of antenatal care as a tool to prevent or predict obstetric complications is being questioned more and more. In addition to the scarcity of reliable data about the predictivity of most risk factors, the quality of the screening must be questioned. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency of risk factors among a sample of pregnant women attending antenatal care in Niger and to assess the quality of the screening of those risk factors. Overall, 330 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Each woman was examined twice: the first time by a midwife, the second time by one of the authors but without knowledge of the results of the first consultation. Fifty-five percent of pregnant women had at least one risk factor, 31% had more than one. Ninety-one percent of the risk factors were detected at interview. The following risk factors were not systematically searched for by midwives: height (48.5%), blood pressure (43.6%), glycosuria (40.6%), vaginal bleeding (38.2%), oedema (37.3%), parity (17%), age (16%), previous caesarean section (15.2%), previous stillbirth (15.2%) and previous miscarriages (14.8%). This study has shown that, in Niger, the quality of screening for risk factors during antenatal consultation is poor. In the urban settings where this study took place, lack of personnel, lack of equipment, lack of time and poor compliance by women cannot be made responsible for this situation. While screening of these risk factors continues as policy, the quality of screening must be dramatically improved. PMID:10731230

  5. Assessment Scales, Associated Factors and the Quality of Life Score in Pregnant Women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Farideh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat

    2016-01-01

    Women experience physical, chemical, endocrine gland and organ changes during pregnancy that limit their activities and reduce their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investigate the quality of life in pregnant women in Iran, the assessment scales used to measure this variable and the factors associated with it.The present study searched databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, Mahiran, IranDoc and Google Scholar using keywords such as pregnant women, Iran, quality of life, pregnancy and prenatal and their Persian equivalents to find relevant articles conducted in Iran and ultimately found 20 articles to review without any regard for their time, language and publication site.Studies conducted in Iran to assess the quality of life in pregnant women have used four tools, including the SF-36, the WHOQOL-BRIEF, the SF-12 and the Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. The mean quality of life score obtained using these different tools varied from 61.18±13.21 to 66.48±15.57. Social support, socioeconomic status, the pregnancy being wanted, satisfaction with life and sexual function were related directly to the quality of life, while prenatal mental disorders, the severity of pregnancy nausea and vomiting and sleep disorders were related inversely to it.Given the lack of a specific tool designed to assess the quality of life in pregnant women, general tools were used for its assessment. Further studies are thus required to design a specific localized tool and to also assess the relationship between the quality of life and its associated factors. PMID:27241421

  6. The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic {sup 3}{ovr He}({rvec e}, e{prime}) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  7. Miniaturisation and high quality factor of spiral meander spurline resonator for microwave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Kim, Nam-Young

    2013-04-01

    The spiral meander spurline structure is an optimal solution for a reduced resonator size and a high Quality factor (Q-factor) compared to other conventional spurline structures. The spiral meander spurline resonator shows not only 38% reduced dimensional effect, but also 16% improved Q-factor compared with conventional meander spurline resonator. Moreover, in order to get more high quality factor, we analysed spurline slot width variation and designed the symmetric dual spiral meander structure, which has a 46.87% improved Q-factor compare with a single spiral meander. The symmetric dual spiral meander structure resonator performance results are shown in a return loss of -0.76 dB, an insertion loss of -46.32 dB, and a quality factor of 235 at 6.4 GHz C-band application. In addition, according to the design and performance of the resonator, we can derive from this performance a low phase noise oscillator. The oscillators using symmetric dual spiral meander structure resonator shows good phase noise performances of -104.43 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier frequencies of 6.38 GHz at output powers of 12.2 dBm, respectively.

  8. A method for assessing the quality of life of cancer patients: replication of the factor structure.

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, J. M.; Selby, P. J.; Robertson, B.; Powles, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a method of measuring the quality of life of cancer patients based on multiple linear analogue scales have been assessed in a group of 294 patients with breast cancer attending one clinical unit. The method was found to be readily managed by patients although a small number of scales presented difficulties of understanding to patients and difficulties of analysis. The scales distinguished readily between patients of different disease and treatment status. Factor analysis revealed a 5 factor structure which we interpret as relating to physical activities of everyday living, emotional disturbance, alimentary disturbances, appearance and cosmetic problems and a fifth factor which is more difficult to interpret and includes impairment of speech, writing and concentration. We feel the essential factors determining quality of life in cancer patients have been demonstrated in this and our earlier studies and there is now a substantial level of agreement in the factors that have been identified by groups taking quite different approaches. The major factors determining quality of life in cancer patients are now known and should be assessed in clinical research and clinical trials. The method by which they should be assessed is not as yet so clear. PMID:1616871

  9. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  10. Quality factor and finesse optimization in buried InGaAsP/InP ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, C.; Passaro, V. M. N.; Dell'Olio, F.; Armenise, M. N.

    2009-06-01

    Quality factor and finesse of buried In1 xGaxAsyP1 y / InP ring resonators have been optimized in this paper by a very general modelling technique. Limiting effect of propagation loss within the ring has been investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) highly accurate complex mode solver based on mode matching method to analyze bending loss dependence on ring radius and wavelength. Coupling between straight input/output (I/O) bus waveguides and ring resonator has been studied by 3D Beam Propagation Method (BPM), deriving coupling loss and coupling coefficient for a large range of ring radius and bus waveguides-ring distance values (for both polarizations). Ring resonator has been modelled by the transfer-matrix approach, while finesse and quality factor dependence on radius has been estimated for two resonator architectures (including one or two I/O bus waveguides) and for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes. Guiding structure has been optimized to enhance resonator performance. The modelling approach has been validated by comparing results obtained by our algorithm with experimental data reported in literature. Influence of rejection (at resonance wavelength) at through port on quality factor and finesse has been widely discussed. A quality factor larger than 8105 has been predicted for the ring resonator employing only one I/O bus waveguide and having a radius of 400 mm. This resonator exhibits a rejection of -8 dB at through port.

  11. Measurement Model Quality, Sample Size, and Solution Propriety in Confirmatory Factor Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Phill; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2006-01-01

    Sample size recommendations in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have recently shifted away from observations per variable or per parameter toward consideration of model quality. Extending research by Marsh, Hau, Balla, and Grayson (1998), simulations were conducted to determine the extent to which CFA model convergence and parameter estimation…

  12. A Review of Research on Factors that Impact Aspects of Online Discussions Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatariu, Alexandru; Quinn, Linda F.; Hartley, Kendall

    2007-01-01

    In support of online discussions research, this review classifies and describes instructional interventions and learner characteristics that affect the quality of discussions. The review will help educators better understand factors such as group structure, mentoring, argumentation, and learner characteristics that play a role in shaping online…

  13. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  14. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

  15. Frame Factors and a Quality Assurance Agency in an "Embryonic" Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    Using the Affiliations Unit of the University of Botswana as a case study, this paper explores how the operational milieu of an External Quality Assurance Agency (EQAA) impacts on its role and function. This milieu is described and selected frame factors are identified and evaluated, including the size of the country; the role of a hegemonic…

  16. Frame Factors and a Quality Assurance Agency in an 'Embryonic' Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkin, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Using the Affiliations Unit of the University of Botswana as a case study, this paper explores how the operational milieu of an External Quality Assurance Agency (EQAA) impacts on its role and function. This milieu is described and selected frame factors are identified and evaluated, including the size of the country; the role of a hegemonic…

  17. Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

  18. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  19. High quality factor subwavelength grating waveguide micro-ring resonator based on trapezoidal silicon pillars.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Chen, Ray T

    2016-07-15

    Subwavelength grating waveguide-based micro-ring resonators (SWGMRs) are a promising platform for research in light-matter interaction. However, it is extremely difficult to achieve small radius SWGMR devices (e.g., 5 μm) with satisfying quality factors (e.g., ∼10,000). One major issue is the large bend loss of small radius SWGMRs. In this work, we report the use of trapezoidal silicon pillars instead of conventional rectangular silicon pillars as building blocks of SWGMRs. We found that an asymmetric effective refractive index profile created by trapezoidal silicon pillars can significantly reduce the bend loss and therefore increase the quality factors of SWGMRs. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, we have experimentally demonstrated a 5 μm radius SWGMR made of trapezoidal silicon pillars (T-SWGMR) with an applicable quality factor as high as 11,500, 4.6 times of that (∼2800) offered by a conventional SWGMR made of rectangular silicon pillars, which indicates an 81.4% reduction of the propagation loss. This approach can also be readily employed to enhance SWGMRs with larger radii. We have also experimentally demonstrated a 10 μm radius T-SWGMR with a quality factor as high as 45,000, which indicates a propagation loss as low as 6.07 dB/cm. PMID:27420539

  20. Quality of Drawing as a Factor in the Interpretation of Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank A.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    1978-01-01

    The drawings of 32 poliomyelitis patients and their matched controls were examined to see whether figure drawings primarily reflect the subject's projection of psychological state, ability to draw, or some combination of these two factors. Quality of drawing may at times be the overwhelming determinant of clinical and research findings.…

  1. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  2. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  3. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  4. Factor Analysis of Quality of Life for Individuals with Severe Disabilities in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hung-Chih

    A study of 398 young adults (ages 21-26) with severe disabilities who had been out of school for 1.75 to 5 years was conducted to validate a four-factor model of quality of life for youth with severe disabilities in transition from school to community and from youth to adulthood. Information was gathered on life satisfaction, employment-economic…

  5. Evaluated cross-section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Cox, L.; Young, P.G.; Meigooni, A.

    1995-04-11

    A program is being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop high-energy evaluated nuclear data libraries for use in Monte Carlo simulations of cancer radiation therapy. In this report we describe evaluated cross sections and kerma factors for neutrons with incident energies up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C. The aim of this effort is to incorporate advanced nuclear physics modeling methods, with new experimental measurements, to generate cross section libraries needed for an accurate simulation of dose deposition in fast neutron therapy. The evaluated libraries are based mainly on nuclear model calculations, benchmarked to experimental measurements where they exist. We use the GNASH code system, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms. The libraries tabulate elastic and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated production spectra for light ejectiles with A{le}and kinetic energies given to light ejectiles and heavy recoil fragments. The major steps involved in this effort are: (1) development and validation of nuclear models for incident energies up to 100 MeV; (2) collation of experimental measurements, including new results from Louvain-la-Nueve and Los Alamos; (3) extension of the Livermore ENDL formats for representing high-energy data; (4) calculation and evaluation of nuclear data; and (5) validation of the libraries. We describe the evaluations in detail, with particular emphasis on our new high-energy modeling developments. Our evaluations agree well with experimental measurements of integrated and differential cross sections. We compare our results with the recent ENDF/B-VI evaluation which extends up to 32 MeV.

  6. Epithermal Neutrons, Illumination, Spatial Scale and Topography: A Correlative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Detection of Slope Hydration Using LRO's Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T.; Sagdeev, R.; Parsons, A. M.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Harshman, K.; Hamara, D.; Bodnarik, J.

    2014-10-01

    This research correlates the Moon’s south polar epithermal neutron flux, topography and a visible illumination model and shows that there is a widespread hydration of polward-facing (PF) slopes that is occurring at a continuum of spatial scales.

  7. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Calcium Intake and Bone Quality in Middle-School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Kelder, Steven H.; Diamond, Pamela; Day, R. Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Calcium intake has been associated with promoting bone health in children and adolescents, thus, preventing osteoporosis later in life. Behavior change such as increased calcium intake, as well as physiological factors such as bone quality, may be facilitated by psychosocial and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to identify pathways by which psychosocial factors influence calcium intake and bone quality in middle-school girls. The study design was cross-sectional. Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study, collected in 2001–2003, were utilized. IMPACT, was a 1 ½ years nutrition and physical activity intervention study, designed to improve bone density in 717 middle-school girls in Texas. Main outcome measures were: 1) calcium intake determined using mean milligrams of calcium consumed per day and number of glasses of milk consumed per day, and 2) bone quality determined using calcaneal stiffness index. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were performed to identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial factors such as knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectations and milk availability at home, to influence calcium intake and bone quality. Results showed that knowledge of osteoporosis and calcium rich foods had an indirect effect on calcium intake, with outcome expectations as the mediating variable (β=0.035 and β=0.03 respectively, p < 0.05). Calcium self-efficacy had a significant indirect effect on calcium intake, with outcome expectations as the mediator (β=0.085, p < 0.05). None of the variables significantly influenced bone quality. Thus, several direct and indirect pathways used to influence calcium intake among adolescent girls, were identified. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions to promote calcium intake in this population. PMID:20497785

  8. Hydrological factors behind the water quality changes due to restoration in boreal peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Walle Menberu, Meseret; Irannezhad, Masoud; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Penttinen, Jouni; Hokkanen, Reijo; Klöve, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Recovery of hydrological conditions after restoration in previously drained peatlands is typically faster process compared to changes in runoff water quality. Often nutrient load from restored sites increase remarkably during restoration operation and reduce over time when conditions stabilize. However, in some sites nutrient load can remain high for long periods of time which increase negative effects of restoration on downstream water bodies. The factors and challenges behind these processes are poorly understood in practical catchment restoration planning. This study aims to understand factors affecting water quality changes after peatland restoration. Totally 43 peatlands areas of which 24 sites were previously drained and restored during the study and 19 sites at their pristine stage (control sites) were included to the study. The control pristine sites had as little anthropogenic disturbances as possible and the sites were chosen so that the paired study sites closely share similar peatland type, nutrient status and weather conditions. Pore water quality (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, pH, electric conductivity and colour) was measured from all sites and runoff quality and amount from 7 sites in the years 2008-2014. Measured parameters, different peatland types and nutrient loads were studied together with numerous hydrological parameters (variation in water table fluctuations, peat pore water recharge coefficient, physical parameters of peat e.g. specific yield, degree of humification) by statistical methods. Differences in water table dependent hydrological conditions indicate e.g. flow paths and residence time of water that is known to have effect on runoff water quality. As a result, water table related hydrological changes following restoration are as well assumed to explain alterations in water quality in different peatland types. In addition, using water table related hydrological processes as a proxy for water quality

  9. Hearing the patient's voice? Factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E; Cleary, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement. Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature. Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care. Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers). Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas. Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with

  10. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  11. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (Editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  12. Filling factor characteristics of masking phase-only hologram on the quality of reconstructed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuanbo; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-01

    The present study evaluates the filling factor characteristics of masking phase-only hologram on its corresponding reconstructed image. A square aperture with different filling factor is added on the phase-only hologram of the target image, and average cross-section intensity profile of the reconstructed image is obtained and deconvolved with that of the target image to calculate the point spread function (PSF) of the image. Meanwhile, Lena image is used as the target image and evaluated by metrics RMSE and SSIM to assess the quality of reconstructed image. The results show that the PSF of the image agrees with the PSF of the Fourier transform of the mask, and as the filling factor of the mask decreases, the width of PSF increases and the quality of reconstructed image drops. These characteristics could be used in practical situations where phase-only hologram is confined or need to be sliced or tiled.

  13. Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

    2011-10-10

    Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

  14. Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime

    SciTech Connect

    Marko Zeier

    2000-12-12

    We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

  15. Neutron spectra and dose equivalents calculated in tissue for high-energy radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Followill, David S.

    2009-04-15

    Neutrons are by-products of high-energy radiation therapy and a source of dose to normal tissues. Thus, the presence of neutrons increases a patient's risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Although neutrons have been thoroughly studied in air, little research has been focused on neutrons at depths in the patient where radiosensitive structures may exist, resulting in wide variations in neutron dose equivalents between studies. In this study, we characterized properties of neutrons produced during high-energy radiation therapy as a function of their depth in tissue and for different field sizes and different source-to-surface distances (SSD). We used a previously developed Monte Carlo model of an accelerator operated at 18 MV to calculate the neutron fluences, energy spectra, quality factors, and dose equivalents in air and in tissue at depths ranging from 0.1 to 25 cm. In conjunction with the sharply decreasing dose equivalent with increased depth in tissue, the authors found that the neutron energy spectrum changed drastically as a function of depth in tissue. The neutron fluence decreased gradually as the depth increased, while the average neutron energy decreased sharply with increasing depth until a depth of approximately 7.5 cm in tissue, after which it remained nearly constant. There was minimal variation in the quality factor as a function of depth. At a given depth in tissue, the neutron dose equivalent increased slightly with increasing field size and decreasing SSD; however, the percentage depth-dose equivalent curve remained constant outside the primary photon field. Because the neutron dose equivalent, fluence, and energy spectrum changed substantially with depth in tissue, we concluded that when the neutron dose equivalent is being determined at a depth within a patient, the spectrum and quality factor used should be appropriate for depth rather than for in-air conditions. Alternately, an appropriate percent depth-dose equivalent curve should be

  16. Sleep Quality and Depression and Their Association with Other Factors in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Firoz, Masomeh Norozi; Shafipour, Vida; Jafari, Hedayat; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders and depression, accompanied by reduced quality of life and increased mortality are the most common psychological problems in dialysis patients. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate depression and sleep quality and their association with some demographic and clinical factors in hemodialysis patients. Method: This descriptive-correlative study was conducted on 310 patients undergoing hemodialysis in 8 centers in educational hospitals in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi-Square test and regression model. Results: Results obtained showed 44.8% depression in patients. Significant relationships were found between depression and increased blood phosphorus (P=0.002) and urea (P=0.001). Poor sleep quality was observed in 73.5% of hemodialysis patients, which was found significantly related to aging (P=0.048), female (P=0.04), and reduced frequency of weekly hemodialysis (P=0.035). Conclusion: Depression and poor sleep quality are two common factors in hemodialysis patients, but patients do not overtly show symptoms of these disorders.

  17. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  18. Delirium transitions in the medical ICU: exploring the role of sleep quality and other factors

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; King, Lauren M.; Neufeld, Karin J.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Rowden, Annette M.; Collop, Nancy A.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disrupted sleep is a common and potentially modifiable risk factor for delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU). As part of a quality improvement (QI) project to promote sleep in the ICU, we examined the association of perceived sleep quality ratings and other patient and ICU risk factors with daily transition to delirium. Design Secondary analysis of prospective observational study. Setting Medical ICU (MICU) over a 201-day period. Patients 223 patients with ≥1 night in the MICU in between two consecutive days of delirium assessment. Interventions None Measurements Daily perceived sleep quality ratings were measured using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Delirium was measured twice-daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Other covariates evaluated included: age, sex, race, ICU admission diagnosis, nighttime mechanical ventilation status, prior day’s delirium status, and daily sedation using benzodiazepines and opioids, via both bolus and continuous infusion. Main Results Perceived sleep quality was similar in patients who were ever versus never delirious in the ICU (median [IQR] ratings 58 [35-76] vs. 57 [33-78], respectively p=0.71), and perceived sleep quality was unrelated to delirium transition (adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). In mechanically ventilated patients, receipt of a continuous benzodiazepine and/or opioid infusion was associated with delirium transition (adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 2.19-7.38, p<0.001) and patients reporting use of pharmacological sleep aids at home were less likely to transition to delirium (adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.80, p=0.01). Conclusions We found no association between daily perceived sleep quality ratings and transition to delirium. Infusion of benzodiazepine and/or opioid medications was strongly associated with transition to delirium in the ICU in mechanically ventilated patients and is an important, modifiable risk factor for delirium in critically ill

  19. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    PubMed

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  20. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q^2=0.45 and 1.13 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeyuki Tajima

    2003-12-31

    Precise measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, over a wide range of the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q2, are important for understanding nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. In the non-relativistic limit, the electric and magnetic form factors are related to the charge and magnetization distribution inside a nucleon, respectively. The measured values of the form factors also serve as an important test for nucleon models. Among the four nucleon form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, is the most difficult one to measure and therefore has been very poorly known especially in the region Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2 due to the lack of a free neutron target and the small value of Gn E. The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gn E/Gn M, at three acceptance-averaged Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 using the quasi-elastic 2H({approx}e, e0{approx}n)1H reaction. In our experiment, an electron was scattered quasielastically from a neutron in a liquid-deuterium target, and the electron was detected in an electron spectrometer in coincidence with the neutron which was detected in a neutron polarimeter. The polarimeter was used to analyze the polarization of the recoil neutrons by measuring the np elastic scattering asymmetry. The experiment was performed in Hall-C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the period from September 2000 to April 2001. The value of g was determined from the measured ratio of the sideways and longitudinal components of the neutron polarization vector. The values for Gn E were computed from our measured values of g = Gn E/Gn M using the Gn M values obtained from a fit to the world data. The E93-038 collaboration reported the first measurements of Gn E using polarization techniques at Q2 greater than 1 (GeV/c)2. Furthermore, our measurements of Gn E at the two higher Q2 values of 1.13 and 1

  1. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Joshua S.; Taibbi, Giovanni; Nelson, Seth C.; Chao, Diana; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2015-01-01

    Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability. PMID:26351574

  2. Analysis of thermal shock strength and quality factor with infrared optical domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Youtang; Liu, Shuo; Xu, Yuan; Chang, Benkang

    2012-11-01

    The development of infrared optical materials is always closely related to the research and exploration of material science. The infrared optical domes bears shock and produces stress when the infrared optical domes mounted on the missile moving at a high speed is shocked by high temperature. According to principle of energy balance in fracture mechanics proposed by D.P.H. Hasselman, the author analyzed the crack extension and derived the relationship between Infrared optical materials window model and thermal shock quality factor. Meanwhile, strong or weak of thermal shock for different samples whether they are thin or thick are compared through the operation of queuing algorithm. The conclusion is the internal surface of the domes isn't heated when the window model is the thermal shock quality factor of thick sample and the heating time is between heating time constant and diffusion time constant. On the other hand, the internal surface of the domes is being heated when the window model is the thermal shock quality factor of thin sample and the heating time is between the two time constants. The most optical domes parts in practice is belong the thin model. For the thin model, reducing the thickness of optical parts can improve their thermal shock ability but mechanical impact stress factor should be considered comprehensively to design optical parts.

  3. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

  4. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Zou, Guangyong; Campbell, Craig

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated clinical and family characteristics associated with health-related quality of life in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Families of 176 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were identified and mailed questionnaires via the Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry. Multiple linear regressions analyses were used to examine the relationship between clinical and family characteristics and child-self and parent-proxy reported health-related quality of life. Greater fatigue and use of wheelchairs were consistently associated with worse health-related quality of life independent of other factors. Higher household income and parent having a postsecondary degree were associated with better health-related quality of life in some of the measures. A greater clinical focus on and efforts to reduce fatigue could lead to improvement of health-related quality of life in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy population. This study also sets the ground for longitudinal studies where changes in health-related quality of life can be monitored over time. PMID:26863997

  5. Factors Influencing RNs' Perceptions of Quality Geriatric Care in Rural Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Cline, Daniel D; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Kovner, Christine; Boltz, Marie; Kolanowski, Ann; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    The rapidly aging population and their frequent use of hospital services will create substantial quality challenges in the near future. Redesigning rural hospital work environments is the key to improving the quality of care for older adults. This study explored how the work environment influences registered nurses' (RNs') perceived quality of geriatric care in rural hospitals. We used an exploratory mixed-methods research design emphasizing the qualitative data (in-depth, semi-structured interviews). Quantitative data (questionnaire) measuring the RN work environment were also collected to augment qualitative data. Four themes emerged: (a) collegial RN relationships, (b) poor staffing/utilization, (c) technology benefits/challenges, and (d) RN-physician interactions, which were identified as key factors influencing the quality of geriatric care. We concluded that rural hospital work environments may not be optimized to facilitate the delivery of quality geriatric care. Targeted interventions are needed to improve overall quality of care for hospitalized older adults in rural settings. PMID:24319004

  6. Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

    1992-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

  7. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  8. [Neutron activation analysis of human hair--multivariate analysis of factors influencing on trace element contents in hair-- (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Imahori, A; Fukushima, I

    1980-06-01

    As a part of IAEA research project, "Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants", a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentrations in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and smoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. PMID:7208973

  9. Effect of photometric detector spectral response quality on white LED spectral mismatch correction factors.

    PubMed

    Rosas, E; Estrada-Hernández, A

    2016-07-01

    Light-emitting-diode (LED)-based solid-state lighting has become a real option for private and public lighting after achieving high total luminous flux (TLF) and luminous efficacy levels, thus promoting the development of energy efficient use regulation to be fulfilled by LED lamps and LED luminaires. Here, we propose a photometer-quality-based fast-checking criterion. This allows photometric technicians to perform a quick evaluation of the photometric head spectral response quality effect on the LED source spectral mismatch correction factor-when determining the TLF and luminous efficacy minimum approved levels-performance parameters subject to mandatory verification by the conformity assessment procedures technically supporting the corresponding regulation. The proposed criterion applies for a wide range of photometric detector heads' qualities (2.6%≤f1'≤36.4%). PMID:27409220

  10. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause. PMID:24245487

  11. A high quality factor photonic crystal channel-drop filter with a linear gradient microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Fan, Qing-bin; Lu, Ye; Luo, De-jun; Kong, Yi-bu; Zhang, Dong-chuang

    2015-05-01

    We design a channel-drop filter (CDF) with a linear gradient microcavity in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC). The model of three-port CDF with reflector is used to achieve high quality factor (Q-factor) and 100% channel-drop efficiency. The research indicates that adjusting the distance between reference plane and reflector can simultaneously influence the Q-factor due to coupling to a bus waveguide and the phase retardation occurring in the round trip between a microcavity and a reflector. The calculation results of 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that the designed filter can achieve the drop efficiency of 96.7% and ultra-high Q-factor with an ultra-small modal volume.

  12. Measurement of mechanical quality factors of polymers in flexural vibration for high-power ultrasonic application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    A method for measuring the mechanical quality factor (Q factor) of materials in large-amplitude flexural vibrations was devised on the basis of the original definition of the Q factor. The Q factor, the ratio of the reactive energy to the dissipated energy, was calculated from the vibration velocity distribution. The bar thickness was selected considering the effect of the thickness on the estimation error. In the experimental setup, a 1-mm-thick polymer-based bar was used as a sample and fixed on the top of a longitudinal transducer. Using transducers of different lengths, flexural waves in the frequency range of 20-90kHz were generated on the bar. The vibration strain in the experiment reached 0.06%. According to the Bernoulli-Euler model, the reactive energy and dissipated energy were estimated from the vertical velocity distribution on the bar, and the Q factors were measured as the driving frequency and strain were varied. The experimental results showed that the Q factors decrease as the driving frequencies and strains increase. At a frequency of 28.30kHz, the Q factor of poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) reached approximately 460 when the strain was smaller than 0.005%. PPS exhibited a much higher Q factor than the other tested polymers, which implies that it is a potentially applicable material as the elastomer for high-power ultrasonic devices. PMID:27065470

  13. Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

  14. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Rochman, Jake; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-11

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystal. PMID:26832284

  15. [Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].

    PubMed

    Chávez, J F

    1980-03-01

    A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

  16. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

  17. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

  18. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  19. [Factors influencing the quality of life of family caregivers of the elderly with dementia].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lírica Salluz Mattos; Soares, Sônia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The progression of symptoms of dementia leads to loss of autonomy and independence of the elderly. This progression suggests that a family member will assume the functions of caregiver, which can adversely affect his/her quality of life (QOL). This research is an integrative review that sought to analyze the available evidence on the factors that influence quality of life of family caregivers of the elderly with dementia. Articles published in the BDENF, Lilacs and Medline databases were examined and 477 studies were selected, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria and comprised the sample of this review. It was found that the factors that influence quality of life of caregivers are: depression; poor sleep quality; dementia type and neuropsychiatric symptoms; support, social support and access to health services; leisure; pre-existing health problems; interventions for caregiver training and spirituality. It is suggested that the nursing professional identifies the needs of the caregivers, such that strategies of care can be defined. PMID:26691808

  20. Neutron scatter camera

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  1. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be

  2. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  3. Physics and material science of ultra-high quality factor superconducting resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Vostrikov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The nitrogen doping into niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity walls aiming to improve the fundamental mode quality factor is the subject of the research in the given work. Quantitative nitrogen diffusion into niobium model calculating the concentration profile was developed. The model estimations were confirmed with secondary ion mass spectrometry technique measurements. The model made controlled nitrogen doping recipe optimization possible. As a result the robust reproducible recipe for SRF cavity walls treatment with nitrogen doping was developed. The cavities produced with optimized recipe met LCLS–II requirements on quality factor of 2.7 ∙ 1010 at acceleration field of 16 MV/m. The microscopic effects of nitrogen doping on superconducting niobium properties were studied with low energy muon spin rotation technique and magnetometer measurements. No significant effect of nitrogen on the following features was found: electron mean free path, magnetic field penetration depth, and upper and surface critical magnetic fields. It was detected that for nitrogen doped niobium samples magnetic flux starts to penetrate inside the superconductor at lower external magnetic field value compared to the low temperature baked niobium ones. This explains lower quench field of SRF cavities treated with nitrogen. Quality factor improvement of fundamental mode forced to analyze the high order mode (HOM) impact on the particle beam dynamics. Both resonant and cumulative effects caused by monopole and dipole HOMs respectively are found to be negligible within the requirements for LCLS–II.

  4. Physics and material science of ultra-high quality factor superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, Alexander

    The nitrogen doping into niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity walls aiming to improve the fundamental mode quality factor is the subject of the research in the given work. Quantitative nitrogen diffusion into niobium model calculating the concentration profile was developed. The model estimations were confirmed with secondary ion mass spectrometry technique measurements. The model made controlled nitrogen doping recipe optimization possible. As a result the robust reproducible recipe for SRF cavity walls treatment with nitrogen doping was developed. The cavities produced with optimized recipe met LCLS--II requirements on quality factor of 2. · 10 10 at acceleration field of 16~MV/m. The microscopic effects of nitrogen doping on superconducting niobium properties were studied with low energy muon spin rotation technique and magnetometer measurements. No significant effect of nitrogen on the following features was found: electron mean free path, magnetic field penetration depth, and upper and surface critical magnetic fields. It was detected that for nitrogen doped niobium samples magnetic flux starts to penetrate inside the superconductor at lower external magnetic field value compared to the low temperature baked niobium ones. This explains lower quench field of SRF cavities treated with nitrogen. Quality factor improvement of fundamental mode forced to analyze the high order mode (HOM) impact on the particle beam dynamics. Both resonant and cumulative effects caused by monopole and dipole HOMs respectively are found to be negligible within the requirements for LCLS--II.

  5. A Control Based System of Mechanical Loss Measurement for High Quality Factor Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis Gitelman, Louis; Smith, Nicolas; Jafar, Isaac; Harry, Gregory; Newport, Jonathan; Abernathy, Matt; LIGO Collaboration

    In this poster we will present the control system being developed to measure the quality factor of optics used in the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors to predict thermal noise levels. It works by locking the phase between the optic's exciter and normal mode to pi/2 and locking the optics's amplitude allowing one to equate the energy output of the exciter to the mechanical loss of the optic. To do this the amplitude of the normal mode is detected using a birefringence meter and lockin amplifier, which is then fedback to an electrostatic exciter to control the mode's amplitude and phase with a PID controller written on a python script. The poster will discuss the components and assembly of this system and the theoretical control structure behind it. It will also discuss the speed, accuracy and general feasibility of this method of quality factor measurement relative to other methods, and steps to improve and develop this method of quality factor measurement and the possible applications for LIGO and in general.

  6. Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia

    2016-08-01

    The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.

  7. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality

  8. Factors influencing success in quality-improvement collaboratives: development and psychometric testing of an instrument

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To increase the effectiveness of quality-improvement collaboratives (QICs), it is important to explore factors that potentially influence their outcomes. For this purpose, we have developed and tested the psychometric properties of an instrument that aims to identify the features that may enhance the quality and impact of collaborative quality-improvement approaches. The instrument can be used as a measurement instrument to retrospectively collect information about perceived determinants of success. In addition, it can be prospectively applied as a checklist to guide initiators, facilitators, and participants of QICs, with information about how to perform or participate in a collaborative with theoretically optimal chances of success. Such information can be used to improve collaboratives. Methods We developed an instrument with content validity based on literature and the opinions of QIC experts. We collected data from 144 healthcare professionals in 44 multidisciplinary improvement teams participating in two QICs and used exploratory factor analysis to assess the construct validity. We used Cronbach's alpha to ascertain the internal consistency. Results The 50-item instrument we developed reflected expert-opinion-based determinants of success in a QIC. We deleted nine items after item reduction. On the basis of the factor analysis results, one item was dropped, which resulted in a 40-item questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model provided the best fit. The components were labeled 'sufficient expert team support', 'effective multidisciplinary teamwork', and 'helpful collaborative processes'. Internal consistency reliability was excellent (alphas between .85 and .89). Conclusions This newly developed instrument seems a promising tool for providing healthcare workers and policy makers with useful information about determinants of success in QICs. The psychometric properties of the instrument are satisfactory and warrant

  9. A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Design Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. Study sample 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. Results We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed “speech understanding”, “spatial perception”, and “clarity, separation, and identification”. Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, “effort and concentration”, representing two more questions. Conclusions These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores. PMID:24417459

  10. Factors associated with quality of life among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Md Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

    2013-01-01

    Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0-100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m(2)) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1 ± 19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0 ± 8.6 and 39.6 ± 8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of

  11. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran’s national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  12. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  13. Improvement in the quality factors for photonic crystal nanocavities via visualization of the leaky components.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Asano, Takashi; Noda, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    A method that simply improves the quality (Q) factors of two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities using a three-dimensional finite-difference time domain calculation is described. The leaky area for a high-Q nanocavity mode is visualized in a real cavity structure by extracting the leaky components within a light cone in momentum space and by transferring them back into real space using an inverse Fourier transformation. The Q factor is remarkably improved by appropriately shifting the positions of air holes at the leaky area. We design three-missing-air-hole and zero-cell-defect nanocavities with Q factors of 5,000,000 and 1,700,000, respectively, for demonstration. PMID:27137567

  14. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  15. [Effects of environmental factors at different altitudes on leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple].

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Wen; Gao, Chen-Xi; Zhang, Dong; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Liu, Hang-Kong

    2014-08-01

    To inquire the different performances of the leaves and fruit quality of Fuji apple tress at various altitudes and their responses to the environmental factors, indices including leaf morphology, anatomy, δ13 C, and fruit quality of the Fuji apple trees at respective altitudes of 1375 m, 1575 m and 1715 m were investigated and their responses to environmental factors were determined following stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that 6 factors like the warmth index, Bailey's index, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), coldness index, ultraviolet B and the annual precipitation dominantly affected the characteristic parameters of leaves and fruit. Elevation increase was matched by the decreasing warmth index, rising Bailey' s index, intenser PAR, higher coldness index, stronger ultraviolet B and heavier annual precipitation; meanwhile, the leaf structure and fruit quality parameters also displayed evident trends of change accordingly, namely, leaf parameters like leaf thickness, cuticle thickness, ratio of palisade and spongy, maximum conduit diameter, δ13C and nitrogen content per unit area increased gradually, and oppositely, leaf length-width ratio, specific leaf area, stoma length-width ratio and ratio of upper and lower epidermis to the leaf thickness decreased gradually; similarly, fruit parameters such as fruit shape index, fruit hardness, sugar-acid ratio, total color and the a/b-value ascended while the titratable acid and the hue angle descended. With increasing the altitude, the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of leaves were enhanced, and the fruit sugar-acid ratio climbed and the fruit flavor and color improved. Therefore, it could be safely concluded that within the altitude range between 1375 and 1715 m, environmental factors at a higher altitude favored Fuji apple growth. PMID:25509074

  16. Recent trends in cancer incidence: impact of risk factors, diagnostic activities and data quality of registration.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Silvia; Tonev, Simeon; Korol, Dimitri; Rohrmann, Sabine; Dimitrova, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    Aims and background. Cancer incidence variations are influenced by different factors including socioeconomic status, risk factors and use of screening. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in cancer incidence in two urban areas in Europe showing differences in influencing factors but also some common characteristics in the context of data quality of the corresponding cancer registries.Methods. Age-standardized incidence rates (world standard - ASRW) for cases diagnosed in 2000-2009 for Sofia (Bulgaria) and the Canton of Zurich (Switzerland) were calculated using data from the corresponding cancer registries. Average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated with Joinpoint regression analysis. Data quality was estimated in terms of proportions of microscopically verified (MV%) and death-certificate-only (DCO%) cases. Results. ASRWs for all sites were higher in Zurich for men (311 vs 262 per 100,000) and women (241 vs 231 per 100,000) than in Sofia. Colorectal (both sexes), lung (men), cervical and corpus uteri cancer had a higher incidence in Sofia. Prostate, breast and lung (women) cancer were more often diagnosed in Zurich. A significant increase in female lung cancer incidence was observed in both areas. Overall incidence decreased in Zurich, while it did not significantly change in Sofia. MV% was lower in Sofia than in the Canton of Zurich but increased steadily up to 85% in 2009, whereas in the Canton of Zurich MV% was more or less stable around 95%. The DCO% of Sofia was 19% in 2000 and steadily decreased to 8% in 2009. In the Canton of Zurich, the DCO% decreased from 5% in 2000 but increased again from 2006 onwards, up to 3% in 2009. Conclusions. Cancer incidence rates differ between Sofia and Zurich. Differences concerning socioeconomic status, risk factors, use of cancer screening but also data quality may influence these results. PMID:25296588

  17. Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, P P; Say, Y H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

  18. Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic heart failure in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mina; Mehrdad, Neda; Nikpour, Soghra; Haghani, Hamid; Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Sharifi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common among patients with chronic heart failure (HF), and it can have a significant effect on patients’ daily activities as well as their health. The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and its predictors in Iranian patients with chronic HF. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 patients with HF in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to November 2009. These patients completed a demographic questionnaire, and their sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and Linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients (n = 158) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5). The range of global PSQI scores was 3–20. Also, a significant relationship was found between PSQI scores and patients’ age (p<0.004), gender (p< 0.042), educational level (p< 0.001), occupational status (p< 0.038), number of hospitalizations (p< 0.005), type of referral (p< 0.001), non-cardiac diseases (p< 0.001), diuretic use (p< 0.021) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p< 0.015). Three predictors were identified using regression analyses with stepwise methods, and included age, type of referral and educational level. Conclusion: The high prevalence of poor sleep quality highlighted the importance of sleep disorders in HF patients. There are many factors associated with sleep quality and sleep disorders that health providers should recognize for improved and effective management. PMID:25695007

  19. Analysis of Ecological Quality of the Environment and Influencing Factors in China during 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005–2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005–2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005–2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  20. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  1. Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  2. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    PubMed Central

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  3. Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better understanding of this occurrence. Methods Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), was reviewed and discussed. Results Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana, where a larger number and variety of anti-malarials were sampled. Poor quality was more frequent in the private and informal sector than in the public sector, posing a greater threat to the populations at risk, which are mostly located in hard to reach areas with scarce public facilities. Stock-outs identified in the public sector in Guyana could enhance the need to access those alternative sectors, exacerbating the risk of utilizing poor quality medicines. The availability of monotherapies and other non-recommended therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, could also have contributed to the diminished efficacy. The type of quality deficiencies identified -reduced content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or poor dissolution- and the irrational use of non-recommended treatments could result in non-sustained or lower levels of API in blood, favouring survival of more resistant mutants by exposing parasites to sub-lethal doses of the active ingredient. Conclusions The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described

  4. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

  5. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  6. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  7. Local quality functions for graph clustering with non-negative matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Laarhoven, Twan; Marchiori, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Many graph clustering quality functions suffer from a resolution limit, namely the inability to find small clusters in large graphs. So-called resolution-limit-free quality functions do not have this limit. This property was previously introduced for hard clustering, that is, graph partitioning. We investigate the resolution-limit-free property in the context of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for hard and soft graph clustering. To use NMF in the hard clustering setting, a common approach is to assign each node to its highest membership cluster. We show that in this case symmetric NMF is not resolution-limit free, but that it becomes so when hardness constraints are used as part of the optimization. The resulting function is strongly linked to the constant Potts model. In soft clustering, nodes can belong to more than one cluster, with varying degrees of membership. In this setting resolution-limit free turns out to be too strong a property. Therefore we introduce locality, which roughly states that changing one part of the graph does not affect the clustering of other parts of the graph. We argue that this is a desirable property, provide conditions under which NMF quality functions are local, and propose a novel class of local probabilistic NMF quality functions for soft graph clustering.

  8. BEAM QUALITY CORRECTION FACTORS FOR KAP METERS FOR LIGHTLY AND HEAVILY FILTERED X-RAY BEAMS.

    PubMed

    Herrnsdorf, L; Petersson, H

    2016-06-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP) meters have a pronounced energy dependence when measuring air KAP for lightly filtered X-ray beams (RQR). Today, it is also common with more heavily filtered beams. In this work, the energy dependence for lightly as well as heavily filtered beams (RQC) was investigated for several KAP meter models. The relative energy dependence of the readings of an external and an internal KAP meter was determined relative to an ionisation chamber, which had been calibrated at the primary standards laboratory. As a complement to the measurements, the sensitivity of a KAP meter for various X-ray beam qualities was modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport and absorption. The result showed a variation in relative energy dependence of up to 30 % for KAP meters for RQC beam qualities compared with RQR qualities. A reduced sensitivity of KAP meters for heavily filtered beams in comparison with lightly filtered ones was found, and it is important that the beam-specific radiation quality correction factors are applied to correct the registered KAP values. PMID:26994096

  9. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchant, Kristin; McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, k{sub ecal}, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol

  10. Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; Schaeffer, Sheldon

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the Coordinator's Notebook focuses on the quality of Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) programs. The bulk of the issue is devoted to an article "Quality in ECCD: Everyone's Concern" (Judith Evans), which reviews the need for a definition of high quality in ECCD programs and discusses how diverse stakeholders define quality.…

  11. Association between lifestyle factors and quality-adjusted life years in the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

  12. Quench-Induced Degradation of the Quality Factor in Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchin, M.; Martinello, M.; Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Posen, S.; Melnychuk, O.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2016-04-01

    Quench of superconducting radio-frequency cavities frequently leads to the lowered quality factor Q0 , which had been attributed to the additional trapped magnetic flux. Here we demonstrate that the origin of this magnetic flux is purely extrinsic to the cavity by showing no extra dissipation (unchanged Q0) after quenching in zero magnetic field, which allows us to rule out intrinsic mechanisms of flux trapping such as generation of thermal currents or trapping of the rf field. We also show the clear relation of dissipation introduced by quenching to the orientation of the applied magnetic field and the possibility to fully recover the quality factor by requenching in the compensated field. We discover that for larger values of the ambient field, the Q -factor degradation may become irreversible by this technique, likely due to the outward flux migration beyond the normal zone opening during quench. Our findings are of special practical importance for accelerators based on low- and medium-β accelerating structures residing close to focusing magnets, as well as for all high-Q cavity-based accelerators.

  13. Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

  14. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5 μm thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24 ± 3 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46 kHz–8 MHz and showed a maximum measured Q ≈ 86 000 at f{sub n} = 46.849 kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ≈788 GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  15. Neutron-activation analysis using thermochromatography. I. Investigation of factors affecting processes of sample chlorination and thermochromatographic separation of chlorides of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.B.; Khatamov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1985-07-01

    With the goal of evaluating the feasibility of gas thermochromatography in radioactive analysis, the authors consider the basic factors affecting the processes of sample chlorination, volatilization and thermochromatographic separation of chlorides for a number of elements, the determination of which is carried out by the neutron activation analysis method. They study the behavior of chlorides of /sup 124/Sb, /sup 76/As, /sup 198/Au, /sup 203/Hg as a function of the starting temperature, the chlorination period, the reagent gas delivery rate, the sorbent grain size, the magnitude of the temperature gradient, and other factors.

  16. Unravel biophysical factors on river water quality response in Chilean Central-Southern watersheds.

    PubMed

    Yevenes, Mariela A; Arumí, José L; Farías, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the key anthropogenic (land uses) and natural (topography and climate) biophysical drivers affecting river water quality is essential for efficient management of water resources. We tested the hypothesis that water quality can be predicted by different biophysical factors. Multivariate statistics based on a geographical information system (GIS) were used to explore the influence of factors (i.e., precipitation, topography, and land uses) on water quality (i.e., nitrate (NO 3 (-)), phosphate (PO 4 (3-)), silicate (Si(OH)4), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (DO), temperature (T), conductivity (EC), and pH) for two consecutive years in the Itata and Biobío river watersheds, Central Chile (36° 00' and 38° 30'). The results showed that (NO 3 (-)), (PO 4 (3-)), Si(OH)4, TSS, EC, and DO were higher during rainy season (austral fall, winter, and spring), whereas BOD and temperature were higher during dry season. The spatial variation of these parameters in both watersheds was related to land use, topography (e.g., soil moisture, soil hydrological group, and erodability), and precipitation. Soil hydrological group and soil moisture were the strongest explanatory predictors for PO 4 (3-) , Si(OH)4 and EC in the river, followed by land use such as agriculture for NO 3 (-) and DO and silviculture for TSS and Si(OH)4. High-resolution water leaching and runoff maps allowed us to identify agriculture areas with major probability of water leaching and higher probability of runoff in silviculture areas. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that land uses (agriculture and silviculture) explained in 60 % the river water quality variation. Our finding highlights the vulnerability of Chilean river waters to different biophysical drivers, rather than climate conditions alone, which is amplified by human-induced degradation. PMID:27038616

  17. Design and optimizations of quasiperiodic microcavity with high-quality factor and its application in quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosallanezhad, Gholamreza; Keshavarz, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    We propose an optimized quasiperiodic microcavity with the aim of achieving the highest quality factor. The proposed structure consists of two quasicrystal rings with different geometries. By performing several optimizations on the structure, the highest quality factor of 8.16×107 for a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 1040 nm can be achieved. The quasiperiodic microcavity is used for a quantum dot laser application that obtained the highest output power of 3800 W/m2. The most important characteristics of this structure are the improvement of the quality factor and a simultaneously stable cavity wavelength.

  18. DS02 fluence spectra for neutrons and gamma rays at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with fluence-to-kerma coefficients and transmission factors for sample measurements.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D; Cullings, Harry M

    2007-11-01

    Fluence spectra at several ground distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are provided along with associated fluence-to-kerma coefficients from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Also included are transmission factors for calculating expected responses of in situ sample measurements of neutron activation products such as (32)P,(36)Cl,(39)Ar,(41)Ca, (60)Co,(63)Ni,(152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The free-in-air (FIA) fluences calculated in 2002 are available for 240 angles, 69 energy groups, 101 ground distances, 5 heights, 4 radiation source components, 2 cities. The DS02 code uses these fluences partitioned to a prompt and delayed portion, collapsed to 58 energy groups and restricted to 97 ground distances. This is because the fluence spectra were required to be in the same format that was used in the older Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) computer code, of which the DS02 computer code is a modification. The 2002 calculation fluences and the collapsed DS02 code fluences are presented and briefly discussed. A report on DS02, which is available on the website at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, provides tables and figures of the A-bomb neutron and gamma-ray output used as the sources in the 2002 radiation transport calculations. While figures illustrating the fluence spectra at several ground ranges are presented in the DS02 Report, it does not include any tables of the calculated fluence spectra in the DS02 report. This paper provides, at several standard distances from the hypocenter, the numerical information which is required to translate the FIA neutron fluences given in DS02 to a neutron activation measurement or neutron and gamma-ray soft-tissue dose. PMID:17643260

  19. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A.; Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ≃ 2 × 10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  20. Symmetric reflection line resonator and its quality factor modulation by a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2014-02-24

    We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.

  1. Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, R. H., III

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

  2. Factors influencing the quality of life of Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ezzahri, M; Amine, B; Rostom, S; Badri, D; Mawani, N; Gueddari, S; Shyen, S; Wabi, M; Moussa, F; Abouqal, R; Chkirate, B; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the factors influencing the quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4) Generic Score Scales, in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and June 2012, covering children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) seen at the consultations of El Ayachi Hospital and Children's Hospital of the University Hospital of Rabat. Quality of life is assessed by the PedsQL4 which is a questionnaire composed of 23 items, completed by the child and the parent; the response to each item ranges from 0 to 100, so that higher scores indicate a better quality of life. The functional impact is assessed by the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), and the disease activity by the number of tender and swollen joints, visual analogue scale (VAS) activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein. Forty-seven patients are included; the average age of the patients is 11 ± 3.35 years, and 40.4 % are females, with a median disease duration of 4 (2; 6) years. The oligoarticular form presents 26.7 %, the systemic form 24.4 %, and the enthesic form 22.2 %. The median of PedsQL4 is 80.43 (63.19; 92.93), and the median of the CHAQ is 0 (0; 1). Our study shows that some clinical and biological characteristics have significant effects on PedsQL by both parent and child reports. This study suggests that the achievement of the quality of life of our patients with JIA depends on the disease activity measured by swollen joints, the number of awakenings, parent VAS, physician VAS, patient VAS, and the ESR. PMID:24445385

  3. Factors affecting the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin: experience of one cardiac centre

    PubMed Central

    Ciurus, Tomasz; Cichocka-Radwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The risk of complications in anticoagulation therapy can be reduced by maximising the percentage of time spent by the patient in the optimal therapeutic range (TTR). However, little is known about the predictors of anticoagulation control. The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of anticoagulant therapy in patients on warfarin and to identify the factors affecting its deterioration. Material and methods We studied 149 patients who required anticoagulant therapy with warfarin due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or venous thromboembolism. Each patient underwent proper training regarding the implemented treatment and remained under constant medical care. Results The mean age of the patients was 68.8 ± 12.6 years, and 59% were male. A total of 2460 international normalised ratio (INR) measurements were collected during the 18-month period. The mean TTR in the studied cohort was 76 ± 21%, and the median was 80%. The level at which high-quality anticoagulation was recorded for this study was based on TTR values above 80%. Seventy-five patients with TTR ≥ 80% were included in the stable anticoagulation group (TTR ≥ 80%); the remaining 74 patients constituted the unstable anticoagulation group (TTR < 80%). According to multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the independent variables increasing the risk of deterioration of anticoagulation quality were: arterial hypertension (OR 2.74 [CI 95%: 1.06-7.10]; p = 0.038), amiodarone therapy (OR 4.22 [CI 95%: 1.30-13.70]; p = 0.017), and obesity (OR 1.11 [CI 95%: 1.02-1.21]; p = 0.013). Conclusions The presence of obesity, hypertension, or amiodarone therapy decreases the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin. High quality of anticoagulation can be achieved through proper monitoring and education of patients. PMID:26855650

  4. A Measurement of the Neutron Electric Form Factor in Dvec (evec,e'n)p Quasielastic Scattering at Q2=0.5(GeV/c)2

    SciTech Connect

    Hongguo Zhu

    2000-08-01

    The form factors of the neutron give information on fundamental properties of the nucleons and provide a critical testing ground for models based on QCD. In late 1998, Jefferson Lab (JLAB) experiment E93-026 measured the spin-dependent part of the exclusive (e, e'n) scattering cross section from a polarized deuterated ammonia ({sup 15}ND{sub 3}) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q{sup 2} = 0.5 (GeV/c){sub 2}. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered from the polarized target and the quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron. The data have been analyzed in terms of the spin-correlation parameter, or the electron-deuteron vector asymmetry (A{sub ed}{sup V}), of (e, e'n) to determine the neutron electric form factor G{sub E}{sup n}. The result is consistent with data from existing experiments and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of G{sub E}{sup n} within experimental uncertainty.

  5. Quality of Life and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Community Health Care Program Population

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Luiz Mário Baptista; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Mutti, Anibal; Dèlia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Coltro, Rodrigo Soler; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define “higher” and “lower” scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women. PMID:19061001

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the quality factor for N/+/P silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlick, G. F. J.; Kachare, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Many N(+)P silicon solar cells made with silicon from different growth techniques have current-voltage relations of the form: I = I(0) (exp(qV/AkT) - 1), where the quality factor A is nonintegral, is greater than 1, and shows a temperature dependence. The dark forward characteristics of such cells have been measured over a range of temperatures and the behavior of the factor A derived from them. Lack of agreement with previous models has led to the development of a new model, in which N(+) conduction electrons tunnel to deep levels near that side, these levels being due to junction contamination by impurities. Electron recombination then occurs with holes thermally assisted into the junction from the P side. This mechanism involves increased I(0) values over those for diffusion diode processes and thus reduces the cell power conversion efficiency.

  7. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF₂) with an ultra-high quality (Q) factor above 10⁹ at 1550 nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of 2 nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion Q-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of 3. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high-energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF₂ resonators potentially becomes feasible. PMID:25361142

  8. Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H{sup -} beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Hardek, T. W.; Kang, Y. W.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of {approx}50 mA H{sup -} ions from the ion source with a {approx}5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of {approx}3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to {approx}170 deg. C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H{sup -} beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 deg. C.

  9. Adsorbate migration effects on continuous and discontinuous temperature-dependent transitions in the quality factors of graphene nanoresonators.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Bing-Shen; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon

    2014-01-17

    We perform classical molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the unresolved, experimentally observed temperature-dependent scaling transition in the quality factors of graphene nanomechanical resonators (GNMRs). Our simulations reveal that the mechanism underlying this temperature scaling phenomenon is the out-of-plane migration of adsorbates on GNMRs. Specifically, the migrating adsorbate undergoes frequent collisions with the GNMR, which strongly influences the resulting mechanical oscillation, and thus the quality factors. We also predict a discontinuous transition in the quality factor at a lower critical temperature, which results from the in-plane migration of the adsorbate. Overall, our work clearly demonstrates the strong effect of adsorbate migration on the quality factors of GNMRs. PMID:24334407

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ′}) are provided. These

  11. Single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators with quality factors exceeding one million.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Boss, J M; Moores, B A; Degen, C L

    2014-01-01

    Diamond has gained a reputation as a uniquely versatile material, yet one that is intricate to grow and process. Resonating nanostructures made of single-crystal diamond are expected to possess excellent mechanical properties, including high-quality factors and low dissipation. Here we demonstrate batch fabrication and mechanical measurements of single-crystal diamond cantilevers with thickness down to 85 nm, thickness uniformity better than 20 nm and lateral dimensions up to 240 μm. Quality factors exceeding one million are found at room temperature, surpassing those of state-of-the-art single-crystal silicon cantilevers of similar dimensions by roughly an order of magnitude. The corresponding thermal force noise for the best cantilevers is ~5·10(-19) N Hz(-1/2) at millikelvin temperatures. Single-crystal diamond could thus directly improve existing force and mass sensors by a simple substitution of resonator material. Presented methods are easily adapted for fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems, optomechanical resonators or nanophotonic devices that may lead to new applications in classical and quantum science. PMID:24710311

  12. Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bjørndal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis), as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial. PMID:22536241

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Pain Care Quality Surveys (PainCQ©)

    PubMed Central

    Pett, Marjorie A; Beck, Susan L; Guo, Jia-Wen; Towsley, Gail L; Brant, Jeannine M; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Berry, Patricia H; Donaldson, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the reliability and validity and to decrease the battery of items in the Pain Care Quality (PainCQ©) Surveys. Data Sources/Study Setting Patient-reported data were collected prospectively from 337 hospitalized adult patients with pain on medical/surgical oncology units in four hospitals in three states. Study Design This methodological study used a cross-sectional survey design. Each consenting patient completed two PainCQ© Surveys, the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, and demographic questions. Clinical data were extracted from the medical record. Data Collection/Extraction Methods All data were double entered into a Microsoft Access database, cleaned, and then extracted into SPSS, AMOS, and Mplus for analysis. Principal Findings Confirmatory factor analysis using Structural Equation Modeling supported the initial factor structure. Modification indices guided decisions that resulted in a superior, parsimonious model for the PainCQ-Interdisciplinary Care Survey (six items, two subscales) and the PainCQ-Nursing Care Survey (14 items, three subscales). Cronbach's alpha coefficients all exceeded .80. Conclusions Cumulative evidence supports the reliability and validity of the companion PainCQ© Surveys in hospitalized patients with pain in the oncology setting. The tools may be relevant in both clinical research and quality improvement. Future research is recommended in other populations, settings, and with more diverse groups. PMID:23205503

  14. High quality factor mg-scale silicon mechanical resonators for 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, F. A.; Meng, P.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.; Liu, K.-Y.; Chao, S.; Martyniuk, M.; Roch-Jeune, I.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.

    2013-07-01

    Milligram-scale resonators have been shown to be suitable for the creation of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers, based on a phenomena first predicted for advanced gravitational-wave detectors. To achieve practical optoacoustic parametric devices, high quality factor resonators are required. We present millimetre-scale silicon resonators designed to exhibit a torsional vibration mode with a frequency in the 105-106 Hz range, for observation of 3-mode optoacoustic interactions in a compact table-top system. Our design incorporates an isolation stage and minimizes the acoustic loss from optical coating. We observe a quality factor of 7.5 × 105 for a mode frequency of 401.5 kHz, at room temperature and pressure of 10-3 Pa. We confirmed the mode shape by mapping the amplitude response across the resonator and comparing to finite element modelling. This study contributes to the development of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers for use in novel high-sensitivity signal transducers and quantum measurement experiments.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis for indicators of perceived environmental quality of the stadium (IPEQS).

    PubMed

    Manca, Sara; Fornara, Ferdinando

    2015-09-01

    Studies conducted in the 1980s (see Canter et al. in Football in its place. An environmental psychology of football grounds. Routledge, London, 1989) highlighted the prominent role of the spatial-physical features of football grounds in influencing users' perception of safety, comfort, and general satisfaction towards the stadium experience. In particular, the importance of fulfilling the spectators' needs of personal space (e.g. presence of an open view, proper distance between the seats) and movement opportunity was analysed. The aim of this study is to confirm the factorial structure of a set of indicators--the IPEQS--concerning the perceived quality of an array of aspects (i.e. architectural, social, functional, and safety issues) related to the stadium design. Participants (N = 255), who were selected on the basis of their stadium experience, filled in a self-report questionnaire measuring a set of indicators developed on the basis of both validated tools [i.e. the perceived residential environment quality indicators (PREQIs): Bonaiuto et al. in J Environ Psychol 19:331-352, 1999] and outcomes of semi-structured interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed for each scale, and reliability assessments were then carried out for each indicator. IPEQS' factorial structures found through the CFA procedure substantially confirm the results of exploratory factor analyses run with previous data. Outcomes of this study should provide a useful tool for managers and designers of football grounds, in order to improve the overall experience of the spectators. PMID:26239754

  16. Sociodemographic factors affecting the quality of life of patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Uchmanowicz, Bartosz; Panaszek, Bernard; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL) of patients with bronchial asthma. Patients diagnosed with asthma experience a number of problems with regard to everyday activities and functions, which adversely affects their health-related QoL. Aim The aim of this study is to analyze the sociodemographic factors affecting the QoL of patients with asthma. Patients and methods The study comprised of 100 patients (73 females and 27 males) aged 18–84 years (mean age 45.7 years) treated in the Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University. All patients with asthma who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. We used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) and the asthma control test. Up-to-date sociodemographic data were collected from all participants, including sex, age, marital status, education, and sources of income. Results The sociodemographic variables that correlated positively with QoL in all domains of the AQLQ were professional activity and higher education level of respondents. Factors that negatively influenced the AQLQ domains were older age and lack of professional activity. Conclusion This study shows that age, physical work, and lack of professional activity decreased the QoL in this patient group. It was found that higher education contributes to better QoL scores. PMID:27051276

  17. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R.; Yeh, L. H.

    2014-10-15

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Q{sub d}) than the Ohmic quality factor (Q{sub ohm}). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Q{sub d} and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Q{sub d} accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Q{sub d} with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  18. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Yeh, L. H.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-10-01

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Qd) than the Ohmic quality factor (Qohm). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Qd and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Qd accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Qd with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  19. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  20. Examining the Relationship between Global and Domain Measures of Quality of Life by Three Factor Structure Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Yao, Grace

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between global and domain measures of quality of life from a psychometric perspective by three different factor structure models. Three hundred and four students at National Taiwan University participated in this study. They completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, a global measurement for quality of…

  1. Student Motivation and the "Feel Good" Factor: An Empirical Examination of Motivational Predictors of University Service Quality Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination…

  2. Factors Associated with Pain, Disability and Quality of Life in Patients Suffering from Frozen Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Farshid; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Moradi, Ali; Bidgoli, Hamid Farahpour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frozen shoulder is resulting in limb disability and reduction of quality of life but the factors associated with patients’ disability and quality of life is not clear. To assess pain, disability, the quality of life and factors associated with them in patients suffering from frozen shoulder. Methods: We enrolled 120 patients (37 men and 83 women) with phase-II idiopathic frozen shoulder in our cross-sectional study. Demographic data were collected and shoulder range of motion was measured in four different directions (elevation, abduction, external and internal rotation) in both upper limbs. Patients were asked to fill out Visual Analog Scale for pain (VAS) and, Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36) as well as Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires. We asked the patients to fill out the Hamilton anxiety and depression questionnaires. Results: The mean of VAS pain, DASH, PCS, and MCS scores were 69(18), 53(17), 35(8.0), and 42(10) respectively. All the domains of SF36 questionnaires where below the normal population except physical function. VAS pain score was correlated to Hamilton depression scores in both bivariate and mulivarilable analysis. DASH score were correlated to sex, age, ROM, and both Hamilton anxiety and depression scores; However, DASH score only impact with Hamilton anxiety and ROM independently. PCS is correlated to age and MCS to Hamilton depression. Conclusion: Patient with frozen shoulder are more suffering from pain and disability secondary to psychiatric parameters such as depression and anxiety than demographic features or even restriction of range of motion. PMID:27517070

  3. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.; Babcock, Dale F.; Menegus, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  4. Design and Analysis of High Quality Factor Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Diamond Micromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motieian Najar, Mohammad Hadi

    Diamond is an excellent material for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) due to its superlative material properties compared to commonly used materials such as silicon. In its single crystalline form, diamond offers properties such as very high Young's modulus, low thermal coefficient of expansion, and very high thermal conductivity as well as being chemically inert. Specifically, diamond's high thermal conductivity offers the potential for very low thermoelastic damping (TED) in micromechanical resonators. Polycrystalline (Poly-C) diamond films deposited by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) have been explored in this research. HFCVD Poly-C diamond films are easy and inexpensive to deposit at wafer-scale, and retain many material properties that single crystalline diamond possesses. The first part of the study focuses on fabrication and testing of high quality factor micro-resonators such as double-ended tuning forks (DETF) and micro-cantilevers fabricated from microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond films with grain sizes ranging from 20 nm (nanocrystalline films) to 2.5 microm (microcrystalline films). The aim of this first study was to determine whether the quality factor of HFCVD diamond resonators could reach the limits imposed by intrinsic dissipation mechanisms such as thermoelastic damping (TED). Previous studies showed large differences between measured Q-factors and the TED limit, in part because these studies assumed thermal conductivity similar to that of single crystalline diamond. Here the thermal conductivity of NCD and MCD films was measured using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), and the resulting Q-factor measurements were shown to agree well with the theoretical TED limit. The second part of this research focuses on identifying the causes of dissipation in diamond resonators and suggesting approaches to improve the mechanical Q-factor. It is shown that, besides variations in deposition conditions such as decreasing the CH4

  5. Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q}, the beam quality conversion factor

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To use EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations to directly calculate beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, for 32 cylindrical ionization chambers over a range of beam qualities and to quantify the effect of systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q}. These factors are required to use the TG-51 or TRS-398 clinical dosimetry protocols for calibrating external radiotherapy beams. Methods: Ionization chambers are modeled either from blueprints or manufacturers' user's manuals. The dose-to-air in the chamber is calculated using the EGSnrc user-code egs{sub c}hamber using 11 different tabulated clinical photon spectra for the incident beams. The dose to a small volume of water is also calculated in the absence of the chamber at the midpoint of the chamber on its central axis. Using a simple equation, k{sub Q} is calculated from these quantities under the assumption that W/e is constant with energy and compared to TG-51 protocol and measured values. Results: Polynomial fits to the Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors as a function of beam quality expressed as %dd(10){sub x} and TPR{sub 10}{sup 20} are given for each ionization chamber. Differences are explained between Monte Carlo calculated values and values from the TG-51 protocol or calculated using the computer program used for TG-51 calculations. Systematic uncertainties in calculated k{sub Q} values are analyzed and amount to a maximum of one standard deviation uncertainty of 0.99% if one assumes that photon cross-section uncertainties are uncorrelated and 0.63% if they are assumed correlated. The largest components of the uncertainty are the constancy of W/e and the uncertainty in the cross-section for photons in water. Conclusions: It is now possible to calculate k{sub Q} directly using Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo calculations for most ionization chambers give results which are comparable to TG-51 values. Discrepancies can be explained using individual Monte Carlo

  6. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Kim, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD patients. Patients and methods This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index was used to assess the quality of life. Results The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041), compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension) appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =−0.089, P=0.0003) and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score=−0.062, P=0.0039) had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL. Conclusion In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality of life. PMID:26834467

  7. Factors affecting the incidence of first-quality wheels of Trentingrana cheese.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A; Cologna, N; Penasa, M; Tiezzi, F; De Marchi, M

    2011-07-01

    Trentingrana (or Grana Trentino) is a Protected Designation of Origin hard cheese produced in the eastern Italian Alps by small cooperative dairy factories. To obtain the certification of quality, wheels are evaluated at 9±1 mo of ripening and those classified as first quality are revaluated at 18±1 mo. Traditionally, the assessment is based on 2 sensory features: namely, the external aspect of the wheel and the internal texture; the latter is evaluated through the sound produced by beating the wheel with a special hammer. Traits considered in the study were the percentage of first-quality wheels of total wheels examined at 9±1 (QW(9 mo)) and 18±1 (QW(18 mo)) mo of ripening, and their combination [i.e., the percentage of first-quality wheels at 18±1 mo of ripening of the number of wheels evaluated at 9±1 mo (QW(tot))]. The experimental unit was the batch of 2 mo of production of each of 10 cooperative dairy factories from 2002 to 2008. Data were analyzed with a model that included fixed effects of dairy factory, year and season of production, and interactions between dairy factory and year, and dairy factory and season. The coefficients of determination of the models were 0.57, 0.68, and 0.67 for QW(9mo), QW(18 mo), and QW(tot), respectively. All factors significantly influenced the traits, with dairy factory being the most important source of variation, followed by season and year of production. Remarkable differences were found between the best and the worst dairy factory for QW(9 mo) (11.5%), QW(18 mo) (21.1%), and QW(tot) (25.6%). The first 4 yr of production had a negative effect on the percentage of wheels labeled as first quality and QW(tot) decreased from 74 to 64%; nevertheless, a complete recovery was detected in the following years. The season of production strongly influenced the studied traits with the best results in spring and summer, and the worst in autumn and winter. Compared with average, the 3 best dairy factories were smaller, with

  8. Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, comfort, and realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Raluca; Ladret, Patricia; Guérin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In today's context, where 3D content is more abundant than ever and its acceptance by the public is probably de_nitive, there are many discussions on controlling and improving the 3D quality. But what does this notion represent precisely? How can it be formalized and standardized? How can it be correctly evaluated? A great number of studies have investigated these matters and many interesting approaches have been proposed. Despite this, no universal 3D quality model has been accepted so far that would allow a uniform across studies assessment of the overall quality of 3D content, as it is perceived by the human observers. In this paper, we are making a step forward in the development of a 3D quality model, by presenting the results of an exploratory study in which we started from the premise that the overall 3D perceived quality is a multidimensional concept that can be explained by the physical characteristics of the 3D content. We investigated the spontaneous impressions of the participants while watching varied 3D content, we analyzed the key notions that appeared in their discourse and identi_ed correlations between their judgments and the characteristics of our database. The test proved to be rich in results. Among its conclusions, we consider of highest importance the fact that we could thus determine three di_erent perceptual attributes ( image quality, comfort and realism ( that could constitute a _rst simplistic model for assessing the perceived 3D quality.

  9. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (χ² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID

  10. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-05-01

    neutron flux required for positron production could not be provided with a single D-T neutron generator. Therefore, a subcritical fission multiplier was designed to increase the neutron yield. The neutron flux was increased by a factor of 25. A D-D driven fission multiplier was also studied for BNCT and a gain of 17 was obtained. The fission multiplier system gain was shown to be limited by the neutron absorption in the fuel and the reduction of source brightness. A brief discussion was also given regarding the neutron generator applications for fast neutron brachytherapy and neutron interrogation systems. It was concluded that new designs of compact D-D/D-T neutron generators are feasible and that superior quality neutron beams could be produced and used for various applications.

  11. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  12. Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, John E.; Friend, James R.

    2014-11-15

    A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration.

  13. Vibration Analysis of Original Shape Quartz Resonator for High Quality Factor Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oigawa, Hiroshi; Sakano, Yuuya; Ji, Jing; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2012-06-01

    AT-cut quartz resonators are widely used as timing devices in computers, mobile information, and communication tools, etc. Recently, quartz resonators have been applied to highly sensitive devices. To improve frequency stability, AT-cut quartz resonators must have an excellent temperature characteristic and high quality (Q) factor. Energy trapping and spurious mode coupling strongly affect the performance of resonators, and both parameters are determined by the shape of the resonator. As for achieving a higher Q, the most effective technique is to process the quartz cross-sectional shape into a plano-convex or bi-convex shape. However, it is difficult to manufacture a convex shape on the surface of a quartz wafer. For this reason, we propose an equivalent plano-convex shape, which was realized by arranging fine protrusions on the surface of quartz. In addition, the optimization of the original resonator shape has been discussed.

  14. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

  15. Quality factor effect on the wireless range of microstrip patch antenna strain sensors.

    PubMed

    Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S T; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

  16. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Obese Students in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ping; Wang, Hong-Mei; Edwards, Todd C.; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Lv, Yi-Ran; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of overweight and obese middle or high school students and identify relevant factors influencing their QOL scores. Methods 716 students were recruited from 6 middle or high schools in Hangzhou, China. The Chinese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument–Weight Module (YQOL-W) was self administered. The YQOL-W scores were compared among different BMI groups, gender, educational status, annual household income, parental education and recruitment community using t test or one-way analysis of variance. The independent association of these variables with QOL among overweight and obese students was examined using multivariable linear regression modeling. Results Overweight and obese students reported lower total scores, self, social and environment scores than their normal weight peers (all P<0.001). The QOL of overweight and obese middle and high school students was associated with BMI value, gender, educational status, parental education, and recruitment community. Girls had lower total scores, self, social and environment domain scores than boys (all P<0.001); high school students had lower total and three domain scores than middle school students (all P<0.05). Students whose fathers had higher education reported higher total scores, self and social scores than students with less educated fathers (all P<0.05). Students whose mothers had higher education reported higher environment scores than students with less educated mothers (P = 0.01). Students from migrant communities reported significantly lower total scores, self and social scores than those from rural communities (all P<0.05), but comparable scores with those from urban communities (P>0.05). Students from migrant communities reported comparable environment scores with those from rural and urban communities (P>0.05). Conclusions Overweight and obesity have negative effects on students’ quality of life. Therefore weight specific QOL could be included in

  17. Factors influencing trust in doctors: a community segmentation strategy for quality improvement in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Trust is a forward-looking covenant between the patient and the doctor where the patient optimistically accepts his/her vulnerability. Trust is known to improve the clinical outcomes. Objectives To explore the factors that determine patients’ trust in doctors and to segment the community based on factors which drive their trust. Setting Resource-poor urban and rural settings in Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 625 adult community-dwelling respondents from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India, chosen by multistage sampling strategy. Outcome measures The outcomes were to understand the main domains of factors influencing trust in doctors and to segment the community based on which of these domains predominantly influenced their trust. Results Factor analysis revealed five main categories, namely, comfort with the doctor, doctor with personal involvement with the patient, behaviourally competent doctor, doctor with a simple appearance and culturally competent doctor, which explained 49.3% of the total variance. Using k-means cluster analysis the respondents were segmented into four groups, namely, those who have ‘comfort-based trust’, ‘emotionally assessed trust’, who were predominantly older and belonging to lower socioeconomic status, those who had ‘personal trust’, who were younger people from higher socioeconomic strata of the community and the group who had ‘objectively assessed trust’, who were younger women. Conclusions Trust in doctors seems to be influenced by the doctor's behaviuor, perceived comfort levels, personal involvement with the patient, and to a lesser extent by cultural competence and doctor's physical appearance. On the basis of these dimensions, the community can be segmented into distinct groups, and trust building can happen in a strategic manner which may lead to improvement in perceived quality of care. PMID:24302512

  18. Characterization of on-road vehicle emission factors and microenvironmental air quality in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdahl, Dane; Wang, Xing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Zhang, K. Max

    In this paper, we report the results and analysis of a recent field campaign in August 2007 investigating the impacts of emissions from transportation on air quality and community concentrations in Beijing, China. We conducted measurements in three different environments, on-road, roadside and ambient. The carbon monoxide, black carbon and ultrafine particle number emission factors for on-road light-duty vehicles are derived to be 95 g kg -1-fuel, 0.3 g kg -1-fuel and 1.8 × 10 15 particles kg -1-fuel, respectively. The emission factors for on-road heavy-duty vehicles are 50 g kg -1-fuel, 1.3 g kg -1-fuel and 1.1 × 10 16 particles kg -1-fuel, respectively. The carbon monoxide emission factors from this study agree with those derived from remote sensing and on-board vehicle emission testing systems in China. The on-road black carbon and particle number emission factors for Chinese vehicles are reported for the first time in the literature. Strong traffic impacts can be observed from the concentrations measured in these different environments. Most clear is a reflection of diesel truck traffic activity in black carbon concentrations. The comparison of the particle size distributions measured at the three environments suggests that the traffic is a major source of ultrafine particles. A four-day traffic control experiment conducted by the Beijing Government as a pilot to test the effectiveness of proposed controls was found to be effective in reducing extreme concentrations that occurred at both on-road and ambient environments.

  19. A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, E.; Hao, W.; Baker, S.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Miller, W.; Weise, D. R.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Prescribed fire is a significant emissions source in the U.S. and that needs to be adequately characterized in atmospheric transport/chemistry models. In addition, the Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Several published papers contain a few emission factors for prescribed fire and additional results are found in unpublished documents whose quality has to be assessed. In conjunction with three research projects developing detailed new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately, this database will be available on the Internet and will contain older emissions information that has been assessed and newer emissions information that has been developed from both laboratory-scale and field measurements. The database currently contains emissions information from over 300 burns of different wildland vegetation types, including grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, forests, and tundra over much of North America. A summary of the compiled data will be presented, along with suggestions for additional categories.

  20. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL. PMID:26892354

  1. Estimating the Seismic Quality Factor (Q) in the Western Izmit Bay, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baydar, B.; Kaslilar, A.

    2012-12-01

    The seismic Q (quality factor) parameter, the inverse of attenuation, is a petrophysical parameter being more sensitive to lithology and physical properties of the medium (pressure, temperature, saturation to fluid and gas, etc) than the velocity and it can be used as an indicator to determine the physical changes along the fault zones. The multi-channel seismic reflection data of the Western Izmit Bay, collected after 17 August 1999 Izmit Earthquake (Mw=7.6) by Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey is used for the Q estimation to investigate the lateral and vertical variations of the Q parameter along the seismic profiles. The Q value is determined from the reflection seismograms, and is an average of the quality factors of the layers passed by the reflected wavelet. Since it is difficult and less reliable to estimate the interval-Q values from surface seismic reflection data, instead of estimating the interval-Q values for lithological correlation, the variations of the Q parameter along and around the North Anatolian Fault zone is investigated. In this study, the constant-Q wavelet modeling method, based on the comparison of the attenuated synthetic wavelets by the observed wavelets, is used. The measure of agreement of the wavelets are provided by two methods: the correlation coefficient and L2 norm. The prominent, isolated reflected waves are determined from the raw shot data of the seismic reflection profile and used for Q estimation. In a former study it is observed that the correlation coefficient method has a limitation for the estimation of the Q value higher than 100. Therefore the Q parameter is estimated by two different methods along four seismic lines and the results are compared. It is seen that the L2 norm method gives more reliable results when compared to the correlation coefficient method. It is also observed that low Q values are observed in shallow sediments and around the North Anatolian Fault.

  2. Factors associated with quality of life in patients with severe asthma: the impact of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Daiane Silva; Noblat, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl; Santos, Pablo de Moura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify, characterize, and quantify associations of various factors with quality of life (QoL) in patients with asthma, according to the pharmacotherapy employed. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe uncontrolled or refractory asthma treated at a specialized outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, regularly using high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) or other medications, and presenting comorbidities. At a single time point, QoL was assessed with the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The overall AQLQ score and those of its domains were correlated with demographic variables (gender and age); Asthma Control Questionnaire score; pharmacotherapy (initial IC dose, inhaler devices, and polytherapy); and comorbidities. RESULTS: Better AQLQ scores were associated with asthma control-overall (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.004-0.341; p < 0.001), "symptoms" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001), and "emotional function" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001)-and with IC dose ≤ 800 µg-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.885; p = 0.029). Worse AQLQ scores were associated with polytherapy-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 3.651; 95% CI: 1.061-12.561; p = 0.036)-and number of comorbidities ≤ 5-"environmental stimuli" domain (OR = 5.042; 95% CI: 1.316-19.317; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, the importance of this issue, and the lack of studies taking pharmacotherapy into consideration warrant longitudinal studies to establish a causal relationship between the identified factors and QoL in asthma patients. PMID:26785957

  3. Risk factors associated with selected indicators of milk quality in semiarid northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C J B; Lopes Júnior, W D; Queiroga, R C R E; Givisiez, P E N; Azevedo, P S; Pereira, W E; Gebreyes, W A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information on quality traits, mainly bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk milk, produced by small- and medium-scale producers in a semiarid northeastern region of Brazil and to identify and characterize possible risk factors associated with those quality traits. A cross-sectional study was performed on 50 farms. Bulk milk samples were collected for bacterial and somatic cell counts. Additionally, information about farm demographics, general management practices, hygiene, and milking procedures was also obtained. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was performed with predictors previously identified by univariate analysis using a Fisher's Exact test. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts varied from 3.59 log to 6.95 log cfu/mL, with geometric mean of 5.27 log cfu/mL. Mean total coliform count was 3.27 log (1.52 log to 5.89 log) most probable number (MPN)/mL, whereas mean thermotolerant coliforms was 2.38 log (1.48 log to 4.75 log) MPN/mL. A high positive correlation was observed between aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform counts. Although most farms met the standard for the current regulations for total bacteria (88%) and somatic cell counts (94%), nearly half of the producers (46%) would have problems in achieving the 2012 threshold limit for total bacteria count if no improvement in milk quality occurs. Mean value for staphylococci was 3.99 log (2.31 log to 6.24 log) cfu/mL, and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 33 (66%) farms. Premilking teat-end wash procedure (odds ratio=0.191) and postmilking teat dip (odds ratio=0.67) were associated with lower aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus counts in bulk milk, respectively. Considering that the farm characteristics in this study are representative of the semiarid northeastern region, these findings encourage further investigations for supporting intervention measures intended to improve the quality of milk produced by smallholders. PMID

  4. [Influence of obstetric factors on the quality of cord blood units collected for allogeneic transplantation].

    PubMed

    Atanassova, V; Atanassova, M; Nikolov, A; Zlatkov, V; Mihaylova, A; Naumova, E

    2012-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation has many advantages over bone marrow and peripheral blood, however, a main limitation to its use in clinical setting is cell numbers. This study aimed to assess the impact of mother/neonatal factors on the quality of CB units, collected for allogeneic transplantation. We analyzed 33 CB units collected in University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology "Maichin dom" and donated to the National public bank for stem cells, University Hospital "Alexandrovska", Sofia. A significant increase (p < 0.001) of total nucleated cell (TNC) values was found after CB processing. A trend of higher values of CD34+ cells was observed in CB units obtained from vaginal deliveries compared to Cesarian section births, and from female newborns compared to their male counterparts. CD34+ cell number positively correlated with CD34+ percentage and TNC count. Our preliminary data demonstrate the need of a large retrospective evaluation of different obstetric factors in order to establish criteria for appropriate selection in our country of umbilical cord blood donors for public banking. PMID:23234008

  5. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  6. Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

  7. 'Hidden' factors influencing quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lysandropoulos, A P; Havrdova, E

    2015-10-01

    Traditional outcome measures for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), whether in clinical trials or clinical practice, are currently in question. The combination of relapses, physical disability progression and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity reflect only part of the impact that MS has on a patient's daily life. Quality of life (QoL) is considered by many to be the ideal outcome measure. Since it captures the patient's own perspective of well-being, QoL should be the primary focus when evaluating a patient and the main objective of MS management. Nevertheless, whilst numerous instruments to measure QoL in MS patients are available or proposed, there is no current consensus regarding which is the best tool to use and under what circumstances. QoL in patients with MS is determined by several factors beyond the more obvious; these include coping with the MS diagnosis, understanding the disease and the disease process, dealing with so-called 'hidden' symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive impairment and sexual disturbances, and managing the many associated personal challenges such as social isolation, family issues and working difficulties. Evidence is emerging that psychological interventions may be beneficial in MS patients although more research is required to confirm their utility. This article examines some factors that influence QoL in MS patients which may be overlooked in the general busyness of routine clinical practice. PMID:26374511

  8. Estimation of the Quality Factor (q) with Tomography Using the Complex Eikonal Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, T.; Piedrahita, C.; Cabrera, F.; Fernandez, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The propagation of seismic wave through viscoelastic media is affected by the attenuation that is caused by the quality factor Q, resulting significant loss of signal strength and bandwidth. Gas trapped in sediment is a example of these media. Seismic images of geological structures underneath shallow gas often suffer from resolution degradation and effect of amplitude dimming, making their identification and interpretation difficult. This affects the ability to accurately predict reservoir properties. Thus, there is a need to compensate the attenuation due to Q, to be estimated using tomography seismic. This work takes place in a viscoelastic medium in the frequency domain, where is incorporated the attenuation to replace the elastic real parameters by parameters visco-elastic complex frequency dependent, consequently the equations must work complex and thus solution should be sought in the complex space. Complex eikonal equation is obtained from the equation of motion in a viscoelastic medium in the frequency domain. The objective is to apply a tomography method to estimate a model of complex velocity and Q model to achieve an improvement in seismic imaging in areas where there are strong attenuation factors or fractured media. To achieve calculating Q, first complex eikonal equation is solved in a medium viscoelastic using ray tracing. The resulting travel time is complex; its real part describes the wave propagation and its imaginary part describes the effects of attenuation. A process of tomography is then performed, the initial models of complex velocity and Q are determined; the models are smoothly inhomogeneous, with a constant gradient of the square of slowness. For such models, an exact solution of the complex eikonal equation can be found analytically by using complex ray tracing. given the initial complex velocity models and Q, calculate theoretical travel times and and finally making the inversion using the Gauss-Newton method, fit the initial velocity

  9. Identifying Factors Influencing Pancreatic Cancer Management to Inform Quality Improvement Efforts and Future Research: A Scoping Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Soong, Daniel; Gallinger, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients appear to receive suboptimal care. We conducted a systematic review to identify factors that influence PC management which are amenable to quality improvement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the references of eligible studies were searched from 1996 to July 2014. Two authors independently selected and reviewed eligible studies. Identified factors were mapped onto a framework of determinants of care delivery and outcomes. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using Downs and Black criteria. Most of the 33 eligible studies were population-based observational studies conducted in the United States. Patient (age, socioeconomic status, race) and institutional (case volume, academic status) factors influence care delivery and outcomes (complications, mortality, readmission, survival). Two studies implemented interventions to improve quality of care (centralization to high-volume hospitals, multidisciplinary care). One study examined system determinants (referral wait times). No studies examined the influence of guideline or provider characteristics. The overall lack of health services research in PC is striking. Factors and interventions identified here can be used to plan PC quality improvement programs. Further research is needed to explore the influence of guideline and provider factors on PC management and evaluate the impact of quality improvement interventions. PMID:26752254

  10. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  11. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  12. A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

  13. Evaluated cross section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1995-07-01

    We present evaluations of the interaction of 20 to 100 MeV neutrons with oxygen and nitrogen nuclei, which follows on from our previous work on carbon. Our aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. We apply the FKK-GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. We determine total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra, for light ejectiles with A{<=}4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions. Our results for charged-particle emission spectra agree well with the measurements of Subramanian et al.. We compare kerma factors derived from our evaluated cross sections with experimental data, providing an integral benchmarking of our work. The evaluated data libraries are available as electronic files.

  14. Possible arrangement of the five domains in human complement factor I as determined by a combination of X-ray and neutron scattering and homology modeling.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, D; Ullman, C G; Perkins, S J

    1998-10-01

    Human factor I is a multidomain plasma serine protease with one factor I-membrane attack complex (FIMAC) domain, one CD5 domain, two low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) domains, and one serine protease (SP) domain and is essential for the regulation of complement. The domain arrangement in factor I was determined by X-ray and neutron scattering on serum-derived human factor I (sFI) and recombinant insect cell factor I (rFI). While the radii of gyration of both were the same at 4.05 nm and both had overall lengths of 14 nm, the cross-sectional radii of gyration were different at 1.70 nm for sFI and 1.57 nm for rFI. This difference was attributed to their different means of glycosylation which is complex-type for sFI and high-mannose-type for rFI. Homology models were constructed for the FIMAC, LDLr, and SP domains of factor I using related crystal structures, and CD5 was represented as a globular protein by referencing its electron microscopy dimensions. In these models, 38 of the 40 Cys residues in factor I were predicted to form internal disulfide bridges. The two remaining Cys residues at the N terminus of the FIMAC domain and at the center of the first LDLr domain were potentially not bridged. It was postulated that, if these two Cys residues were bridged to each other, the FIMAC, CD5, and LDLr-1 domains would form a compact triangular arrangement. This hypothesis was tested by automated scattering curve fit searches based on 9600 bilobal models, setting the FIMAC, CD5, and LDLr-1 domains as one lobe and the large SP domain as the other lobe. The searches gave a single small family of similar structures with a separation of 5.9 nm between the centers of the lobes which gave similar good X-ray and neutron fits for both sFI and rFI, despite the different glycosylations of sFI and rFI. These best-fit structures for factor I showed that this domain model is plausible, and suggested that the SP and the CD5 and LDLr-1 domains may present exposed surfaces in factor

  15. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo

    2014-12-08

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength λ∼1.3 μm, with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  16. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Melnychuk, O.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here, we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: (1) record quality factors Q > 2 × 1011 up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; (2) Q ˜ 3 × 1010 at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  17. Effect of Threading Dislocations on the Quality Factor of InGaN/GaN Microdisk Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the theoretical advantages associated with nitride microcavities, the quality factors of devices with embedded indium gallium nitride (InGaN) or gallium nitride (GaN) optical emitters still remain low. In this work we identify threading dislocations (TDs) as a major limitation to the fabrication of high quality factor devices in the nitrides. We report on the use of cathodoluminescence (CL) to identify individual TD positions within microdisk lasers containing either InGaN quantum wells or quantum dots. Using CL to accurately count the number, and map the position, of dislocations within several individual cavities, we have found a clear correlation between the density of defects in the high-field region of a microdisk and its corresponding quality factor (Q). We discuss possible mechanisms associated with defects, photon scattering, and absorption, which could be responsible for degraded device performance. PMID:25839048

  18. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Melnychuk, O.

    2014-12-08

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here, we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: (1) record quality factors Q > 2 × 10{sup 11} up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; (2) Q ∼ 3 × 10{sup 10} at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  19. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend < 0.05) and ate more cookies, cakes, and meat for dinner (P for trend < 0.05). Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend < 0.05). The percent energy from carbohydrates was lower and fat intake was higher in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend < 0.01). When diets were compared using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Koreans, 59.1% of subjects in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P < 0.005). According to the Estimated Average Requirements for Koreans, intake of selected nutrients was lower in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The risk of elevated serum triglycerides was decreased in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides. PMID:22125684

  20. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Material and Methods Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. Results Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5)], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6)], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8)] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1)] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility. PMID:25162573

  1. Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization. PMID:23514260

  2. Neutron dosimetry in low-earth orbit using passive detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes neutron dosimetry measurements made by the USF Physics Research Laboratory aboard US and Russian LEO spacecraft over the past 20 years using two types of passive detector. Thermal/resonance neutron detectors exploiting the 6Li(n,T) alpha reaction were used to measure neutrons of energies <1 MeV. Fission foil neutron detectors were used to measure neutrons of energies above 1 MeV. While originally analysed in terms of dose equivalent using the NCRP-38 definition of quality factor, for the purposes of this paper the measured neutron data have been reanalyzed and are presented in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Dose equivalent rate for neutrons <1 MeV ranged from 0.80 microSv/d on the low altitude, low inclination STS-41B mission to 22.0 microSv/d measured in the Shuttle's cargo bay on the highly inclined STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. In one particular instance a detector embedded within a large hydrogenous mass on STS-61 (in the ECT experiment) measured 34.6 microSv/d. Dose equivalent rate measurements of neutrons >1 MeV ranged from 4.5 microSv/d on the low altitude STS-3 mission to 172 microSv/d on the 6 year LDEF mission. Thermal neutrons (<0.3 eV) were observed to make a negligible contribution to neutron dose equivalent in all cases. The major fraction of neutron dose equivalent was found to be from neutrons >1 MeV and, on LDEF, neutrons >1 MeV are responsible for over 98% of the total neutron dose equivalent. Estimates of the neutron contribution to the total dose equivalent are somewhat lower than model estimates, ranging from 5.7% at a location under low shielding on LDEF to 18.4% on the highly inclined (82.3 degrees) Biocosmos-2044 mission. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Service needs and factors related to quality of life at time of service enrollment among persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Huba, G J; Melchior, L A; Cherin, D A; Steinberg, J; Smereck, G A; Richardson-Nassif, K; Reis, P; Meredith, K L; McDonald, S S; Larson, T A; Jean-Louis, E; German, V F; Gallagher, T; Brown, V B; Panter, A T; Marconi, K

    2000-01-01

    This article explores the relationships of HIV risk factors, service needs, and vulnerabilities to health-related quality of life in a sample of 1,371 participants newly enrolled into 13 innovative HIV/AIDS treatment model service demonstration projects. These projects targeted services to traditionally underserved populations. Eight distinct quality of life clusters of HIV patients were used in this analysis along with patient self-identified risk factors. The quality of life clusters were based on patient self-reported quality of life dimensions. The eight clusters were differentiated based on relative strengths and weaknesses in physical functioning, energy levels, and social functioning. Data on patient need-vulnerability factors and demographic characteristics were related to these eight clusters using the data modeling method of Exhaustive CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector). Through this method, the characteristics most likely to be associated with higher and lower levels of quality of life at the time of enrollment into services were identified. The results provide further support that quality of life assessment is a useful clinical tool for monitoring patient progress. PMID:11211320

  4. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for

  5. Effects of age and environmental factors on semen production and semen quality of Austrian Simmental bulls.

    PubMed

    Fuerst-Waltl, Birgit; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Perner, Christa; Sölkner, Johann

    2006-09-01

    More than 90% of the breeding stock of Austrian dual purpose Simmental cows is artificially inseminated. Knowledge of factors affecting sperm production and semen quality is of importance with regard to reproductive efficiency and thus genetic improvement as well as for the productivity and profitability of AI centers. Hence, semen data from two Austrian AI centres collected in the years 2000 and 2001 were evaluated. In total, 3625 and 3654 ejaculates from 147 and 127 AI bulls, respectively, were analysed regarding ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, percentage of viable spermatozoa in the ejaculate, total spermatozoa per ejaculate and motility. Effects accounted for were the bull (random), age of bull, collection interval, number of collection on collection day, bull handler, semen collector, temperature on day of semen collection, in the course of epididymal maturation (average temperature of days 1-11 before collection) and during spermatogenesis (average temperature of days 12-65 before collection). Age of bull significantly affected all traits (P<0.01 to P<0.001) except motility score in center 2. Ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased with age of bull while sperm concentration was lower in higher age classes (center 1). The collection team was also found to significantly influence semen quality traits. With increasing collection interval ejaculate volume and total number of spermatozoa increased significantly (P<0.05 to P<0.001) while collection intervals between 4-9 days and 1-6 days were superior with regard to sperm concentration and percentage of viable spermatozoa, respectively (P<0.10 to P<0.001). First ejaculates were superior with respect to ejaculate volumes, sperm concentrations and total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate (P<0.001). Temperature, either on day of semen collection or during epididymal maturation or spermatogenesis, had important but inconsistent effects on semen production and sperm quality. Overall, however

  6. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land

  7. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Sleep Quality in Hospitalized Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Milena; Chiaromanni, Federica; Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; De Rui, Michele; Amodio, Piero; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Mazzotta, Gabriella; Costa, Rodolfo; Montagnese, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep–wake disturbances are common in hospitalized patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight-saving time. Methods: Between March and April 2013, 118 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76 ± 11 years; hospitalization: 8 ± 7 days) enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results: Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2–59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half-way down for most of the 24 h. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e., 222 ± 72 vs. 174 ± 85 lux, p < 0.05 before the switch; 198 ± 72 vs. 141 ± 137 lux, p < 0.01 after the switch) and tended to sleep better (7.3 ± 1.8 vs. 5.8 ± 2.4 on a 1–10 scale, before the switch, p < 0.05; 7.7 ± 2.3 vs. 6.6 ± 1.8, n.s. after the switch). Noise levels were higher than recommended for care units but substantially comparable across times/room types. No significant differences were observed in sleep parameters before/after the switch. Conclusion: Medical wards appear to be noisy environments, in which limited attention is paid to light/dark hygiene. An association

  8. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  9. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate.

    PubMed

    Chankow, Nares; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research are to study properties of a neutron imaging plate (NIP) and to test it for use in nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials. The experiments were carried out by using a BAS-ND 2040 Fuji NIP and a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1. The neutron intensity and Cd ratio at the specimen position were approximately 9x10(5) ns/cm(2) s and 100 respectively. It was found that the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time and approximately 40 times faster than the conventional NR using Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The sensitivities of the imaging plate to slow neutron and to Ir-192 gamma-rays were found to be approximately 4.2x10(-3) PSL/mm(2) per neutron and 6.7x10(-5) PSL/mm(2) per gamma-ray photon respectively. Finally, some specimens containing light elements were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the NIP and the Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The image quality obtained from the two recording media was found to be comparable. PMID:19828321

  10. Risk factors affecting quality of life in a group of Italian children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, L; Chiarotti, F; De Vittori, V; Baldini, L; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Tancredi, G; Leonardi, L; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    The measure of Quality of Life (QoL) has become one of the most important criteria used to assess the impact of chronic illness, such as asthma, on the patient’s daily life, in adults and children alike. The objective of our open observational study was to measure the QoL and analyze several factors that potentially affect QoL, such as symptoms and functional respiratory parameters, in a cohort of children with asthma. One hundred and twenty-seven children with asthma, 6 to 14 years of age, living in the city of Rome, were enrolled as outpatients. They were subjected to Skin Prick Tests (SPT), underwent spirometry and filled out the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). One hundred and eleven children were diagnosed with intermittent asthma, 12 (10%) with mild asthma, and four with moderate persistent asthma. Ninety-six children had a positive SPT. The mean total score of QoL, obtained from the questionnaire, was 5.4 (∓1.2 SD). Two QoL groups were created. Children with total QoL score <5.5 were included in the “Lower QoL” score group while children with total QoL score ≥ 5.5 were included in the “Higher QoL” score group. Children in the Higher group and their mothers had a higher mean age, suffered from fewer asthma exacerbations during the year preceding the study, and showed a higher mean value of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) compared to the children in the Lower category. Using Logistic regression we identified the main factors that may affect QoL as FEV1, symptoms in the previous year and mother’s age. QoL is correlated with the frequency of asthma exacerbations and FEV1 values. Furthermore, our research shows that a significant impairment of QoL may also occur in patients with normal lung function, pointing out the importance of evaluating QoL in all children with asthma. PMID:25004835

  11. Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

    2013-10-01

    spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

  12. The effective quality factor at low temperatures in dynamic force microscopes with Fabry-Pérot interferometer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, Hendrik; Milde, Peter; Zerweck, Ulrich; Eng, Lukas M.; Hoffmann, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The oscillation of a cantilever in ultrahigh vacuum dynamic force microscopy is sometimes measured with the help of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. We show that the photoinduced forces present in such an interferometer can artificially increase or decrease the effective quality factor of the cantilever. We examine this effect on the basis of a PtIr-coated rectangular silicon cantilever at temperatures between 7.7 and 30 K. By measuring resonance curves we demonstrate that the magnitude of the effective quality factor changes with cantilever-fiber distance, laser power, and temperature.

  13. Validity, reliability and factor analysis of Persian version of schizophrenia quality of life scale

    PubMed Central

    Masaeli, Nasrin; Omranifard, Victoria; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Kheirabadi, Gholam Reza; Khedri, Anahita

    2016-01-01

    Context: Exact measurement of quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia patients for evaluation of the patient's deterioration and also to assess the efficacy of therapeutic Interventions has become a daily task, which requires accurate assessment tools. Aims: This study was aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a Persian version of schizophrenia QOL scale (SQLS) as a common transcultural instrument. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty schizophrenia patients who referred to Psychiatric Clinic in Noor Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) have been selected using simple sampling method. Subjects and Methods: Aside with SQLS, short form-36 general health (SF-36) and World Health Organization QOL-brief-26 (WHOQOL-BREF-26). Questionnaires were completed by the cases for determination of correlation coefficients. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, Pearson correlation coefficient by Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 18 (SPSS-18). Results: Total reliability of the questionnaire was reported by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha 0.84, reliability of individual relationships subscales was 0.91, signs 0/87, symptoms 0/72 and motivation/energy 0/61. Correlation coefficients of SF-36 with a total scale of SQLS and correlation coefficient of WHOQOL-BREF-26 with a total scale of SQLS were acceptable. Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation identified four principle components (interpersonal relationship, symptoms, signs, motivation, and energy), which will determine QOL at 52.7% variance. Conclusions: Persian version of the SQLS can be used as a simple, reliable and valid tool in Iranian population. PMID:27512702

  14. Drip loss in pork: influencing factors and relation to further meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K

    2007-11-01

    The paper deals with some general features of drip loss and the most important factors influencing it. Moreover, it shows some exemplary results of an own investigation. Up to now there is no generally valid definition of drip loss available. Therefore measurement procedures have to be strongly standardized, otherwise they provide no comparable results. Drip loss depends on the shortening of sarcomeres which is regulated by the interaction of muscle temperature and rigour development. Hence, the chilling conditions are highly important. However, the main point is the velocity and the extent of the pH fall after slaughter. All factors influencing the occurrence of quality deviations like PSE, DFD, Acid meat, RSE, PFN will inevitably affect the degree of drip loss too. Under the conditions of an own study, investigating material of a progeny testing station, untypically, one third of the loins with higher-than-average wateriness were red rather than pale, and one third of the loins with higher-than-average brightness were only slightly exudative, which is untypical too. Pork with higher-than-average brightness and low wateriness exhibited, apart from the colour deviation, no crucial disadvantages. It showed only a marginally higher loss during storage, thawing and heating. Pork with higher-than-average drip loss - regardless of dark or pale colour - was predominantly combined with a pH(1) less than 6.2, an electrical conductivity 24 h p.m. higher than 5.0 and a loin area higher than 56 cm(2). PMID:17988246

  15. Key Factors for a High-Quality Peritoneal Dialysis Program — The Role of the PD Team and Continuous Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased very fast in China over the last decade. Renji Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, is a recognized high-quality PD unit with a high PD utilization rate, excellent patient and technique survival (1-year and 5-year patient survival rate of 93% and 71%, and 1-year and 5-year technique survival of 96% and 82%, respectively), low peritonitis rate and a well-documented good quality of life of the treated patients. We believe that a dedicated and experienced PD team, a structured patient training program, continuous patient support, establishing and utilizing standardized protocols, starting PD with low dialysis dose, monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) are the key factors underlying this successful PD program. PMID:24962961

  16. Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA): a study protocol for a nationwide, multilevel analysis of relationships between hospital quality management systems and patient factors

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Natalie; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Hogden, Emily; Pye, Victoria; Li, Zhicheng; Groene, Oliver; Suñol, Rosa; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the growing body of research on quality and safety in healthcare, there is little evidence of the association between the way hospitals are organised for quality and patient factors, limiting our understanding of how to effect large-scale change. The ‘Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia’ (DUQuA) study aims to measure and examine relationships between (1) organisation and department-level quality management systems (QMS), clinician leadership and culture, and (2) clinical treatment processes, clinical outcomes and patient-reported perceptions of care within Australian hospitals. Methods and analysis The DUQuA project is a national, multilevel, cross-sectional study with data collection at organisation (hospital), department, professional and patient levels. Sample size calculations indicate a minimum of 43 hospitals are required to adequately power the study. To allow for rejection and attrition, 70 hospitals across all Australian jurisdictions that meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate. Participants will consist of hospital quality management professionals; clinicians; and patients with stroke, acute myocardial infarction and hip fracture. Organisation and department-level QMS, clinician leadership and culture, patient perceptions of safety, clinical treatment processes, and patient outcomes will be assessed using validated, evidence-based or consensus-based measurement tools. Data analysis will consist of simple correlations, linear and logistic regression and multilevel modelling. Multilevel modelling methods will enable identification of the amount of variation in outcomes attributed to the hospital and department levels, and the factors contributing to this variation. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained. Results will be disseminated to individual hospitals in de-identified national and international benchmarking reports with data-driven recommendations. This ground

  17. Effective Use of Discovery Learning to Improve Understanding of Factors That Affect Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate business majors are required to take a course in operations management. In this course, a great deal of emphasis is put on developing a good understanding of quality because this is likely to be the only required course that covers this important topic. Quality of output exhibits a great deal of variation. To produce high quality on…

  18. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required. PMID:26696713

  19. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. PMID:26388123

  20. Material-mediated proangiogenic factor release pattern modulates quality of regenerated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Baek, Kwanghyun; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Millet, Larry J; Bashir, Rashid; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-12-28

    Hydrogels designed to sustainably release bioactive molecules are extensively used to enhance tissue repair and regenerative therapies. Along this line, numerous efforts are made to control the molecular release rate and amount. In contrast, few efforts are made to control the molecular release pattern, and, subsequently, modulate the spatial organization of newly forming tissues, including blood vessels. Therefore, using a hydrogel printed to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into a pre-defined pattern, this study demonstrates that spatial distribution of VEGF is important in guiding growth direction of new blood vessels, and also in retaining the structural integrity of pre-existing vasculature. Guided by a computational model, we fabricated a patch composed of micro-sized VEGF-releasing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel cylinders using an ink-jet printer. Interestingly, hydrogel printed with computationally optimized spacing created anisotropically aligned vasculature exclusively when the printed gel pattern was placed parallel to pre-existing blood vessels. In contrast, vascular sprouting from placing the printed gel pattern perpendicular to pre-existing vessels resulted in deformation and structural disintegration of the original vasculature. We envision that this study will be useful to better understand angiogenesis-modulated neovascularization and further improve the treatment quality for various wounds and tissue defects. PMID:25450405

  1. Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

  2. Evaluating Persistent Postoperative Pain in One Tertiary Hospital: Incidence, Quality of Life, Associated Factors, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes-Pereira, Luis; Valdoleiros, Ines; Reis, Pedro; Abelha, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent postoperative pain (PPP) is defined as persistent pain after surgery of greater than three months’ duration. Objectives Identify the incidence of PPP in our hospital and its associated factors; evaluate quality of life (QoL) and treatment of patients. Patients and Methods We conducted an observational prospective study in adults proposed to various types of surgery using the brief pain inventory short form preoperatively (T0), one day after surgery, and three months later (T3). If the patient had pain at T3 and other causes of pain were excluded, they were considered to have PPP, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form was applied. QoL was measured with the EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D). Results One hundred seventy-five patients completed the study. The incidence of PPP was 28%, and the affected patients presented lower QoL. The majority referred to a moderate to severe level of interference in their general activity. Cholecystectomies were less associated with PPP, and total knee/hip replacements were more associated with it. Preoperative pain, preoperative benzodiazepines or antidepressants, and more severe acute postoperative pain were associated with the development of PPP. Half of the patients with PPP were under treatment, and they refer a mean symptomatic relief of 69%. Conclusions This study, apart from attempting to better characterize the problem of PPP, emphasizes the lack of its treatment. PMID:27252908

  3. Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiming; Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Gong, Zizhou; Ding, Qi; Gustafsson, Martin V; Trinh, M Tuan; Jin, Song; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-06-01

    The remarkable performance of lead halide perovskites in solar cells can be attributed to the long carrier lifetimes and low non-radiative recombination rates, the same physical properties that are ideal for semiconductor lasers. Here, we show room-temperature and wavelength-tunable lasing from single-crystal lead halide perovskite nanowires with very low lasing thresholds (220 nJ cm(-2)) and high quality factors (Q ∼ 3,600). The lasing threshold corresponds to a charge carrier density as low as 1.5 × 10(16) cm(-3). Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved fluorescence reveals little charge carrier trapping in these single-crystal nanowires and gives estimated lasing quantum yields approaching 100%. Such lasing performance, coupled with the facile solution growth of single-crystal nanowires and the broad stoichiometry-dependent tunability of emission colour, makes lead halide perovskites ideal materials for the development of nanophotonics, in parallel with the rapid development in photovoltaics from the same materials. PMID:25849532

  4. Error analysis for intrinsic quality factor measurement in superconducting radio frequency resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, O.; Grassellino, A.; Romanenko, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss error analysis for intrinsic quality factor (Q0) and accelerating gradient (Eacc) measurements in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) resonators. The analysis is applicable for cavity performance tests that are routinely performed at SRF facilities worldwide. We review the sources of uncertainties along with the assumptions on their correlations and present uncertainty calculations with a more complete procedure for treatment of correlations than in previous publications [T. Powers, in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27]. Applying this approach to cavity data collected at Vertical Test Stand facility at Fermilab, we estimated total uncertainty for both Q0 and Eacc to be at the level of approximately 4% for input coupler coupling parameter β1 in the [0.5, 2.5] range. Above 2.5 (below 0.5) Q0 uncertainty increases (decreases) with β1 whereas Eacc uncertainty, in contrast with results in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27], is independent of β1. Overall, our estimated Q0 uncertainty is approximately half as large as that in Powers [in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, SuP02 (Elsevier, 2005), pp. 24-27].

  5. Ultra High Quality Factor Microtoroid for Chemical and Biomedical Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woosung

    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have drawn attentions in various types of sensing, such as chemical- and bio-sensing. Even though various types of microcavity geometries have been investigated, research about on-chip WGM toroidal resonator has been discontinued for the sensing applications in aquatic environment. The strong benefits of the microtoroid are ultra-high-Q and small mode volume leading to high sensitivity to small change of environment, surrounding media refractive index change or light scatterer induced effective refractive index change. By using this ultra high-Q WGM resonator, radius >75nm polystyrene nanoparticle are detected in aquatic environment. In addition to polystyrene nanoparticle sensing, individual synthetic hemozoin crystals are detected and its size is measured. The hemozoin crystal sensing ultimately leads to malaria infection diagnose. A sol-gel method fabricated microlaser, co-work with Lina He, extended the sensing capability, detecting >30nm radius polystyrene nanoparticle. Since the water experiment is challenging and tackling the difficulty is main task, theoretical investigations are performed about WGM resonance quality factor, resonator mode volume, and noise to minimum detectable particle size. The research described in this dissertation will shed light on advanced chemical- and bio-sensor developments.

  6. High-quality-factor planar optical cavities with laterally stopped, slowed, or reversed light.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Steven J; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Capasso, Federico

    2016-08-01

    In a planar optical cavity, the resonance frequencies increase as a function of in-plane wavevector according to a standard textbook formula. This has well-known consequences in many different areas of optics, from the shifts of etalon peaks at non-normal angles, to the properties of transverse modes in laser diodes, to the effective mass of microcavity photons, and so on. However, this standard formula is valid only when the reflection phase of each cavity mirror is approximately independent of angle. There is a certain type of mirror-a subwavelength dielectric grating near a guided mode resonance-with not only a strongly angle-dependent reflection phase, but also very high reflectance and low losses. Simulations show that by using such mirrors, high-quality-factor planar cavities can be designed that break all these textbook rules, leading to resonant modes that are slow, stopped or even backward-propagating in the in-plane direction. In particular, we demonstrate experimentally high-Q planar cavities whose resonance frequency is independent of in-plane wavevector-i.e., the resonant modes have zero in-plane group velocity, for one polarization but both in-plane directions. We discuss potential applications in various fields including lasers, quantum optics, and exciton-polariton condensation. PMID:27505803

  7. Role of Socio-Psychological Factors in Perceived Quality of Care Rendered by Traditional Medical Practitioners in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Adebayo; Faluyi, Moyolebi; Adejuwon, Adebukola

    2013-01-01

    Background: It was the aim of the current research to investigate perceived service quality rendered by traditional medical practitioners and the role of socio-psychological factors in the perception. Methods: The first part, a quantitative cross-sectional survey utilized a 93-item questionnaire to examine the influence of quality of life, general health perception, socio-economic status and personality factors on perceived service quality. The second part, a qualitative study utilized 5 FGDs and 2 KIIs to explore consumers’ evaluation of perceived service quality. Five research questions were raised. The 336 purposively-selected participants were attendees of traditional-health clinics/centers in Ibadan with a mean age of X̄=30.60±9.97. Findings: The FGD respondents opined that the scope of orthodox-medicine does not cover certain illnesses. 77.8% of the participants attested to the affordability and promptness of services in traditional hospitals; acknowledging that its perceived efficacy (i.e. 56.8%) motivate patronage of traditional-health service. The 2x2x3 ANOVA revealed significant main effect of quality of life (F[1,270]=41.05, p<.001) and socio-economic status (F[2,270]=36.34; p<.001); as well as interaction effect of quality of life, general health and socio-economic status (F[1,270]=9.624, p<.002); while the regression analysis showed independent influence of extraversion (β=0.31; p<.001), agreeableness (β=0.303; p<.001) and openness to experience (β=0.166; p<.01). Conclusion: This sample acknowledged that traditional health care met quality standards. The role of socio-psychological factors in the quality appraisal was established. The need for better regulation and validation of traditional health care in assuring evidence based care was suggested. PMID:24171887

  8. Is the Best Evidence Good Enough: Quality Assessment and Factor Analysis of Meta-Analyses on Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meijuan; Mei, Xinchun; Hou, Jiaojiao; Shi, Zhongyong; Shuai, Yu; Shen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The quality of meta-analyses (MAs) on depression remains uninvestigated. Objective To assess the overall reporting and methodological qualities of MAs on depression and to explore potential factors influencing both qualities. Methods MAs investigating epidemiology and interventions for depression published in the most recent year (2014–2015) were selected from PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library. The characteristics of the included studies were collected and the total and per-item quality scores of the included studies were calculated based on the two checklists. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to explore the potential factors influencing the quality of the articles. Results A total of 217 MAs from 74 peer-reviewed journals were included. The mean score of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was 23.0 of 27 and mean score of Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) was 8.3 of 11. Items assessing registration and protocol (14.2%, 37/217) in PRISMA and item requiring a full list of included and excluded studies (16.1%, 40/217) in AMSTAR had poorer adherences than other items. The MAs that included only RCTs, pre-registered, had five more authors or authors from Cochrane groups and the MAs found negative results had better reporting and methodological qualities. Conclusions The reporting and methodological qualities of MAs on depression remained to be improved. Design of included studies, characteristics of authors and pre-registration in PROSPERO database are important factors influencing quality of MAs in the field of depression. PMID:27336624

  9. Prediction of In-Phantom Dose Distribution Using In-Air Neutron Beam Characteristics for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2000-08-15

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study was carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures of merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the skin-absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the bone-absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment and that (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce the particle transport simulation time by a factor of 10 by modeling the moderator only.

  10. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO₂ laser welding.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high-Q-factor of 2.12 × 10(6) in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid. PMID:26480452

  11. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO_2 laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  12. Use of fast neutrons for assessing sarcopenia by measuring body phosphorus: relevance to health and quality of life of the elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, Joseph J.; Zhuang, Hong; Doherty, Patricia L.

    1997-02-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as the loss of skeletal muscle with age, may lead to frailty, fractures due to falls, and reduced immunity to disease. By understanding the causes of muscle loss with age we will be able to develop ways of maintaining functional capacity and quality of life for the elderly. Elemental Partition Analysis (EPA) is a new approach to body composition assessment. A major element of the body is measured and then, by means of other measurements, is partitioned to the contributing body compartments. We developed a model for measuring total body muscle by applying the EPA method to total body phosphorus (TBP). We measure TBP by in vivo fast neutron activation analysis using the reaction 31P(n,(alpha) )28Al. The main contributors to TBP are bone and skeletal muscle. Adipose tissue and the liver contribute less than 3 percent. We use dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate the contribution of bone to TBP. COrrections are applied for the small contributions of the liver and adipose tissue to TBP to derive muscle phosphorus. The technique requires high precision measurements for both TBP and DXA. The total body radiation exposure for measuring human subjects is 0.30 mSv.

  13. A High Precision Measurement of the Neutron Electric Form Factor, GEn at High Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2007-06-01

    In the spring of 2006, Jefferson Lab experiment 02-â 013 successfully collected data to measure the neutron elastic form factor GEn at the four-momentum transfer values Q2 = 1.2, 1.8, 2.6, and 3.5(GeV/c)2. This measurement of the quasi-elastic semi-exclusive 3H-vector e(e-vector ,e[prime]n) reaction used the polarized CEBAF beam (Pb [approximate] 85%) and a highly polarized 3He target (Pt [approximate] 50%). Neutrons were detected in a large array of scintillators with an efficiency of 35â -40%. The electrons were detected by the newly commissioned BigBite spectrometer with a solid angle of 76msr and a momentum resolution of 1%. From the transverse asymmetry of the cross section, GEn will be extracted. A statistical accuracy of DeltaGEn/GEn [approximate] 0.14 is expected.

  14. The Association Between Psychological Factors and Orofacial Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Reddy, Sreedevi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that psychological factors of psychological distress and perception of unhappiness in childhood are associated with self reported orofacial pain and to examine whether such patients have a poorer perception of their oral health related quality of life and if so then to what extent. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur amongst 400 cases and 400 controls. Patients were included based on Locker and Slade’s criteria. Patients were asked to complete 27 items Questionnaire which included the General Health Questionnaire to assess for psychological distress and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 for evaluating impact on quality of life. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between psychological factors, unhappy childhood and quality of life. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results An increased propensity to report orofacial pain was seen for those individuals with higher levels of Psychological Distress and with perception of Unhappiness in Childhood. These individuals also reported with poorer perception of their oral health related Quality of Life. Conclusion The present study has shown relationship between Orofacial Pain, Quality of Life and Psychological Factors. PMID:26155560

  15. The Quality of Genetic Counseling and Connected Factors as Evaluated by Male BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Moilanen, Jukka S; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2016-06-01

    There is little written about the quality of genetic counseling for men with the BRCA1/2 mutation. The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of genetic counseling and connected factors according to Finnish male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' (n = 35) perspectives and reasons for seeking genetic counseling. Data were collected from the Departments of Clinical Genetics at five Finnish university hospitals. The exploratory study design was conducted using a 51-item questionnaire based on a previously devised quality of counseling model and analyzed using non-parametric tests and principle content analysis. The satisfaction level with genetic counseling was high, especially with regard to the content of genetic counseling. The benefit of genetic counseling on the quality of life differed significantly (p < 0.001-0.009) from other factors. In particular, genetic counseling was in some cases associated to reduce the quality of life. Only 49 % of the male carriers felt they received sufficient counseling on social support. Attention to individual psychosocial support was proposed as an improvement to genetic counseling. Primary and secondary reasons for seeking genetic counseling and background information, such as education, affected the perceived quality of genetic counseling. The results of the study could be used to tailor genetic counseling for male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:26416184

  16. Multi-scale landscape factors influencing stream water quality in the state of Oregon.

    PubMed

    Nash, Maliha S; Heggem, Daniel T; Ebert, Donald; Wade, Timothy G; Hall, Robert K

    2009-09-01

    Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattle may affect surface water quality directly by depositing nutrients and bacteria, and indirectly by damaging stream banks or removing vegetation cover, which may lead to increased sediment loads. This study used the State of Oregon surface water data to determine the likelihood of animal pathogen presence using enterococci and analyzed the spatial distribution and relationship of biotic (enterococci) and abiotic (nitrogen and phosphorous) surface water constituents to landscape metrics and others (e.g. human use, percent riparian cover, natural covers, grazing, etc.). We used a grazing potential index (GPI) based on proximity to water, land ownership and forage availability. Mean and variability of GPI, forage availability, stream density and length, and landscape metrics were related to enterococci and many forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in standard and logistic regression models. The GPI did not have a significant role in the models, but forage related variables had significant contribution. Urban land use within stream reach was the main driving factor when exceeding the threshold (> or =35 cfu/100 ml), agriculture was the driving force in elevating enterococci in sites where enterococci concentration was <35 cfu/100 ml. Landscape metrics related to amount of agriculture, wetlands and urban all contributed to increasing nutrients in surface water but at different scales. The probability of having sites with concentrations of enterococci above the threshold was much lower in areas of natural land cover and much higher in areas with higher urban land use within 60 m of stream. A 1% increase in natural land cover was associated with a 12% decrease in the predicted odds of having a site

  17. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  18. Lecturers' and Students' Perception on Educational Policy Implementation Factors as Predictors for Quality Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredein, Afolakemi O.; Durojaye, Toluwase G.

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on lecturers' and students' perception on educational policy implementation factors and quality education in Nigerian universities. Educational policies have always been formulated purposely to guide the present and future thinking, actions and decisions of managers. The potency of policy is not in formulation but in its proper…

  19. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

  20. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

  2. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  3. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,…

  4. Factors Associated with Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School-Based Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual…

  5. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoof, Sebastian; Nand Gosvami, Nitya; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here, we show that a high-quality resonance (Q >20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity—as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient—is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Through the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up that includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and that can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  6. Neutron Laue macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Meilleur, Flora; Myles, Dean A A; Blakeley, M. P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in neutron protein crystallography such as the use of the Laue technique and improved neutron optics and detector technologies have dramatically improved the speed and precision with which neutron protein structures can now be determined. These studies are providing unique and complementary insights on hydrogen and hydration in protein crystal structures that are not available from X-ray structures alone. Parallel improvements in modern molecular biology now allow fully (per)deuterated protein samples to be produced for neutron scattering that essentially eradicate the large--and ultimately limiting--hydrogen incoherent scattering background that has hampered such studies in the past. High quality neutron data can now be collected to near atomic resolution ({approx}2.0 Angstroms) for proteins of up to {approx}50 kDa molecular weight using crystals of volume {approx}0.1 mm3 on the Laue diffractometer at ILL. The ability to flash-cool and collect high resolution neutron data from protein crystals at cryogenic temperature (15 K) has opened the way for kinetic crystallography on freeze trapped systems. Current instrument developments now promise to reduce crystal volume requirements by a further order of magnitude, making neutron protein crystallography a more accessible and routine technique.

  7. Ion temperature and plasma rotation profile effects in the neutron emission spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Henriksson, H.; Källne, J.

    2004-03-01

    The instrumental factors and measuring conditions affecting neutron emission spectrometry measurements of tokamak plasmas are described and analyzed. The measured energy broadening and shift of the neutron emission is used to deduce ion temperature (Ti) and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (Vt) representing average (effective) values for the nonuniform plasma volume viewed. Analytical expressions are derived for the relationship between the line-volume integrated effective temperature (Teff) and the radial profile Ti(r) for the case of thermal plasmas with isotropic neutron emission; effects on Teff due to spectral broadening from the radial dependence Vt(r) were also considered. The analysis method presented here is applied to high quality data obtained with the magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer installed at Joint European Torus for measurements of deuterium-tritium plasmas. Similarly, cases of anisotropic neutron emission were quantitatively assessed.

  8. The relationship between the quality of cooperative learning, students' goal preferences, and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Hijzen, Daphne; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This study examined relationships between the quality of cooperative learning (CL) and students' goal preferences and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom. Subjects were 1,920 students in secondary vocational schools. The study focused on four different types of goals: social support, belongingness, mastery, and superiority goals. It was found that social support goals had the strongest relation with the quality of CL. Further we found that the quality of CL was best predicted by a combination of social support goals, evaluations of the extent that students were taught cooperation skills, perception of teacher monitoring behavior, and the availability of academic and emotional peer support. Female students' preferences for mastery and social goals were stronger than those of male students, whereas male students had a stronger preference for superiority goals. Program type functioned as a moderator variable within the relation of students' superiority/ individuality goals and the quality of CL. PMID:16433658

  9. Inclusive scattering of polarized electrons on polarized {sup 3}He: Effects of final state interaction and the magnetic form factor of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, S.; Golak, J.; Witala, H.; Kamada, H.; Gloeckle, W.; Hueber, D.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of final state interaction on asymmetries in inclusive scattering of polarized electrons on polarized {sup 3}He are investigated using a consistent {sup 3}He bound state wave function and 3N continuum scattering states. Significant effects are found, which influence the extraction of the magnetic neutron form factor from A{sub T{sup {prime}}}. The enhancement found experimentally for A{sub TL{sup {prime}}} near the 3N breakup threshold, which could not be explained in calculations carried through in plane wave impulse approximation up to now, occurs now also in theory if the full final state interaction is included. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteria were included. Demographic data containing age, sex, residence, socio economic status, education, mode of traveling for dialysis, total time consumed in dialysis were collected by the investigators. QOL index was measured using 26 items, WHO QOL BREF. Results: There were 89(71.2%) male and 36(28.8%) female patients. Environmental domain score was highest (p=0.000) than all other domains in HD Patients. In overall analysis age, marital status and total time consumed in getting HD effect QOL significantly (p=<0.05). In domain wise analysis, male has better QOL in social relationship domain than female. Age has negative relationship with physical health and psychological health domain. QOL of unmarried and literate patients is significantly better (p=<0.05) in physical health domain. Employed patients have better QOL in physical, psychological and social relationship domain (p=<0.05) than unemployed patients. Patients of residence of rural areas have better QOL in physical and environment domain. Financial status of HD patients affect QOL in social domain. Distance covered to reach hospital effect QOL in psychological domain (p=<0.05). Patients traveling in private transport have better QOL in environmental domain (p=<0.05). Total time consumed in getting HD effect social relation in QOL (p=<0.05). According to linear regression model, marital status is positive predictor and unemployment is negative predictor of QOL in physical health domain. Age is negative predictor of QOL in

  11. Visual and non-visual factors associated with patient satisfaction and quality of life in LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Lazon de la Jara, P; Erickson, D; Erickson, P; Stapleton, F

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine how laser in situkeratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK. Methods A total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA) were measured under photopic and scotopic conditions before surgery and at 3 months later. A multidimensional QOL scale (Institute for Eye Research multidimensional QOL scale), which assesses psychological characteristics, personality traits, cosmesis, frequency, and tolerance to disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, and overall satisfaction with vision correction, was also used. Paired rank tests were used to compare preoperative and postoperative vision and QOL scores. Correlations and a multiple linear regression were used to describe the relationship between CVA, QOL, and satisfaction after LASIK. Results Significant postoperative changes included increased satisfaction following LASIK (P<0.001), reduced frequency of visual and ocular symptoms (P<0.001), and change in psychological characteristics (P=0.033). The change in satisfaction with LASIK can be predicted by a combination of preoperative satisfaction, postoperative frequency of disturbing visual and ocular symptoms, postoperative mean spherical equivalent, and postoperative scotopic high CVA (R 2=0.725, P<0.05). Conclusions Satisfaction with LASIK is related to visual function, preoperative expectations, psychological characteristics, and uncorrected CVA achieved. An increased sense of subjective well-being, adaptability, and self-efficacy was evident after LASIK. Patients reported a more optimistic attitude to life and increase perceived QOL after surgery. PMID:21720417

  12. Dialysis-related factors affecting quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Anees, Muhammad; Hameed, Farooq; Mumtaz, Asim; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Saeed Khan, Muhammad Nasir

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Treatment modalities for end-stage renal disease affect quality of life (QOL) of the patients. This study was conducted to assess the QOL of patients on hemodialysis and compare it with caregivers of these patients. Cause of ESRD and dialysis-related factors affecting QOL were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on patient on maintenance hemodialysis for more than 3 months at 3 dialysis centers of Lahore. Fifty healthy individuals were included as controls from among the patients' caregivers. The QOL index was measured using the World Health Organization QOL questionnaire, with higher scores corresponding to better QOL of patients. RESULTS. Eighty-nine patients (71.2%) were men, 99 (79.2%) were married, 75 (60.0%) were older than 45 years, and 77 (61.6%) were on dialysis for more than 8 months. Patients on hemodialysis had a poorer QOL as compared to their caregivers in all domains except for domain 4 (environment). There was no difference in the QOL between the three dialysis centers of the study, except for domain 3 (social relationship) of the patients at Mayo Hospital (a public hospital), which was significantly better. Nondiabetic patients had a better QOL in domain 1 (physical health) as compared to diabetic patients. Duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with the overall QOL. CONCLUSIONS. We found that QOL of hemodialysis patients was poor as compared to caregivers of the patients, especially that of diabetics. Also, duration of dialysis had a reverse correlation with QOL. PMID:21189427

  13. Isoprene Emission Factors for Subtropical Street Trees for Regional Air Quality Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Johnston, Kristina A; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Plant, Lyndal; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the environmental benefits and consequences of urban trees supports their sustainable management in cities. Models such as i-Tree Eco enable decision-making by quantifying effects associated with particular tree species. Of specific concern are emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, particularly isoprene, that contribute to the formation of photochemical smog and ground level ozone. Few studies have quantified these potential disservices of urban trees, and current models predominantly use emissions data from trees that differ from those in our target region of subtropical Australia. The present study aimed (i) to quantify isoprene emission rates of three tree species that together represent 16% of the inventoried street trees in the target region; (ii) to evaluate outputs of the i-Tree Eco model using species-specific versus currently used, generic isoprene emission rates; and (iii) to evaluate the findings in the context of regional air quality. Isoprene emission rates of (Myrtaceae) and (Proteaceae) were 2.61 and 2.06 µg g dry leaf weight h, respectively, whereas (Sapindaceae) was a nonisoprene emitter. We substituted the generic isoprene emission rates with these three empirical values in i-Tree Eco, resulting in a 182 kg yr (97%) reduction in isoprene emissions, totaling 6284 kg yr when extrapolated to the target region. From these results we conclude that care has to be taken when using generic isoprene emission factors for urban tree models. We recommend that emissions be quantified for commonly planted trees, allowing decision-makers to select tree species with the greatest overall benefit for the urban environment. PMID:26828179

  14. Complications of fast neutron therapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the tissues and organs at risk following high-energy neutron-beam therapy for selected radioresistant tumors, estimating the separate probabilities of both normal tissue injury and of tumor recurrence, each in relation to the absorbed dose. Published statistical and anecdotal reports on the incidence of serious complications observed following fast neutron treatment directed to the cranium, head and neck, chest, upper abdomen, pelvis, and extremities are reviewed and dose-response parameters derived using bivariate probit or logistic analyses. We then calculate the conditional probability of uncomplicated control (PUC) at various doses, assuming that tumor cure and late injury are stochastically independent events. The median effective doses and coefficients of variation, derived for neutron irradiation of human brain and spinal cord, oropharynx, lung, stomach and bowel, rectum and bladder, and extremities, are tabulated and tentative "tolerance limits" estimated. Tolerance doses are shown to depend on several factors including beam quality, chemical composition, cell cycling rate, fraction-size, and follow-up time. In patients followed over 5 years, safe tolerance doses appear to range from < 14 GY for the central nervous system up to 22 GY in the oropharynx and mandible. Given well-determined dose-response data for specific normal tissues and the associated tumors, the separate probabilities of tumor control and of normal tissue injury at a given dose can be estimated. The particular treatment scheme yielding the highest PUC can usually be identified. The maximum PUC for neutron therapy, compared with other modalities, is a measure of both efficacy and safety for the procedure under study and thus provides a useful guide for comparing various modalities and treatment plans and for designing more effective treatment strategies. PMID:9670290

  15. Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific

  16. Atmospheric neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, S. A.; Mendell, R. B.; Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Sandie, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to fast neutron measurements in the atmosphere are outlined. The results of a calculation to determine the production, distribution and final disappearance of atmospheric neutrons over the entire spectrum are presented. An attempt is made to answer questions that relate to processes such as neutron escape from the atmosphere and C-14 production. In addition, since variations of secondary neutrons can be related to variations in the primary radiation, comment on the modulation of both radiation components is made.

  17. Neutron guide

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Geoffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  18. Neutron dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1976-07-27

    A method of measuring neutron radiation within a nuclear reactor is provided. A sintered oxide wire is disposed within the reactor and exposed to neutron radiation. The induced radioactivity is measured to provide an indication of the neutron energy and flux within the reactor.

  19. Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

  20. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The Han River basin is one of the most important industrial and grain production bases in the central China. A lot of factories and towns have been established along the river where large farmlands are located nearby. In the last few decades the water quality of the Han River, specifically in middle and lower reaches, has gradually declined. The agricultural nonpoint pollution and municipal and industrial point pollution significantly degrade the water quality of the Han River. Factor analysis can be applied to reduce the dimensionality of a data set consisting of a large number of inter-related variables. Cluster analysis can classify the samples according to their similar characters. In this study, factor analysis is used to identify major pollution indicators, and cluster analysis is employed to classify the samples based on the sample locations and hydrochemical variables. Water samples were collected from 12 sample sites collected from Xiangyang City (middle Han River) to Wuhan City (lower Han River). Correlations among 25 hydrochemical variables are statistically examined. The important pollutants are determined by factor analysis. A three-factor model is determined and explains over 85% of the total river water quality variation. Factor 1, including SS, Chl-a, TN and TP, can be considered as the nonpoint source pollution. Factor 2, including Cl-, Br-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2+ and PO43-, can be treated as the industrial pollutant pollution. Factor 3, including F- and NO3-, reflects the influence of the groundwater or self-purification capability of the river water. The various land uses along the Han River correlate well with the pollution types. In addition, the result showed that the water quality of Han River deteriorated gradually from middle to lower Han River. Some tributaries have been seriously polluted and significantly influence the mainstream water quality of the Han River. Finally, the result showed that the nonpoint pollution and the point

  1. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  2. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Manabu; Koyama, Hidenori; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Naka, Mariko; Miyoshi, Akio; Kanzaki, Akinori; Kakutani, Miki; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP) changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated. Methods This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio)], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150), a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164) were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179) and awake physical activity (β = 0.190) were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336) and awake physical activity (β = 0.489) were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls. Conclusion Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension. PMID:27166822

  3. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorriaux, J; Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J; Bertrand, D; Orban de Xivry, J.; Lee, J; Palmans, H; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 ± 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  4. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.D. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi} and 20 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi}, respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

  5. Extracting Information about the Electronic Quality of Organic Solar-Cell Absorbers from Fill Factor and Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaienburg, Pascal; Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fill factor in organic solar cells remains challenging due to its complex dependence on a multitude of parameters. By means of drift-diffusion simulations, we thoroughly analyze the fill factor of such low-mobility systems and demonstrate its dependence on a collection coefficient defined in this work. We systematically discuss the effect of different recombination mechanisms, space-charge regions, and contact properties. Based on these findings, we are able to interpret the thickness dependence of the fill factor for different experimental studies from the literature. The presented model provides a facile method to extract the photoactive layer's electronic quality which is of particular importance for the fill factor. We illustrate that over the past 15 years, the electronic quality has not been continuously improved, although organic solar-cell efficiencies increased steadily over the same period of time. Only recent reports show the synthesis of polymers for semiconducting films of high electronic quality that are able to produce new efficiency records.

  6. Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T. M.

    2009-06-01

    Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

  7. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  8. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  9. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN TURKEY

    PubMed Central

    Oztasan, Nuray; Ozyrek, Pakize; Kilic, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Purpose of this descriptive study is to determine the mental health problems and quality of life levels of college students and examine the relationship between them. Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 429 students continuing their education in Health School at Afyon Kocatepe University. Data were collected by using information form, Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), SF 36 Quality of Life Scale questionnaires. In the analysis of obtained data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used. Findings: Mental symptoms which the students got the highest scores from the subscales of BSI were respectively, depression (1.31±0.75), hostility (1.22±0.67) and anxiety (1.00±0.65). Discomfort severity index which is the overall score of the scale was found 1.07±0.61. Relation between state of mind and quality of life was found statistically significant (F: 70.894; p<0.000). When quality of life summary scores examined, it was found out that physical health summary score (48.92±7.93) and mental health summary score (43.44±9.52) points were low. Conclusions: Consequently, according to averages of scores, it can be said that frequency of the mental symptoms of students are high but their quality of life is low. It was found that when students’ quality of life decreased, their mental symptoms increased. PMID:27482164

  10. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients. PMID:23521364

  11. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide the technical information and rationale in support of the proposed procedures to determine bioaccumulation factors. Bioaccumulation factors, together with the quantity of aquatic organisms eaten, determine the extent to which people and wildlife are exposed to chemicals through the consumption of aquatic organisms. The more bioaccumulative a pollutant is, the more important the consumption of aquatic organisms becomes as a potential source of contaminants to humans and wildlife. Bioaccumulation factors are needed to determine both human health and wildlife tier I water quality criteria and tier II values. Also, they are used to define Bioaccumulative Chemicals of Concern among the Great Lakes Initiative universe of pollutants. Bioaccumulation factors range from less than one to several million.

  12. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  13. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. PMID:27452871

  14. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Joel; Taner, M. Turhan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2006-08-08

    A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of compressional velocity and shear velocity, and determining reservoir parameters of subsurface Earth formations, at least including density, from data obtained from a wellbore penetrating the formations. A quality factor for the subsurface formations is calculated from the velocity, the density and the water saturation. A synthetic seismogram is calculated from the calculated quality factor and from the velocity and density. The synthetic seismogram is compared to a seismic survey made in the vicinity of the wellbore. At least one parameter is adjusted. The synthetic seismogram is recalculated using the adjusted parameter, and the adjusting, recalculating and comparing are repeated until a difference between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic survey falls below a selected threshold.

  15. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report Versus Maternal Reports.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-04-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter's QoL. PMID:26707626

  16. Photon beam quality correction factors for the NE2571A and NE2581A thimble ionization chambers using PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Erazo, Fabián; Lallena, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The beam quality correction factor kQ,Q0 and the perturbation factor pQ for photon beams were calculated for the NE2571A and NE2581A ionization chambers, using the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE. Results are compared to those quoted for the NE2571 and NE2581 chambers in previous works. Both kQ,Q0 and pQ obtained for NE2571A and NE2581A chambers agree with those of their predecessors NE2571 and NE2581 ones. PMID:26602965

  17. What are the most important factors that determine the overall quality of dermatology residency training: A resident survey.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Darren; Feldman, Steven R; Huang, William W

    2015-10-01

    Currently no broadly accepted and standardized objective ranking system for dermatology residency programs exist. A new ranking system was recently developed in an attempt to address this issue. However, it remains unclear if the algorithm employed is based on factors that have a tangible impact on the quality of training provided by dermatology residency programs [1]. Our authors surveyed all current dermatology residents in order to investigate the factors that they feel are most important in determining the strength of training provided by a residency program. PMID:26632809

  18. Modeling of High-Quality Factor XNOR Gate Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers at 1 Tb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Amer

    2015-06-01

    The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor ( Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of ˜1 Tb/s.

  19. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed through the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (EBQ), self-efficacy for healthy eating scale, and availability of healthy foods scale, respectively. RESULTS The majority of the respondents (80.7%) were at risk of poor diet quality. Males (mean = 34.2 ± 8.2%) had poorer diet quality than females (mean = 39.9 ± 9.0%) (t = -5.941, P < 0.05). Malay respondents (mean = 36.9 ± 8.7%) had poorer diet quality than Indian respondents (mean = 41.3 ± 10.0%) (F = 2.762, P < 0.05). Age (r = 0.123, P < 0.05), self-efficacy for healthy eating (r = 0.129, P < 0.05), and availability of healthy foods (r = 0.159, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. However, meal frequency was not correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a male, being a Malay, low self-efficacy for healthy eating, and low availability of healthy foods contributed significantly towards poor diet quality among respondents. CONCLUSIONS In short, sex, ethnicity, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were associated with diet quality among adolescents. Health practitioners should take into consideration of differences in sex and ethnicity during implementation of nutrition-related intervention programs. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and availability of healthy foods should be included as important components in improving diet quality of adolescents. PMID:26425281

  20. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorptionmore » loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.« less

  1. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.

  2. Factor Structure of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Montazeri, Ali; Sheikhfatollahi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL)-BREF is one of the most known general questionnaires for assessment of quality of life (QOL) in both healthy populations and in various diseases subgroups. The aim of the present study was to examine the construct validity of this questionnaire in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) using factor analysis. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-five patients aged 35-80 years old with the diagnosis of CAD admitted to the Tehran Heart Center operating room for coronary artery bypass were consecutively entered into the study. QOL was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF. To estimate the reliability of the QOL questionnaire, Cronbach's a coefficient was measured. To assess the structure of the questionnaire, we firstly performed confirmatory factor analysis to test the hypothesized factor models. Exploratory factor analysis was then performed using the principal component method with varimax rotation. Results: Reliability of the questionnaire was low (Cronbach's a for different domains ranged from 0.24 to 0.74). In confirmatory factor analysis, only the 1-factor model indicated a good fit to the data. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor solution that jointly accounted for 55.7% of the variance observed. Also, the pattern of item loading was very different from the original structure of the questionnaire. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the WHOQOL-BREF might only be a measure of the overall QOL in patients with CAD, and is not a suitable instrument for measuring the different QOL dimensions as expected in this population. PMID:24130947

  3. Neutron Transport Characteristics of a Nuclear Reactor Based Dynamic Neutron Imaging System

    SciTech Connect

    Khaial, Anas M.; Harvel, Glenn D.; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2006-07-01

    An advanced dynamic neutron imaging system has been constructed in the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) for nondestructive testing and multi-phase flow studies in energy and environmental applications. A high quality neutron beam is required with a thermal neutron flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2}-s and a collimation ratio of 120 at image plane to promote high-speed neutron imaging up to 2000 frames per second. Neutron source strength and neutron transport have been experimentally and numerically investigated. Neutron source strength at the beam tube entrance was evaluated experimentally by measuring the thermal and fast neutron fluxes, and simple analytical neutron transport calculations were performed based upon these measured neutron fluxes to predict facility components in accordance with high-speed dynamic neutron imaging and operation safety requirements. Monte-Carlo simulations (using MCNP-4B code) with multiple neutron energy groups have also been used to validate neutron beam parameters and to ensure shielding capabilities of facility shutter and cave walls. Neutron flux distributions at the image plane and the neutron beam characteristics were experimentally measured by irradiating a two-dimensional array of Copper foils and using a real-time neutron radiography system. The neutron image characteristics -- such as neutron flux, image size, beam quality -- measured experimentally and predicted numerically for beam tube, beam shutter and radiography cave are compared and discussed in detail in this paper. The experimental results show that thermal neutron flux at image plane is nearly uniform over an imaging area of 20.0-cm diameter and its magnitude ranges from 8.0 x 10{sup 6} - 1.0 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}-sec while the neutron-to-gamma ratio is 6.0 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}-{mu}Sv. (authors)

  4. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed. PMID:26903917

  5. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed. PMID:26903917

  6. Radiation tolerance of a high quality synthetic single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Aielli, G.; Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2008-09-01

    Diamond exhibits many properties such as an outstanding radiation hardness and fast response time both important to design detectors working in extremely radioactive environments. Among the many applications these devices can be used for, there is the development of a fast and radiation hard neutron detector for the next generation of fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, under construction at Cadarache in France. A technology to routinely produce electronic grade synthetic single crystal diamond detectors was recently developed by our group. One of such detectors, with an energy resolution of 0.9% as measured using an {sup 241}Am{alpha} particle source, has been heavily irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The modifications of its spectroscopic properties have been studied as a function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. In the early stage of the irradiation procedure an improvement in the spectroscopic performance of the detector was observed. Subsequently the detection performance remains stable for all the given neutron fluence up to the final one thus assessing a remarkable radiation hardness of the device. The neutron damage in materials has been calculated and compared with the experimental results. This comparison is discussed within the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis, which states that performance degradation is proportional to NIEL.

  7. Radiation tolerance of a high quality synthetic single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Aielli, G.; Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2008-09-01

    Diamond exhibits many properties such as an outstanding radiation hardness and fast response time both important to design detectors working in extremely radioactive environments. Among the many applications these devices can be used for, there is the development of a fast and radiation hard neutron detector for the next generation of fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, under construction at Cadarache in France. A technology to routinely produce electronic grade synthetic single crystal diamond detectors was recently developed by our group. One of such detectors, with an energy resolution of 0.9% as measured using an A241m α particle source, has been heavily irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The modifications of its spectroscopic properties have been studied as a function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0×1014 n/cm2. In the early stage of the irradiation procedure an improvement in the spectroscopic performance of the detector was observed. Subsequently the detection performance remains stable for all the given neutron fluence up to the final one thus assessing a remarkable radiation hardness of the device. The neutron damage in materials has been calculated and compared with the experimental results. This comparison is discussed within the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis, which states that performance degradation is proportional to NIEL.

  8. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. PMID:26231106

  9. Measurement of the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio at Q2=1.58  GeV2 using the reaction 3He[over →](e[over →],e'n)pp.

    PubMed

    Schlimme, B S; Achenbach, P; Ayerbe Gayoso, C A; Bernauer, J C; Böhm, R; Bosnar, D; Challand, Th; Distler, M O; Doria, L; Fellenberger, F; Fonvieille, H; Gómez Rodríguez, M; Grabmayr, P; Hehl, T; Heil, W; Kiselev, D; Krimmer, J; Makek, M; Merkel, H; Middleton, D G; Müller, U; Nungesser, L; Ott, B A; Pochodzalla, J; Potokar, M; Sánchez Majos, S; Sargsian, M M; Sick, I; Sirca, S; Weinriefer, M; Wendel, M; Yoon, C J

    2013-09-27

    A measurement of beam helicity asymmetries in the reaction 3He[over →](e[over →],e'n)pp is performed at the Mainz Microtron in quasielastic kinematics to determine the electric to magnetic form factor ratio of the neutron GEn/GMn at a four-momentum transfer Q2=1.58  GeV2. Longitudinally polarized electrons are scattered on a highly polarized 3He gas target. The scattered electrons are detected with a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer, and the ejected neutrons are detected with a dedicated neutron detector composed of scintillator bars. To reduce systematic errors, data are taken for four different target polarization orientations allowing the determination of GEn/GMn from a double ratio. We find μnGEn/GMn=0.250±0.058(stat)±0.017(syst). PMID:24116774

  10. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The DS86'' study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as transmission factors'' relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  11. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The ``DS86`` study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as ``transmission factors`` relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  12. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Factors Associated with Quality of Dialysis among Hemodialysis Patients in Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Sun, Chien-An; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Yang, Tsan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among hemodialysis patients and factors associated with quality of dialysis. Methods: Data were collected from 377 long-term hemodialysis patients who received hemodialysis treatment from clinics in Tainan and Kaohsiung between November 2009 and February 2010. MetS was defined using criteria set by the adult treatment panel III (ATP-III). But, the cutpoint of waist circumference has been modified to adjust for Asian populations. The measurement of Kt/V was used as an indicator of the quality of dialysis. A below 1.4 Kt/V was considered poor dialysis quality. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of MetS among the chronic hemodialysis patients in this sample was 61.0%. Logistic regression results identified that the quality of dialysis in females was better than that in males (odds ratio (OR)=7.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.52-25.31). Better quality dialysis was associated with older age, longer treatment time, and increased blood flow rate (OR=1.49, 13.63, and 1.35, respectively). However, for every one kilogram increase in weight, the quality of dialysis decreased by 13 percents (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.83-0.92). Conclusions: MetS is common among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycaemia were significantly higher among hemodialysis patients. Quality of dialysis related to gender, age, weight, and the dialysis prescription (treatment time and blood flow rate). PMID:22980378

  13. Depression, Control, and Climate: An Examination of Factors Impacting Teaching Quality in Preschool Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Sawyer, Brook E.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings This study investigated the relationship of preschool teachers' self-reported depressive symptomatology, perception of classroom control, and perception of school climate to classroom quality as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System Pre-K. The sample consisted of 59 urban preschool classrooms serving low-income and linguistically diverse students in the northeastern and southeastern United States. Results of hierarchical linear modeling revealed that teachers' individual reports of depressive symptomatology were significantly and negatively predictive of the observed quality of their instructional support and classroom organization. Practice or Policy The findings of this study have implications for increasing access to mental health supports for teachers in an effort to minimize depressive symptoms and potentially improve classroom quality. PMID:26924914

  14. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ξ (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with

  15. The optimum Ga-67-citrate gamma camera imaging quality factors as first calculated and shown by the Taguchi's analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Da Ming; Chang, Pai Jung; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2013-01-01

    In this work gallium-67 ((67)Ga) gamma camera imaging quality was optimized using the Taguchi's analysis and a planar phantom. The acrylic planar phantom was LASER-cut to form groups of slits 1mm wide and 5mm deep, to determine the spatial resolution and contrast ratio that could be achieved in a (67)Ga citrate nuclear medicine examination. The (67)Ga-citrate solution was injected into the slits to form an active radioactive line source which was placed between regular acrylic plates for optimization. Then, nine combinations of four operating factors: L9 (3((4)), of the gamma camera imaging system were used and followed the Taguchi's analysis. The four operating factors were: a) the type of collimator in front of the NaI(Tl) detector, b) the region of interest of (67)Ga gamma rays spectrum, c) the scanning speed of NaI(Tl) detector head and d) the activity of (67)Ga. The original judged grade of the planar phantom image quality was increased 36% and factors a) and b) were confirmed to dominate. The cross interaction among factors was also discussed. Our results showed that the optimal factor settings of the gamma camera imaging system were verified by performing a routine nuclear medicine examination in ten cases. Nine cases showed the same optimal settings as estimated by three highly trained radio-diagnostic physicians. Additionally, the optimal setting yielded clearer images with greater contrast than did the conventional settings. In conclusion, this work suggests for practical use an optimized process for determining both the spatial resolution and the contrast ratio of a gamma camera imaging system using Taguchi's optimal analysis and a planar phantom. The Taguchi's method is most effective in targeting a single quality characteristic but can also be extended to satisfy multiple requirements under specific conditions by revising the definition of signal to noise ratio. PMID:23529390

  16. Neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Andrew C.; Jardret; Vincent D.

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  17. Influence of natural factors on the quality of midwestern streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Streams flowing through cropland in the Midwestern Corn Belt differ considerably in their chemical and ecological characteristics, even though agricultural land use is highly intensive throughout the entire region. These differences likely are attributable to differences in riparian vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology. This conclusion is based on results from a study of the upper Midwest region conducted during seasonally low-flow conditions in August 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report summarizes significant results from the study and presents some implications for the design and interpretation of water-quality monitoring and assessment studies based on these results.

  18. TU-F-BRE-06: Flattening-Filter-Free Beam Quality Correction Factor Determination Using Experimental and Monte Carlo Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M; Desai, V; Simiele, E; Taneja, S; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate beam quality correction factors for the flattening-filter-free (FFF) energies of the TrueBeam™ accelerator based on a dosimetry formalism for small and nonstandard fields. Methods: Three detectors - an Exradin W1 scintillator, Sun Nuclear EDGE diode, and LiF(Mg,Tl) TLD-100 chips - were investigated to determine their applicability as tools to measure quality correction factors for ionization chambers in the small and nonstandard fields of the TrueBeam™. Volume-averaging effects and energy dependence were observed in fields ranging from 1×1 to 40×40 cm{sup 2} for 6 MV and 10 MV beam energies using both FFF and flattened beam modes. Correction factors were determined for three ionization chambers: an Exradin A12 Farmer-type chamber, an Exradin A1SL scanning chamber, and an Exradin A26 reference-class microchamber. Beam quality corrections were also obtained using a benchmarked model of the TrueBeam™ created with the BEAMnrc user code of EGSnrc. Results: All three detectors demonstrated measureable energy dependence in the megavoltage range. The EDGE diode was deemed the most appropriate tool for beam quality correction factor measurements due to its low energy dependence and small size; however, alanine will be used in the future to reduce energy dependent effects even further. Measured k{sub Qmsr,Q} corrections of up to 4% were found for the 6MV FFF and 10 MV FFF beams, corresponding to a discrepancy of up to 3% compared to TG-51-determined dose. Up to a 10% k{sub Qclin,Qmsr} correction was measured for small fields referenced to a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field of the same energy. Much larger corrections were determined using the Monte Carlo model, and these discrepancies require further investigation. Conclusion: Progress has been made toward determining beam quality correction factors for the small and nonstandard fields of the TrueBeam™ accelerator. Further work must be done to ensure greater accuracy in patient treatments with this new

  19. Improving the Quality and Scientific Understanding of Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This short 1000 word report presents a series of research needs for improving the measurement and understanding of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMFs are useful measures of trophic magnification and represent the diet-weighted average biomagnification factor (BMF) of che...

  20. Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Clark, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider…

  1. Genetic and management factors affecting beef quality in grazing Hereford steers.

    PubMed

    Melucci, L M; Panarace, M; Feula, P; Villarreal, E L; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Soria, L A; Mezzadra, C A; Arceo, M E; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Corva, P M; Irurueta, M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Miquel, M C

    2012-12-01

    Attributes contributing to differences in beef quality of 206 Hereford steers finished on pasture were assessed. Beef quality traits evaluated were: Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness and muscle and fat color at one and seven days after slaughter and trained sensory panel traits (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and marbling) at seven days. Molecular markers were CAPN1 316 and an SNP in exon 2 on the leptin gene (E2FB). Average daily live weight gain, ultrasound monthly backfat thickness gain and rib-eye area gain were estimated. Molecular markers effects on meat quality traits were analyzed by mixed models. Association of meat quality with post weaning growth traits was analyzed by canonical correlations. Muscle color and marbling were affected by CAPN1 316 and E2FB and Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness by the former. The results confirm that marker assisted selection for tenderness is advisable only when beef aging is a common practice. The most important sources of variation in tenderness and color of meat remained unaccounted for. PMID:22818350

  2. A Taxonomy of Factors to Promote Quality Web-Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of the e-learning production unit at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Phase 1 of the study, completed in 2003, was the design and development of a process-based quality management system for web-supported learning (WSL) using a basic ISO 9000 approach (University of Pretoria, 2003). The second phase,…

  3. Trust, Vision, and Resources: Contextual Factors Influencing Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolman, Joni Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes and explores elementary teachers' perspectives on the influence of context on the quality of teachers. Utilizing a conceptual framework developed from a reading of the extant literatures and situated participation theory, this qualitative multiple case study of four nominated elementary teachers, who have switched…

  4. Multi-scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattl...

  5. Factors Affecting Professional Job Mastery: Quality of Study or Work Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aamodt, Per Olaf; Havnes, Anton

    2008-01-01

    For students and for society a core aspect of higher education is to prepare for future employment. Employability, however, goes beyond getting a job and this paper focuses on the quality of job performance, or job mastery. Employability is understood as a process and a product of learning both in higher education and in work life. The paper…

  6. Depression, Control, and Climate: An Examination of Factors Impacting Teaching Quality in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Sawyer, Brook E.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationship of preschool teachers' self-reported depressive symptomatology, perception of classroom control, and perception of school climate to classroom quality as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System Pre-K. The sample consisted of 59 urban preschool classrooms serving low-income and…

  7. How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

  8. Visually Impaired Pupils in Mainstream Schools in Israel: Quality of Life and Other Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Itay

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-three visually impaired pupils from 40 different schools in Israel and their form teachers filled in questionnaires assessing quality of life. In addition, a total of 200 teachers were asked to fill in questionnaires on school climate and attitudes towards inclusion. Findings indicated that positive climate and positive attitudes correlated…

  9. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  10. Self-Concept as a Factor in the Quality of Diets of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, G. Kathleen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated effect of self-concept on quality of diets of 160 adolescent girls by obtaining scores for self-concept and fat area values. Fat area values were correlated negatively with Physical Self scores. Significant predictors of mean dietary adequacy ratio values below 80 percent were Total Conflict, Moral-Ethical Self, Family Self, Identity,…

  11. A Phenomenological Study Identifying Factors Influencing Participation in Quality Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Educators do not have continual support to actively seek out and participate in high quality professional development. The research study focused on the problem of early childhood instructors employed by National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) accredited institutions in Cook County, Illinois, not always participating in…

  12. Factors affecting quality of temperature models for the pre-appearance interval of forensically useful insects.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Mądra, Anna

    2015-02-01

    In the case of many forensically important insects an interval preceding appearance of an insect stage on a corpse (called the pre-appearance interval or PAI) is strongly temperature-dependent. Accordingly, it was proposed to estimate PAI from temperature by using temperature models for PAI of particular insect species and temperature data specific for a given case. The quality of temperature models for PAI depends on the protocols for PAI field studies. In this article we analyze effects of sampling frequency and techniques, temperature data, as well as the size of a sample on the quality of PAI models. Models were created by using data from a largely replicated PAI field study, and their performance in estimation was tested with external body of PAI data. It was found that low frequency of insect sampling distinctly deteriorated temperature models for PAI. The effect of sampling techniques was clearly smaller. Temperature data from local weather station gave models of poor quality, however their retrospective correction clearly improved the models. Most importantly, current results demonstrate that sample size in PAI field studies may be substantially reduced, with no model deterioration. Samples consisting of 11-14 carcasses gave models of high quality, as long as the whole range of relevant temperatures was studied. Moreover, it was found that carcasses exposed in forests and carcasses exposed in early spring are particularly important, as they ensure that PAI data is collected at low temperatures. A preliminary best practice model for PAI field studies is given. PMID:25541074

  13. Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,…

  14. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

  15. Factors Associated with Reduced Quality of Life in Polio Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors. PMID:26120843

  16. Student as Customer: Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Assessments of Institutional Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Beverly A.; Kaldenberg, Dennis O.; Browne, William G.; Brown, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 736 college students investigated satisfaction with a university's business education program, with attention to ratings of services and educational quality, and their relationship to students' global satisfaction, willingness to recommend the institution, and satisfaction with educational value received. Results suggest institutions…

  17. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  18. Cumberland Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 6: analysis of water quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, W.L.; Fehring, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report evaluates and compares water quality data from selected stream reaches within the Tennessee Valley with respect to their adaptability for support of certain mussel fauna. Fifteen sample locations were chosen from the Duck, Clinch, Powell, Buffalo, Elk, and Nolichucky Rivers and from Estill Fork (Paint Rock River) and Copper Creek (Clinch River) areas.

  19. Evaluation of the Factors That Determine Quality in Higher Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsinidou, Maria; Gerogiannis, Vassilis; Fitsilis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the quality determinants for education services provided by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece and to measure their relative importance from the students' points of view. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-criteria decision-making methodology was used for assessing the relative importance…

  20. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, a national treasure and the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority, and documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality conditions in a tributary of the Chesapeake, the Choptank R...