Science.gov

Sample records for neutron quality factor

  1. Analysis of linear energy transfers and quality factors of charged particles produced by spontaneous fission neutrons from 252Cf and 244Pu in the human body.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akira; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Absorbed doses, linear energy transfers (LETs) and quality factors of secondary charged particles in organs and tissues, generated via the interactions of the spontaneous fission neutrons from (252)Cf and (244)Pu within the human body, were studied using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) coupled with the ICRP Reference Phantom. Both the absorbed doses and the quality factors in target organs generally decrease with increasing distance from the source organ. The analysis of LET distributions of secondary charged particles led to the identification of the relationship between LET spectra and target-source organ locations. A comparison between human body-averaged mean quality factors and fluence-averaged radiation weighting factors showed that the current numerical conventions for the radiation weighting factors of neutrons, updated in ICRP103, and the quality factors for internal exposure are valid. PMID:22908356

  2. Analyzing the effect of geometric factors on designing neutron radiography system.

    PubMed

    Amini, Moharam; Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Neutron radiography is one of the main applications of research reactors. It is a powerful tool to conduct nondestructive testing of materials. The parameters that affect the quality of a radiographic image must be considered during the design of a neutron radiography system. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effect of geometric factors on the quality of the neutron radiography system. The results show that the performance of the mentioned system can be increased by regulating the geometric factors. PMID:26343340

  3. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  4. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  5. Properties of Modal Quality Factors

    E-print Network

    Geyi, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Spherical wave functions play an important role in the theoretical study of antenna. When they are used to investigate the stored energy outside the circumscribing sphere of the antenna, two different types of modal quality factors appear which exhibit some interesting properties. These properties can be easily demonstrated by numerical tabulations but have never proved rigorously and have remained unsolved for many years. An attempt is made in this paper to try to solve these longstanding problems. New properties and new power series expansions for the modal quality factors have been obtained, which essentially belong to the spherical Bessel functions and therefore are universally applicable.

  6. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Crawford, C. B.

    2011-05-15

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G{sub E}{sup n}, vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}. Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G{sub E}{sup n} data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G{sub E}{sup n} (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  7. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-05-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

  8. Rice Quality Factors: Implications For Management Decisions. 

    E-print Network

    Grant, Warren R.; Rister, Edward, M.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    1986-01-01

    Nevilie P. Clarke, Director/The Texas A&M University System/College Station, Texas B-1541 July 1986 INTRODUCTION DATA PROCEDURE RICE QUALITY Quality Variables CONTENTS 1 1 2 4 4 Modeling Quality Factors .............................. 9... ........................................... 40 Rice Quality Factors: Implications for Management Decisions WARREN R. GRANT, Agricultural Economist National Econon7ics Division E conomi c Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture M. EDWARD RISTER, Assistant Professor The Texas...

  9. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6? standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  10. High quality-factor optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Ristic, Davor; Coillet, Aurélien; Mortier, Michel; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Saleh, Khaldoun; Cibiel, Gilles; Dumeige, Yannick; Ferrari, Maurizio; Chembo, Yanne K.; Llopis, Olivier; Féron, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 1010.

  11. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  12. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  13. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  14. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, Javier; Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In2O3 microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor-solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 105 and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10-16 N/Hz1/2 demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourva, L. C.-A.; Croft, S.

    1999-07-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM, has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM, or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this basis, previously published analytical results for the double exponential case are thought to be in error. As derived analytically, the numerical calculations have been found to be both independent of the detector's efficiency and of the spontaneous fission neutron multiplicity distribution used in the Monte Carlo calculations. Extension of the MCF calculations to multiplicity counting, and in particular to triple coincidence counting, confirmed that, for a single exponential die-away profile, the triple gate utilisation factor is equal to the square of the real gate utilisation factor. For other profiles this relation no longer holds. An analytical expression is given for the case of a double exponential profile. Comparison of the MCF results with earlier calculated estimates of the gate utilisation factor for the on-site laboratory neutron coincidence chamber showed a significant difference. Use of the MCF results led to much better agreement between the observed and calculated specific reals coincidence rate of the on-site laboratory counter for the assay of plutonium samples. Moreover, the present work constitutes a further step towards the improvement of the accuracy of absolute Monte Carlo calculations for active or passive neutron measurements of nuclear materials.

  16. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M.

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  17. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table...

  18. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Allowances for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table...

  19. High quality factor measured in fused silica

    E-print Network

    Steven D. Penn; Gregory M. Harry; Andri M. Gretarsson; Scott E. Kittelberger; Peter R. Saulson; John J. Schiller; Joshua R. Smith; Sol O. Swords

    2000-09-11

    We have measured the mechanical dissipation in a sample of fused silica drawn into a rod. The sample was hung from a multiple-bob suspension, which isolated it from rubbing against its support, from recoil in the support structure, and from seismic noise. The quality factor, Q, was measured for several modes with a high value of 57 million found for mode number 2 at 726 Hz. This result is about a factor 2 higher than previous room temperature measurements. The measured Q was strongly dependent on handling, with a pristine flame-polished surface yielding a Q 3-4 times higher than a surface which had been knocked several times against a copper tube.

  20. Pressure Dependence of MEMS Oscillator Quality Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joshua; Geiger, Sarah; Gonzalez, Miguel; Zheng, Pan; Lee, Yoonseok

    2013-03-01

    This paper details a study in which the pressure dependence of the quality factor and resonance frequency of a micro-electro-mechanical device is examined. The results obtained will aid in the understanding of the effects of slide film damping in various gasses on oscillators operating at micrometer length scales. The device utilized was a capacitively driven plate oscillator positioned 1.25 ?m above a silicon substrate. The dominant damping mechanism for this geometry is slide film damping from the gaseous film between the oscillating plate and substrate. The mechanical resonance of the device was characterized as a function of pressure from 6 mTorr to 1 atm in air. We observed three distinct damping regimes in the quality factor. In addition to the characterization performed in air, pressure dependences in helium and argon were also examined at pressure ranges of 6.5 mTorr to 5 Torr and 750mTorr to 760 Torr, respectively. This work is supported by NSF under DMR-1205891 and DMR-01156737 (SJG).

  1. Calibration of a neutron polarimeter to measure the electric form factor of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Niculescu, I.; Madey, R.; Suleiman, R.

    1998-02-01

    The authors measured the analyzing power and the efficiency of a new neutron polarimeter that was designed to measure G{sub E}{sup n}, the neutron electric form factor. The polarimeter calibration was performed as experiment E377 at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with the {sup 14}C({rvec p}. {rvec n}){sup 14}N reaction at proton beam energies of 124.0, 164.6, and 199.7 MeV without any shielding material ahead of the polarimeter; in addition, at 164.6 MeV the authors measured the analyzing power with 10 cm of lead, sandwiched between 3.5-cm iron plates, ahead of the polarimeter.

  2. Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Alan; Ni, Benwen; Anderson, Brian; Flanders, Bruce; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Hyde, Charles; Manley, D.; Tieger, Daniel; Barkhuff, David; Keane, Declan; Dodson, George; Arenhovel, Hartmuth; Kelly, James; Mougey, Jean; Cameron, John; Dow, Karen; Beard, Kevin; Weinstein, Lawrence; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Spraker, Mark; Finn, Michael; Rutt, Paul; Ulmer, Paul; Markowitz, Pete; Pella, Peter; Whitney, R.; Madey, Richard; Lourie, Robert; Van Verst, Scott; Kowalski, Stanley; Eden, Thomas; Payerle, Thomas; Reichelt, Tilmann; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Bertozzi, William; Turchinetz, William; Watson, William; Korsch, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The 2H(e,e'n)1H quasielastic cross section was measured at Q2 values of 0.109, 0.176, and 0.255 (GeV/c)2. The neutron detection efficiency was determined by the associated particle technique with the 2H( gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. These 2H(e,e'n) measurements of the coincidence cross sections are the first at low Q2. The cross sections are sensitive primarily to the neutron magnetic form factor GnM at these kinematics. The extracted GnM values have smaller uncertainties than previous data and are consistent with the dipole parametrization at the two higher momentum transfers; at the lowest momentum transfer, the value of GnM is ~10% higher than t

  3. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-09-01

    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. PMID:25883309

  4. Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

  5. Influence of Management Factors on Silage Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Making high quality silage starts by harvesting the crop at optimum quality. However, silage quality also depends on silo management. All of the silage management principles focus on one issue: eliminating or minimizing the exposure of the crop to oxygen. The reason for this goes back to what silage...

  6. Neutron-Proton Asymmetry Dependence of Spectroscopic Factors in Ar Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, Betty; Shapira, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton-rich 34Ar and neutron-rich 46Ar using the (p, d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton-rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

  7. Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohai; Ruan, Xiaohong; Pan, Zarong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Han

    2010-11-01

    Factor analysis is useful for interpreting commonly collected groundwater quality data and relating those data to specific hydrogeologic process. Twenty two groundwater quality samples collected from wells in the second confined layer of Suzhou City were analyzed for major dissolved constituents by factor analysis. Correlations among 11 hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. Three main factors which explain over 75.01% of the total groundwater quality variation are recognized. Factor 1, composed of concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Fe2+, CO2, Mn2+ and pH, represents the influence of water-rock interaction on groundwater quality. Factor 2, composed of concentrations of NH4+ and COD, reflects the impact of reductive organic rich environment on groundwater chemical compositions. Factor 3 including concentration of Na+ shows the effect of cation exchange on groundwater quality.

  8. Understanding the Institutional-Level Factors of Urban School Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: This article addresses which school-level factors contribute to school quality. Previous research has focused on assessing the effects of school-level variables on student-level quality (e.g., achievement). However, the field has been limited in not evaluating the effects of school-level factors directly on measured…

  9. Factors Affecting the Quality of Southern Short Cure Cheddar Cheese. 

    E-print Network

    Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendel Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

    1944-01-01

    STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 646 FEBRUARY 1944 FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF SOUTHERN SHORT CURE CHEDDAR CHEESE F. E. HANSON, W. S. ARBUCKLE and C. N. SHEPARDSON Division of Dairy Husbandry Department... made to determine the factors which affect the quality of short cure ched- dar cheese. Studies have been made concerning the effect of ri- pening temperature, amount of rennet extract used and manufac- turing methods upon the quality of the ripened...

  10. Electromagnetic form factors of one neutron halos with spin 1/2+ ground state

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Lakma; Rupak, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors for single neutron halo nuclei Be-11, C-15 and C-19 are calculated. The calculations are performed in halo effective field theory (EFT) where the halo nuclei are approximated as made of a single neutron and a core. The form factors depend on the single neutron separation energy, the s-wave neutron-core scattering effective range and a two-body current. The EFT expressions are presented to leading order for C-15 and next-to-leading order for Be-11 and C-19.

  11. Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R. T.

    2012-07-01

    The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

  12. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster

    2004-02-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

  13. Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pen-Nan

    1991-01-01

    Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

  14. [Effect of ecological factors on citrus fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Bao, Jiangfeng; Xia, Renxue; Peng, Shu'ang

    2004-08-01

    This paper summarized the research advance on the physiological foundation of citrus fruit's major quality factors such as color formation and organic acid and sugar accumulation, and analyzed the effects of main ecological factors such as temperature, sunshine, water, soil, terrain and landforms on them. The existing problems and the research prospects of citrus ecology were expounded, and a useful proposal on the quality sub-distribution of citrus in China was put forward. PMID:15574012

  15. Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors 

    E-print Network

    Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are calculated for three types of finger and wrist extremity phantoms: (1) the polymethyl methacrylate models specified by the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program...

  16. Optimisation of fast-neutron radiography by using a new imaging quality concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; de Haan, V. O.; de Leege, P. F. A.

    2004-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the quality assessment of a neutron radiographic image. The quality of visualisation can be expressed as a Figure of Merit (FOM) defined as the image contrast in terms of the statistical uncertainty. The FOM enables optimisation of the image contrast of the object under investigation by changing the instrument or object characteristics. The FOM is used to investigate the influence of background countrate due to unwanted events or scattered neutrons by both analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  17. Improvements in the Image Quality of Neutron Radiograms of NUR Neutron Radiography Facility by Using Several Exposure Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zergoug, T.; Nedjar, A.; Mokeddem, M. Y.; Mammou, L.

    2008-03-01

    Since the construction of NUR reactor neutron radiography facility in 1991, only transfer exposure method was used as a non destructive technique. The reason is the excess of gamma rays in the neutron beam. To improve radiation performances of the NR system, a stainless steal hollow conical cylinder is introduced at the bottom of the facility beam port, this filter reduce gamma infiltration through the edges of the NR structure without disturbing neutron beam arriving from the in pool divergent collimator. First results confirm our prediction; a gamma rays diminution and a relatively stable neutron flux at the point object are confirmed, consequently the n/? ratio reaches a value of 2.104 n/cm2 mR. Radiograms obtained by using the direct exposure method reveal the feasibility of the technique in the new NR configuration facility, but a weak resolution and contrast of the image is observed. In this paper, we describe a procedure to improve the image quality obtained by direct exposure technique. The process consists of using digitized images obtained by several exposure techniques (NR, gamma radiography or X radiography) for a comparison study and then better image definition can be attained.

  18. The Electromagnetic Form Factors of the Proton and Neutron: Fundamental Indicators of Nucleon Structure

    E-print Network

    Gerald A. Miller

    2002-06-11

    We present a relativistic interpretation for why the proton's ratio of electric to magnetic form factor falls and for why the ratio of the Pauli to Dirac form factor varies as 1/Q. Reproducing the observed electric form factor of the neutron then mandates the inclusion of the effects of the pion cloud.

  19. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  20. Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

  1. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q?=?54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  2. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach.

    PubMed

    Borak, Thomas B; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Townsend, Lawrence W; McBeth, Rafe A; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA(Z,?) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, ?, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA(Z,?) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA(Z,?). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The revised quality factors are sufficiently generalized to be applicable to radiation protection practices beyond space exploration. PMID:26432594

  3. Neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion factors for active marrow of the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Calculation of the absorbed dose to active marrow is a complex problem because charged particle equilibrium may not exist near a soft tissue-bone interface and it is difficult to model the intricate intermixture of soft tissue and bone in the skeleton. This study provides the first definitive calculations for a variety of bones and a wide range of neutron and photon energies. We avoid the assumption of a special geometry by using measured chord-length distributions to represent the microstructure of trabecular bone which contains the active marrow. Results of our calculations for neutrons and photons with energies up to 20 MeV are presented as dose response factors. The response factors can be applied in radiation transport calculations of absorbed dose in active marrow from photons and neutrons externally incident on the body and photons produced by neutrons interactions within the body. 34 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths

    E-print Network

    P. Mohr; H. Herndl; H. Oberhummer

    1996-12-18

    A simple and model-independent method is described to derive neutron single-particle spectroscopic factors of bound s-wave states in $^{A+1}Z = ^{A}Z \\otimes n$ nuclei from neutron scattering lengths. Spectroscopic factors for the nuclei ^{13}C, ^{14}C, ^{16}N, ^{17}O, ^{19}O, ^{23}Ne, ^{37}Ar, and ^{41}Ar are compared to results derived from transfer experiments using the well-known DWBA analysis and to shell model calculations. The scattering length of ^{14}C is calculated from the ^{15}C_{g.s.} spectroscopic factor.

  5. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  6. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  7. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea’s two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and classification performance still has room for improvement, but the extraction results are applicable to more detailed analysis. Further analysis of the extracted information reveals that there are differences in the details of social media–based key quality factors for hospitals according to the regions in Korea, and the patterns of change seem to accurately reflect social events (eg, influenza epidemics). Conclusions These findings could be used to provide timely information to caregivers, hospital officials, and medical officials for health care policies. PMID:25855612

  8. Nuclear reaction effects in use of newly recommended quality factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The biological risk for energetic ion exposure cannot be reliably estimated exclusive of the target nuclear reaction products produced within the local tissue. A theoretical basis is derived for evaluating target fragment contributions that are evaluated for the newly proposed quality factor.

  9. Microscopic structure factor of liquid hydrogen by neutron-diffraction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Bafile, U.; Cuello, G. J.; Formisano, F.; Guarini, E.; Magli, R.; Neumann, M.; Zoppi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The center-of-mass structure factor of liquid para hydrogen has been measured, using neutron diffraction, in four thermodynamic states close to the triple point. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out at the same temperatures and densities. The present experimental data are in reasonable quantitative agreement with the simulations and closer to these results than previous neutron determinations available in the literature. The thermodynamic derivatives of the structure factor, from both experiment and simulation, have been compared to previous measurements obtaining a quantitative consistency.

  10. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  11. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  12. Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

  13. Optimized Quality Factor of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced PVC Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

    2014-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite films were prepared by solution blending. The homogeneity of GO dispersion with PVC was confirmed by an optical microscope. Quality factor ( Q-factor) as a function of temperature (40-150 °C) was measured within a broadband frequency range of 50-35 MHz. The controlled GO loading demonstrates a crucial impact on the optimization of the Q-factor, resonance frequency ( f 0) and wide bandwidth. This nanocomposite may be well suited for electronic applications. The further development of GO-reinforced polymer nanocomposites based on an optimized Q-factor may result in a material for electromagnetic frequency radiation shields for radar and communication towers/devices.

  14. Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875

  15. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, O.; Sato, T.; Wissmann, F.

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown.

  16. Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')

    SciTech Connect

    Dipangkar Dutta

    2000-12-12

    A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

  17. Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators

    E-print Network

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~ 100,000, realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W-1.

  18. Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Burek, Michael J; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

    2014-12-15

    Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~10(5), realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W(-1). PMID:25607041

  19. Method for determining formation quality factor from seismic data

    DOEpatents

    Taner, M. Turhan; Treitel, Sven

    2005-08-16

    A method is disclosed for calculating the quality factor Q from a seismic data trace. The method includes calculating a first and a second minimum phase inverse wavelet at a first and a second time interval along the seismic data trace, synthetically dividing the first wavelet by the second wavelet, Fourier transforming the result of the synthetic division, calculating the logarithm of this quotient of Fourier transforms and determining the slope of a best fit line to the logarithm of the quotient.

  20. Impact of switching to the ICRP-74 neutron flux-to-dose equivalent rate conversion factors at the Sandia National Laboratory Building 818 Neutron Source Range.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Dann C.

    2009-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) maintains a neutron calibration facility which supports the calibration, maintenance, and repair of Radiation Protection Instruments. The SNL neutron reference fields are calibrated using the following methodology: Fluence rate is initially established by calculation using the NIST traceable source emission rate (decay corrected). Correction factors for the effects of room return or scatter, and source anisotropy are then developed by using a suitable radiation transport code to model the geometry of the facility. The conventionally true neutron dose rates are then determined using the appropriate fluence-todose equivalent conversion coefficients at several reference positions. This report describes the impact on calculated neutron dose rates of switching from NCRP-38 to CRP-74 neutron flux-todose equivalent rate conversion factors. This switch is driven by recent changes to dosimetry requirements addressed in 10 CFR 835 (Occupational Radiation Protection).

  1. Quality factors of handwritten characters based on human visual perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahito; Yamada, Mitsuho

    1991-06-01

    Although various hand-written Kanji character recognition techniques have been developed, they are not yet satisfactory. Hand-written characters can vary in shape so much that the recognition rate depends greatly on their quality. It is very useful to know how humans recognize hand-written characters. Accordingly, we made two kinds of evaluations. First, we carried out a subjective experiment to ascertain whether humans use common criteria for judging character quality or not. Japanese adults were asked to rate the character quality on a 5 point- scale. The results suggested that the subjects used common criteria. Second, to find the character' key parts, we analyzed the subject's eye movement as the quality was evaluated. The experiments revealed that the parts on which the subject's attention was concentrated were: areas of high stroke density, the positioning of the stroke and its spacing, and character composition. Based on the results of these experiments, we have proposed new measures for stroke, pixel, line width, aspect ratio, and character balance. It was indicated that the measures are useful factors for determining the quality of hand-written Kanji characters.

  2. Relationship factors and quality among mixed-orientation couples.

    PubMed

    Kays, Jill L; Yarhouse, Mark A; Ripley, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-orientation couples are defined as a heterosexual couple in which 1 partner experiences same-sex attraction and the other does not. Despite the fact that there is a sizable number of mixed-orientation couples in the U.S. adult population, few researchers have studied this population, and thus, there is limited understanding of these relationships. The authors examined the degree to which relationship commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values were associated with relationship quality, and how these variables predicted relationship quality. The total sample (N = 265) consisted of 2 independent samples-105 sexual minorities (i.e., the spouse who experiences same-sex attraction) and 160 heterosexual spouses. The data were not dyadic. Together, commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values accounted for roughly 43% of the variance in relationship quality. Relationship commitment was found to be the largest single predictor of relationship quality, followed by partner-focused forgivingness. Research and clinical implications are discussed. This study significantly adds to the current research base by quantitatively measuring various variables in these relationships, as well as expanding our understanding of relationship quality in mixed-orientation couples and factors that may play a role. PMID:24328786

  3. Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

    2011-10-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

  4. Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality factor or Q. This term describes the photon lifetime (?o) within the resonator, which is directly related to the resonator's optical losses. Therefore, an optical resonator with a high Q factor has low optical losses, long photon lifetimes, and very low photon decay rates (1/?o). As a result of the long photon lifetimes, it is possible to build-up extremely large circulating optical field intensities in these devices. This very unique property has allowed these devices to be used as laser sources and integrated biosensors.10 A unique sub-class of resonators is the whispering gallery mode optical microcavity. In these devices, the light is confined in circular orbits at the periphery. Therefore, the field is not completely confined within the device, but evanesces into the environment. Whispering gallery mode optical cavities have demonstrated some of the highest quality factors of any optical resonant cavity to date.9,11 Therefore, these devices are used throughout science and engineering, including in fundamental physics studies and in telecommunications as well as in biodetection experiments. 3-7,12 Optical microcavities can be fabricated from a wide range of materials and in a wide variety of geometries. A few examples include silica and silicon microtoroids, silicon, silicon nitride, and silica microdisks, micropillars, and silica and polymer microrings.13-17 The range in quality factor (Q) varies as dramatically as the geometry. Although both geometry and high Q are important considerations in any field, in many applications, there is far greater leverage in boosting device performance through Q enhancement. Among the numerous options detailed previously, the silica microsphere and the silica microtoroid resonator have achieved some of the highest Q factors to date.1,9 Additionally, as a result of the extremely low optical loss of silica from the visible through the near-IR, both microspheres and microtoroids are able to maintain their Q factors over a wide range of testing wavelengths.18 Finally, because silica is inherently biocompatible,

  5. The Quality of Factor Solutions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: The Influence of Sample Size, Communality, and Overdetermination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Hines, Constance V.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Ferron, John M.; Mumford, Karen R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sample size and the quality of factor solutions obtained from exploratory factor analysis. This research expanded upon the range of conditions previously examined, employing a broad selection of criteria for the evaluation of the quality of sample factor solutions. Results…

  6. Surface engineering of the quality factor of metal coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Ergincan, O.; Kooi, B. J.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-12-14

    We performed noise measurements to obtain the quality factor (Q) and frequency shift of gold coated microcantilevers before and after surface modification using focused ion beam. As a result of our studies, it is demonstrated that surface engineering offers a promising method to control and increase the Q factor up to 50% for operation in vacuum. Surface modification could also lead to deviations from the known Q???P{sup ?1} behavior at low vacuum pressures P within the molecular regime. Finally, at higher pressures within the continuum regime, where Q is less sensitive to surface changes, a power scaling Q???P{sup c} with c ? 0.3 was found instead of c?=?0.5. The latter is explained via a semi-empirical formulation to account for continuum dissipation mechanisms at significant Reynolds numbers Re???1.

  7. Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data…

  8. Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Glazier

    2007-09-30

    Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

  9. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

    2014-05-01

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  10. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 ± 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  11. Survey of excited state neutron spectroscopic factors for Z=8-28 nuclei

    E-print Network

    M. B. Tsang; Jenny Lee; S. C. Su; J. Y. Dai; M. Horoi; H. Liu; W. G. Lynch; S. Warren

    2009-01-14

    We have extracted 565 neutron spectroscopic factors of sd and fp shell nuclei by systematically analyzing more than 2000 measured (d,p) angular distributions. We are able to compare 125 of the extracted spectroscopic factors to values predicted by large-basis shell-model calculations and evaluate the accuracies of spectroscopic factors predicted by different shell-model interactions in these regions. We find that the spectroscopic factors predicted for most excited states of sd-shell nuclei using the latest USDB or USDA interactions agree with the experimental values. For fp shell nuclei, the inability of the current models to account for the core excitation and fragmentation of the states leads to considerable discrepancies. In particular, the agreement between data and shell-model predictions for Ni isotopes is not better than a factor of two using either the GXPF1A or the XT interaction.

  12. Mie plasmons: modes volumes, quality factors and coupling strengths (Purcell factor) to a dipolar emitter

    E-print Network

    G. Colas des Francs; S. Derom; R. Vincent; A. Bouhelier; A. Dereux

    2011-12-13

    Using either quasi-static approximation or exact Mie expansion, we characterize the localized surface plasmons supported by a metallic spherical nanoparticle. We estimate the quality factor $Q_n$ and define the effective volume $V_n$ of the $n^{th}$ mode in a such a way that coupling strength with a neighbouring dipolar emitter is proportional to the ratio $Q_n/V_n$ (Purcell factor). The role of Joule losses, far-field scattering and mode confinement in the coupling mechanism are introduced and discussed with simple physical understanding, with particular attention paid to energy conservation.

  13. His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women’s relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men’s satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women’s satisfaction, but men’s satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men’s satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH QUALITY-FACTOR ON-CHIP TUNED MICROWAVE

    E-print Network

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH QUALITY- FACTOR ON-CHIP TUNED MICROWAVE RESONATORS AT 7 GHz Rohat Melik1, and experimental characterization of chip-scale microwave resonators that exhibit high quality-factors (Q-factors) in the microwave frequency range. We demonstrate high Q-factors by tuning these microwave resonators with the film

  15. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  16. Evaluation of quality of life and risk factors affecting quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Xu, Qintong; Yang, Yi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common disease leading to spinal deformity in children ages 10 and over. With advances in the study of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), greater attention has been given to the quality of life (QoL) of patients with AIS and their perception of deformity instead of just focusing on improving the rate of surgical correction. This article provides an overview of the methods of evaluating HRQoL and it analyzes several main factors affecting QoL, such as severity of disease, method of treatment, gender, and social environment, based on previous studies of patients with AIS. The authors believe that radiological studies should no longer be taken as the only indicator of postoperative therapeutic evaluation and hope to build a new evaluation system with assessment of QoL for patients with AIS. PMID:25674383

  17. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  18. Benchmarking Potential Factors Leading to Education Quality: A Study of Cambodian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Yaw; Sok, Phyra; Sok, Keomony

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To study the quality in higher education in Cambodia and explore the potential factors leading to quality in Cambodian higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Five main factors that were deemed relevant in providing quality in Cambodian higher education were proposed: academic curriculum and extra-curricular activities, teachers'…

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY AND MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION WITHIN A SMALL BLACK HILLS STREAM

    E-print Network

    FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY AND MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION WITHIN A SMALL BLACK HILLS University 1984 #12;FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY AND MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION WITHIN A SMALL BLACK County, South Dakota in the Black Hills. Water quality differences between years and among stations were

  20. Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Quality Factor of Fused Quartz Hemispherical Resonator

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Effect of Annealing on Mechanical Quality Factor of Fused Quartz Hemispherical Resonator Mohammed J the experimental demonstration of Quality factor (Q-factor) improvement of fused quartz hemispherical resonators after post-fabrication annealing. Several identical fused quartz 3D hemispherical resonators, thickness

  1. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    PubMed Central

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a full assessment of confounding was included in analysis. Results: Breast cancer was positive associated with increasing age of life (from 45 years and more; OR= 1.25); further relative breast cancer history (OR= 4.42; 95%CI, 0.483-4.043); exposure to CT (OR=2.02; 95%CI, 1,254-3.261); never birth child (OR= 1.394; 95%CI, 0.808-2,407); used replacement hormonal therapy (OR= 1.826; 95%CI, 1.637-10.590); arrival time of menstruation (OR=2.651; 95%CI, 1.303-1.571); length of smoking status (OR=1.534; 95%CI, 0.756-3.098), alcohol consumption (OR=1.728; 95% CI, 0.396-7.533); exposure to CT per year (p=0.009), routine physical inactivity (p=0.009) and replacement hormones treatment (p=0.036). Conclusion: Inverse associations of breast cancer and poverty, arival time of menopause were observed. The link between breast cancer and a distant-cousin- degree family history of breast cancer was inverse association with breast cancer too. These results provide further evidence that, for most women, physical activity may reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer. PMID:23922526

  2. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 ?m thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  3. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G. Störmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Lorenz, U.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.; Becker, H.-W.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.

    2015-01-21

    Due to the present shortage of {sup 3}He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with {sup 3}He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid {sup 10}B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings of up to 2??m thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical {sup 10}B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black {sup 3}He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of {sup 3}He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative {sup 3}He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  4. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein quality control in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Taixing; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Jospeh S; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) acts to minimize the level and toxicity of malfolded proteins in the cell. It is performed by an elaborate network of molecular chaperones and targeted protein degradation pathways. PQC monitors and maintains protein homeostasis or proteostasis in the cells. Whilst chaperones may actively promote refolding of malfolded proteins, the malfolded proteins which cannot be correctly refolded are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosome pathway (ALP). The UPS degrades individual misfolded protein molecules, whereas the ALP removes large and less soluble protein aggregates and organelles. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated and inadequate PQC play an important role in the pathogenesis of not only classic conformational disease but more common forms of cardiac pathology such as cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of cellular defense, appears to regulate the USP and the ALP by directly controlling the expression of UPS- and ALP- related genes. This article highlights an emerging role of Nrf2 in the regulation of intracellular PQC as well as its potential involvement in cardiac pathology. PMID:26709769

  5. Magnetic Structure of the Ground State Neutron The electromagnetic form factors of the proton and neutron are fundamental

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    and neutron are fundamental observables that describe the internal distribution of charge and electric current for the electromagnetic calorimeters and the time-of-flight plastic scintillators. Surprisingly, the CLAS6 result deviates

  6. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Nicassio, Perry M; Ormseth, Sarah R; Custodio, Mara K; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H; Irwin, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The sample included 107 patients with RA, 88 females and seven males, with an average age of 56.09 years, recruited from the greater Southern California area. Confirmatory factor analysis evaluated single, two- and three-factor models. The single factor solution yielded a poor fit to the data. While the three-factor solution had the best fit, the two-factor solution, comprised of sleep efficiency and perceived sleep quality factors, was optimal because it had very good fit, and acceptable reliability for its individual factors. Clinical indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality factor, but not with the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:23390921

  7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nicassio, Perry M.; Ormseth, Sarah R.; Custodio, Mara K.; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The sample included 107 patients with RA, 88 females and seven males, with an average age of 56.09 years, recruited from the greater Southern California area. Confirmatory factor analysis evaluated single, two- and three-factor models. The single factor solution yielded a poor fit to the data. While the three-factor solution had the best fit, the two-factor solution, comprised of sleep efficiency and perceived sleep quality factors, was optimal because it had very good fit, and acceptable reliability for its individual factors. Clinical indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality factor, but not with the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:23390921

  8. Process Factors Affecting Design Quality: A Virtual Design of Experiments Approach

    E-print Network

    Sobek II, Durward K.

    Process Factors Affecting Design Quality: A Virtual Design of Experiments Approach Durward K. Sobek then tested for association with design quality as measured by an external evaluation using a virtual design of experiments approach. The student teams that achieved higher quality designs placed greater emphasis on system

  9. Analysis Supporting Factors and Constraints LPMP Performance in Improving the Quality of Education in Jambi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosadi, Kemas Imron

    2015-01-01

    Development of education in Indonesia is based on three aspects, namely equity and expansion, quality and relevance, as well as good governance. Quality education is influenced by several factors related to quality education managerial leaders, limited funds, facilities, educational facilities, media, learning resources, tools and training…

  10. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  11. Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables…

  12. Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million

    E-print Network

    Dykman, Mark

    that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5 × 106 in ultra-clean nano- tube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30 mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the line- width. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method

  13. The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Uranium mass and neutron multiplication factor estimates from time-correlation coincidence counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenxiong; Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Time-correlation coincidence counts of neutrons are an important means to measure attributes of nuclear material. The main deficiency in the analysis is that an attribute of an unknown component can only be assessed by comparing it with similar known components. There is a lack of a universal method of measurement suitable for the different attributes of the components. This paper presents a new method that uses universal relations to estimate the mass and neutron multiplication factor of any uranium component with known enrichment. Based on numerical simulations and analyses of 64 highly enriched uranium components with different thicknesses and average radii, the relations between mass, multiplication and coincidence spectral features have been obtained by linear regression analysis. To examine the validity of the method in estimating the mass of uranium components with different sizes, shapes, enrichment, and shielding, the features of time-correlation coincidence-count spectra for other objects with similar attributes are simulated. Most of the masses and multiplications for these objects could also be derived by the formulation. Experimental measurements of highly enriched uranium castings have also been used to verify the formulation. The results show that for a well-designed time-dependent coincidence-count measuring system of a uranium attribute, there are a set of relations dependent on the uranium enrichment by which the mass and multiplication of the measured uranium components of any shape and size can be estimated from the features of the source-detector coincidence-count spectrum.

  15. Factors influencing quality of life in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Carlo A; Marra, Fawziah; Cox, Victoria C; Palepu, Anita; Fitzgerald, J Mark

    2004-01-01

    Background With effective treatment strategies, the focus of tuberculosis (TB) management has shifted from the prevention of mortality to the avoidance of morbidity. As such, there should be an increased focus on quality of life (QoL) experienced by individuals being treated for TB. The objective of our study was to identify areas of QoL that are affected by active TB using focus groups and individual interviews. Methods English, Cantonese, and Punjabi-speaking subjects with active TB who were receiving treatment were eligible for recruitment into the study. Gender-based focus group sessions were conducted for the inner city participants but individual interviews were conducted for those who came to the main TB clinic or were hospitalized. Facilitators used open-ended questions and participants were asked to discuss their experiences of being diagnosed with tuberculosis, what impact it had on their lives, issues around adherence to anti-TB medications and information pertaining to their experience with side effects to these medications. All data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results 39 patients with active TB participated. The mean age was 46.2 years (SD 18.4) and 62% were male. Most were Canadian-born being either Caucasian or Aboriginal. Four themes emerged from the focus groups and interviews. The first describes issues related to the diagnosis of tuberculosis and sub-themes were identified as 'symptoms', 'health care provision', and 'emotional impact'. The second theme discusses TB medication factors and the sub-themes identified were 'adverse effects', 'ease of administration', and 'adherence'. The third theme describes social support and functioning issues for the individuals with TB. The fourth theme describes health behavior issues for the individuals with TB and the identified sub-themes were "behavior modification" and "TB knowledge." Conclusion Despite the ability to cure TB, there remains a significant impact on QOL. Since much attention is spent on preventative or curative mechanisms, the impact of this condition on QoL is often not considered. Attention to the issues experienced by patients being treated for TB may optimize adherence and treatment success. PMID:15496227

  16. Spallation Neutron Source Availability Top-Down Apportionment Using Characteristic Factors and Expert Opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1999-10-01

    Apportionment is the assignment of top-level requirements to lower tier elements of the overall facility. A method for apportioning overall facility availability requirements among systems and subsystems is presented. Characteristics that influence equipment reliability and maintainability are discussed. Experts, using engineering judgment, scored each characteristic for each system whose availability design goal is to be established. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to produce a set of weighted rankings for each characteristic for each alternative system. A mathematical model is derived which incorporates these weighting factors. The method imposes higher availability requirements on those systems in which an incremental increase in availability is easier to achieve, and lower availability requirements where greater availability is more difficult and costly. An example is given of applying this top-down apportionment methodology to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility.

  17. Neutron structure factors of in-vivo deuterated amorphous protein C-phycocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Lal, J.; Bradley, K. F.; Chen, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction measurements of fully deuterated protein C-phycocyanin have been made at three temperatures, 295, 200, and 77 K, using dry and partially hydrated samples. The average coherent structure factors and the corresponding radial distribution functions d(r) are determined. The changes in d(r) functions observed in hydrated samples depend strongly on the level of hydration and most of these changes are due to water-protein interactions. At 0.365 gram D2O per gram of protein, the water crystallized into hexagonal ice at 200 K and below, but at 0.175 gram D2O per gram of protein, no crystallization of water was observed. At the higher hydration a peak appears in the radial distribution function which indicates that the average distance of the water molecule in the first hydration shell from the amino acid residues is 3.5 Å. PMID:19431896

  18. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  19. Phonological and contextual factors affecting voice quality in Dinka vowels 

    E-print Network

    Bazoukis, Georgios

    2012-11-28

    Dinka language is Nilotic language with rich and complex suprasegmental and morphological system that has not been investigated fully yet. Furthermore, voice quality is a linguistic notion that is also understudied in its ...

  20. Nuclear Reprogramming by Defined Factors: Quantity Versus Quality.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Shulamit; Buganim, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and directly converted cells holds great promise in regenerative medicine. However, after in-depth studies of the murine system, we know that the current methodologies to produce these cells are not ideal and mostly yield cells of poor quality that might hold a risk in therapeutic applications. In this review we address the duality found in the literature regarding the use of 'quality' as a criterion for the clinic. We discuss the elements that influence reprogramming quality, and provide evidence that safety and functionality are directly linked to cell quality. Finally, because most of the available data come from murine systems, we speculate about what aspects can be applied to human cells. PMID:26437595

  1. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  2. Intelligent processing, a key factor to performance and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtes, Thierry; Mosser, Pierre E.

    With reference to engine manufacturing it is emphasized that it is necessary to implement new engineering and production methodologies based on phenomenological analysis and simulation to reduce the number of experiments. Intelligent processing signifies not only the implementation of analytical methods to avoid production quality drifts and scrapping, but essentially requires that the process be considered as a system and aims at life-cycle cost optimization. Using SNECMA examples, it is shown how it is possible to improve the performance and quality of the processes through the use of these methodologies.

  3. Extraction of electromagnetic neutron form factors through inclusive and exclusive polarized electron scattering on polarized 3He target

    E-print Network

    J. Golak; G. Ziemer; H. Kamada; H. Witala; W. Gloeckle

    2000-08-04

    Inclusive 3He(e,e') and exclusive 3He(e,e'n) processes with polarized electrons and 3He have been theoretically analyzed and values for the magnetic and electric neutron form factors have been extracted. In both cases the form factor values agree well with the ones extracted from processes on the deuteron. Our results are based on Faddeev solutions, modern NN forces and partially on the incorporation of mesonic exchange currents.

  4. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

  5. Factors Influencing Assessment Quality in Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Gulikers, Judith; Dijkstra, Asha

    2013-01-01

    The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education institute. Per course, 4-11 teachers and 3-10…

  6. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre P.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

  7. Grey Relational Analysis on Factors of the Quality of Web Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao-Cong; Wang, Xiang-Qun; Fu, Kai-Yao; Zhao, Yi-Jiang

    Using the grey relational analysis theory, this exploratory study was to find the principal factors of Quality of Service of Web Sevice and its contributions. The paper utilized a real Quality of Web Service data sets:QWS Dataset (1.0) to grey relational analysis. The results indicate: (1) the sequence of influencing factors of Web Service selection is Best Practices, Compliance, Availability, Successability, Reliability, Latency, Response Time, Throughput, Documentation; (2) nine factors can be classified into four kinds: the first important factors are Best Practices, Compliance, and Availability; the second important factors are Successability, Reliability; the third important kind factors are Latency, Response Time; the less important factors are Throughput, Documentation; (3) the percent contributions of four kinds factors to the QoS of Web Service is 36.68%, 22.96%, 20.6%, 19.77%.

  8. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  9. KAOS-V code: An evaluation tool for neutron kerma factors and other nuclear responses

    SciTech Connect

    Farawila, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Maynard, C.; Argonne National Lab., IL; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1989-09-01

    The accurate evaluation of neutron fluence-to-kerma factors from microscopic nuclear data is the subject of this report. The algorithms developed for this purpose combine in a consistent manner the two basic methods for computing kerma factors, namely kinematics and direct energy balance. These algorithms are implemented in the code KAOS-V which was used as the main evaluation tool to construct the response function library KAOS/LIB-V. KAOS-V uses data from the evaluated nuclear data files ENDF/B/V. Auxiliary nuclear data bases, e.g., the Japanese evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-2 can be used as a source of isotopic cross sections when these data are not provided in ENDF/B-V files for a natural element. These are needed mainly to estimate average quantities such as effective Q-values for the natural element. The code has the ability to compare the different results which aids in the choice of a consistent set of algorithms to evaluate kerma factors. Data in ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V format can be processed. For resonance treatment, the code has the ability to access NJOY and NPTXS interface files in formatted or binary forms. No input instructions are necessary to run the code interactively. The user can simply respond to the interactive messages sent by the code if an INPUT file is absent. An INPUT file is automatically generated following an interactive run, and can be edited and used to rerun or produce different results. Grouped and point output data can be produced along with graphic representation. These features are instrumental in detecting and understanding energy balance deficiencies and other problems in the nuclear data files. 60 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Perceived factors of family planning clinic performance and service quality.

    PubMed

    Roberto, E L

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger operations research project, this 1990 study analyzed the performance of the Philippine Department of Health's (DOH) family planning (FP) clinics. Specific study objectives were 1) to measure acceptor targets, servicing capacity utilization, outreach, and costs; 2) to determine what providers believed affected performance; 3) to record which quality indicator providers use; and 4) to determine the perceptions of acceptors about clinic personnel, the clinic as a FP outlet, FP service processing, and FP service quality. Data were gathered from clinic records and from sample surveys in 25 clinics in four specified locations. Eight clients were sampled from each of the 100 clinics. It was found that clinic staff accepted low attainment of FP acceptor targets and that clinic capacity utilization levels were at 25% of capacity. Providers were unaware of the number of potential FP acceptors in their areas and had no information about the costs of running their clinics. The FP clinic managers identified 34 major determinants of clinic performance, but more than half reported that they had very little control over these determinants. The providers described quality service from the point of view of the acceptors and described the quality of a clinic in terms of the minimal physical characteristics required. The acceptor survey revealed that acceptor satisfaction depends upon 1) clinic accessibility and lay-out, 2) intensive personal contact, and 3) clinic infrastructure. The study uncovered a need for the DOH to institute management training programs for clinic managers and to provide managers with the resources and personnel to shift priorities in favor of FP coverage and prevalence. Managers, who are resource allocators, must also receive information about the costs of FP services in their clinics. In addition, the DOH's determination that its FP program would be facility- rather than community-based should be modified to incorporate community outreach elements. The DOH can also make a big impact on perceptions of quality (of both providers and acceptors) by improving clinic conditions to meet basic standards. Once these basic needs are met, additional needs of acceptors can and must be addressed. PMID:12320234

  11. Characteristics of double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator to increase quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Sei; Kataoka, Mai; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    We have numerically evaluated wavelength characteristics at telecommunication wavelengths by means of a doubleplasmonic-racetrack resonator using the finite-difference time domain method. We investigated the effect of the space between the two plasmonic racetracks of the resonator on the quality factor. The quality factor of the proposed structure is 57 when the space between two racetracks is 600 nm. The quality factor of a double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of a dielectric-filled trench is 1.5 times greater than that of a single-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of an air-filled trench. The phase mismatch of the trench channel plasmon polaritons contributes to the quality factor of the double-plasmonicracetrack resonator.

  12. System theoretic approach for determining causal factors of quality loss in complex system design

    E-print Network

    Goerges, Stephanie L

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the factors that could lead to the loss of quality is difficult for large, complex systems. Traditional design methods such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Robust ...

  13. First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martin; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

  14. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  15. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  16. Factors affecting the application of a simple ratio technique for spectral correction of a neutron personnel albedo dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    To accurately assess the dose equivalent indicated by the albedo response of a neutron personnel dosimeter, additional knowledge is generally required in order to apply the needed spectral specific correction factors. This work was designed to evaluate the capability of the USAF Personnel Neutron Dosimeter to self-calibrate for moderated fission neutron spectra. The boron/bare ratio technique is compared with a simple theoretical model of the dosimeter and with the 23 cm (9 in) to 7.6 cm (3 in) Hankins' remmeter calibration technique. The overall goal was to provide dose-equivalent estimates comparable to those provided by the remmeter technique without the necessity of special on-site measurements. Although the boron/bare technique with the present dosimeter design fails to provide calibration factors needed for moderated fission neutron spectra, theoretical predictions based upon the model and the measured dosimeter responses are used to propose a dosimeter design which might fulfill the desired goal. Ancillary data gathered during the study are also presented.

  17. Specific mixing energy: A key factor for cement slurry quality

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, J.A.; Parcevaux, P.A.; Guillot, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, the relationships between cement mixing and cement slurry quality are investigated. Laboratory mixing conditions, using a high shear mixer, are compared to field mixing conditions, including conventional jet mixer, recirculating type mixer and batch mixer. All the mixing conditions can be reduced according to a single parameter, the specific mixing energy, that allows the comparison of laboratory and field mixing with confidence. Typical cement slurry properties, like rheology, free water, fluid loss, thickening time and compressive strength, are measured as a function of the specific mixing energy. All these properties improve when the specific mixing energy increases. The efficiency of cement additives, like dispersants and fluid-loss agents, is also found to vary significantly with the energy. A tentative explanation is proposed through a mechanism of particle deflocculation and dissolution, leading to an increase in the available specific surface area.

  18. The electric form factor of the neutron from the d(e{down_arrow},e'n{down_arrow})p reaction at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; Tom Eden; A. Lai; W. M. Zhang

    1992-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations indicate that electron-neutron coincidence events from (inelastic) background processes can be reduced to a small fraction of the (quasielastic) signal events by appropriate choices for the electron momentum bite and the horizontal angular acceptance of the neutron polarimeter. Electron scattering angles larger than about 25{sup o} are needed to achieve small uncertainties in the electric form factor of the neutron.

  19. A systematic review and analysis of factors associated with methodological quality in laparoscopic randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Stavros Athanasios; Andreou, Alexandros; Antoniou, George Athanasios; Bertsias, Antonios; Köhler, Gernot; Koch, Oliver Owen; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for assessment of methodological quality in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been developed during the past few years. Factors associated with quality in laparoscopic surgery have not been defined till date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bibliometric and the methodological quality of laparoscopic RCTs. The PubMed search engine was queried to identify RCTs on minimally invasive surgery published in 2012 in the 10 highest impact factor surgery journals and the 5 highest impact factor laparoscopic journals. Eligible studies were blindly assessed by two independent investigators using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool for RCTs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential associations with methodological quality. A total of 114 relevant RCTs were identified. More than half of the trials were of high or acceptable quality. Half of the reports provided information on comparative demo graphic data and only 21% performed intention-to-treat analysis. RCTs with sample size of at least 60 patients presented higher methodological quality (p = 0.025). Upon multiple regression, reporting on preoperative care and the experience level of surgeons were independent factors of quality. PMID:25896540

  20. Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, J.; Eichler, A.; Güttinger, J.; Dykman, M. I.; Bachtold, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surfaces, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5?×?106 in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30?mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method to rapidly detect minuscule vibrations, as well as careful reduction of the noise of the electrostatic environment. We observe that the measured quality factors fluctuate because of fluctuations of the resonant frequency. We measure record-high quality factors, which are comparable to the highest Q values reported in mechanical resonators of much larger size, a remarkable result considering that reducing the size of resonators is usually concomitant with decreasing quality factors. The combination of ultra-low mass and very large Q offers new opportunities for ultra-sensitive detection schemes and quantum optomechanical experiments.

  1. Nanotube mechanical resonators with quality factors of up to 5 million.

    PubMed

    Moser, J; Eichler, A; Güttinger, J; Dykman, M I; Bachtold, A

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotube mechanical resonators have attracted considerable interest because of their small mass, the high quality of their surfaces, and the pristine electronic states they host. However, their small dimensions result in fragile vibrational states that are difficult to measure. Here, we observe quality factors Q as high as 5?×?10(6) in ultra-clean nanotube resonators at a cryostat temperature of 30?mK, where we define Q as the ratio of the resonant frequency over the linewidth. Measuring such high quality factors requires the use of an ultra-low-noise method to rapidly detect minuscule vibrations, as well as careful reduction of the noise of the electrostatic environment. We observe that the measured quality factors fluctuate because of fluctuations of the resonant frequency. We measure record-high quality factors, which are comparable to the highest Q values reported in mechanical resonators of much larger size, a remarkable result considering that reducing the size of resonators is usually concomitant with decreasing quality factors. The combination of ultra-low mass and very large Q offers new opportunities for ultra-sensitive detection schemes and quantum optomechanical experiments. PMID:25344688

  2. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  3. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  4. Neutron electromagnetic form factors and inclusive scattering of polarized electrons by polarized $^{3}$He and $^{3}$H targets

    E-print Network

    A. Kievsky; E. Pace; G. Salme`; M. Viviani

    1997-04-23

    The electromagnetic inclusive responses of polarized $^{3}$He and $^{3}$H are thoroughly investigated at the quasielastic peak for squared momentum transfers up to $2 (GeV/c)^2$, within the plane wave impulse approximation. Great emphasys is put on the effects in the bound-state due to different two- and three-body nuclear forces, and to the Coulomb interaction as well. A careful analysis of the polarized responses allows to select possible experiments for minimizing the model dependence in the extraction of the neutron electromagnetic form factors. In particular, the relevant role played by the proton in the transverse-longitudinal response of polarized $^{3}$He, at low momentum transfer, can be utilized for obtaining valuable information on the proton contribution to the total polarized response and eventually on the neutron charge form factor.

  5. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  6. Assessing the Quality of Life in Elderly People and Related Factors in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khaje-Bishak, Yaser; Payahoo, Laleh; Pourghasem, Bahram; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly people may suffer from the multiple health disorders due to the vulnerability for many physical and mental disturbances. Quality of life in elderly population can be affected by many environmental factors. The aim of this study was aimed to examine the quality of life in elderly people in Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 184 elderly people (male=97; female=87) with age ? 60 years. The participants surveyed in this study were elderly people who were living in the community and come voluntarily to the daily care centers. Validated Persian self-reported version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-BRIEF (WHOQOL-BRIEF) questionnaire including 26 broad and comprehensive questions were used to determine the quality of life in elderly people. Independent t-test and Pearson correlation were used to compare differences and correlation between the total score of quality of life and influential factors. Results: Total score the quality of life in both genders was 90.75 (13.37) (range between 26-130). Male elderly had slightly high score in the quality of life; however, these differences were not significant. A significant difference was observed between having cardiovascular diseases, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, hearing and visual impairments with total score in the quality of life. Also, there was no significant difference between gender and age variables with total score in the quality of life. Conclusion: Policies and programs should be considered for improving the quality of life. Future studies are needed for assessing other influential factors on the quality of life in elderly population. PMID:25717455

  7. Tissue equivalent proportional counter neutron monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.C.; Strode, J.N.

    1980-06-01

    The Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a sensitive area monitoring instrument that can be used either in place at fixed locations or as a portable neutron exposure measuring device. The system monitors low levels of neutron radiation exposure and has the capability of accurately measuring neutron exposure rates as low as 0.1 mrem/hr. The computerized analysis system calculates the quality factor which is important for situations where the neutron to gamma ratio may vary significantly and irregularly such as in fuel fabrication or handling facilities.

  8. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  9. The Use of a Multichannel Analyzer to Investigate Effects of Experimental Factors on Gross-Counting Gamma and Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather M.; Rennie, John A.; Lovejoy, Christopher M.; Martinez, Diana E. R; Dempsey, Michael A.; Livesay, Jake; Lousteau, Angela

    2012-07-12

    Radiation detection technology is invaluable to many fields of study in identifying nuclear materials. However, many detectors use gross-counting methods that give only a relative count rate. Without a spectrum (information on counts over time vs energy), it can be more difficult to discern if an alarm is false, innocent, or real. In particular, we would like to understand better the effect of experimental factors (i.e., external conditions and equipment parameters) on detector data, with possible implications for false alarms. To more thoroughly characterize detector technology, a multichannel analyzer (MCA) was used to record spectra from neutron (helium-3 tubes) and gamma (photomultiplier tubes) gross-counting detectors. Several factors could affect the signal-to-noise ratio of sources. For example, we examined the effects of neutron detector high voltage setting on the appearance of a californium-252 spectrum, the effect of discriminator values on integrated counts in neutron detection, and the effect of gain changes on the gamma spectra from several sources. Possible implications of ambient temperature of the experiment on the data collected will be discussed. The input impedance of the MCA must be considered to ensure that data are not affected by the measurement itself. Moreover, a calibration on the MCA was performed to verify the conversion of a MCA channel number to a voltage. In summary, the series of source spectra collected on an MCA with a variety of experimental conditions allow us to understand factors that affect data better, and assure us that gross-counting neutron and gamma detectors will have minimal false alarms.

  10. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices - AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p< .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

  11. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Quality Factor in a Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pin-Jia; Wang, Yi-Wen; Wei, Lian-Fu

    2014-06-01

    We present the measurements of the temperature dependence of the internal quality factor (Qi) of a microwave resonator, well below the superconducting transition temperature. The device is a quarter-wavelength niobium (Tc = 9.2 K) coplanar waveguide resonator. The measured |S21| parameter shows typically the skewed Lorentzian distributions, from which the fitted quality factor monotonically decreases with the temperature increasing from 30 mK to 900 mK. It is observed that for the lower temperature range (i.e., at T < 700 mK) the temperature dependence of the fitted Qi deviates significantly from the predictions of the usual Mattis—Bardeen theory. The measured 3 dB internal quality factor Q'i also verifies such an anomalous temperature dependence. Physically, this phenomenon could be attributed dominantly to the effects of the two-level systems in the device, rather than the usual temperature-dependent complex conductance.

  12. Factors associated with data quality in the routine health information system of Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine health information systems (RHIS) are crucial to the acquisition of data for health sector planning. In developing countries, the insufficient quality of the data produced by these systems limits their usefulness in regards to decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with poor data quality in the RHIS in Benin. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study included health workers who were responsible for data collection in public and private health centers. The technique and tools used were an interview with a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable was the quality of the data. The independent variables were socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, personal and work-related resources, and the perception of the technical factors. The quality of the data was assessed using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. We used survival analysis with univariate proportional hazards (PH) Cox models to derive hazards ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Focus group data were evaluated with a content analysis. Results A significant link was found between data quality and level of responsibility (p?=?0.011), sector of employment (p?=?0.007), RHIS training (p?=?0.026), level of work engagement (p?factors such as the availability of resources, supervision, and the perceived complexity of the technical factors. Conclusion This exploratory study identified several factors associated with the quality of the data in the RHIS in Benin. The results could provide strategic decision support in improving the system’s performance. PMID:25114792

  13. Enhanced quality factor of Fano resonance in optical metamaterials by manipulating configuration of unit cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    By changing unit cell configurations, we demonstrated enhancement of quality factors (Q-factors) of Fano resonance in optical metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars. The Q-factors of Fano resonance at wavelengths around 1500 nm were extracted from absorption spectra, and the dependence of the degree of asymmetry was studied. Observed enhancement is qualitatively interpreted by dipole-dipole interactions, and destructive interactions were essential for achieving high Q-factors. These results will be useful for improving performance of potential applications using metamaterial resonators such as light emitting devises and sensors.

  14. Influence of graphene on quality factor variation in a silicon ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Rai; Tanabe, Shinichi; Hibino, Hiroki; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Yamada, Koji; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hirochika

    2014-03-03

    Selectively patterned graphene is integrated onto a silicon ring resonator to investigate the quality factor (Q factor) variation. The Q factor sharply decreases from 7900 to 1200 as the patterned graphene length increases from 0 to 20??m. A numerical estimation, which takes into account optical absorption by graphene, shows an exponential damping of the Q factor with increasing graphene length and is consistent with the experimental result. We expect these fundamental characterizations to be helpful in developing graphene-integrated silicon photonics applications.

  15. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. PMID:21054473

  16. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

  17. The impact of gate width setting and gate utilization factors on plutonium assay in passive correlated neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Santi, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  18. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  19. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    E-print Network

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  20. Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life in chronic portuguese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic illnesses are diseases of long duration and generally of slow progression. They cause significant quality of life impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse psychosocial predictors of quality of life and of subjective well-being in chronic Portuguese patients. Methods Chronic disease patients (n?=?774) were recruited from central Portuguese Hospitals. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and outcome variables: quality of life (HRQL) and subjective well-being (SWB). MANCOVA analyses were used to test psychosocial factors as determinants of HRQL and SWB. Results After controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables, results showed that dispositional optimism, positive affect, spirituality, social support and treatment adherence are significant predictors of HRQL and SWB. Similar predictors of quality of life, such as positive affect, treatment adherence and spirituality, were found for subgroups of disease classified by medical condition. Conclusions The work identifies psychosocial factors associated with quality of life. The predictors for the entire group of different chronic diseases are similar to the ones found in different chronic disease subgroups: positive affect, social support, treatment adherence and spirituality. Patients with more positive affect, additional social support, an adequate treatment adherence and a feel-good spirituality, felt better with the disease conditions and consequently had a better quality of life. This study contributes to understanding and improving the processes associated with quality of life, which is relevant for health care providers and chronic diseases support. PMID:24405802

  1. Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing.

    PubMed

    Seljåsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Wyss, Gabriela S; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Birlouez-Aragone, Inès; Kahl, Johannes

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, ?-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for ?-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in ?-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in ?-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. PMID:23744724

  2. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p

    SciTech Connect

    Hongguo Zhu; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; H. Arenhoevel; Chris Armstrong; C. Bernet; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Paul Brindza; D. Brown; S. Bueltmann; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; D. B. Day; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Yusuf Farah; Renee Fatimi; Kenneth Garrow; Chris Harris; Markus Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; M. Kaufmann; Mahbub Khandaker; Gunther Kubon; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; Robert Lourie; Allison Lung; David Mack; Sudhir Malik; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; Geoffrey Milanovich; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; M. Muehlbauer; Thomas Petitjean; Yelena Prok; Daniela Rohe; Emmanuel Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ingo Sick; C. Smith; Tim Southern; Michael Steinacher; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Al Tobias; Bill Vulcan; Glen Warren; H. Woehrle; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Marko Zeier; Jianguo Zhao; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-08-20

    We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor G{sup n}{sub E} via d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p. G{sup n}{sub E} was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ({sup 15}ND{sub 3}). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle segmented detector. We find G{sup n}{sub E} = 0.04632{+-}0.00616(stat){+-}0.00341(syst) at Q{sup 2} = 0.495 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  3. Magnetization screening from gluonic currents and scaling law violation in the ratio of magnetic form factors for neutron and proton

    E-print Network

    M. M. Kaskulov; P. Grabmayr

    2003-06-24

    The ratio ${\\mu_p}G_E^p/G_M^p$ exhibits a decrease for four-momentum transfer Q^2 increasing beyond 1 GeV^2 indicating different spatial distributions for charge and for magnetization inside the proton. One-gluon exchange currents can explain this behaviour. The SU(6) breaking induced by gluonic currents predicts furthermore that the ratio of neutron to proton magnetic form factors ${\\mu_p}G_M^n/{\\mu_n}G_M^p$ falls with increasing Q^2. We find that the experimental data are consistent with our expectations of an almost linear decrease of the ratio ${\\mu_p}G_M^n/{\\mu_n}G_M^p$ with increasing Q^2, supporting the statement that the spatial distributions of magnetization are different for protons and for neutrons.

  4. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  5. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  6. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  7. A Review of Research on Factors that Impact Aspects of Online Discussions Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatariu, Alexandru; Quinn, Linda F.; Hartley, Kendall

    2007-01-01

    In support of online discussions research, this review classifies and describes instructional interventions and learner characteristics that affect the quality of discussions. The review will help educators better understand factors such as group structure, mentoring, argumentation, and learner characteristics that play a role in shaping online…

  8. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

  9. Visual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Bernd

    Hamann, Member, IEEE and Hans Hagen, Member, IEEE Abstract-- The study of aerosol composition for airVisual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research in providing insight into and allowing to actively control a heretofore elu- sive data processing step

  10. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  11. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  12. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  13. Quality factor tuning of high-frequency high-Q filter biquads using adaptive signal processing 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Jan-Michael

    1997-01-01

    A quality factor (Q) tuning technique for high-frequency and high-Q continuous-time filter biquads is proposed. The method is based on the existing magnitude locked loop Q-tuning technique, but it utilizes the continuous-time ...

  14. Kramers-Kronig based quality factor for shear wave propagation in soft tissue

    PubMed Central

    Urban, M W; Greenleaf, J F

    2009-01-01

    Shear wave propagation techniques have been introduced for measuring the viscoelastic material properties of tissue, but assessing the accuracy of these measurements is difficult for in vivo measurements in tissue. We propose using the Kramers-Kronig relationships to assess the consistency and quality of the measurements of shear wave attenuation and phase velocity. In ex vivo skeletal muscle we measured the wave attenuation at different frequencies, and then applied finite bandwidth Kramers-Kronig equations to predict the phase velocities. We compared these predictions with the measured phase velocities and assessed the mean square error (MSE) as a quality factor. An algorithm was derived for computing a quality factor using the Kramers-Kronig relationships. PMID:19759409

  15. Differential response to environmental and nutritional factors of high-quality tomato varieties.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, María José; García-López, Jesús; Collados-Luján, Juan Fernando; López-Ortiz, Fernando; Díaz, Manuel; Toresano, Fernando; Camacho, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salinity and silicon treatments on the marketable quality of four Marmande tomato varieties was investigated through conventional quality attributes and (1)H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Following variations in ripening through the content of GABA deduced from NMR was crucial for understanding the effects of environmental and nutritional factors. NMR data also lead to a new taste index, which increases from December to January. For Raf, Delizia and Conquista varieties, it was associated to ripening. In Tigre tomatoes the change, exclusively due to the decrease in sourness, does not affect the GABA content. The effect of the harvest day was more pronounced than treatments. However, increasing electrical conductivity seems an efficient alternative for improving fruit quality of Raf tomatoes harvest under non-optimal conditions. Silicon addition appears to reinforce the effect of light intensity on the quantity of photoassimilates available to the fruits without a clear effect on organoleptic quality. PMID:25624234

  16. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction investigation of temperature factors in the Zn blende semiconductor InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Bocchi, C.; Moze, O.; Wilson, C. C.; Fornari, R.

    1992-06-01

    A structural investigation of the Zn blende structure semiconductor InP has been carried out using the single crystal diffractometer SXD at the pulsed neutron facility ISIS. The ability to measure structure factors accurately at large Q values even with highly absorbing materials such as InP is demonstrated. Measurements were performed on a single crystal of InP at 293, 100 and 50 K with the <1 overline10> crystallographic axis mounted perpendicular to the scattering plane. This enabled collection of ( h h l) reflections up to a maximum with Miller indices (10, 10, 8).

  17. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  18. Sensorless enhancement of an atomic force microscope micro-cantilever quality factor using piezoelectric shunt control.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, M; Moheimani, S O R

    2013-05-01

    The image quality and resolution of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is dependent on the quality (Q) factor of the sensing micro-cantilever. Increasing the cantilever Q factor improves image resolution and reduces the risk of sample and cantilever damage. Active piezoelectric shunt control is introduced in this work as a new technique for modifying the Q factor of a piezoelectric self-actuating AFM micro-cantilever. An active impedance is placed in series with the tip oscillation voltage source to modify the mechanical dynamics of the cantilever. The benefit of using this control technique is that it removes the optical displacement sensor from the Q control feedback loop to reduce measurement noise in the loop and allows for a reduction in instrument size. PMID:23742557

  19. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  20. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  1. Measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron at JLab via recoil polarimetry in the reaction: d(e, e-prime n)p

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Finn

    2004-11-01

    Preliminary results are reported for measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, GEn/GMn, obtained via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2H(e, e?n) 1H reaction at Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2. The measurements, conducted in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, together with other recent polarization measurements, are the result of a decade long effort to establish a firm experimental database for the important, but elusive, electric form factor of the neutron.

  2. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Aidan Kelleher

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.

  3. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Joshua S.; Taibbi, Giovanni; Nelson, Seth C.; Chao, Diana; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2015-01-01

    Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability. PMID:26351574

  4. Assessment of the neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed AmBe source by means of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed Americium-Beryllium source is experimentally determined and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The measurements were done at the Italian Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations using a long counter neutron detector and a "X.3" type AmBe sealed neutron source. Experimental data are compared to simulations performed with the MCNP code where the precise structure of the source is taken into account starting from its technical design. The contributions of the single structural parts are described to point out the effective sources of the emission anisotropy.

  5. Quality-factor amplification in piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying an all-electrical feedback loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-García, J.; Ababneh, A.; Schwarz, P.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2011-02-01

    An all-electrical velocity feedback control to enhance the quality factor of piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN)-based microcantilevers and microbridges was implemented. Two alternatives to obtain a velocity-proportional signal were demonstrated depending on the top electrode configuration. For a straightforward electrode design in one-port configuration (i.e. self-actuation and self-sensing), a velocity signal, proportional to the piezoelectric current, was used in the feedback loop by cancelling out the dielectric current electronically. For top electrodes allowing a two-port configuration (i.e. one for actuation and one for sensing), the piezoelectric current is directly extracted and its relationship with velocity is analysed taking the symmetry of the modal shape into account. Standard operational amplifier-based configurations for the feedback circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board. Quality factors were determined from the transient electrical response of the devices. Comparable results were obtained from the displacement spectrum applying a laser Doppler vibrometer. Quality factors as high as 2 × 105, corresponding to an enhancement factor of about 200, were achieved in air for the lowest gain margin achievable before the circuit becomes unstable, making this kind of device more competitive for mass sensor applications due to enhanced spectral resolution.

  6. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

  7. Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

    1992-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

  8. A high quality factor photonic crystal channel-drop filter with a linear gradient microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Fan, Qing-bin; Lu, Ye; Luo, De-jun; Kong, Yi-bu; Zhang, Dong-chuang

    2015-05-01

    We design a channel-drop filter (CDF) with a linear gradient microcavity in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC). The model of three-port CDF with reflector is used to achieve high quality factor (Q-factor) and 100% channel-drop efficiency. The research indicates that adjusting the distance between reference plane and reflector can simultaneously influence the Q-factor due to coupling to a bus waveguide and the phase retardation occurring in the round trip between a microcavity and a reflector. The calculation results of 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that the designed filter can achieve the drop efficiency of 96.7% and ultra-high Q-factor with an ultra-small modal volume.

  9. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    E-print Network

    Plaster, Bradley R. (Bradley Robert), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with ...

  10. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  11. External high-quality-factor resonator tunes up nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suefke, Martin; Liebisch, Alexander; Blümich, Bernhard; Appelt, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    The development of powerful sensors for the detection of weak electromagnetic fields is crucial for many spectroscopic applications, in particular for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical model for boosting the NMR signal-to-noise ratio, validated by liquid-state 1H, 129Xe and 6Li NMR experiments at low frequencies, using an external resonator with a high quality-factor combined with a low-quality-factor input coil. In addition to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, this approach exhibits striking features such as a high degree of flexibility with respect to input coil parameters and a square-root dependence on the sample volume, and signifies an important step towards compact NMR spectroscopy at low frequencies with small and large coils.

  12. Doping optimization for ultra-high quality factor superconducting niobium cavities for particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexander; Grassellino, Anna; Kim, Young-Kee

    2014-03-01

    Increasing quality factor of the fundamental mode in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities is vital for development of the future particle accelerator facilities, i.e. LCLS-II, Project X, ERLs, and ADS for nuclear energy and waste transmutation, since it directly affects the dissipated power in cavity walls. It has been discovered that doping of certain concentration of nitrogen into the surface of superconducting niobium significantly improves the quality factor of SRF cavities. We report the results of the nitrogen doping optimization guided by diffusion model and present two surface treatment procedures that allow achieving optimal value of nitrogen concentration at the surface of cavity: one with electropolishing required, another one without it.

  13. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystals.

  14. Levels of hepatocyte growth factor in serum correlate with quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Ewa; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Ma?kowiak, Beata; Sosinska, Patrycja; Matecka, Monika; Kolodziejczak, Barbara; Musielak, Micha?; Breborowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with end stage renal failure (ESRD) report low quality of life and inflammation may be one of the contributing factors. We studied if the hemodialysis induced inflammation correlates with the patients quality of life. Methods: Study was performed in 76 (35 males and 41 females) ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis. Effect of one dialysis session on blood concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) was studied. Results were correlated with answers given by patients to a short questionnaire composed of questions from Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQoL-SF) questionnaire. Results: Hemodialysis induced increase of serum level of HGF (+117%) and IL-6 (+17%). Declared by patients health status correlated with their age, GFR, kt/V and hemodialysis induced change in serum IL6 and HGF level (R2 = 0469, P < 0.001). Physical activity correlated with age, serum IL-6 and hemodialysis induced change in serum HGF and VEGF (R2 = 0.362, P < 0.001). Presence of social/mental problems during previous 4 weeks correlated with age, serum HGF and hemodialysis induced changes in serum HGF and VEGF levels (R2 = 0.333, P < 0.001). Interference of the kidney disease with daily life activities correlated with age, serum VEGF and hemodialysis induced change in serum HGF and IL6 levels (R2 = 0.422, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Inflammation correlates with reduced quality of life in ESRD. Low hemodialysis-induced release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine HGF correlates with impaired quality of life in that group of patients. PMID:26722560

  15. On limitation of quality factor of single mode resonators with finite size

    E-print Network

    Ferdous, Fahmida; Vyatchanin, Sergey P; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute

    2014-01-01

    Using realistic numerical models we analyze radiative loss of bound and unbound modes of specially designed high-Q whispering gallery and Fabry-Perot cavities of similar size and shape, and find a set of parameters when they can be treated as single mode structures. We show that these cavities have similar properties in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The cavity morphology engineering does not lead to reduction of the resonator quality factor.

  16. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  17. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

  18. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

  19. Effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Charron, L; Geffard, O; Chaumot, A; Coulaud, R; Queau, H; Geffard, A; Dedourge-Geffard, O

    2013-12-01

    The feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in Gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. However, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary to establish reference values based on its natural variability as a function of changing biotic and abiotic factors. To limit the confounding influence of biotic factors, a caging approach with calibrated male organisms from the same population was used. This study applied an in situ deployment at 23 sites of the Rhone basin rivers, complemented by a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of two abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity). The results showed a small effect of conductivity on cellulase activity and a significant effect of temperature on digestive enzyme activity but only at the lowest temperature (7 °C). The experimental conditions allowed us to define an environmental reference value for digestive enzyme activities to select sites where the quality of the water impacted the digestive capacity of the organisms. In addition to the feeding rate, this study showed the relevance of digestive enzymes as biomarkers to be used as an early warning tool to reflect organisms' health and the chemical quality of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23784059

  20. Effects of weak noise on oscillating flows: Linking quality factor, Floquet modes, and Koopman spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Shervin

    2014-09-01

    Many fluid flows, such as bluff body wakes, exhibit stable self-sustained oscillations for a wide range of parameters. Here we study the effect of weak noise on such flows. In the presence of noise, a flow with self-sustained oscillations is characterized not only by its period, but also by the quality factor. This measure gives an estimation of the number of oscillations over which periodicity is maintained. Using a recent theory [P. Gaspard, J. Stat. Phys. 106, 57 (2002)], we report on two observations. First, for weak noise the quality factor can be approximated using a linear Floquet analysis of the deterministic system; its size is inversely proportional to the inner-product between first direct and adjoint Floquet vectors. Second, the quality factor can readily be observed from the spectrum of evolution operators. This has consequences for Koopman/Dynamic mode decomposition analyses, which extract coherent structures associated with different frequencies from numerical or experimental flows. In particular, the presence of noise induces a damping on the eigenvalues, which increases quadratically with the frequency and linearly with the noise amplitude.

  1. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

  2. Physical, biophysical, and cell-biological factors that can contribute to enhanced neoplastic transformation by fission-spectrum neutrons.

    PubMed

    Elkind, M M

    1991-10-01

    In radiobiology, fission-spectrum neutrons frequently have been used as a surrogate for other high-LET radiations, particularly when thick absorbers were involved as in animal studies. However, the spectrum of proton secondaries, plus the gamma rays generated in the absorption processes, suggests that a characterization of such a beam, based upon an average LET alone, may not adequately account for the spectrum of biological properties that it may have. Conflicting results have been reported on the relative effectiveness of reduced dose rates of fission-spectrum neutrons, and other high-LET radiations, for the induction of noeplastic transformation of cells in culture. Enhanced rates of neoplastic transformation were reported for C3H 10T1/2 mouse cells, Syrian hamster embryo cells, and human hybrid cells-all with the same beam of fission-spectrum neutrons generated by the JANUS reactor at the Argonne National Laboratory. No enhancement was observed with C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to the beam from the TRIGA reactor at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, or to maximally effective alpha particles. The recent report that an enhancement was also observed when human hybrid cells were exposed at a low dose rate to the TRIGA beam indicated that physical factors alone were not responsible for the differences observed with C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to these various beams. To resolve the lack of consistency in the results that had been reported, a biophysical model was developed based, in part, on the existence of a narrow age interval in the growth cycle of a cell during which it is particularly sensitive to radiation neoplastic transformation. Because of the special physical and biological properties of cells in M phase, and/or in late G2 phase or early G1 phase, these cohorts of cells were proposed as those that are hypersensitive to neoplastic transformation by radiation. PMID:1924748

  3. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran's national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  4. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran’s national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  5. Effects of various factors on sleep disorders and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Telarovic, Srdjana; Mijatovic, Dragana; Telarovic, Irma

    2015-12-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), sleep disorders (SD) occur as a result of the neurochemical changes in sleep centres, neurodegenerative changes in dopaminergic neurons, and other factors. The most common SD include excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs syndrome and nocturia. The aim of the study was to compare quality of sleep, as a factor that greatly impacts quality of life (QoL), between PD patients and a control group and to further examine SD in the PD group with focus on incidence and SD types as well as on effects various factors (age, sex, PD characteristics, medication usage) have on these disorders. The study included 110 patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of PD and 110 age-matched healthy controls. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PD Sleep Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, PD QoL Questionnaire-8 and PD Questionnaire-39 (items 30 and 33). In the group with PD, we considered the duration of the disease, the stage of disease according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale, medications and their impact on the SD. The average duration of the disease was 6 years and the mean stage was 2.44. The result showed significant differences in the sleep quality between groups. In the PD group, SD differences were also found according to gender, duration of the disease and medication usage. The most common SD were fragmented sleep, insomnia and nocturia. To improve the QoL of PD patients, it is necessary to pay more attention to detecting and solving SD. PMID:25944510

  6. Synchrotron powder diffraction of silicon: high-quality structure factors and electron density.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Nanna; Bindzus, Niels; Bjerg, Lasse; Becker, Jacob; Dippel, Ann Christin; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline silicon is an ideal compound to test the current state of experimental structure factors and corresponding electron densities. High-quality structure factors have been measured on crystalline silicon with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. They are in excellent agreement with benchmark Pendellösung data having comparable accuracy and precision, but acquired in far less time and to a much higher resolution (sin??/? < 1.7?Å(-1)). The extended data range permits an experimental modelling of not only the valence electron density but also the core deformation in silicon, establishing an increase of the core density upon bond formation in crystalline silicon. Furthermore, a physically sound procedure for evaluating the standard deviation of powder-derived structure factors has been applied. Sampling statistics inherently account for contributions from photon counts as well as the limited number of diffracting particles, where especially the latter are particularly difficult to handle. PMID:26697864

  7. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Neutron electric form factor up to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 GeV/c{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; S. Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; E Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; G. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; J. W. Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-07-15

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G{sub En}/G{sub Mn} , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic {sup 2}H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q{sup 2} = 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  9. Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, P P; Say, Y H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

  10. Does spinal stenosis correlate with MRI findings and pain, psychologic factor and quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Su Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate and analyze MRI findings in relation to visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), psychological-factor, sleep-quality, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores among patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) for the purpose of elucidating a correlation. Methods From July 2013 to May 2014, 117 consecutive patients with central LSS were included in this study. All of the MRIs were evaluated by one of the authors, and the evaluated items were the dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA), the number of stenotic levels, and the presence and levels of spondylolisthesis. The ODI, VAS, 36-item SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to evaluate the participants. Results There are no correlations between the ODI, VAS, BDI, BAI, PSQI, and SF-36 scores and the minimum DSCSA; however, a significant correlation was found between the ODI scores and multilevel LSS. The BDI, BAI, and PSQI scores are higher for multilevel LSS compared with single-level LSS, but the difference of this mean value is not statistically significant. Conclusions A significant correlation was shown between those patients with multilevel LSS and the ODI scores; however, significant correlations were not found between the MRI findings and the psychological factors pertaining to sleep and life qualities. PMID:26495059

  11. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  12. Analysis of Ecological Quality of the Environment and Influencing Factors in China during 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005–2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005–2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005–2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  13. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    PubMed Central

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  14. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Minkov, Momchil; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength ?˜1.3 ?m , with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  15. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16?900 in the near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo

    2014-12-08

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q?=?16?900 at the resonant wavelength ??1.3??m, with a maximal measured Q value of 22?500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  16. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowa’s Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  17. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5??m thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24?±?3?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46?kHz–8?MHz and showed a maximum measured Q???86?000 at f{sub n}?=?46.849?kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ?788?GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  18. Risk Factors on Health-Related Quality of Life in Children With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjie; Han, Qizheng

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate how epilepsy affected the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with epilepsy, as well as the risk factors for poor HRQOL. Parents of epileptic children (n = 223) and parents of healthy children (n = 216) were enrolled. The Child Epilepsy Questionnaire-Parental form was given to all parents. Children with epilepsy had significantly lower HRQOL scores for overall QOL and all subscales. Seizure types were not associated with HRQOL, but the age of the child with epilepsy, disease courses and seizure frequency did influence the quality of life. Epilepsy has a severe impact on children's HRQOL, and age, increased seizure frequency and longer duration of epilepsy are associated with poor HRQOL. PMID:25857728

  19. High Quality Factor Silicon Cantilever Transduced by Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate Film for Mass Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Yi; Mihara, Takashi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we present a single-crystal silicon cantilever integrated with piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film as both an actuator and a sensor for resonant-based mass sensing applications. The pattern size of the PZT film was restricted to the fixed end of the cantilever to suppress intrinsic energy loss from the PZT film and multi layered structure. The energy dissipation mechanism of the cantilever was discussed. The mechanical quality factor (Q-factor) and sensitivity dependence on the cantilever’s geometry were investigated. It was found that the Q-factor and sensitivity of the cantilever can be markedly improved by partially covering the cantilever with the PZT film. Under atmospheric pressure, excellent Q-factor of 808 was achieved by a 30-?m-wide 100-?m-long cantilever at fundamental resonant mode. Under reduced pressure, the proposed cantilever exhibits Q-factor several times greater than that of our previous reported fully PZT-covered cantilever. Moreover, high-mode vibration was successfully demonstrated using the proposed structure for the pursuit of higher mass-detection sensitivity.

  20. Quality factors for the nano-mechanical tubes with thermoelastic damping and initial stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Bae; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The Quality factors (Q-factor) are defined as the ratio of the kinetic and potential energy to dissipation for various damping mechanisms of structures. Therefore, improvement in the Q-factors is an important issue in micro- and nano-resonator applications for the high performance. Also, it is well known that the thermoelastic damping is more crucial than the other damping factors in a device. Thus, the vibration of nano-mechanical circular tube is investigated with thermoelastic damping and initial stress effects in this work. To simplify the shell equations for the transverse displacement-dominated problems, the Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov (DMV) approach is adopted. Applying the stress function, the equations of motion for deflection, compatibility equation and heat conduction equation are derived. Using an iterative scheme, the natural frequencies and the Q-factors under the initial stress are obtained, and the influences of the dimensions of the shell, the mode numbers and initial stress are discussed in detail.

  1. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID:24653767

  2. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of the management and active, inspirational team leadership appear to be important. Not only patient outcomes but also the performance indicators of monitoring and screening/assessment showed improvement in many but not all of the QI teams with such characteristics. More studies are needed to identify factors associated with the impact of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in mental healthcare. PMID:22230594

  3. Symmetric reflection line resonator and its quality factor modulation by a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2014-02-24

    We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.

  4. Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, R. H., III

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

  5. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A.; Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ? 2?×?10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  6. Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor GMn [G superscript n subscript M] in the Few-GeV2 [V superscript 2] region

    E-print Network

    Rowntree, D.

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q2=1.0–4.8 [Q superscript 2 = 1.0-4.8] ??GeV2 [Ge V superscript 2] with the CLAS detector at Jefferson ...

  7. A measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor Gn?M? form quasi-elastic ²[right arrow]H ([right arrow]e, e') at low Q²

    E-print Network

    Meitanis, Nikolas (Nikolas C.)

    2006-01-01

    The neutron magnetic form factor GnM has been measured using the inclusive electro-disintegration 2H(e, e') of the deuteron for the first time. The longitudinally polarized electron beam of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator ...

  8. The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic {sup 3}{ovr He}({rvec e}, e{prime}) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  9. Household Air Quality Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Pneumonia in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Pavani K.; Dutt, Dhiman; Silk, Benjamin J.; Doshi, Saumil; Rudra, Carole B.; Abedin, Jaynal; Goswami, Doli; Fry, Alicia M.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Luby, Stephen P.; Cohen, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009–2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces. PMID:24664785

  10. Methods of incorporation of biomagnification and bioavailability into Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative bioaccumulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, L.; Cook, P.

    1995-12-31

    In the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative, the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) accounts for bioavailability and food chain biomagnification. A summary of the derivation and uses of these methodologies will be made. The method for determining the freely dissolved (bioavailable) portion of the chemical in the ambient water is based upon a three compartment partitioning model which consists of the freely dissolved chemical, and chemical sorbed to dissolved and particulate organic carbon. The methodology accounting for food chain biomagnification in the prediction of BAFs uses food chain multipliers to adjust bioconcentration factors to BAFS. The food chain multipliers were developed using the food chain model of Gobas (1993) and Great Lakes data.

  11. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  12. Student Motivation and the "Feel Good" Factor: An Empirical Examination of Motivational Predictors of University Service Quality Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination…

  13. Factors influencing quality of life (QOL) for Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    PubMed

    Cho, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Dam; Jun, Jae-Bum; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) for Korean RA patients and factors associated with each dimension of the EQ-5D. Two hundred and twenty-five RA patients were recruited from one University Hospital in Seoul, South Korea. Their clinical and socio-demographic data were widely collected by means of interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and clinical examinations. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors influencing QOL and factors associated with each dimension of the EQ-5D. The mean EQ-5D utility observed for Korean RA patients was 0.60 (-0.29 to 1.0). Functional disability measured with Health Assessment Questionnaire (OR = 10.0, CI 2.8-34.5), disease activity score (DAS) 28 (OR = 2.6, CI 1.4-4.9), and pain VAS (OR = 2.2, CI 1.2-4.1) was three main factors influencing on QOL of RA patients. Although the functional disability consistently showed significant associations with all dimensions, various factors were associated with the each five specific dimension of EQ-5D. Pain (OR = 2.5, CI 1.4-4.6), history of hospitalization (OR = 2.1, CI 1.0-4.3), and men (OR = 2.6, CI 1.0-6.8) were associated with lower QOL in mobility. Use of alternative medicine (OR = 2.0, CI 1.1-3.7) and disease activity (OR = 3.1, CI 1.7-5.7) were associated with lower self-care QOL. For the patients with discomfort in usual activity, pain (OR = 4.7, CI 2.4-9.2) and the presence of anemia (OR = 2.3, CI 1.2-4.5) were major influencing factors. Higher disease activity (OR = 4.5, CI 1.0-21.2) and pain (OR = 3.3, CI 1.9-5.8) were associated with the pain/discomfort dimension of EQ-5D, and the pain (OR = 3.3, CI 1.9-5.8) was an independent associating factor of anxiety/depression. The strongest determinants of lower QOL in Korean RA patients were functional disability, higher disease activity, and subjective pain. However, various factors are influencing on the QOL for RA patients according to aspects of QOL. It suggested that clinicians should pay more attention to other factors of RA patients as well as clinical remission to improve their QOL. PMID:22218643

  14. 2790 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Electrical Prism: A High Quality Factor Filter for

    E-print Network

    Afshari, Ehsan

    Electrical Prism: A High Quality Factor Filter for Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Frequencies Omeed Momeni of the medium are used to introduce a novel high quality factor filter called an electrical prism. The pro, electrical prism, high quality factor filter, negative effective index, spatial filtering, terahertz, 2-D

  15. Evaluated cross-section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Cox, L.; Young, P.G.; Meigooni, A.

    1995-04-11

    A program is being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop high-energy evaluated nuclear data libraries for use in Monte Carlo simulations of cancer radiation therapy. In this report we describe evaluated cross sections and kerma factors for neutrons with incident energies up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C. The aim of this effort is to incorporate advanced nuclear physics modeling methods, with new experimental measurements, to generate cross section libraries needed for an accurate simulation of dose deposition in fast neutron therapy. The evaluated libraries are based mainly on nuclear model calculations, benchmarked to experimental measurements where they exist. We use the GNASH code system, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms. The libraries tabulate elastic and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated production spectra for light ejectiles with A{le}and kinetic energies given to light ejectiles and heavy recoil fragments. The major steps involved in this effort are: (1) development and validation of nuclear models for incident energies up to 100 MeV; (2) collation of experimental measurements, including new results from Louvain-la-Nueve and Los Alamos; (3) extension of the Livermore ENDL formats for representing high-energy data; (4) calculation and evaluation of nuclear data; and (5) validation of the libraries. We describe the evaluations in detail, with particular emphasis on our new high-energy modeling developments. Our evaluations agree well with experimental measurements of integrated and differential cross sections. We compare our results with the recent ENDF/B-VI evaluation which extends up to 32 MeV.

  16. On the mechanical quality factors of cryogenic test masses from fused silica and crystalline quartz

    E-print Network

    Anja Schroeter; Ronny Nawrodt; Roman Schnabel; Stuart Reid; Iain Martin; Sheila Rowan; Christian Schwarz; Torsten Koettig; Ralf Neubert; Matthias Thürk; Wolfgang Vodel; Andreas Tünnermann; Karsten Danzmann; Paul Seidel

    2007-09-27

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors (IGWDs) are operated at room temperature with test masses made from fused silica. Fused silica shows very low absorption at the laser wavelength of 1064 nm. It is also well suited to realize low thermal noise floors in the detector signal band since it offers low mechanical loss, i. e. high quality factors (Q factors) at room temperature. However, for a further reduction of thermal noise, cooling the test masses to cryogenic temperatures may prove an interesting technique. Here we compare the results of Q factor measurements at cryogenic temperatures of acoustic eigenmodes of test masses from fused silica and its crystalline counterpart. Our results show that the mechanical loss of fused silica increases with lower temperature and reaches a maximum at 30 K for frequencies of slightly above 10 kHz. The losses of crystalline quartz generally show lower values and even fall below the room temperature values of fused silica below 10 K. Our results show that in comparison to fused silica, crystalline quartz has a considerably narrower and lower dissipation peak on cooling and thus has more promise as a test mass material for IGDWs operated at cryogenic temperatures. The origin of the different Q factor versus temperature behavior of the two materials is discussed.

  17. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

  18. Factors Associated with Perceived Patient-Provider Communication Quality among Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Colon, Vivian; Krasny, Sarah; Tortolero-Luna, Guillemo

    2014-01-01

    Patient-provider communication is an important factor influencing patients' health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between patient-provider communication quality and sociodemographic, health care access, trusted information sources, and health status variables. Data were from a representative sample of 450 Puerto Rican adults who participated in the Health Information National Trends Survey. A composite score rating perceived patient-provider communication quality was created from five items (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted. Patient-provider communication ratings were lower among the unemployed (p=0.049), those who do not trust a lot in the information provided by their providers (p=0.003), and respondents with higher depressive symptoms scores (p=0.036). Perceived patient-provider communication quality, however, was higher among respondents who visited their providers five or more times in the last year (p=0.023). Understanding patient perceptions of provider communication may serve to develop system-level interventions aimed at eliminating communication disparities and improving patients' health outcomes. PMID:24858864

  19. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among overweight and obese Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jina; Turk, Melanie T; Jae, Sae Young; Choo, Il Han

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tends to be lower among individuals who are overweight and obese than those of normal weight, and women may be more vulnerable to lower HRQOL associated with obesity than men. Identifying factors associated with HRQOL may be crucial for improving HRQOL for overweight/obese women. We aimed to determine the factors associated with obesity-specific HRQOL among overweight/obese Korean women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 125 women aged 20-64 years, who comprised a baseline sample in the Community-based Heart and Weight Management Trial. The data were collected from September 2010 to November 2011. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Interpersonal Social Evaluation List, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL)-Lite scales were used to measure self-efficacy for weight control, depressive symptoms, social support, and HRQOL, respectively. Increased body mass index, lower self-efficacy for weight control, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with greater impairment in total IWQOL in the regression models. However, social support was not significantly associated with IWQOL. Along with weight loss strategies, other strategies for improving self-efficacy and alleviating depressive symptoms may be essential for improving HRQOL among overweight and obese women. PMID:25706685

  20. Balancing Image Quality and Compression Factor for Special Stains Whole Slide Images

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Bautista, Pinky; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to find a practical balance between quality and performance for daily high volume whole slide imaging. We evaluated whole slide images created by various scanners at different compression factors to determine the best suitable quality factor (QF) needed for pathological images of special stains. Method: We scanned two sets of eight special stains slides each at 0.50 ?m/pixel resolution in Hamamatsu scanner at six and five QF levels respectively to generate 72 images which were observed at a calibrated monitor by imaging specialists, a histo-technician, and a pathologist to find the most suitable QF level for special stains in digital slides. Results: Most special stains images were acceptable at QF 30 except for the stain Reticulin where the lowest acceptable QF was 50. The compression of images from QF 90 to QF 50 reduced the size of the images by 62.73%. Conclusion: 0.50 ?m/pixel images at QF 50 or above were found suitable 12 special stain. PMID:21987586

  1. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R.; Yeh, L. H.

    2014-10-15

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Q{sub d}) than the Ohmic quality factor (Q{sub ohm}). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Q{sub d} and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Q{sub d} accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Q{sub d} with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  2. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Yeh, L. H.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-10-01

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Qd) than the Ohmic quality factor (Qohm). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Qd and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Qd accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Qd with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  3. Influence of sociodemographic factors on quality of life in women living in Lublin Province in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Teresa B.; Janiszewska, Mariola; Stefanowicz, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life (QOL) in 45-65-year-old women. Material and methods The research by means of a survey method, postal questionnaire technique, comprised 2143 women – a representative sample of the female population living in Lublin Province. Three standardized questionnaires – WHOQOL-BREF, Women's Health Questionnaire and SF-36 – as well as an original questionnaire were used as research tools. In statistical analysis Student's t-test for two groups, an analysis of variance, Dunnett's T3 test for multiple comparisons, a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and a stepwise logistic regression analysis were used. Results In the population of peri- and postmenopausal women a significantly better quality of life in comparison with the rest of the studied women was established in women aged 45-49 years, respondents living permanently in urban areas as well as better educated women, those with full-time employment, especially those doing intellectual work, women remaining in a long-lasting relationship, and women assessing their financial situation and living conditions as well. Logistic regression analysis showed that the strong predictors of poor quality of life were as follows: self-assessment of living conditions as poor, self-assessment of financial situation as poor, permanent place of residence in the country, lower education level (incomplete primary education, primary education). Conclusions The group of women with worse quality of life should become the main addressee of preventive programmes and health policy programmes designed for peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327822

  4. Environmental factors used to subdivide the western Lake Michigan drainages into relatively homogeneous units for water-quality site selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was fully implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The goals of the NAWQA program are to (1) provide a nationally consistent description of water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation’s water resources; (2) define long-term trends (or lack of trends) in water quality; and (3) identify, describe, and explain, as possible, the major factors that affect the observed water-quality conditions and trends (Hirsch and others, 1988).

  5. Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime

    SciTech Connect

    Marko Zeier

    2000-12-12

    We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

  6. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q^2=0.45 and 1.13 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeyuki Tajima

    2003-12-31

    Precise measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, over a wide range of the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q2, are important for understanding nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. In the non-relativistic limit, the electric and magnetic form factors are related to the charge and magnetization distribution inside a nucleon, respectively. The measured values of the form factors also serve as an important test for nucleon models. Among the four nucleon form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, is the most difficult one to measure and therefore has been very poorly known especially in the region Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2 due to the lack of a free neutron target and the small value of Gn E. The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gn E/Gn M, at three acceptance-averaged Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 using the quasi-elastic 2H({approx}e, e0{approx}n)1H reaction. In our experiment, an electron was scattered quasielastically from a neutron in a liquid-deuterium target, and the electron was detected in an electron spectrometer in coincidence with the neutron which was detected in a neutron polarimeter. The polarimeter was used to analyze the polarization of the recoil neutrons by measuring the np elastic scattering asymmetry. The experiment was performed in Hall-C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the period from September 2000 to April 2001. The value of g was determined from the measured ratio of the sideways and longitudinal components of the neutron polarization vector. The values for Gn E were computed from our measured values of g = Gn E/Gn M using the Gn M values obtained from a fit to the world data. The E93-038 collaboration reported the first measurements of Gn E using polarization techniques at Q2 greater than 1 (GeV/c)2. Furthermore, our measurements of Gn E at the two higher Q2 values of 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 are more precise than prior measurements at lower Q2. In this dissertation, the data analyses and our results for g and Gn E at Q2=0.45 (GeV/c)2 and Q2=1.13 (GeV/c)2 are given. Our high-accuracy data are included with the ?world? data for Gn E to form an improved data set that was fit with an empirical function to give a simple parameterization of Gn E as a function of Q2. In addition, the data for the ratio Gn E/Gn M are compared to theoretical models of the nucleon. We found that no theoretical model predicts both proton and neutron form factor data.

  7. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL. PMID:23339479

  8. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, VL

    2014-01-01

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?2 = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test – Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism PMID:24653767

  9. Factor structure of the Singapore English version of the KINDL® children quality of life questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Hwee-Lin; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Erhart, Michael; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2007-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) outcomes are useful in the assessment of physical, mental and social well-being and for informed healthcare decision making. However, few studies have evaluated QoL issues among Asian children due largely to the lack of culturally valid and reliable QoL questionnaires. Hence, we aimed to report the psychometric properties, in particular factor structure, of KINDL (Singapore) questionnaires among school-going children. Methods Students aged 8–16 years from participating schools were selected by convenience sampling. Subjects self-completed KINDL-Kid (Singapore) and KINDL-Kiddo (Singapore) questionnaires, which were cross-culturally adapted from KINDL (Germany English) for use in Singapore. We evaluated floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and performed factor analysis. Results A total of 328 respondents (mean (SD) age: 9.6 (1.31) years; 67% female; 75% Chinese, 16% Malays, 9% Indians and others) completed KINDL-Kid while 1,026 respondents (mean (SD) age: 14.0 (1.00) years; 82% female; 82% Chinese, 12% Malays; 6% Indians and others) completed KINDL-Kiddo. Mean (SD) TOTAL QoL score was 65.5 (12.76) and 56.6 (11.92) for KINDL-Kid and KINDL-Kiddo, respectively. Floor and ceiling effects were important in five of six KINDL-Kid and two of six KINDL-Kiddo subscales. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.40 to 0.71 (KINDL-Kid) and 0.44 to 0.84 (KINDL-Kiddo). Factor analysis generated eight and seven factors in KINDL-Kid and KINDL-Kiddo, respectively. Conclusion KINDL-Kiddo exhibited good psychometric properties and may be used to assess QoL in this multi-ethnic English-speaking Asian population. However, psychometric properties of KINDL-Kid may need to be improved either by developing new items or modifying existing items. PMID:17239229

  10. Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, John E.; Friend, James R.

    2014-11-15

    A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration.

  11. Factors influencing psychological status and quality of life in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Kajanová, Alena; Bulava, Alan; Eisenberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Various mental and social problems can negatively impact the quality of life and overall health in patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD). In this report, we review and summarize the main studies and research related to this topic. Depression, anxiety, panic attacks, stress and post-traumatic stress are the most common symptoms of ICD-related disorders that can negatively impact mental status. Factors than can influence the impact of these psychological disorders include socio-demographic variables (younger age, gender, and employment), variables related to the ICD (number of ICD shocks, generator size, time from ICD implant, etc.) and psycho-social variables (negative coping strategies, lack of social support and personality type). Fortunately, these disorders, and their symptoms, can be prevented, treated or managed, if recognized. PMID:25433355

  12. Broad-bandwidth pulse propagation through ultrahigh-quality-factor microcavity with chirped pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-12-01

    We propose and numerically investigate a method that enables the transmission of pulses with broader bandwidth than the spectrum width of the resonance of an ultrahigh-quality-factor (Q) microcavity. The method is based on prechirping of the input pulse and the use of the optical Kerr effect in a microcavity, with which we designed the instantaneous frequency of the input pulse to meet the resonant frequency of the dynamically modulated microcavity. We showed that a prechirped pulse can transmit about 11.8 times higher energy than a Fourier-limited pulse having the same spectrum width. We also found that adiabatic wavelength conversion is inherent in this system and the spectrum intensity of particular wavelength components is even higher than the peak of the transmitted spectrum of a linear cavity.

  13. Cavity-coupled guided resonances with high quality factors in photonic crystal heterostructures

    E-print Network

    Reddy, M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    We study the optical characteristics of a photonic crystal (PhC) heterostructure cavity consisting of two-dimensional monolayer PhC, sandwiched between two identical passive multilayers. In the range of stopband of the multilayer, guided resonance of the sandwiched PhC are excited by the evanescent waves of the multilayer stack and the quality factor of these cavity-coupled guided resonances is about 10e6. The calculated field distribution facilitates the distinction between the cavity defect modes and the coupled guided resonances of the proposed design. The line shapes of the resonances are explained using a theoretical model. Significant decrease in the lasing threshold is observed for these resonant modes in comparison to the defect modes. These results will find use in designing compact PhC-based ultra-low threshold lasers and narrow band filters.

  14. Free-standing high quality factor thin-film lithium niobate micro-photonic disk resonators

    E-print Network

    Wang, Renyuan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN or just niobate) thin-film micro-photonic resonators have promising prospects in many applications including high efficiency electro-optic modulators, optomechanics and nonlinear optics. This paper presents free-standing thin-film lithium niobate photonic resonators on a silicon platform using MEMS fabrication technology. We fabricated a 35um radius niobate disk resonator that exhibits high intrinsic optical quality factor (Q) of 484,000. Exploiting the optomechanical interaction from the released free-standing structure and high optical Q, we were able to demonstrate acousto-optic modulation from these devices by exciting a 56MHz radial breathing mechanical mode (mechanical Q of 2700) using a probe.

  15. High Quality Factor MBE-grown Aluminum on Silicon Planar Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Quintana, C.; Campbell, B.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Palmstrom, C.; Martinis, J. M.; Cleland, A. N.

    2015-03-01

    Linear arrays of planer Xmon qubit circuits fabricated using thin aluminum films on sapphire substrates have resulted in long coherence times and high fidelity gates. Scaling up to larger circuits, including two-dimensional qubit arrays, may however benefit from building circuits on silicon instead of sapphire substrates. I will present recent tests in this direction, reporting on measurements of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fabricated using aluminum films deposited on silicon in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. These resonators exhibit exceptional performance, with quality factors at low temperatures and single photon excitation energies exceeding 5x106. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office Grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  16. A bulk acoustic mode single-crystal silicon microresonator with a high-quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E-Y Lee, J.; Zhu, Y.; Seshia, A. A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper details a bulk acoustic mode resonator fabricated in single-crystal silicon with a quality factor of 15 000 in air, and over a million below 10 mTorr at a resonant frequency of 2.18 MHz. The resonator is a square plate that is excited in the square-extensional mode and has been fabricated in a commercial foundry silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS process through MEMSCAP. This paper also presents a simple method of extracting resonator parameters from raw measurements heavily buried in electrical feedthrough. Its accuracy has been demonstrated through a comparison between extracted motional resistance values measured at different voltage biases and those predicted from an analytical model. Finally, a method of substantially cancelling electrical feedthrough through system-level electronic implementation is also introduced.

  17. Three factors that influence the overall quality of the stereoscopic 3D content: image quality, comfort, and realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Raluca; Ladret, Patricia; Guérin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In today's context, where 3D content is more abundant than ever and its acceptance by the public is probably de_nitive, there are many discussions on controlling and improving the 3D quality. But what does this notion represent precisely? How can it be formalized and standardized? How can it be correctly evaluated? A great number of studies have investigated these matters and many interesting approaches have been proposed. Despite this, no universal 3D quality model has been accepted so far that would allow a uniform across studies assessment of the overall quality of 3D content, as it is perceived by the human observers. In this paper, we are making a step forward in the development of a 3D quality model, by presenting the results of an exploratory study in which we started from the premise that the overall 3D perceived quality is a multidimensional concept that can be explained by the physical characteristics of the 3D content. We investigated the spontaneous impressions of the participants while watching varied 3D content, we analyzed the key notions that appeared in their discourse and identi_ed correlations between their judgments and the characteristics of our database. The test proved to be rich in results. Among its conclusions, we consider of highest importance the fact that we could thus determine three di_erent perceptual attributes ( image quality, comfort and realism ( that could constitute a _rst simplistic model for assessing the perceived 3D quality.

  18. Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Pickup ^64Zn(d,t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Kyle; Garrett, P. E.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Towner, I. S.; Ball, G. C.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2010-11-01

    A great deal of attention has recently been paid towards high-precision superallowed ?-decay Ft values. With the availability of extremely high-precision (<0.1%) experimental data, precision on the individual Ft values are now dominated by the ˜1% theoretical corrections. This limitation is most evident in heavier superallowed nuclei (e.g. ^62Ga) where the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) correction calculations become more difficult due to the truncated model space. Experimental spectroscopic factors for these nuclei are important for the identification of the relevant orbitals that should be included in the model space of the calculations. Motivated by this need, the single-nucleon transfer reaction ^64Zn(d,t)^63Zn was conducted at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) of TUM/LMU in Munich, Germany, using a 22 MeV polarized deuteron beam from the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the TUM/LMU Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with angular distributions from 10^o to 60^o. Results from this experiment will be presented and implications for calculations of ISB corrections in the superallowed ° decay of ^62Ga will be discussed.

  19. Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Pickup Reaction ^64Zn(d,t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Kyle; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    2009-10-01

    A great deal of attention has recently been paid towards high-precision superallowed ?-decay Ft values. With the availability of extremely high-precision (<0.1%) experimental data, precision on the individual Ft values are now dominated by the ˜1% theoretical corrections^[1]. This limitation is most evident in heavier superallowed nuclei (e.g. ^62Ga) where the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) correction calculations become more difficult due to the truncated model space. Experimental spectroscopic factors for these nuclei are important for the identification of the relevant orbitals that should be included in the model space of the calculations. Motivated by this need, the single-nucleon transfer reaction ^64Zn(d,t)^63Zn was conducted at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) of TUM/LMU in Munich, Germany, using a 22 MeV polarized deuteron beam from the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the TUM/LMU Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with angular distributions from 10^o to 60^o. Results from this experiment will be presented and implications for calculations of ISB corrections in the superallowed &+circ; decay of ^62Ga will be discussed.^[1] I.S. Towner and J.C. Hardy, Phys. Rev. C 77, 025501 (2008).

  20. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Obese Students in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ping; Wang, Hong-Mei; Edwards, Todd C.; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Lv, Yi-Ran; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of overweight and obese middle or high school students and identify relevant factors influencing their QOL scores. Methods 716 students were recruited from 6 middle or high schools in Hangzhou, China. The Chinese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument–Weight Module (YQOL-W) was self administered. The YQOL-W scores were compared among different BMI groups, gender, educational status, annual household income, parental education and recruitment community using t test or one-way analysis of variance. The independent association of these variables with QOL among overweight and obese students was examined using multivariable linear regression modeling. Results Overweight and obese students reported lower total scores, self, social and environment scores than their normal weight peers (all P<0.001). The QOL of overweight and obese middle and high school students was associated with BMI value, gender, educational status, parental education, and recruitment community. Girls had lower total scores, self, social and environment domain scores than boys (all P<0.001); high school students had lower total and three domain scores than middle school students (all P<0.05). Students whose fathers had higher education reported higher total scores, self and social scores than students with less educated fathers (all P<0.05). Students whose mothers had higher education reported higher environment scores than students with less educated mothers (P = 0.01). Students from migrant communities reported significantly lower total scores, self and social scores than those from rural communities (all P<0.05), but comparable scores with those from urban communities (P>0.05). Students from migrant communities reported comparable environment scores with those from rural and urban communities (P>0.05). Conclusions Overweight and obesity have negative effects on students’ quality of life. Therefore weight specific QOL could be included in weight reduction interventions as a relevant outcome. PMID:25799275

  1. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life–54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

  2. Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

  3. Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

  4. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  5. Factors influencing health-related quality of life of overweight and obese children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body fat, and waist-hip ratio. The instruments included lifestyle patterns, psychosocial characteristics (stress, self-esteem, and depression), and HRQoL. The study found that significant predictors of HRQoL included self-esteem, depression, and physical stress; these variables accounted for 58.7% of the variance (p < .05), while children with low monthly household income had significantly lower HRQoL, compared with that of their counterparts (p < .05). HRQoL has multiple dimensions, thus, in addition to lifestyle change, health programs for overweight and obese children should focus on psychological health, and consider social and environmental factors as well. PMID:23401020

  6. A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results from a series of simulation and flight investigations undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks were analyzed to assess handling-quality factors common to both tasks. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping and rotor-system cross-coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate-command, attitude-command, and control-input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. NOE agility and instrument flying handling-quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

  7. A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

  8. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16,900 in the near infrared

    E-print Network

    Triviño, Noelia Vico; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16,900 at the resonant wavelength {\\lambda} $\\sim 1.3$ {\\mu}m, with a maximal measured Q value of 22,500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  9. Effect of Threading Dislocations on the Quality Factor of InGaN/GaN Microdisk Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the theoretical advantages associated with nitride microcavities, the quality factors of devices with embedded indium gallium nitride (InGaN) or gallium nitride (GaN) optical emitters still remain low. In this work we identify threading dislocations (TDs) as a major limitation to the fabrication of high quality factor devices in the nitrides. We report on the use of cathodoluminescence (CL) to identify individual TD positions within microdisk lasers containing either InGaN quantum wells or quantum dots. Using CL to accurately count the number, and map the position, of dislocations within several individual cavities, we have found a clear correlation between the density of defects in the high-field region of a microdisk and its corresponding quality factor (Q). We discuss possible mechanisms associated with defects, photon scattering, and absorption, which could be responsible for degraded device performance. PMID:25839048

  10. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Melnychuk, O.

    2014-12-08

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here, we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: (1) record quality factors Q?>?2?×?10{sup 11} up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; (2) Q???3?×?10{sup 10} at 2?K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  11. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    E-print Network

    Romanenko, A; Crawford, A C; Sergatskov, D A; Melnychuk, O

    2014-01-01

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: 1) record quality factors $Q > 2\\times10^{11}$ up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; 2) $Q\\sim3\\times10^{10}$ at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  12. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorriaux, J; Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J; Bertrand, D; Orban de Xivry, J.; Lee, J; Palmans, H; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 ± 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  13. Perturbation approach for the control of the quality factor in photonic crystal membranes: Application to selective absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Cédric; Viktorovitch, Pierre; Letartre, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Above the light line, guided modes cannot be perpetually sustained into a photonic crystal membrane owing to its periodic modulation. The resulting leaky waves are nowadays largely exploited in the context of integrated optics. We develop here a model affording insight into the mechanism that allows the obtention of resonances endowed with extremely high quality factors. As a matter of fact, the model indicates that the quality factor can take arbitrarily high values and that this phenomenon results from the coupling between guided and radiated modes. The obtained tight control over the emission spectrum of a photonic crystal membrane is employed to design a spectrally and spatially selective absorber.

  14. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Sleep Quality in Hospitalized Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Milena; Chiaromanni, Federica; Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; De Rui, Michele; Amodio, Piero; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Mazzotta, Gabriella; Costa, Rodolfo; Montagnese, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep–wake disturbances are common in hospitalized patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight-saving time. Methods: Between March and April 2013, 118 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76?±?11?years; hospitalization: 8?±?7?days) enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patient’s eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results: Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 2–59%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half-way down for most of the 24?h. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e., 222?±?72 vs. 174?±?85 lux, p?quality and bed position/light exposure, which is worthy of further study. PMID:25566173

  15. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

  16. Evaluation of image quality and factor for international telepathology through the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Yukako; Azumi, Norio; Elsayed, Alaa M.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    In the telepathology, rendering devices significantly influence the perceived image quality. If the resolution and color depth are reduced beyond a certain point, however, it is not possible to obtain images which can be used in telepathology even in an ideal situation. With this in mind, we evaluated image quality, compression, size and rates of data exchange with several histological cases on several kinds of systems for our International Consortium for Internet Telepathology (ICIT) project. The ICIT network uses widely available nonpropriety hardware and software with the Internet as a means of communication.In this study, we discuss the effective image acquisition methods for telepathology. To evaluate microscopic images, various resolution size were used. The images were also evaluated at different JPEG compression ratio, including zero compression, and different format. To evaluate an entire glass slide image, a scanner in transparency mode and an NTSC camera were used. Every case showed similar results. For he microscopic image, although the high resolution images, such as 2k X 1.5k or higher, contain more diagnostic information than lower resolution images; sufficient data was retained in the latter that it does not appear to negatively effect diagnosis. The circumstance and condition for image acquisition, such as specimen thickness or dast of glass slide, are most influenced on the highest image resolution. Usually, we use 5-10 images/case for a telepathology conference. To see all images of a case at a glance before detailed observation, or to switch to the other images immediately, a lower resolution,such as 1k X 0.7k is useful. For the entire glass slide, the reviewer could select the desired area by scanner; however, selecting it by the NTSC camera, was not easy to do. On the monitor, the scanned image has almost the same information as the microscopic image captured by the NTSC camera with 2x objective lens. To ge ta high enough quality image, the important factors are correct usage of the microscope and the condition of glass slide, not only high performance equipment.Since we have been using the Internet as the communication medium, we selected 1024 X 774 and 640 X 480 with 1/7-1/15 compressed image for microscopic image and 2700 dpi scanned image for entire glass slide. For the static image telepathology, the most important image is the low power image such as the entire specimen. High resolution images such as 3k X 2k are also useful for different purpose such as publication.

  17. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land use patterns in the watershed. The results indicate that peak concentrations of agrochemicals in groundwater could be reduced by improving fertilization practices (by splitting and modifying timing of applications) and by operating the regional canal system to maintain the water table low, especially during the rainy periods.

  18. High quality 99mTc obtained from 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) using accelerator neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Ohta, Akio; Shiina, Takayuki; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Special GroupGeneration Technology using Accelerator Neutrons Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    99m Tc, the daughter nuclide of 99Mo, is widely used for medical diagnosis. In Japan, about 0.9 million diagnostic procedures are carried out using 99mTc. 99Mo has been mostly produced using 235U in research reactors. Because of recent shortages of 99Mo, a variety of alternative production methods of 99Mo or 99mTc were proposed. We proposed to produce 99Mo by 100Mo(n,2 n) using neutrons from an accelerator. The route is characterized to produce a large quantity of high-quality 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive wastes, since the cross section of the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction at 11 < En < 18 MeV is large, and the cross sections of the (n?) , (nn ' p) , and (np) reactions on 100Mo are quite small. Intense neutrons are available because of recent progresses of accelerator and target technologies. In the talk, we show our recent experimental results to obtain 99mTc with high-quality using 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) .

  19. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO2 laser welding

    E-print Network

    Fang, Zhiwei; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  20. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO_2 laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  1. The Effect of Quality of Care on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Teimouri, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Amini, Massoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study, we evaluated the quality of care and control of cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed diabetic patients, identified during diabetes screening program, 1 year after diagnosis. Methods: In this prospective study, 83 newly diagnosed diabetic patients identified at screening in Isfahan, were studied. Height, weight, blood pressure, plasma glucose, lipids, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of these patients were measured 2 times, first at the time of diagnosis and then 1 year later, and the results were compared between two groups, with and without regular course of treatment. Results: Nearly 46.99% and 53.1% of the studied patients have regular and irregular course of treatment. After 1 year, significant improvement in the mean of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein and HbA1c was seen in patients with regular course of treatment except for blood pressure (P < 0.05). Frequency of controlled cardiovascular risk factors including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and LDL was significantly improved in patients with regular course of treatment (P < 0.05). Mentioned changes were not seen in patients with irregular course of treatment. Conclusions: The findings of the current study demonstrated that though diabetes screening program result in earlier diagnosis of patients with type 2 diabetes, but it seems that regular follow-up and proper management of newly diagnosed patients is crucial for appropriate glycemic and metabolic control and preventing its related micro and macrovascular complication. PMID:25538839

  2. Investigation of systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality correction factors.

    PubMed

    Wulff, J; Heverhagen, J T; Zink, K; Kawrakow, I

    2010-08-21

    Modern Monte Carlo codes allow for the calculation of ion chamber specific beam quality correction factors k(Q), which are needed for dosimetry in radiotherapy. While statistical (type A) uncertainties of the calculated data can be minimized sufficiently, the influence of systematic (type B) uncertainties is mostly unknown. This study presents an investigation of systematic uncertainties of Monte Carlo-based k(Q) values for a NE2571 thimble ion chamber, calculated with the EGSnrc system. Starting with some general investigation on transport parameter settings, the influence of geometry and source variations is studied. Furthermore, a systematic examination of uncertainties due to cross section is introduced by determining the sensitivity of k(Q) results to changes in cross section data. For this purpose, single components of the photon cross sections and the mean excitation energy I in the electron stopping powers are varied. The corresponding sensitivities are subsequently applied with information of standard uncertainties for the cross section data found in the literature. It turns out that the calculation of k(Q) factors with EGSnrc is mostly insensitive to transport settings within the statistical uncertainties of approximately 0.1%. Severe changes in the dimensions of the chamber lead to comparatively small, insignificant changes. Further, the inclusion of realistic beam models, delivering a complete phase space instead of simple photon spectra, does not significantly influence the result. However, the uncertainties in electron cross sections have an impact on the final uncertainty of k(Q) to a comparatively large degree. For the NE2571 chamber investigated in this work, this uncertainty amounts to 0.4% at 24 MV, decreasing to 0.2% at 6 MV. PMID:20668340

  3. Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA): a study protocol for a nationwide, multilevel analysis of relationships between hospital quality management systems and patient factors

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Natalie; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Hogden, Emily; Pye, Victoria; Li, Zhicheng; Groene, Oliver; Suñol, Rosa; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the growing body of research on quality and safety in healthcare, there is little evidence of the association between the way hospitals are organised for quality and patient factors, limiting our understanding of how to effect large-scale change. The ‘Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia’ (DUQuA) study aims to measure and examine relationships between (1) organisation and department-level quality management systems (QMS), clinician leadership and culture, and (2) clinical treatment processes, clinical outcomes and patient-reported perceptions of care within Australian hospitals. Methods and analysis The DUQuA project is a national, multilevel, cross-sectional study with data collection at organisation (hospital), department, professional and patient levels. Sample size calculations indicate a minimum of 43 hospitals are required to adequately power the study. To allow for rejection and attrition, 70 hospitals across all Australian jurisdictions that meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate. Participants will consist of hospital quality management professionals; clinicians; and patients with stroke, acute myocardial infarction and hip fracture. Organisation and department-level QMS, clinician leadership and culture, patient perceptions of safety, clinical treatment processes, and patient outcomes will be assessed using validated, evidence-based or consensus-based measurement tools. Data analysis will consist of simple correlations, linear and logistic regression and multilevel modelling. Multilevel modelling methods will enable identification of the amount of variation in outcomes attributed to the hospital and department levels, and the factors contributing to this variation. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained. Results will be disseminated to individual hospitals in de-identified national and international benchmarking reports with data-driven recommendations. This ground-breaking national study has the potential to influence decision-making on the implementation of quality and safety systems and processes in Australian and international hospitals. PMID:26644128

  4. The Association Between Psychological Factors and Orofacial Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Reddy, Sreedevi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that psychological factors of psychological distress and perception of unhappiness in childhood are associated with self reported orofacial pain and to examine whether such patients have a poorer perception of their oral health related quality of life and if so then to what extent. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur amongst 400 cases and 400 controls. Patients were included based on Locker and Slade’s criteria. Patients were asked to complete 27 items Questionnaire which included the General Health Questionnaire to assess for psychological distress and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 for evaluating impact on quality of life. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between psychological factors, unhappy childhood and quality of life. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results An increased propensity to report orofacial pain was seen for those individuals with higher levels of Psychological Distress and with perception of Unhappiness in Childhood. These individuals also reported with poorer perception of their oral health related Quality of Life. Conclusion The present study has shown relationship between Orofacial Pain, Quality of Life and Psychological Factors. PMID:26155560

  5. Controlling damping and quality factors of silicon microcantilevers by selective metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosale, Guruprasad; Das, Kaushik; Fréchette, Luc; Vengallatore, Srikar

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic microresonators coated with relatively thin metallic films are widely used for sensing, scanning probe microscopy, signal processing and vibration energy harvesting. The metallization improves optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity, but invariably degrades the quality factor (Q) of resonance by increasing the amount of energy dissipated during vibration. Developing strategies for controlling damping due to metallization is vital for the design of high-performance microresonators. This paper presents a strategy based on the insight that dissipation is a function of the deformation experienced by the thin film during oscillation. Therefore, damping can be controlled by patterning the metal in regions of low strain. A simple analytical model is developed to quantify the change in damping as a function of selective metallization along the length of a microcantilever. The predictions of this model are in good agreement with measurements of damping in single-crystal silicon microcantilevers that are partially coated on one surface with 100 nm thick aluminum films. Crucially, damping due to clamping, support and viscous losses is minimized in these structures to enable a careful comparison of theory with experiments. Coating 20% of the length of the beam starting from the tip has no significant impact on damping in either the first or the second mode of vibration. In contrast, placing the same size of metallization at the root leads to considerable dissipation; in the first mode, the damping due to this patch is ~60% of that caused by a full coat.

  6. Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

  7. Sociodemographic Factors Related to Quality of Life Among Premenopausal Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Akinyele, Isaac Olaoluwa

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) of premenopausal women (PW) was assessed using primary data collected between September and December 2011. A 26-item questionnaire (WHO-QoL BREF) was administered to 285 apparently healthy women selected from two local government areas in Ibadan. The scores were categorized into poor (? 79.53) and good (>79.53) QoL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study factors associated with QoL. The mean score for the overall QoL (OQoL) was 65.18 ± 11.35 (range = 81.25). The Cronbach's alpha for all domains as well as the OQoL were within an acceptable range. The proportion of women with good OQoL was significantly higher in the urban areas (18.2 percent) than in the rural areas (9.2 percent) (p < .05). The proportion of respondents with good OQoL was significantly higher for women aged <20 years (37.5 percent) than older women (p < .01). Teenage participants were almost ten times as likely to have a good social relationship than participants above 35 years of age (odds ratio: 9.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.83-49.40). The authors' results suggest that the WHO-QoL BREF is a reliable instrument for measuring QoL among PW in Nigeria. Younger PW and women in the urban areas were more likely to have good QoL. PMID:26020293

  8. Internal friction quality-factor Q under confining pressure. [of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L.; Nadler, H.; Curnow, J.; Smith, T.; Cohen, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found in previous studies that small amounts of adsorbed volatiles can have a profound effect on the internal friction quality-factor Q of rocks and other porous media. Pandit and Tozer (1970) have suggested that the laboratory-measured Q of volatile-free rocks should be similar to the in situ seismic Q values of near-surface lunar rocks which according to Latham et al. (1970) are in the range of 3000-5000. Observations of dramatic increases in Q with outgassing up to values approaching 2000 in the seismic frequency range confirm this supposition. Measurements under confining pressures with the sample encapsulated under hard vacuum are reported to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface. It has been possible to achieve in the experiments Q values just under 2000 at about 1 kbar for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. It was found that a well-outgassed sample maintains a high Q whereas one exposed to moisture maintains a low Q as the confining pressure is raised to 2.5 kbar. This result suggests that volatiles can indeed affect Q when cracks are partially closed and the high lunar seismic Q values reported are concomitant with very dry rock down to depths of at least 50 km.

  9. Ultra High Quality Factor Microtoroid for Chemical and Biomedical Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woosung

    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have drawn attentions in various types of sensing, such as chemical- and bio-sensing. Even though various types of microcavity geometries have been investigated, research about on-chip WGM toroidal resonator has been discontinued for the sensing applications in aquatic environment. The strong benefits of the microtoroid are ultra-high-Q and small mode volume leading to high sensitivity to small change of environment, surrounding media refractive index change or light scatterer induced effective refractive index change. By using this ultra high-Q WGM resonator, radius >75nm polystyrene nanoparticle are detected in aquatic environment. In addition to polystyrene nanoparticle sensing, individual synthetic hemozoin crystals are detected and its size is measured. The hemozoin crystal sensing ultimately leads to malaria infection diagnose. A sol-gel method fabricated microlaser, co-work with Lina He, extended the sensing capability, detecting >30nm radius polystyrene nanoparticle. Since the water experiment is challenging and tackling the difficulty is main task, theoretical investigations are performed about WGM resonance quality factor, resonator mode volume, and noise to minimum detectable particle size. The research described in this dissertation will shed light on advanced chemical- and bio-sensor developments.

  10. Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiming; Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Gong, Zizhou; Ding, Qi; Gustafsson, Martin V.; Trinh, M. Tuan; Jin, Song; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2015-06-01

    The remarkable performance of lead halide perovskites in solar cells can be attributed to the long carrier lifetimes and low non-radiative recombination rates, the same physical properties that are ideal for semiconductor lasers. Here, we show room-temperature and wavelength-tunable lasing from single-crystal lead halide perovskite nanowires with very low lasing thresholds (220 nJ cm-2) and high quality factors (Q ~ 3,600). The lasing threshold corresponds to a charge carrier density as low as 1.5 × 1016 cm-3. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved fluorescence reveals little charge carrier trapping in these single-crystal nanowires and gives estimated lasing quantum yields approaching 100%. Such lasing performance, coupled with the facile solution growth of single-crystal nanowires and the broad stoichiometry-dependent tunability of emission colour, makes lead halide perovskites ideal materials for the development of nanophotonics, in parallel with the rapid development in photovoltaics from the same materials.

  11. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4?years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required. PMID:26696713

  12. Transient cavitation in high-quality-factor resonators at high static pressures.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, D Felipe; Tessien, Ross A; Hiller, Robert A; Gutierrez, Joel; Scott, Corey; Tardif, Henry; Callahan, Brant; Matula, Thomas J; Crum, Lawrence A; Holt, R Glynn; Church, Charles C; Raymond, Jason L

    2010-06-01

    It is well known that cavitation collapse can generate intense concentrations of mechanical energy, sufficient to erode even the hardest metals and to generate light emissions visible to the naked eye [sonoluminescence (SL)]. Considerable attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL) in which a single stable cavitation bubble radiates light flashes each and every acoustic cycle. Most of these studies involve acoustic resonators in which the ambient pressure is near 0.1 MPa (1 bar), and with acoustic driving pressures on the order of 0.1 MPa. This study describes a high-quality factor, spherical resonator capable of achieving acoustic cavitation at ambient pressures in excess of 30 MPa (300 bars). This system generates bursts of violent inertial cavitation events lasting only a few milliseconds (hundreds of acoustic cycles), in contrast with the repetitive cavitation events (lasting several minutes) observed in SBSL; accordingly, these events are described as "inertial transient cavitation." Cavitation observed in this high pressure resonator is characterized by flashes of light with intensities up to 1000 times brighter than SBSL flashes, as well as spherical shock waves with amplitudes exceeding 30 MPa at the resonator wall. Both SL and shock amplitudes increase with static pressure. PMID:20550245

  13. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

  14. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

  16. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

  17. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,…

  18. Factors Associated with Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School-Based Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual…

  19. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  20. Lecturers' and Students' Perception on Educational Policy Implementation Factors as Predictors for Quality Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredein, Afolakemi O.; Durojaye, Toluwase G.

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on lecturers' and students' perception on educational policy implementation factors and quality education in Nigerian universities. Educational policies have always been formulated purposely to guide the present and future thinking, actions and decisions of managers. The potency of policy is not in formulation but in its proper…

  1. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components. Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05). Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health. PMID:24558275

  2. Effective Use of Discovery Learning to Improve Understanding of Factors That Affect Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate business majors are required to take a course in operations management. In this course, a great deal of emphasis is put on developing a good understanding of quality because this is likely to be the only required course that covers this important topic. Quality of output exhibits a great deal of variation. To produce high quality on…

  3. ISERN-98-29 Version 3 1 Replicated Case Studies for Investigating Quality Factors in

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    the relationship between existing design measurement in OO systems and the quality of the software developed]). A particular emphasis has been given to the measurement of design artifacts, in order to help assess quality]. Such an assessment of design quality is objective, and the measurement can be automated. Once the necessary

  4. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoof, Sebastian; Nand Gosvami, Nitya; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here, we show that a high-quality resonance (Q >20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity—as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient—is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Through the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up that includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and that can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  5. The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction

    E-print Network

    E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

    2008-04-08

    We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

  6. Identifying nearshore groundwater and river hydrochemical variables influencing water quality of Kaoping River Estuary using dynamic factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chen, Su-Chin; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe Kaoping River Estuary receives a large amount of nonpoint source pollution and sedimentary discharge from the Kaoping and Tungkang Rivers each year. The Kaoping River Estuary is an integral part of the Kaoping River, shelf, and submarine canyon, which makes prediction of water quality variation difficult. This study attempts to determine the main factors regulating temporal and spatial variations in the water quality in the Kaoping River Estuary over a 9-year period (2003-2011), using dynamic factor analysis (DFA) and min/max autocorrelation factor analysis (MAFA). The result from the MAFA shows that Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) has the highest canonical correlation coefficient with the min/max autocorrelation factor (MAF) axis of water quality. Therefore, Chl-a can be used as an indicator of water quality in the Kaoping River Estuary. The water quality and environmental variables measured downstream of the Kaoping and Tungkang Rivers, as well as submarine groundwater, influence temporal variations of Chl-a in the estuary. The optimal DFA model successfully described Chl-a variations (coefficient of efficiency = 0.969) in the Kaoping River Estuary. DFA results indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended sediment (TSS), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), as well as the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of river discharge, and the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration of groundwater discharge significantly influenced Chl-a dynamics. Submarine groundwater discharge, which is a significant source of nutrients for the coastal ocean, appears to impact the level of Chl-a concentration substantially. Understanding the relationship between environmental variables and the variability of Chl-a concentration provides a useful approach for setting water quality criteria and pollution prevention plans for the Kaoping River Estuary.

  7. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Börsbo, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2) to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up), we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy), impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological factors, impairments of body functions, and perceived quality of life, where the subgroup with bad sleep had a worse situation. PMID:26300656

  8. Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H{sup -} beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Hardek, T. W.; Kang, Y. W.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of {approx}50 mA H{sup -} ions from the ion source with a {approx}5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of {approx}3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to {approx}170 deg. C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H{sup -} beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 deg. C.

  9. Modelling of the serine-proteinase fold by X-ray and neutron scattering and sedimentation analyses: occurrence of the fold in factor D of the complement system.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, S J; Smith, K F; Kilpatrick, J M; Volanakis, J E; Sim, R B

    1993-01-01

    Solution scattering is a powerful means of determining the overall arrangement of domains in the multidomain proteins of complement. the serine-proteinase domain is central to all proteolytic events during complement activation. As models of this domain, bovine beta-trypsin, trypsinogen, alpha-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen A were studied by neutron and X-ray synchrotron solution scattering. At pH 7, all the X-ray and neutron M(r) values corresponded to monomeric proteins. The X-ray radii of gyration, RG, of beta-trypsin, trypsinogen, alpha-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen A (measured in positive solute-solvent contrasts) were 1.59 nm, 1.78 nm, 1.71 nm and 1.76 nm (+/- 0.05-0.11 nm) in that order. Neutron contrast variation showed that the RG at infinite contrast, RC, for these four proteins were 1.57 nm, 1.70 nm, 1.67 nm and 1.78 nm (+/- 0.03 nm) in that same order. The radial inhomogeneity of neutron-scattering density, alpha, was positive at (5-13) x 10(-5), and corresponds to the preponderance of hydrophilic residues near the protein surface. On trypsinogen activation, a small reduction in the RG value of 0.13 +/- 0.07 nm was just detectable, while the RG of chymotrypsinogen A was unchanged after activation. The RC and alpha values of the four proteins can be calculated by using crystallographic co-ordinates. The reduced RG of beta-trypsin relative to trypsinogen was explained in terms of the removal of the extended N-terminal hexapeptide of trypsinogen. The full X-ray and neutron-scattering curves in positive and negative contrasts agreed well with scattering curves calculated from crystallographic coordinates to a nominal structural resolution of 4.5 nm, provided that the internal structure was considered in neutron modelling, and that the hydration was considered in X-ray modelling. Sedimentation-coefficient data also provide information on the disposition of domains in multidomain proteins. It was found that the hydrated X-ray sphere model could be directly utilized to calculate sedimentation coefficients. X-ray scattering on factor D showed from its RG of 1.78 nm that this is monomeric and very similar in structure to beta-trypsin. The X-ray-scattering curve of factor D was readily modelled using the beta-trypsin crystal structure after allowance for sequence changes. The success of these modellings provides a basis for the constrained modelling of solution scattering data for the multidomain proteins of complement. PMID:8216242

  10. From Social Structural Factors to Perceptions of Relationship Quality and Loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J.; Masi, Christopher M.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. Methods We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Results Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Discussion Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness. PMID:19092047

  11. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that observed in the presence of the carbonate-rich Collingwood limestone. In addition to assessing U leaching, we also measured the activity of 226Ra and 228Ra via high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. Laboratory results will be compared to observations from a complimentary field sampling campaign of Antrim produced brine.

  12. On the relation between the Deuteron Form Factor at High Momentum Transfer and the High Energy Neutron-Proton Scattering Amplitude

    E-print Network

    Gerald A. Miller; Mark Strikman

    2004-01-15

    A non-relativistic potential-model version of the factorization assumption, used in perturbative QCD calculations of hadronic form factors, is used, along with the Born approximation valid at high energies, to derive a remarkably simple relationship between the impulse approximation contribution to the deuteron form factor at high momentum transfer and the high energy neutron-proton scattering amplitude. The relation states that the form factor at a given value of $Q^2$ is proportional to the scattering amplitude at a specific energy and scattering angle. This suggests that an accurate computation of the form factors at large $Q^2$ requires a simultaneous description of the phase-shifts at a related energy, a statement that seems reasonable regardless of any derivation. Our form factor-scattering amplitude relation is shown to be accurate for some examples. However, if the potential consists of a strong short distance repulsive term and a strong longer ranged attractive term, as typically occurs in many realistic potentials, the relation is found to be accurate only for ridiculously large values of $Q$. More general arguments, using only the Schroedinger equation, suggest a strong, but complicated, relationship between the form factor and scattering amplitude. Furthermore, the use of recently obtained soft potentials, along with an appropriate current operator, may allow calculations of form factors that are consistent with the necessary phase shifts.

  13. Neutron scatter camera

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  14. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  15. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The Han River basin is one of the most important industrial and grain production bases in the central China. A lot of factories and towns have been established along the river where large farmlands are located nearby. In the last few decades the water quality of the Han River, specifically in middle and lower reaches, has gradually declined. The agricultural nonpoint pollution and municipal and industrial point pollution significantly degrade the water quality of the Han River. Factor analysis can be applied to reduce the dimensionality of a data set consisting of a large number of inter-related variables. Cluster analysis can classify the samples according to their similar characters. In this study, factor analysis is used to identify major pollution indicators, and cluster analysis is employed to classify the samples based on the sample locations and hydrochemical variables. Water samples were collected from 12 sample sites collected from Xiangyang City (middle Han River) to Wuhan City (lower Han River). Correlations among 25 hydrochemical variables are statistically examined. The important pollutants are determined by factor analysis. A three-factor model is determined and explains over 85% of the total river water quality variation. Factor 1, including SS, Chl-a, TN and TP, can be considered as the nonpoint source pollution. Factor 2, including Cl-, Br-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2+ and PO43-, can be treated as the industrial pollutant pollution. Factor 3, including F- and NO3-, reflects the influence of the groundwater or self-purification capability of the river water. The various land uses along the Han River correlate well with the pollution types. In addition, the result showed that the water quality of Han River deteriorated gradually from middle to lower Han River. Some tributaries have been seriously polluted and significantly influence the mainstream water quality of the Han River. Finally, the result showed that the nonpoint pollution and the point pollution both significantly influence water quality in the middle and lower Han River. This study provides an effective method for watershed management and pollution control in Han River.

  16. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

  17. Quality of Life and Related Factors Among People With Spinal Cord Injuries in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghimian, Maryam; Kashani, Fahimeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is one of the biggest health problems. Disabilities resulting from injuries such as spinal disability requires special attention because of their potential reduced to cause adverse effects in different systems of the body. Today, improving the Quality of Life (QOL) in patients with SCIs is an important goal of treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the QOL and related factors among people with SCIs. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 106 patients with SCI were selected through sampling based on census. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a Short-Form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire for measuring the QOL among patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS 14 software and descriptive and inferential statistics. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean QOL in these patients was 37.1 ± 1.7 years (21 - 65 years) and mean disease duration was 7.3±6 years. The most common injury was paraplegia. Most of the patients have moderate QOL (54.7 %). The results showed a significant relationship between QOL and marital status and employment status (P < 0.05). Also, results showed a significant relationship between QOL and education levels (P = 0.002), age (P = 0.001), and duration of illness (P = 0.001).The highest and lowest scores were 64 ± 7.1 and 36 ± 5.3 for understanding General Health (GH) and role physical, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that patients with SCI have a moderate health-related QOL Determining the QOL is needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses of patients with spinal cord injuries. Planning principles is recommended in order to reform the disability. PMID:26557639

  18. Determining the Factors Contributing to Quality of Life of Patients at the Last Stage of Life: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Latifi, Marzieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quality- of- life of patients at their last stage of their life are different from that of other people. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the factors contributing to the quality- of- life of patients at their last stage of their life and provide good cares for these patients. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by the thematic- framework method of analysis. Twenty three participants including patients, their families, nurses, physicians, psychologists and clergymen were selected sampling. Data were collected by semi – structured interview. We used the thematic framework method to analyze qualitative data. Results: Seven factors which needed to be considered in the patients’ at last stage quality of life included stress reduction, participation, homecare, education, independency, support, recourses and facilities. According to the findings, the number of these factors may be more than what was mentioned above. Conclusions: Paying attention to the quality of life at the last stage can be helpful for patients and their families and the special care can be taken for them. PMID:24693392

  19. Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific radiation type (Z = 1 to 28). Because the anomalous response has been observed at large event sizes in the experiment due to the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta-rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume cavity, Monte Carlo simulation was also made for the response of a walled-TEPC with wall thickness 2 mm and density 1 g/cm(exp 3). The radius of cavity was set to 6.35 mm and a gas density 7.874 x 10(exp -5) g/cm(exp 3). The response of the walled- and the wall-less counters were compared. The average quality factor Q(sub ave)(y) for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrated the good agreement between the model calculations and flight TEPC data as shown. Using an integrated space radiation model (this includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions of walled-TEPC from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. The Q(sub ave)(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Q(sub ave)(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Q(sub ave)(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis for a proper interpretation of data supports the use of TEPCs for monitoring space radiation environment.

  20. LIFE QUALITY RELATED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT IN PATIENTS AFFLICTED BY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM METASTATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Jabbar; Jafari, Hedayat; Janbabaei, Ghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spiritual health is of the basic elements in chronic patients. This concept can be considered as an important approach in promoting physical & spiritual health & life quality Goal: The present study has been planned aiming to study life quality related to metastatic phase gastrointestinal (digestive) cancer referring to Mazandaran Medical Science University Educational Center in Iran. Material and Methods: This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method with 250 patients through available sampling method. The data has been collected via spiritual health & life quality questionnaire. The data analysis has been performed by calculating X², T Test, variance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean & standard deviation of the patients were 12.56 ±94/47. The highest relationship between age & spirituality was related to ages over 60. There was a meaningful statistical relationship between spirituality & life quality scale (p<0.001), between spirituality & respiratory disorder (p<0.047), anorexia (p<0.004), exhaustion (p<0.006), financial problems (p<0.006). Conclusion: regarding the results, we can perceive the necessity behind improving spiritual health aspect as an influencing factor on the patients’ life quality. Through enhancing spiritual beliefs, it is possible to help the patients’ spiritual quality get promoted. PMID:26622196

  1. Precise measurement of the transverse asymmetry in quasielastic {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e},e{prime}) and the neutron magnetic form factor

    SciTech Connect

    J.-O. Hansen for the Jefferson Lab E95-001 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    The authors have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T{prime}} in {sup 3}He[pol]({rvec e},e{prime}) quasielastic scattering with high statistical precision for Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data are expected to allow extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor G{sup n}{sub M}with an uncertainty similar to that of recent experiments on deuterium. Data analysis is currently in progress.

  2. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  3. Organizational factors associated with quality of care in US teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Lambiase, Louis R; Zhao, Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study is unique because it uses multiple regression and data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate teaching hospital quality. The results support the premise that teaching hospital leadership through the effective allocation of resources can improve the quality of care. This study has managerial implications by demonstrating the positive correlation between HMO market penetration and improved clinical quality outcomes. This would suggest that improved efficiency caused by limited HMO reimbursement and tight utilization controls encourage hospitals to cut waste as well as improve their clinical care processes. Additionally, our research found that teaching hospitals with higher levels of long-term debt also had improved quality. This shows that increased investments in facilities and advanced technology at teaching hospitals can lead to enhanced quality. PMID:22329326

  4. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  5. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed through the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (EBQ), self-efficacy for healthy eating scale, and availability of healthy foods scale, respectively. RESULTS The majority of the respondents (80.7%) were at risk of poor diet quality. Males (mean = 34.2 ± 8.2%) had poorer diet quality than females (mean = 39.9 ± 9.0%) (t = -5.941, P < 0.05). Malay respondents (mean = 36.9 ± 8.7%) had poorer diet quality than Indian respondents (mean = 41.3 ± 10.0%) (F = 2.762, P < 0.05). Age (r = 0.123, P < 0.05), self-efficacy for healthy eating (r = 0.129, P < 0.05), and availability of healthy foods (r = 0.159, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. However, meal frequency was not correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a male, being a Malay, low self-efficacy for healthy eating, and low availability of healthy foods contributed significantly towards poor diet quality among respondents. CONCLUSIONS In short, sex, ethnicity, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were associated with diet quality among adolescents. Health practitioners should take into consideration of differences in sex and ethnicity during implementation of nutrition-related intervention programs. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and availability of healthy foods should be included as important components in improving diet quality of adolescents. PMID:26425281

  6. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Joel; Taner, M. Turhan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2006-08-08

    A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of compressional velocity and shear velocity, and determining reservoir parameters of subsurface Earth formations, at least including density, from data obtained from a wellbore penetrating the formations. A quality factor for the subsurface formations is calculated from the velocity, the density and the water saturation. A synthetic seismogram is calculated from the calculated quality factor and from the velocity and density. The synthetic seismogram is compared to a seismic survey made in the vicinity of the wellbore. At least one parameter is adjusted. The synthetic seismogram is recalculated using the adjusted parameter, and the adjusting, recalculating and comparing are repeated until a difference between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic survey falls below a selected threshold.

  7. Modeling of High-Quality Factor XNOR Gate Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers at 1 Tb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Amer

    2015-06-01

    The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor ( Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of ˜1 Tb/s.

  8. Design of subwavelength-size, indium tin oxide (ITO)-clad optical disk cavities with quality-factors exceeding 10?.

    PubMed

    Senlik, Ozlem; Cheong, Hwi Yoon; Yoshie, Tomoyuki

    2011-11-01

    Indium tin oxide is used as a top cladding electrode of optical disk resonators with subwavelength size in all dimensions. Calculated quality (Q)-factors exceed 10? in visible wavelengths (650-670nm). The disk aspect ratio is an important parameter to optimize the resonator properties. The Q-factor and threshold material gain based on finite-difference time-domain method are optimized for eight different disk resonator optical modes. Proposed cavity designs are promising for building electrically-pumped, low-threshold nano-lasers at room temperature. PMID:22109224

  9. Investigation of the relationships between quality factor Q and complex permittivity to clay and water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, T.; Rabbel, W.; Petersen, H.; al Hagrey, S.

    2011-12-01

    In the framework of the EU-project iSOIL (Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping) geophysical measurements on different soil types have been conducted. After accomplishing field measurements large soil samples (50 kg each) were taken to be investigated in laboratory. Sampling points were representative for the different soil types of the study sites. The samples were dried at room temperature and larger clusters were crumbled to assure the soil as homogeneous as possible. The measuring cell consists of a plastic cylinder of 75 cm height and 23.5 cm diameter. The cylinder is assembled with two plate electrodes at bottom and top and two ring electrodes around its middle part. Every soil sample is partially saturated with rain water in different steps and filled into the cylinder. Accordingly, the four mentioned electrodes are used to measure the electrical conductivity of the sample. GPR reflection measurements are conducted by placing a 1.6 GHz antenna on top of the sample inside the cylinder and recording the reflections originating from the bottom plate. The resulting parameters are electrical conductivity and GPR velocity (calculated from known travel path and recorded arrival time) that is directly linked to the real part of permittivity. The water content is controlled by oven drying of smaller sub-samples and weighting of added water and the whole soil sample at every step. Additional to electrical conductivity and permittivity we derived the quality factor Q directly from the wavelet shape of the reflection using the spectral ratio method. Q-values range between 4 and 16 and are lower for higher clay and water content. The relationship between these parameters can be described by an empirically derived logarithmic multivariate regression. Together with this independently determined parameter it is possible to calculate the imaginary part of permittivity, which is a measure of relaxation losses. This parameter can be fitted with a linear relationship to the real part of permittivity and includes a logarithmic dependency on clay content. Acknowledgment: iSOIL is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

  10. Factors affecting quality of life and fatigue in patients with leukemia under chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Musarezaie, Amir; Khaledi, Firuz; Esfahani, Homayoon Naji; Ghaleghasemi, Tahere Momeni

    2014-01-01

    Background: The goal of treating chronic diseases, including hematologic malignancies, is to increase patients’ life span and to improve their capabilities as much as possible; so that patients could maintain an appropriate level of quality of life (QoL) and continue their lives. Most studies performed to evaluate the treatment of various diseases were mostly focused on the increase of life expectancy regardless of the QoL and treatment issues. Furthermore, fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and treatments related to it, which can affect a patient's QoL, and be followed by many problems. This study was designed and implemented with the aim to determine the factors affecting the QoL and fatigue in patients with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation descriptive-analytical study. One hundred and fifteen patients with leukemia referred to Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital were enrolled in the study through convenient sampling method. To collect data, a three-part questionnaire was used: The first part was related to demographic characteristics and disease-related data and the second part was the fatigue check list and the third part was the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) related to QoL. The data were analyzed after collection and coding through Software SPSS version 18 and descriptive and analytical statistics (analysis of variance test, independent t test, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficient) with 95% confidence interval. Results: The results showed that there was a significant correlation between QoL in Physical Component Summary with gender (P = 0.03), educational level (P = 0.09), and marital status (P = 0.004), Also there was a significant correlation between QoL in Mental Component Summary with educational level (P = 0.01) and economic status (P = 0.02). Findings showed that there was a significant correlation between fatigue and marital status (P = 0.005). But statistically there was no significant correlation between demographic variables such as age, educational level, and employment status with patients’ fatigue. Spearman correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant correlation between fatigues with pain (P = 0.005). Also findings revealed the statistically significant correlation between fatigues with economic status (P = 0.003). Conclusion: According to the present results, it seems that some demographic factors affect QoL and significant relationship exists between them. Fatigue in patients with leukemia dramatically affects their QoL. Therefore, it is important for medical staff to pay attention to demographics and fatigue in leukemic patients in order to improve their QoL and help them to organize their activities to promote health and QoL. PMID:25077157

  11. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  12. Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.) 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

    2013-08-02

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has the potential to become a major source of biodiesel but for market viability, peanut oil yields must increase and specific quality requirements must be met. Oil yield in peanut is influenced ...

  13. Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes 

    E-print Network

    Lager, Julia M.

    2009-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious ...

  14. Factors affecting binder properties between production and construction and their impact on quality assurance programs 

    E-print Network

    Arambula Mercado, Edith

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the US Departments of Transportation (DOT) require as part of their quality assurance (QA) programs that the asphalt binder used during roadway construction meet the corresponding Superpave performance grade (PG) specifications...

  15. CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, JANUARYFEBRUARY 2011 323 Turfgrass quality is evaluated by integrating factors of can-

    E-print Network

    the appearance of turfgrass on a numeric scale. Although this method is relatively quick, it is also subjective. The 95% confidence intervals surrounding predic- tions of visual quality from NDVI ranged from ±1.34 to 2

  16. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  17. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-07-30

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G{sup n}E/G{sup n}M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic {sup 2}H({rvec e},e/{rvec n}){sup 1}H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} lies slightly above the Galster parameterization.

  18. Application of positive matrix factorization to source apportionment of surface water quality of the Daliao River basin, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Hopke, Philip K; Liu, Xiande; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2015-03-01

    Surface water monitoring networks play an important role in the stream water quality management. Since a time series of data is obtained from the monitoring network, multivariate statistical techniques can be used to identify important factors or pollution sources of water system. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is an improved factor analysis tool that has had limited application to water systems. The objective was to apply PMF to monitoring data to apportion water pollution sources in the Daliao River (DLR) basin. The DLR basin includes the Hun and Taizi River catchments in northeast China. This basin is densely populated and heavily industrialized. Fourteen monitoring stations located on the two rivers were used for monitoring 13 physical and chemical parameters from 1990 to 2002. Results show that five sources/processes in the Hun River and four in the Taizi River were identified by marker species and spatial-temporal variations of resolved factors, including point and nonpoint sources for both rivers. In addition, the industrial pollution source emission inventory data were used to compare with the resolved industrial sources. Results reveal that chemical transformations have influenced some chemical species. However, this influence is small compared with observed seasonal variations. Therefore, identification of pollution point and nonpoint sources by their seasonal variations is possible, which will also aid in water quality management. The spatial variation of the industrial pollutants typically corresponded with the urban industrial pollution source inventories. PMID:25655122

  19. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. PMID:26231106

  20. The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H. J.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-Earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment.

  1. The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H.-J.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13114

  2. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

  3. Impacts of preharvest factors during kernel development on rice quality and functionality.

    PubMed

    Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Grigg, Brandon C; Lanning, Sarah B

    2013-01-01

    Rice quality and functionality are characterized in many ways, depending largely on the industry segment using the rice. These characteristics include appearance, milling, and cooking parameters. Recently, variable quality of rice grown in the United States has been reported, but the cause was not well documented. Agronomic impacts include planting time, irrigation and fertility, cultivar selection, and harvest conditions. However, recent research suggests that ambient air temperature, specifically elevated nighttime air temperature (NTAT) during grain filling, dramatically affects the variability of rice milling quality, in terms of milled- and head-rice yields; appearance, in terms of chalkiness; and functional characteristics, including viscosity profiles, gelatinization temperatures, and proximate concentrations. Future research is needed to develop cultivars that are resistant to stress resulting from elevated NTAT during the critical period of grain filling, and, for the near term, to develop altered production management practices that mitigate elevated-temperature stress. PMID:23464570

  4. Improving the Quality and Scientific Understanding of Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This short 1000 word report presents a series of research needs for improving the measurement and understanding of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMFs are useful measures of trophic magnification and represent the diet-weighted average biomagnification factor (BMF) of che...

  5. Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons)

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    . ("BigBang Nucleosynthesis") Important for many reactions going on in our sun, and in nuclear reactors later) #12; How to make lots of neutrons: Liberate them from nuclei! 1) In a nuclear reactor (how the neutrons have no charge, they interact mainly via the strong nuclear force with materials, giving a new

  6. Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,…

  7. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

  8. Depression, Control, and Climate: An Examination of Factors Impacting Teaching Quality in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Sawyer, Brook E.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationship of preschool teachers' self-reported depressive symptomatology, perception of classroom control, and perception of school climate to classroom quality as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System Pre-K. The sample consisted of 59 urban preschool classrooms serving low-income and…

  9. Multi-scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattl...

  10. Factors Associated with Reduced Quality of Life in Polio Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess health-related quality of life in polio survivors (PS) compared with that in the general population in Korea. Polio survivors (n = 120) from outpatient clinics at two hospitals, healthy controls (HC, n = 121) and members of the general population with activity limitations (AL, n = 121) recruited through a proportional-allocation, systematic sampling strategy from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were surveyed with self-rated health-related quality of life (Euro QoL five-dimensions). The proportion of participants who reported problems in mobility, usual activity, and symptoms of anxiety/depression were higher in the PS group compared with the HC and AL groups. There was no significant difference in the self-care dimension across the groups. Polio-specific questionnaire, pain, depression, fatigue, Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were assessed in the PS group. Those with post-poliomyelitis syndrome had greater problems in mobility, usual activity, and depression/anxiety. Polio survivors, especially those with more pain and fatigue symptoms, and those who did not have access to medical services had poorer health-related quality of life. These findings afford useful information for potential intervention improving quality of life in polio survivors. PMID:26120843

  11. The Quality of Reflection in Student Journals: A Review of Limiting and Enabling Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

    2010-01-01

    Although reflective journals are widely used across many disciplines in higher education, the research that examines their use presents an unclear picture of the quality of reflection found in them. Some research reveals that student journals contain primarily deeply reflective entries. Yet other research presents a less optimistic perspective,…

  12. Cumberland Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 6: analysis of water quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, W.L.; Fehring, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report evaluates and compares water quality data from selected stream reaches within the Tennessee Valley with respect to their adaptability for support of certain mussel fauna. Fifteen sample locations were chosen from the Duck, Clinch, Powell, Buffalo, Elk, and Nolichucky Rivers and from Estill Fork (Paint Rock River) and Copper Creek (Clinch River) areas.

  13. Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Clark, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider…

  14. Evaluation of the Factors That Determine Quality in Higher Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsinidou, Maria; Gerogiannis, Vassilis; Fitsilis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the quality determinants for education services provided by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece and to measure their relative importance from the students' points of view. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-criteria decision-making methodology was used for assessing the relative importance…

  15. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  16. Study of factors affecting syngas quality and their interactions in fluidized bed gasification of lignite coal

    E-print Network

    Spiteri, Raymond J.

    of lignite coal Shayan Karimipour a , Regan Gerspacher b , Rajender Gupta a , Raymond J. Spiteri c. " The syngas quality was defined based on conversion, H2/CO, CH4/H2, yield, and gasifier efficiency. " Low coal 2012 Keywords: Lignite coal Gasification Fluidized bed Design of experiments a b s t r a c t A series

  17. Factors affecting quality of temperature models for the pre-appearance interval of forensically useful insects.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; M?dra, Anna

    2015-02-01

    In the case of many forensically important insects an interval preceding appearance of an insect stage on a corpse (called the pre-appearance interval or PAI) is strongly temperature-dependent. Accordingly, it was proposed to estimate PAI from temperature by using temperature models for PAI of particular insect species and temperature data specific for a given case. The quality of temperature models for PAI depends on the protocols for PAI field studies. In this article we analyze effects of sampling frequency and techniques, temperature data, as well as the size of a sample on the quality of PAI models. Models were created by using data from a largely replicated PAI field study, and their performance in estimation was tested with external body of PAI data. It was found that low frequency of insect sampling distinctly deteriorated temperature models for PAI. The effect of sampling techniques was clearly smaller. Temperature data from local weather station gave models of poor quality, however their retrospective correction clearly improved the models. Most importantly, current results demonstrate that sample size in PAI field studies may be substantially reduced, with no model deterioration. Samples consisting of 11-14 carcasses gave models of high quality, as long as the whole range of relevant temperatures was studied. Moreover, it was found that carcasses exposed in forests and carcasses exposed in early spring are particularly important, as they ensure that PAI data is collected at low temperatures. A preliminary best practice model for PAI field studies is given. PMID:25541074

  18. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality.

    PubMed

    Whitall, David; Hively, W Dean; Leight, Andrew K; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Fisher, Thomas; Rice, Clifford P; Codling, Eton; McCarty, Gregory W; Sadeghi, Ali M; Gustafson, Anne; Bialek, Krystyna

    2010-04-01

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy. PMID:20171715

  19. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: Factors influencing water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitall, D.; Hively, W.D.; Leight, A.K.; Hapeman, C.J.; McConnell, L.L.; Fisher, T.; Rice, C.P.; Codling, E.; McCarty, G.W.; Sadeghi, A.M.; Gustafson, A.; Bialek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy.

  20. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-05-01

    Neutron generators based on the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He and {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >10{sup 9} n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 10{sup 14} n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The neutron flux required for positron production could not be provided with a single D-T neutron generator. Therefore, a subcritical fission multiplier was designed to increase the neutron yield. The neutron flux was increased by a factor of 25. A D-D driven fission multiplier was also studied for BNCT and a gain of 17 was obtained. The fission multiplier system gain was shown to be limited by the neutron absorption in the fuel and the reduction of source brightness. A brief discussion was also given regarding the neutron generator applications for fast neutron brachytherapy and neutron interrogation systems. It was concluded that new designs of compact D-D/D-T neutron generators are feasible and that superior quality neutron beams could be produced and used for various applications.

  1. Ultrahigh quality factor in a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Kumano, Hidekazu; Suemune, Ikuo

    2015-12-15

    We numerically and theoretically investigate electrodynamics of a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity. The electrodynamics of a cavity mode is discussed from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, which clarifies the condition for high Q factor. Using numerical calculations, we optimize the cavity structure and show that the Q factor can be increased up to 1,700,000. Our study suggests that the metal-embedded cavity is a promising candidate for cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) devices. PMID:26670507

  2. Sleep quality and acute pain severity among young adults with and without chronic pain: the role of biobehavioral factors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer E; Streitel, Katherine L

    2010-10-01

    Adequate sleep is essential for health across the lifespan and is likely to be influenced by different factors among those with chronic pain than among others. Questionnaires were administered to 362 college students, some of whom reported chronic pain from varied sources. Among chronic pain sufferers (n = 108), pain severity was uniquely associated with sleep quality after controlling for gender, BMI, perceived health, health behaviors, depressed mood, perceived stress, and scholastic/interpersonal self-esteem. For these participants, perceived health, alcohol use, pain medication use, and depressed mood were also associated with sleep quality, whereas for participants with non-chronic recent pain (n = 129) only perceived health and depressed mood predicted sleep. Individuals with both chronic pain and high stress had the worst sleep. Stress, alcohol use, pain, and mood may contribute to poor sleep among young adults with pain, which could lead to a cycle of long-term health problems. PMID:20464629

  3. Probing shell structure and shape changes in neutron-rich sulfur isotopes through transient-field g factor measurements on fast radioactive beams of 38S and 40S

    E-print Network

    A. D. Davies; A. E. Stuchbery; P. F. Mantica; P. M. Davidson; A. N. Wilson; A. Becerril; B. A. Brown; C. M. Campbell; J. M. Cook; D. C. Dinca; A. Gade; S. N. Liddick; T. J. Mertzimekis; W. F. Mueller; J. R. Terry; B. E. Tomlin; K. Yoneda; H. Zwahlen

    2006-02-23

    The shell structure underlying shape changes in neutron-rich nuclei near N=28 has been investigated by a novel application of the transient field technique to measure the first-excited state g factors in 38S and 40S produced as fast radioactive beams. There is a fine balance between proton and neutron contributions to the magnetic moments in both nuclei. The g factor of deformed 40S does not resemble that of a conventional collective nucleus because spin contributions are more important than usual.

  4. [Uncertainty of cross calibration-applied beam quality conversion factor for the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Naoki; Kita, Akinobu; Takemura, Akihiro; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Toshiki

    2014-09-01

    The uncertainty of the beam quality conversion factor (k(Q,Q0)) of standard dosimetry of absorbed dose to water in external beam radiotherapy 12 (JSMP12) is determined by combining the uncertainty of each beam quality conversion factor calculated for each type of ionization chamber. However, there is no guarantee that ionization chambers of the same type have the same structure and thickness, so there may be individual variations. We evaluated the uncertainty of k(Q,Q0) for JSMP12 using an ionization chamber dosimeter and linear accelerator without a specific device or technique in consideration of the individual variation of ionization chambers and in clinical radiation field. The cross calibration formula was modified and the beam quality conversion factor for the experimental values [(k(Q,Q0))field] determined using the modified formula. It's uncertainty was calculated to be 1.9%. The differences between (k(Q,Q0))field of experimental values and k(Q,Q0) for Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 (JSMP12) were 0.73% and 0.88% for 6- and 10-MV photon beams, respectively, remaining within ± 1.9%. This showed k(Q,Q0) for JSMP12 to be consistent with (k(Q,Q0))field of experimental values within the estimated uncertainty range. Although inter-individual differences may be generated, even when the same type of ionized chamber is used, k(Q,Q0) for JSMP12 appears to be consistent within the estimated uncertainty range of (k(Q,Q0)field. PMID:25242596

  5. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  6. Factors Affecting the Quality of Texas Butter as Revealed by a Statewide Survey. 

    E-print Network

    Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendell Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

    1945-01-01

    of Texas. The data presented include information concerning common manufacturing methods, feeding practices, quality of cream, score value and the physical and chemical analyses of 273 samples of butter produced over a period months from eight different... included old cream, oxidized and flat flavors and a firm gummy body condition, sne average score of the butter ranked a commercial grade of a medium first. The score of the butter was fairly uniform for all sections of the State, and most of the defects...

  7. A 116-?m-radius disk cavity in a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal with ultrahigh quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xufeng; Sun, Xiankai; Tang, Hong X.

    2012-08-01

    We present a 1.16-\\mum-radius disk cavity with ultrahigh quality (Q) factor by embedding the disk into a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal (CPC). The band gap of the CPC reduces the bending loss of the whispering-gallery mode of the disk, leading to a simulated Q of 10^7, at least one order of magnitude higher than a bare disk of the same size. The design is experimentally verified with a record high loaded Q of 7.4 \\times 10^5 measured from an optimized device fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate.

  8. Effect of boron and gadolinium concentration on the calculated neutron multiplication factor of U(3)O/sub 2/ fuel pins in optimum geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-10-01

    The KENO-Va improved Monte Carlo criticality program is used to calculate the neutron multiplication factor for TMI-U2 fuel compositions in a variety of configurations and to display parametric regions giving rise to maximum reactivity contributions. The lattice pitch of UO/sub 2/ fuel pins producing a maximum k/sub eff/ is determined as a function of boron concentrations in the coolant for infinite and finite systems. The characteristics of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-coolant mixtures of interest to modeling the rubble region of the core are presented. Several disrupted core configurations are calculated and comparisons made. The results should be useful to proposed defueling of the TMI-U2 reactor.

  9. Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

  11. Factors Associated with Enrollments, Applications, and Student Quality in Private Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Ron

    Factors that affect enrollment, applications, and student academic achievement (high school rank and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores) at 38 private colleges and universities in North Carolina were studied, based on data obtained from the Higher Education General Information Survey and the North Carolina Higher Education Data reports. The following…

  12. 2706 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 14, NO. 8, AUGUST 2014 Quality Factor Maximization Through Dynamic

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    and gyroscopes. Index Terms--Q-factor, tuning fork resonator, MEMS. I. INTRODUCTION MAXIMIZATION [1]. Resonant accelerometers [2], vibra- tory gyroscopes [3], [4], RF filters [5], and resonant MicroElectroMechanical Sys- tems (MEMS) is governed by several mechanisms, including viscous damping

  13. An evil backstage manipulator: psychological factors correlated with health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Ren, Jianan; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoting; Yao, Min; Yan, Dongsheng; Ren, Huajian; Wu, Xiuwen; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Xia, Qiuyuan; Han, Gang; Li, Jieshou

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is recommended as one of essential parameters to evaluate treatment effect and clinical outcome in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Recent studies reported that psychological factors might play a role in HRQoL in Western and American CD patients. Sufficient evidences in Chinese CD patients are still unavailable. This study is dedicated to investigate the correlation of various psychological factors with HRQoL in Chinese CD patients. We prospectively collected 40 active and 40 quiescent CD patients in China and found that psychological factors, especially neuroticism and anxiety, significantly correlate with and affect HRQoL in both active and quiescent CD groups. This is the first report revealing correlation between psychological factors and HRQoL in Chinese CD patients. Therefore, we assume that our results can contribute to a better understanding of etiology and tailoring of management in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease and are beneficial to our colleagues to compare the heterogeneous characteristics of Crohn's disease in different ethnic groups. PMID:24453858

  14. Mechanical quality factor enhancement in a silicon micromechanical resonator by low-damage process using neutral beam etching technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Kubota, Tomohiro; Sekhar, Halubai; Samukawa, Seiji; Ono, Takahito

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication and evaluation of silicon micromechanical resonators using neutral beam etching (NBE) technology is presented. An etching technique based on a low energy neutral beam of Cl2/F2/O2 is introduced for making nano-trench patterns on 5?µm-thick silicon. The NBE technology has been investigated to form a highly-anisotropic etching shape. A 5??m-deep trench pattern having smooth side walls with a gap width of 230?nm is achieved by using NBE. Additionally, a fabrication method for silicon resonators using NBE technology is proposed. The resonant frequency of the fabricated devices with a length of 500??m, width of 440??m and thickness of 5??m is 9.66?MHz, and the average quality factor (Q) value is around 78?000. The devices fabricated by both deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and NBE are evaluated and compared. The devices fabricated by NBE show that the motional resistances are reduced by almost 11 times from 645?k? to 59?k? and their output signals (insertion loss) are increased by approximately 15?dB in comparison with those fabricated by DRIE. Especially, devices fabricated by NBE provide the higher Q factors (average Q factor value of around 78?000) than those (average Q factor value of around 61?000) fabricated by DRIE in the same resonator parameters and measurement conditions.

  15. ICF-based functional components and contextual factors as correlates of perceived quality of life for youth with chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Virginia; DeWit, David; Miller, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To explore International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based functional components and contextual factors associated with perceived quality of life (QOL) for youth with chronic conditions from the perspective of youth and parents. Method: Baseline data were obtained from a longitudinal study examining predictors of changes in perceived QOL for youth with chronic conditions. 439 youth aged 11–17 (and one of their parents) completed a questionnaire. Standardized tools were used to measure youth functioning, contextual factors and perceived QOL. Multivariate linear regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic and health information, were conducted to explore correlations among youth functioning/contextual factors and youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL. Results: Significant (p???0.05) negative correlates with both youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL included pain/other physical symptoms and emotional symptoms. Significant factors positively correlated with youth and parent perceptions of youth QOL included school productivity and spirituality. Other significant positive correlates of youth perspectives were family social support and school belongingness/safety. Family functioning was positively correlated, and youth social anxiety and environmental barriers were negatively correlated, with parent perceptions of youth QOL. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of factors upon which services aimed at improving perceived QOL of youth with chronic conditions could be based. Implications for Rehabilitation This study supports the utility of clinicians assessing the QOL of youth with chronic conditions in terms of youths' and their families' perspectives. This is the first study to identify key factors that impact perceived QOL at one point in time across a group of youth with chronic conditions, offering clinicians a main starting-point for considering youths' strengths and needs and the supportiveness of the environment. Findings suggest youth and families would benefit from the availability of services that encompass the full scope of the ICF. PMID:24575718

  16. The N-Pact Factor: Evaluating the Quality of Empirical Journals with Respect to Sample Size and Statistical Power

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, R. Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)—the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings. PMID:25296159

  17. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.G.; Wagner, J.J.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1993-08-01

    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K{sub d}`s > 10{sup 5} reach about 1 to 5 {mu}g/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed.

  18. The variation of the tidal quality factor of convective envelopes of rotating low-mass stars along their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.

    2015-12-01

    More than 1500 exoplanets have been discovered around a large diversity of host stars (from M- to A-type stars). Tidal dissipation in their convective envelope is a key actor that shapes the orbital architecture of short-period systems and that still remains unknown. Using a simplified two-layer assumption and grids of stellar models, we compute analytically an equivalent modified tidal quality factor, which is proportional to the inverse of the frequency-averaged dissipation due to the viscous friction applied by turbulent convection on tidal waves. It leads the conversion of their kinetic energy into heat and tidal evolution of orbits and spin. During their Pre-Main-Sequence, all low-mass stars have a decrease of the equivalent modified tidal quality factor for a fixed angular velocity of their convective envelope. Next, it evolves on the Main Sequence to an asymptotic value that is minimum for 0.6M_? K-type stars and that increases by several orders of magnitude with increasing stellar mass. Finally, the rotational evolution of low-mass stars strengthens tidal dissipation during the Pre-Main-Sequence.

  19. The variation of the tidal quality factor of convective envelopes of rotating low-mass stars along their evolution

    E-print Network

    Mathis, S

    2015-01-01

    More than 1500 exoplanets have been discovered around a large diversity of host stars (from M- to A-type stars). Tidal dissipation in their convective envelope is a key actor that shapes the orbital architecture of short-period systems and that still remains unknown. Using a simplified two-layer assumption and grids of stellar models, we compute analytically an equivalent modified tidal quality factor, which is proportional to the inverse of the frequency-averaged dissipation due to the viscous friction applied by turbulent convection on tidal waves. It leads the conversion of their kinetic energy into heat and tidal evolution of orbits and spin. During their Pre-Main-Sequence, all low-mass stars have a decrease of the equivalent modified tidal quality factor for a fixed angular velocity of their convective envelope. Next, it evolves on the Main Sequence to an asymptotic value that is minimum for $0.6M_{\\odot}$ K-type stars and that increases by several orders of magnitude with increasing stellar mass. Finall...

  20. Systematic Monitoring of Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Nyanza, Kenya: Exploratory Factor Analysis of Service Quality Instrument and Performance Ranking

    PubMed Central

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S.; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Considerable conceptual and operational complexities related to service quality measurements and variability in delivery contexts of scaled-up medical male circumcision, pose real challenges to monitoring implementation of quality and safety. Clarifying latent factors of the quality instruments can enhance contextual applicability and the likelihood that observed service outcomes are appropriately assessed. Objective To explore factors underlying SYMMACS service quality assessment tool (adopted from the WHO VMMC quality toolkit) and; determine service quality performance using composite quality index derived from the latent factors. Study design Using a comparative process evaluation of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Kenya site level data was collected among health facilities providing VMMC over two years. Systematic Monitoring of the Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up quality instrument was used to assess availability of guidelines, supplies and equipment, infection control, and continuity of care services. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify quality structure. Results Fifty four items and 246 responses were analyzed. Based on Eigenvalue >1.00 cut-off, factors 1, 2 & 3 were retained each respectively having eigenvalues of 5.78; 4.29; 2.99. These cumulatively accounted for 29.1% of the total variance (12.9%; 9.5%; 6.7%) with final communality estimates being 13.06. Using a cut-off factor loading value of ?0.4, fifteen items loading on factor 1, five on factor 2 and one on factor 3 were retained. Factor 1closely relates to preparedness to deliver safe male circumcisions while factor two depicts skilled task performance and compliance with protocols. Of the 28 facilities, 32% attained between 90th and 95th percentile (excellent); 45% between 50th and 75th percentiles (average) and 14.3% below 25th percentile (poor). Conclusion the service quality assessment instrument may be simplified to have nearly 20 items that relate more closely to service outcomes. Ranking of facilities and circumcision procedure using a composite index based on these items indicates that majority performed above average. PMID:24983242

  1. Factors That Affect Quality of Life among People Living with HIV Attending an Urban Clinic in Uganda: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mutabazi-Mwesigire, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and primary general care for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource limited settings, PLHIV are living longer, and HIV has been transformed into a chronic illness. People are diagnosed and started on treatment when they are relatively well. Although ART results in clinical improvement, the ultimate goal of treatment is full physical functioning and general well-being, with a focus on quality of life rather than clinical outcomes. However, there has been little research on the relationship of specific factors to quality of life in PLHIV. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with quality of life among PLHIV in Uganda receiving basic care and those on ART. Methods We enrolled 1274 patients attending an HIV outpatient clinic into a prospective cohort study. Of these, 640 received ART. All were followed up at 3 and 6 months. Health related quality of life was assessed with the MOS-HIV Health Survey and the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI). Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of social behavioral and disease factors with Physical Health Summary (PHS) score, Mental Health Summary (MHS) score, and GPGI. Results Among PLHIV receiving basic care, PHS was associated with: sex (p=0.045) - females had lower PHS; age in years at enrollment (p=0.0001) - older patients had lower PHS; and depression (p<0.001) - depressed patients had lower PHS. MHS was only associated with opportunistic infection (p=0.01) - presence of an opportunistic infection was associated with lower MHS. For the GPG the associated variables were age (p=0.03) - older patients had lower GPGI; education (p=0.01) – higher education associated with higher GPGI; and depression - patients with depression had a lower GPGI (p<0.001). Among patients on ART, PHS was associated with: study visit (p=0.01), with increase in time there was better PHS, and this also improved with increase in education level (p=0.002). Patients with WHO disease stage 3&4 had a lower PHS compared to patients at stage 1&2 (p=0.006), and depressed patients had lower PHS (p<0.001). MHS improved from baseline to six month study visit (p<0.001), and females had lower MHS compared to males (p=0.01). GPGI was associated with higher income (p=0.04), alcohol use was associated with lower GPGI (p=0.004), and depressed patients had a lower GPGI (p<0.001). Conclusion Quality of life improved over time for PLHIV on ART. Regardless of treatment status, PLHIV with depression or low education level and female gender were at risk of having a poor quality of life. Clinicians and policy makers should be aware of these findings, and address them to improve quality of life for PLHIV. PMID:26039733

  2. On the use of quality factors and fluence to dose rate conversion in human radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondhaus, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that various combinations of numbers and factors arrive at estimates of dose and dose effectiveness from values of fluence; but as yet it has not been possible to use biological data with the same degree of precision to estimate the physical data. It would seem that the most reasonable way to use the human data that exist is to apply them as far as possible to the human animal as a whole.

  3. Prediction of In-Phantom Dose Distribution Using In-Air Neutron Beam Characteristics for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2000-08-15

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study was carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures of merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the skin-absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the bone-absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment and that (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce the particle transport simulation time by a factor of 10 by modeling the moderator only.

  4. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

  5. Climatic factors directly impact the volatile organic compound fingerprint in green Arabica coffee bean as well as coffee beverage quality.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T

    2012-12-15

    Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. PMID:22980845

  6. Alternatives to dose, quality factor and dose equivalent for low level irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sondhaus, C.A.; Bond, V.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Randomly occurring energy deposition events produced by low levels of ionizing radiation interacting with tissue deliver variable amounts of energy to the sensitive target volumes within a small fraction of the cell population. A model is described in which an experimentally derived function relating event size to cell response probability operates mathematically on the microdosimetric event size distribution characterizing a given irradiation and thus determines the total fractional number of responding cells; this fraction measures the effectiveness of the given radiation. Normalizing to equal numbers of events produced by different radiations and applying this cell response or hit size effectiveness function (HSEF) should define radiation quality, or relative effectiveness, on a more nearly absolute basis than do the absorbed dose and dose evaluation, which are confounded when applied to low level irradiations. Examples using both calculation and experimental data are presented. 15 refs., 18 figs.

  7. Neutron capture therapies

    DOEpatents

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  8. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  9. Factors Influencing the Quality of Life (Qol) Among Thai Older People in a Rural Area of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    HONGTHONG, Donnapa; SOMRONGTHONG, Ratana; WARD, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The population prevalence of older people has been growing worldwide. Quality of Life (QoL) among older people is a significant public health concern. Hence, this study aimed to assess level of QoL and factors influencing QoL among rural Thai older people. Methods: The study was undertaken in Phayao Province where is one of the top ten provinces with the highest index of Thai aging. A district in this province was purposively selected to be the study area and the quota-sampling technique was used for sample collection, totally 400 older people participated according to Taro Yamane. The WHO QoL-Old was employed to interview elderly QoL. Multivariate linear regression was performed to determine the factors influencing QoL among the older people. Results: Over two-thirds of older people (68.5%) had QoL at fair level. The vast majority (96%) had high scores for Activity Daily Living (ADL). Approximately one-fifth (20.5%) reported current smoking and 31.7% reported ever drinking during previous year. Following univariate analysis, nine factors – gender, age, education, working, income, present illness, drinking, ADL, and participating in elderly club were identified as being significantly associated with QoL (P <0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed four factors predictive of QoL among elderly: ADL, income, alcohol drinking, and present illness (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Physical function, health status and financial were the predictor of QoL among elderly. Noticeably, drinking was one predictive factor of QoL but only among moderate drinkers. Hence, healthy life style should be considered as key areas in attempts to promote QoL among elderly people. PMID:26056666

  10. Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. Methods Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. Study selection: To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. Results We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or its effectiveness). Forty instruments were included for full review, many with a strong theoretical basis. Evidence supporting measurement properties was limited. Conclusions Existing instruments cover many of the factors hypothesized to contribute to QI success. With further testing, use of these instruments measuring team factors in evaluations could aid our understanding of the influence of teamwork on CQI outcomes. Greater consistency in the factors measured and choice of measurement instruments is required to enable synthesis of findings for informing policy and practice. PMID:23410500

  11. Micromachined piezoelectric membranes with high nominal quality factors in newtonian liquid media: A Lamb's model validation at the microscale

    E-print Network

    Cédric Ayela; Liviu Nicu

    2009-06-19

    Although extensively presented as one of the most promising silicon-based micromachined sensor adapted to real-time measurements in liquid media, the cantilevered structure still suffers from its quality factor (Q) dramatic dependence on the liquid viscosity thus lowering the measurement resolution. In this paper, micromachined piezoelectric membranes are introduced as a potential alternative to the cantilevers for biological applications. HighQ-factors (up to 150) of micromachined piezoelectric membranes resonating in various liquid mixtures (water/glycerol and water/ethanol) are thus reported and a theoretical model proposed by Lamb [H. Lamb, On the vibrations of an elastic plate in contact with water, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 98 (1920) 205?216] is validated for microscale structures proving that the variation of the liquid viscosity (if lower than 10 cP) has no effect on the dynamic behavior of the membranes. To conclude, two types of experiments were performed in water/glycerol mixtures: in-flow (with liquid continuously flowing on the devices) and in-spot (with individual membranes oscillating in a 5 $\\mu$L volume of liquid). The results interestingly showed that for the in-spot configuration the Q-factor values are more than two-fold the ones corresponding to in-flow measurements thus providing alternative insights into the way to conceive ideal configurations for real-time biological measurements in liquid media.

  12. Fabrication of an integrated high-quality-factor (high-Q) optofluidic sensor by femtosecond laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxin; Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Liao, Yang; He, Fei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-06-16

    We report on fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality factor (i.e., Q-factor of ~3.24 × 10(6) measured under the critical coupling condition) integrated in a microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. Coupling of light into and out of the microresonator has been realized with a fiber taper that is reliably assembled with the microtoroid. The assembly of the fiber to the microtoroid is achieved by welding the fiber taper onto the sidewall of the microtoroid using CO2 laser irradiation. The integrated microresonator maintains a high Q-factor of 3.21 × 10(5) as measured in air, which should still be sufficient for many sensing applications. We test the functionality of the integrated optofluidic sensor by performing bulk refractive index sensing of purified water doped with tiny amount of salt. It is shown that a detection limit of ~1.2 × 10(-4) refractive index unit can be achieved. Our result showcases the capability of integration of high-Q microresonators with complex microfluidic systems using femtosecond laser 3D micromachining. PMID:24977574

  13. Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T. M.

    2009-06-01

    Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

  14. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate.

    PubMed

    Chankow, Nares; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research are to study properties of a neutron imaging plate (NIP) and to test it for use in nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials. The experiments were carried out by using a BAS-ND 2040 Fuji NIP and a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1. The neutron intensity and Cd ratio at the specimen position were approximately 9x10(5) ns/cm(2) s and 100 respectively. It was found that the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time and approximately 40 times faster than the conventional NR using Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The sensitivities of the imaging plate to slow neutron and to Ir-192 gamma-rays were found to be approximately 4.2x10(-3) PSL/mm(2) per neutron and 6.7x10(-5) PSL/mm(2) per gamma-ray photon respectively. Finally, some specimens containing light elements were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the NIP and the Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The image quality obtained from the two recording media was found to be comparable. PMID:19828321

  15. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Nandong karst underground river system in Yunan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yongjun; Wu, Yuexia; Groves, Chris; Yuan, Daoxian; Kambesis, Pat

    2009-10-01

    The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst agriculture dominated area in the southeast Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role for social and economical development in the area. However, with the rapid increase in population and expansion of farm land, groundwater quality has degraded. 42 groundwater samples collected from springs in the NURS showed great variation of chemical compositions across the study basin. With increased anthropogenic contamination in the area, the groundwater chemistry has changed from the typical Ca-HCO 3 or Ca (Mg)-HCO 3 type in karst groundwater to the Ca-Cl (+ NO 3) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+ NO 3), and Ca-Cl (+ NO 3 + SO 4) or Ca (Mg)-Cl (+ NO 3 + SO 4) type, indicating increases in NO 3-, Cl - and SO 42- concentrations that were caused most likely by human activities in the region. This study implemented the R-mode factor analysis to investigate the chemical characteristics of groundwater and to distinguish the natural and anthropogenic processes affecting groundwater quality in the system. The R-mode factor analysis together with geology and land uses revealed that: (a) contamination from human activities such as sewage effluents and agricultural fertilizers; (b) water-rock interaction in the limestone-dominated system; and (c) water-rock interaction in the dolomite-dominated system were the three major factors contributing to groundwater quality. Natural dissolution of carbonate rock (water-rock interaction) was the primary source of Ca 2+ and HCO 3- in groundwater, water-rock interaction in dolomite-dominated system resulted in higher Mg 2+ in the groundwater, and human activities were likely others sources. Sewage effluents and fertilizers could be the main contributor of Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na + and K + to the groundwater system in the area. This study suggested that both natural and anthropogenic processes contributed to chemical composition of groundwater in the NURS, human activities played the most important role, however.

  16. Factors Related to Clinical Quality Improvement for Small Practices Using an EHR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jason J; Cha, Jisung; Sebek, Kimberly M; McCullough, Colleen M; Parsons, Amanda S; Singer, Jesse; Shih, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the impact of three primary care practice transformation program models on performance: Meaningful Use (MU), Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH), and a pay-for-performance program (eHearts). Data Sources/Study Setting Data for seven quality measures (QM) were retrospectively collected from 192 small primary care practices between October 2009 and October 2012; practice demographics and program participation status were extracted from in-house data. Study Design Bivariate analyses were conducted to measure the impact of individual programs, and a Generalized Estimating Equation model was built to test the impact of each program alongside the others. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Monthly data were extracted via a structured query data network and were compared to program participation status, adjusting for variables including practice size and patient volume. Seven QMs were analyzed related to smoking prevention, blood pressure control, BMI, diabetes, and antithrombotic therapy. Principal Findings In bivariate analysis, MU practices tended to perform better on process measures, PCMH practices on more complex process measures, and eHearts practices on measures for which they were incentivized; in multivariate analysis, PCMH recognition was associated with better performance on more QMs than any other program. Conclusions Results suggest each of the programs can positively impact performance. In our data, PCMH appears to have the most positive impact. PMID:25287906

  17. [The quality of medical examination of persons who underwent the impact of especially harmful chemical factors].

    PubMed

    Goncharova, A G

    2010-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis of the results of dynamic clinical functional examination of the contingent working or worked with especially harmful chemical substances and the corresponding medical documentation was made. The research approved the effectiveness of the system of medical examination of servicemen and mandatory medical check-ups of civilian personnel selected to service or work with toxic chemicals relevant to chemical weapon at the expense of optimization of the procedure of selection and dynamic observation. General morbidity among servicemen with maximal professional risk was on 20% lower than in the group with minimal risk and on 64% lower than in the control group. The algorithm was developed to apply the diagnostic techniques during medical examination of servicemen and mandatory medical check-ups of the civilian personnel of Military Forces of Russian Federation. The system differentiating approach was implemented to take into account the specifics of disease course and the succession in medical maintenance of this group of the examined. The optimization was applied to the system of quality management in medical examination of servicemen and mandatory medical check-ups of the civilian personnel, selected to service or work with toxic chemicals relevant to chemical weapon in accordance with requirements of the Federal Law On the social support of citizen employed to work with chemical weapon. PMID:20731148

  18. Encapsulated Annealing: Enhancing the Plasmon Quality Factor in Lithographically–Defined Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Michel; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Huigao; Tan, Shu Fen; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Qiu, Cheng–Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithography provides the precision to pattern large arrays of metallic nanostructures with varying geometries, enabling systematic studies and discoveries of new phenomena in plasmonics. However, surface plasmon resonances experience more damping in lithographically–defined structures than in chemically–synthesized nanoparticles of comparable geometries. Grain boundaries, surface roughness, substrate effects, and adhesion layers have been reported as causes of plasmon damping, but it is difficult to isolate these effects. Using monochromated electron energy–loss spectroscopy (EELS) and numerical analysis, we demonstrate an experimental technique that allows the study of these effects individually, to significantly reduce the plasmon damping in lithographically–defined structures. We introduce a method of encapsulated annealing that preserves the shape of polycrystalline gold nanostructures, while their grain-boundary density is reduced. We demonstrate enhanced Q–factors in lithographically–defined nanostructures, with intrinsic damping that matches the theoretical Drude damping limit. PMID:24986023

  19. Quality Factor and Microslipping of Fatigue Cracks in Thin Plates at Resonant Vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Resonant vibrations have been stimulated in thin metal plates using a non-contacting electromagnetic driver. A sinusoidal force was applied in a swept frequency fashion and the resulting surface displacements were monitored through the use of an acoustic microphone. It has been found that the presence of a fatigue crack in the sample causes a broadening of the second resonance peak. The Q factors of the resonance curves were determined and are directly correlated with the presence of fatigue cracks in the samples. The broadening of the curves is explained in terms of a microslipping at the crack face walls which reduces the amplitude of the resonant vibration by increasing the damping of the system. A comparison is made between the resonance characteristics of fatigue damaged and notched samples, where the stiffness of the two systems is nearly constant while the interaction between crack face walls is eliminated in the latter.

  20. Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

    2003-01-01

    The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

  1. Diversity in sensory quality and determining factors influencing mandarin flavor liking.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Carmi, Nir; Porat, Ron

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the sensory quality of 42 mandarin varieties that belong to 7 different natural subgroups: common mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex. Tan), Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (Citrus nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) and tangelo (Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi). Consumer flavor acceptance tests revealed wide diversity in flavor preferences among mandarin varieties and subgroups. Furthermore, descriptive flavor-analysis tests conducted with the aid of a trained sensory panel revealed that the 9 most preferred varieties had similar flavor profiles, characterized by high sweetness, moderate to low acidity levels, low bitterness and gumminess, strong fruity and mandarin flavor, and high juiciness. The average total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels among the highly preferred varieties were 13.1% and 1.1%, respectively. In contrast, the 8 least preferred varieties were either too sour or gummy or had low levels of sweetness, fruity, or mandarin flavor, and either high acidity levels (>1.4%) or low TSS levels (<12.0%). Pearson tests revealed significant positive correlations between flavor acceptance and perceptions of sweetness, fruitiness, and mandarin flavor, and negative correlations with acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between highly accepted varieties that were tightly correlated with high TSS levels and perceptions of sweetness fruitiness and mandarin flavor, as compared with the least accepted varieties that were correlated with high acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess. PMID:25559381

  2. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  3. Quality control of BCG vaccine by WHO: a review of factors that may influence vaccine effectiveness and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, J. B.; Gibson, J. J.

    1990-01-01

    WHO oversees the quality control of BCG vaccine via a system that includes regular testing of products by in vitro methods and clinical trials. Three parent strains of BCG (Glaxo-1077, Tokyo-172, and Pasteur-1173P2) account for over 90% of the vaccines currently in use worldwide. Important characteristics of the vaccine preparations are summarized here, along with their physical-chemical properties. In instances where diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis are stringent, there is no evidence that when administered to newborns different preparations of BCG vaccine exhibit different efficacies; however, the incidence of BCG-associated adverse reactions does correlate with the type of preparation. Other factors, including dose, administration technique, and recipient characteristics are also important in determining vaccine-associated reactions. PMID:2189588

  4. Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Guey-Shin; Cheng, Bai-You; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy. PMID:21695030

  5. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  6. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Kenow, Kevin P; Meyer, Michael W; Rossmann, Ronald; Gray, Brian R; Arts, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    A field study was conducted in Wisconsin (USA) to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17?µg/g to 1.23?µg/g wet weight in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0-8.1) and were modeled as a function of maternal loon Hg exposure and egg laying order. Blood total Hg mass fractions in a sample of loon chicks ranged from 0.84?µg/g to 3.86?µg/g wet weight at hatch. Factors other than mercury exposure that may have persistent consequences on development of chicks from eggs collected on low-pH lakes (i.e., egg selenium, calcium, and fatty acid mass fractions) do not seem to be contributing to reported differences in loon chick quality as a function of lake pH. However, it was observed that adult male loons holding territories on neutral-pH lakes were larger on average than those occupying territories on low-pH lakes. Differences in adult body size of common loons holding territories on neutral-versus low-pH lakes may have genetic implications for differences in lake-source-related quality (i.e., size) in chicks. The tendency for high in ovo Hg exposure and smaller adult male size to co-occur in low-pH lakes complicates the interpretation of the relative contributions of each to resulting chick quality. PMID:26096773

  7. DNA damage in oocytes induces a switch of the quality control factor TAp63? from dimer to tetramer.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Gregor B; Zielonka, Elisabeth M; Coutandin, Daniel; Weber, Tobias A; Schäfer, Birgit; Hannewald, Jens; Luh, Laura M; Durst, Florian G; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Hoffmann, Jan; Niesen, Frank H; Sentürk, Aycan; Kunkel, Hana; Brutschy, Bernd; Schleiff, Enrico; Knapp, Stefan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Grez, Manuel; McKeon, Frank; Dötsch, Volker

    2011-02-18

    TAp63?, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, is a quality control factor in the female germline. Remarkably, already undamaged oocytes express high levels of the protein, suggesting that TAp63?'s activity is under tight control of an inhibitory mechanism. Biochemical studies have proposed that inhibition requires the C-terminal transactivation inhibitory domain. However, the structural mechanism of TAp63? inhibition remains unknown. Here, we show that TAp63? is kept in an inactive dimeric state. We reveal that relief of inhibition leads to tetramer formation with ?20-fold higher DNA affinity. In vivo, phosphorylation-triggered tetramerization of TAp63? is not reversible by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that a helix in the oligomerization domain of p63 is crucial for tetramer stabilization and competes with the transactivation domain for the same binding site. Our results demonstrate how TAp63? is inhibited by complex domain-domain interactions that provide the basis for regulating quality control in oocytes. PMID:21335238

  8. DNA Damage in Oocytes Induces a Switch of the Quality Control Factor TAp63? from Dimer to Tetramer

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Gregor B.; Zielonka, Elisabeth M.; Coutandin, Daniel; Weber, Tobias A.; Schäfer, Birgit; Hannewald, Jens; Luh, Laura M.; Durst, Florian G.; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Hoffmann, Jan; Niesen, Frank H.; Sentürk, Aycan; Kunkel, Hana; Brutschy, Bernd; Schleiff, Enrico; Knapp, Stefan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Grez, Manuel; McKeon, Frank; Dötsch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Summary TAp63?, a homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor, is a quality control factor in the female germline. Remarkably, already undamaged oocytes express high levels of the protein, suggesting that TAp63?'s activity is under tight control of an inhibitory mechanism. Biochemical studies have proposed that inhibition requires the C-terminal transactivation inhibitory domain. However, the structural mechanism of TAp63? inhibition remains unknown. Here, we show that TAp63? is kept in an inactive dimeric state. We reveal that relief of inhibition leads to tetramer formation with ?20-fold higher DNA affinity. In vivo, phosphorylation-triggered tetramerization of TAp63? is not reversible by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that a helix in the oligomerization domain of p63 is crucial for tetramer stabilization and competes with the transactivation domain for the same binding site. Our results demonstrate how TAp63? is inhibited by complex domain-domain interactions that provide the basis for regulating quality control in oocytes. PMID:21335238

  9. Experts and novices use the same factors--but differently--to evaluate pearl quality.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yusuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading) and expert participants' pearl grading skill and then compare the novices' grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices' grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts' grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices' consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices' trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%). This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts. PMID:24466074

  10. Wayfinding: a quality factor in human design approach to healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Del Nord, R

    1999-01-01

    The specific aim of this paper is the systematic analysis of interactions and reciprocal conditions existing between the physical space of hospital buildings and the different categories of individuals that come in contact with them. The physical and environmental facilities of hospital architecture often influence the therapeutic character of space and the employees. If the values of the individual are to be safeguarded in this context, priority needs to be given to such factors as communication, privacy, etc. This would mean the involvement of other professional groups such as psychologists, sociologists, ergonomists, etc. at the hospital building planning stage. This paper will outline the result of some research conducted at the University Research Center "TESIS" of Florence to provide better understanding of design strategies applied to reduce the pathology of spaces within the healthcare environment. The case studies will highlight the parameters and the possible architectural solutions to wayfinding and the humanization of spaces, with particular emphasis on lay-outs, technologies, furniture and finishing design. PMID:10622912

  11. Four studies on effects of environmental factors on the quality of National Atmospheric Deposition Program measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rhodes, Mark F.

    2011-01-01

    Selected aspects of National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) protocols are evaluated in four studies. Meteorological conditions have minor impacts on the error in NADP/NTN sampling. Efficiency of frozen precipitation sample collection is lower than for liquid precipitation samples. Variability of NTN measurements is higher for relatively low-intensity deposition of frozen precipitation than for higher-intensity deposition of liquid precipitation. Urbanization of the landscape surrounding NADP/NTN sites is not affecting trends in wet-deposition chemistry data to a measureable degree. Five NADP siting criteria intended to preserve wet-deposition sample integrity have varying degrees of effectiveness. NADP siting criteria for objects within the 90 degrees cones and trees within the 120 degrees cones projected from the collector bucket to sky are important for protecting sample integrity. Tall vegetation, fences, and other objects located within 5 meters of the collectors are related to the frequency of visible sample contamination, indicating the importance of these factors in NADP siting criteria.

  12. Effective neutron targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.

    1997-07-01

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the {sup 3}He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized {sup 3}He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized {sup 3}He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized {sup 3}He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized {sup 3}He targets will also be discussed.

  13. [Assessment of the structure and quality of nutrition as a factor that influences thyroid functional activity].

    PubMed

    Tsikunib, A D; Kondratova, E S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the provision of schoolchildren with vitamin A, beta-carotene, and zinc, by taking into account their mutual effect on thyroid functional activity. The study was retrospective and performed by the Adygei Branch of the Kuban State Medical University, Federal Health Care and Social Development Agency (Maikop). The nutrition pattern was studied in 103 pupils living in the Republic of Adygea. The amount of food used with- in 3 days (with one day-off being compulsorily included) was estimated to determine the actual dietary levels of micronutrients in the schoolchildren. Their provision with vitamin A and beta-carotene was determined by the dark adaptation test (Kravkov-Purkinje test). The data were processed by parametric statistical methods, by using the computer program "Statistica 5.0". Questionnaire analysis has indicated that the diet is unbalanced in the majority of the examined schoolchildren. The study revealed the insufficient dietary intake of iodine, zinc, vitamin A, and beta-carotene. About half the parents of the schoolchildren participating in the study indicated the use of iodinated salt for cooking. Insufficient vitamin A provision was revealed in 77.8% of the pupils. For prevention of deficiencies of vitamin A and traces, 37% of the schoolchildren were found to take multivitamin preparations. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the factors contributing to the development of iodine deficiencies. Along with this, by affecting vitamin A metabolism, inadequate dietary intake of zinc adversely affects thyroid functional activity. Monitoring of adequate dietary intake of vitamin A and zinc should be one of the stages in preventing iodine deficiencies and reducing the number of risk groups in an area with low environmental iodine levels. PMID:18161192

  14. Variability in factor V:C assays in UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme surveys: there is a need for an international standard.

    PubMed

    Preston, F Eric; Jennings, Ian; Kitchen, Dianne P; Woods, Timothy Al; Kitchen, Steve

    2005-10-01

    Severe familial factor V:C deficiency is a rare, recessively inherited coagulation disorder but there is little information in respect of the accuracy and reliability of factor V:C assays that are required for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We present here the results of three External Quality Assessment exercises in respect of factor V:C assays undertaken by 192--225 participating laboratories performed over a 2-year period. Consistent significant differences were observed between results obtained using different reference plasmas and different thromboplastins. The relationship between results obtained with different reference plasmas was not constant and varied between the surveys. In-house studies confirmed the observation derived from the External Quality Assessment surveys that the choice of commercial reference plasma significantly affects the results of factor V:C assays. These results clearly indicate the necessity for an international standard for factor V:C. PMID:16175014

  15. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Movsas, Benjamin . E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Scott, Charles; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2006-07-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients {<=}50 years vs. {>=}65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed.

  16. Lack of Radiation Dose or Quality Dependence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor {beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio; Chou, William S.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Park, Howard; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype that alters cell morphology, disrupts morphogenesis, and increases motility. Our prior studies have shown that the progeny of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) irradiated with 2 Gy undergoes transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta})-mediated EMT. In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT. Methods and Materials: HMECs were cultured on tissue culture plastic or in Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and exposed to low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and TGF-{beta} (400 pg/mL). Image analysis was used to measure membrane-associated E-cadherin, a marker of functional epithelia, or fibronectin, a product of mesenchymal cells, as a function of radiation dose and quality. Results: E-cadherin was reduced in TGF-{beta}-treated cells irradiated with low-LET radiation doses between 0.03 and 2 Gy compared with untreated, unirradiated cells or TGF-{beta} treatment alone. The radiation quality dependence of TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT was determined by use of 1 GeV/amu (gigaelectron volt / atomic mass unit) {sup 56}Fe ion particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Radiation Laboratory. On the basis of the relative biological effectiveness of 2 for {sup 56}Fe ion particles' clonogenic survival, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs were irradiated with equitoxic 1-Gy {sup 56}Fe ion or 2-Gy {sup 137}Cs radiation in monolayer. Furthermore, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs irradiated with either high- or low-LET radiation exhibited similar loss of E-cadherin and gain of fibronectin and resulted in similar large, poorly organized colonies when embedded in Matrigel. Moreover, the progeny of HMECs exposed to different fluences of {sup 56}Fe ion underwent TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT even when only one-third of the cells were directly traversed by the particle. Conclusions: Thus TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT, like other non-targeted radiation effects, is neither radiation dose nor quality dependent at the doses examined.

  17. Neutron Laue macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Meilleur, Flora; Myles, Dean A A; Blakeley, Matthew P

    2006-09-01

    Recent progress in neutron protein crystallography such as the use of the Laue technique and improved neutron optics and detector technologies have dramatically improved the speed and precision with which neutron protein structures can now be determined. These studies are providing unique and complementary insights on hydrogen and hydration in protein crystal structures that are not available from X-ray structures alone. Parallel improvements in modern molecular biology now allow fully (per)deuterated protein samples to be produced for neutron scattering that essentially eradicate the large-and ultimately limiting-hydrogen incoherent scattering background that has hampered such studies in the past. High quality neutron data can now be collected to near atomic resolution (approximately 2.0 A) for proteins of up to approximately 50 kDa molecular weight using crystals of volume approximately 0.1 mm3 on the Laue diffractometer at ILL. The ability to flash-cool and collect high resolution neutron data from protein crystals at cryogenic temperature (15 K) has opened the way for kinetic crystallography on freeze trapped systems. Current instrument developments now promise to reduce crystal volume requirements by a further order of magnitude, making neutron protein crystallography a more accessible and routine technique. PMID:16897039

  18. Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.D. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi} and 20 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi}, respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

  19. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  20. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Exum, Natalie G.; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc L.; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches — Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI — with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F+ coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand–water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  1. Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60 m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

  2. Survey of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Perdrisat, Charles F.; Punjabi, Vina A.

    2011-09-20

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has been greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in compar- ison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at MIT-Bates, MAMI, and JLab. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed.

  3. Dosimetry for Neutrons from 0.25 to 15 MeV by the Measurement of Linear Energy Transfer Distributions for Secondary Charged Particles in CR-39 Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Eda, Kazuyoshi; Sanami, Toshiya; Sasaki, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sonkawade, Rajendra; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Kitajo, Keiichi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2008-03-01

    In the radiation fields of high energy accelerator facilities, high-altitude aircraft and space flights, high-energy neutron dosimetry of ˜20 MeV or more is a significant issue for radiological protection. We studied the feasibility of experimental measurements of linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for secondary charged particles induced by fast neutrons using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. In order to investigate a method of analyzing the CR-39 detectors that is appropriate for fast neutron dosimetry, two-layer CR-39 stacks were exposed to monochromatic neutrons (0.25, 0.55, 5, and 15 MeV) at the Fast Neutron Laboratory of Tohoku University in Japan. We also conducted Monte Carlo calculations to estimate the detection efficiency of the CR-39 detector for recoil protons. The CR-39 detectors treated by single-step chemical etching were used to obtain LET distributions for LET > 10 keV/µm-water. The results indicated that measurements of short-range particles are very important for obtaining the correct LET distributions. Using the measured LET distributions, we calculated neutron sensitivities, absorbed doses and dose equivalents based on the ICRP 60 Q-L relation and averaged quality factors. The dose equivalents were compared with the neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors given by ICRP 74 and the averaged quality factors were compared with weighting factors given by ICRP 60 and ICRP 92.

  4. DOSIMETRIC response of a REM-500 in low energy neutron fields typical of nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Matysiak, W; Atanackovic, J; Waker, A J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the response of a REM-500 to assess neutron quality factor and dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are commonly encountered in the workplace environment of nuclear power stations. The McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility was used to measure the response of the instrument in monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range 51 to 727 keV by bombarding a thin LiF target with 1.93-2.50 MeV protons. The energy distribution of the neutron fields produced in the facility was measured by a (3)He filled gas ionization chamber. The MCA mode of the REM-500 instrument was used to collect lineal energy distributions at varying neutron energies and to calculate the frequency and dose-mean lineal energies. The effective quality factor, Q-, was also calculated using the values of Q(y)listed in the REM-500 operation manual and compared with those of ICRP 60. The authors observed a continuously increasing trend in y - F, y-D, and Q-with an increase in neutron energy. It is interesting to note that standard tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) filled with tissue equivalent(TE) gas give rise to a similar trend for these microdosimetric quantities of interest in the same energy range; however, the averages calculated in this study are larger by about 15%compared to a TEPC filled with propane-based TE gas probably because of the larger stopping power of protons in propane compared to TE gas. These somewhat larger event sizes did not result in any significant increase in the Q-compared to those obtained from a TEPC filled with TE gas and were found to be in good agreement with other measurements reported earlier at corresponding neutron energies. The instrument quality factor response, R(Q), defined as the ratio of measured quality factor to the calculated quality factor in an ICRU tissue sphere,was found to vary with neutron energy. The instrument response,R(Q), was ~0.6 at 727 keV, which deteriorates further to ~0.3 at 51 keV neutron energy. The counter response based on ICRP 60 was comparable to an ideal response of 1.0 above 600 keV, which dropped to ~0.8 at 159 keV and ~0.4 at 51 keV neutron energy. The decline in counter quality factor response based on ICRP 60 was found to be much steeper than that when using the instrument’s built-in function for quality factor.The REM-500 measures a dose equivalent at 727 keV,which is 60% of the ambient dose equivalent, 40% at 159 keV,and 15% at 51 keV. Two algorithms have been developed, one for real time measurement and another to be used post measurement,and their efficacy is demonstrated in determining the quality factor and the ambient dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are typical for the workplace environment in CANDU® nuclear power generating stations. PMID:22570919

  5. Radiation tolerance of a high quality synthetic single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Aielli, G.; Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2008-09-01

    Diamond exhibits many properties such as an outstanding radiation hardness and fast response time both important to design detectors working in extremely radioactive environments. Among the many applications these devices can be used for, there is the development of a fast and radiation hard neutron detector for the next generation of fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, under construction at Cadarache in France. A technology to routinely produce electronic grade synthetic single crystal diamond detectors was recently developed by our group. One of such detectors, with an energy resolution of 0.9% as measured using an A241m ? particle source, has been heavily irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The modifications of its spectroscopic properties have been studied as a function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0×1014 n/cm2. In the early stage of the irradiation procedure an improvement in the spectroscopic performance of the detector was observed. Subsequently the detection performance remains stable for all the given neutron fluence up to the final one thus assessing a remarkable radiation hardness of the device. The neutron damage in materials has been calculated and compared with the experimental results. This comparison is discussed within the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis, which states that performance degradation is proportional to NIEL.

  6. Radiation tolerance of a high quality synthetic single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Aielli, G.; Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2008-09-01

    Diamond exhibits many properties such as an outstanding radiation hardness and fast response time both important to design detectors working in extremely radioactive environments. Among the many applications these devices can be used for, there is the development of a fast and radiation hard neutron detector for the next generation of fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, under construction at Cadarache in France. A technology to routinely produce electronic grade synthetic single crystal diamond detectors was recently developed by our group. One of such detectors, with an energy resolution of 0.9% as measured using an {sup 241}Am{alpha} particle source, has been heavily irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The modifications of its spectroscopic properties have been studied as a function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. In the early stage of the irradiation procedure an improvement in the spectroscopic performance of the detector was observed. Subsequently the detection performance remains stable for all the given neutron fluence up to the final one thus assessing a remarkable radiation hardness of the device. The neutron damage in materials has been calculated and compared with the experimental results. This comparison is discussed within the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis, which states that performance degradation is proportional to NIEL.

  7. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  8. Effects of Land Use, Topography and Socio-Economic Factors on River Water Quality in a Mountainous Watershed with Intensive Agricultural Production in East China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3?-N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

  9. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO2 laser welding.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high-Q-factor of 2.12 × 106 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid. PMID:26480452

  10. Atmospheric neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, S. A.; Mendell, R. B.; Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Sandie, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    Contributions to fast neutron measurements in the atmosphere are outlined. The results of a calculation to determine the production, distribution and final disappearance of atmospheric neutrons over the entire spectrum are presented. An attempt is made to answer questions that relate to processes such as neutron escape from the atmosphere and C-14 production. In addition, since variations of secondary neutrons can be related to variations in the primary radiation, comment on the modulation of both radiation components is made.

  11. Neutron guide

    DOEpatents

    Greene, Geoffrey L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  12. Exploring factors influencing asthma control and asthma-specific health-related quality of life among children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors contributing to children’s asthma control status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The study objectives were to assess the relationship between asthma control and asthma-specific HRQoL in asthmatic children, and to examine the extent to which parental health literacy, perceived self-efficacy with patient-physician interaction, and satisfaction with shared decision-making (SDM) contribute to children’s asthma control and asthma-specific HRQoL. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized data collected from a sample of asthmatic children (n?=?160) aged 8–17 years and their parents (n?=?160) who visited a university medical center. Asthma-specific HRQoL was self-reported by children using the National Institutes of Health’s Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Asthma Impact Scale. Satisfaction with SDM, perceived self-efficacy with patient-physician interaction, parental health literacy, and asthma control were reported by parents using standardized measures. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized pathways. Results Path analysis revealed that children with better asthma control reported higher asthma-specific HRQoL (??=?0.4, P?factors such as perceived self-efficacy with patient-physician interaction and satisfaction with shared decision-making indirectly influenced children’s asthma control status and asthma-specific HRQoL. PMID:23432913

  13. Evaluating the air quality impacts of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: On-road emission factors and black carbon profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Westerdahl, Dane; Chen, Lung Chi; Wu, Ye; Hao, Jiming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Guo, Xinbiao; Zhang, K. Max

    The aggressive traffic interventions and emission control measures implemented to improve air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games created a valuable case study to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures on mitigating air pollution and protecting public health. In this paper, we report the results from our field campaign in summer 2008 on the on-road emission factors of carbon monoxide, black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP) as well as the ambient BC concentrations. The fleet average emission factors for light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) showed considerable reduction in the Olympic year (2008) compared to the pre-Olympic year (2007). Our measurement of Black Carbon (BC), a primary pollutant, at different elevations at the ambient site suggests consistent decrease in BC concentrations as the height increased near the ground level, which indicates that the nearby ground level sources, probably dominated by traffic, contributed to a large portion of BC concentrations in the lower atmospheric layer in Beijing during summertime. These observations indicate that people living in near ground levels experience higher exposures than those living in higher floors in Beijing. The BC diurnal patterns on days when traffic control were in place during the Olympic Games were compared to those on non-traffic-control days in both 2007 and in 2008. These patterns strongly suggest that diesel trucks are a major source of summertime BC in Beijing. The median BC concentration on Olympic days was 3.7 ?g m -3, which was dramatically lower than the value on non-traffic-control days, indicating the effectiveness of traffic control regulations in BC reduction in Beijing.

  14. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Quality of Life in Children with Cancer or Brain Tumors: The Mediating Role of Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Litzelman, Kristin; Barker, Emily; Catrine, Kristine; Puccetti, Diane; Possin, Peggy; Witt, Whitney P

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine if and to what extent: (1) socioeconomic disparities exist in the health-related quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer or brain tumors and healthy children; and (2) family functioning and burden mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and children’s QOL. Methods In this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 2–18 with (n=71) and without (n=135) cancer or brain tumors completed in-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessing sociodemographics (including income and parental education), child QOL (measure: PedsQL), family functioning (measure: FACES IV) and burden (measure: Impact on the Family Scale). For children with cancer, clinical characteristics were captured through medical record abstraction. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between income and child QOL; the interaction between group status and income was assessed. Staged multivariate regression models were used to assess the role of family factors in this relationship among children with cancer. Results In multivariate analyses, the effect of income differed by cancer status; lower income was associated with worse QOL in children with cancer, but not among healthy children. Among children with cancer, this relationship was significantly attenuated by family burden. Conclusions Significant socioeconomic disparities exist in the QOL of children with cancer. Family factors partially explain the relationship between low income and poor QOL outcomes among these children. Lower income families may have fewer resources to cope with their child’s cancer. Increased support, monitoring, and referrals to reduce burden for these families may lead to improved QOL in children with cancer. PMID:22645071

  15. Health-Related Quality of Life and Related Factors in Children and Adolescents With Epilepsy in Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Maryam; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Bidabadi, Elham; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2015-12-01

    The effects of epilepsy may disturb the ability of the child and family to function and has detrimental effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We determined HRQOL and related factors in children and adolescents with epilepsy in Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed in a private neurology pediatric clinic in Guilan Province (North of Iran). We evaluated 108 children and adolescents with epilepsy. Data were collected by interview with parents and review of medical records. Generic and specific HRQOL was evaluated by Child Health Questionnaire and QOL in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire, respectively. The mean of overall generic HRQOL score was 71.05 ± 11.31. The lowest score was related to parental impact: emotional (52.59 ± 15.49). The average total specific HRQOL score was 71.95 ± 11.16. The lowest score dedicated to general health (51.21 ± 18.25). In multivariate regression analysis, duration of epilepsy (p < .016) was independently associated with generic HRQOL scores. Variables were independently associated with specific HRQOL scores including gender (p < .003), duration of epilepsy (p < .011), and family history of epilepsy (p < .005). We found that epilepsy duration was the strongest predictor of both generic and specific HRQOL in children and adolescents with epilepsy. This will be useful for clinicians in epilepsy management, which will enhance HRQOL. PMID:26528952

  16. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P<0.001. However, no significant variation (P>0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

  17. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–...

  18. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces, geologic setting, ground-water systems, surface- water systems, climate, floods, droughts, population, land use, and water use. Factors affecting water quality in the study area are land use (primarily urban and agricultural land uses), water use in coastal areas, hydrogeology, ground-water/surface-water interaction, geology, and climate. Surface-water quality problems in urban areas have occurred in the Ogeechee, Canoochee, Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Alapaha, Withlacoochee (north), Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, and Oklawaha Rivers and include nitrogen and phosphorus loading, low dissolved oxygen, elevated bacteria, sediment, and turbidity, and increased concentrations of metals. In agricultural areas, surface-water quality problems include elevated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, erosion, and sedimentation and have occurred in the Ocmulgee, St. Marys, Santa Fe, Ochlockonee, St. Johns, Oklawaha, Withlacoochee (South), Hillsborough, and Alafia Rivers. Ground water-quality problems such as saltwater intrusion have occurred mostly in coastal areas and were caused by excessive withdrawals.

  19. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The conceptual models are intended in part to provide a foundation for subsequent development of regional-scale statistical models that relate specific constituent concentrations or occurrence in groundwater to natural and human factors.

  20. Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO

    E-print Network

    Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

    2005-10-13

    Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

  1. Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  2. The evaluation of oral health-related factors on the quality of life of the elderly in Babol

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Mehdizadeh, Shervin; Najafi, Nazanin; Sayyadi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering an increase in elderly population in recent years, it has become necessary to pay attention to this group so that they can have a higher quality of life (QoL). Oral health is one of the factors affecting the QoL of the elderly. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral health on the QoL of the elderly population in Babol, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used the multi-stage cluster sampling technique to select 300 elderly subjects, over 65 years of age, living in Babol. Oral health-related QoL was evaluated by the Persian version of oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Data were collected on gender, age, occupation, education, the date of the last dental visit, use of prosthetic appliances, and dental treatment needs, including the periodontal, prosthetic, and surgical needs, by interview and examination. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with SPSS software program using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 71.4 ± 5.6 years, with 183 males (61%) and 117 females (39%). The mean score of OHIP-14 questionnaire was 22.4 ± 8.2, with a range of 5?50. The highest score was achieved on the psychological discomfort domain. There was no significant difference in OHIP-14 scores according to gender, with significantly lower scores in subjects with academic education. The subjects wearing prosthetic appliances had lower OHIP-14 scores compared to those who did not wear prosthetic appliances. OHIP-14 scores were lower in the dentate individuals compared to the edentulous individuals. There was no correlation between the age and the OHIP-14 score. Conclusion: In general, the results of the present study showed a moderate oral health-related QoL in the elderly living in Babol, who have orodental problems. PMID:26321827

  3. Quality of life profile and correlated factors in chronic leg ulcer patients in the mid-west of São Paulo State, Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Masuda, Paula Yoshiko; Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Taira, Cecilia Midori Higashi; Cleto, Norma Gondim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic leg ulcer may have an impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the impact of leg ulcers on patient's quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index and to define the main factors correlated with this perception. METHOD Cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling study. We included patients with chronic leg ulcers being treated for at least 3 months. A sociodemographic and clinical survey was conducted to assess the profile of the ulcers. We administered a screening for depressive symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test for categorical data, Pearson for numeric variables, and multiple regression for categorical data. RESULTS Forty-one patients were assessed. Their mean age was 61.78 years. Venous ulcers (48.8%) were the most prevalent. Seventy-three percent of the sample perceived no impact/low impact on quality of life in the past week, and 26.8% perceived moderate/high impact. A multiple regression analysis identified the causes of lesion, pain related to the ulcers, time of onset, and severity of the depressive symptoms as the variables that had an influence on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the sample perceived low or no impact of the condition on the quality of the life. The variables etiology of the lesion (p<0.001), pain related to the ulcers (p=0.001), time of onset (p=0.006), and severity of the depressive symptoms (p<0.001) had an influence on the quality of life, suggesting the need for further studies with more robust designs to confirm the causal relationship between these characteristics and quality of life. PMID:24626651

  4. The Form Factors of the Nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Perdrisat, Charles F.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has been greatly improved by performing double-polarization experiments, in comparison with with pre-vious unpolarized cross section data. Here we will review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton and the neutron, obtained at MIT-Bates, JLab and MAMI. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high- precision experiments will be discussed. In particular, the possibility that the proton is non-spherical in its ground state, and that the transverse charge density are model in- dependently defined in the infinite momentum frame. Likewise, flavor decomposition of the nucleon form factors into dressed u and d quark form factors, may give information about the quark-diquark structure of the nucleon. The current proton radius "crisis" will also be discussed.

  5. Neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Andrew C. (Knoxville, TN); Jardret; Vincent D. (Powell, TN)

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  6. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2=3.4 GeV2 using the Reaction He3(e,e'n)pp

    E-print Network

    S. Riordan; S. Abrahamyan; B. Craver; A. Kelleher; A. Kolarkar; J. Miller; G. D. Cates; N. Liyanage; B. Wojtsekhowski; A. Acha; K. Allada; B. Anderson; K. A. Aniol; J. R. M. Annand; J. Arrington; T. Averett; A. Beck; M. Bellis; W. Boeglin; H. Breuer; J. R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; J. P. Chen; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Crowe; F. Cusanno; D. Day; P. Degtyarenko; P. A. M. Dolph; C. Dutta; C. Ferdi; C. Fernandez-Ramirez; R. Feuerbach; L. M. Fraile; G. Franklin; S. Frullani; S. Fuchs; F. Garibaldi; N. Gevorgyan; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; J. Gomez; K. Grimm; J. O. Hansen; J. L. Herraiz; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; T. Holmstrom; D. Howell; C. W. deJager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; J. Katich; L. J. Kaufman; M. Khandaker; J. J. Kelly; D. Kiselev; W. Korsch; J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; D. J. Margaziotis; S. May-Tal Beck; S. Mayilyan; K. McCormick; Z. E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; T. Ngo; D. M. Nikolenko; B. Norum; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. Protopopescu; A. J. R. Puckett; V. A. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; B. Quinn; I. Rachek; R. D. Ransome; P. E. Reimer; B. Reitz; J. Roche; G. Ron; O. Rondon; G. Rosner; A. Saha; M. Sargsian; B. Sawatzky; J. Segal; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; Yu. Shestakov; J. Singh; S. Sirca; P. Souder; S. Stepanyan; V. Stibunov; V. Sulkosky; S. Tajima; W. A. Tobias; J. M. Udias; G. M. Urciuoli; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wang; F. R. Wesselmann; J. R. Vignote; S. A. Wood; J. Wright; H. Yao; X. Zhu

    2010-11-02

    The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction He3(e,e'n)pp in quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were registered in a large-solid-angle detector. More than doubling the Q2-range over which it is known, we find GEn = 0.0225 +/- 0.0017 (stat) +/- 0.0024 (syst), 0.0200 +/- 0.0023 +/- 0.0018, and 0.0142 +/- 0.0019 +/- 0.0013 for Q2 = 1.72, 2.48, and 3.41 GeV2, respectively.

  7. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2 = 3.4 GeV2 using the Reaction He-3(e,e'n)pp

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, Seamus; Craver, Brandon; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Miller, Jonathan; Cates, Gordon; Liyanage, Nilanga; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Quimper, Armando Acha; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Byron; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Averett, Todd; Beck, Arie; Bellis, Matthew; Boeglin, Werner; Breuer, Herbert; Calarco, John; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chudakov, Eugene; Coman, Luminita; Crowe, Benjamin; Cusanno, Francesco; Day, Donal; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Dolph, P.A.M.; Dutta, Chiranjib; Ferdi, Catherine; Fernandez-Ramirez, Cezar; Feuerbach, Robert; Fraile Prieto, Luis; Franklin, Gregg; Frullani, Salvatore; Fuchs, Sabine; Garibaldi, Franco; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilman, Ronald; Glazmazdin, Oleksandr; Gomez, Javier; Grimm, Klaus; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Herraiz, Joaquin Lopez; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmes, Richard; Holmstrom, Timothy; Howell, David; De Jager, Cornelis; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Katich, Joseph; Kaufman, Lisa; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kelly, James; Kiselev, Daniela; Korsch, Wolfgang; LeRose, John; Markowitz, Pete; Margaziotis, Demetrius; May-Tal Beck, Sharon; Mayilyan, Samvel; McCormick, Kathy; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Nanda, Sirish; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Ngo, Tim; Nikolenko, Dmitri; Norum, Blaine; Pentchev, Lubomir; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Protopoescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Punjabi, Vina; Qian, XIn; Qiang, Yi; Quinn, Brian; Rachek, Igor; Ransome, Ronald; Reimer, Paul; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Julie; Ron, Guy; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sargsian, Misak; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Shabestari, Mitra Hashemi; Shahinyan, Albert; Singh, Jaideep; Sirca, Simon; Souder, Paul; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stibunov, Victor; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tobias, William; Moinelo, Jose Udias; Urciuoli, Guido; Vlahovic, Branislav; Voskanyan, Hakob; Wang, Kebin; Wesselmann, Frank; Vignote, Javier Rodriguez; Wood, Stephen; Wright, Justin; Yao, Huan

    2010-12-01

    The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction \\rea{} in quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were registered in a large-solid-angle detector. More than doubling the $Q^2$-range over which it is known, we find \\GEn{}$ = 0.0225 \\pm 0.0017 (stat) \\pm 0.0024 (syst)$, $0.0200 \\pm 0.0023 \\pm 0.0018$, and $0.0142 \\pm 0.0019 \\pm 0.0013$ for $Q^2$ = 1.72, 2.48, and 3.41~\\gevsq, respectively.

  8. Characterization of neutron calibration fields at the TINT's 50 Ci americium-241/beryllium neutron irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liamsuwan, T.; Channuie, J.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2015-05-01

    Reliable measurement of neutron radiation is important for monitoring and protection in workplace where neutrons are present. Although Thailand has been familiar with applications of neutron sources and neutron beams for many decades, there is no calibration facility dedicated to neutron measuring devices available in the country. Recently, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) has set up a multi-purpose irradiation facility equipped with a 50 Ci americium-241/beryllium neutron irradiator. The facility is planned to be used for research, nuclear analytical techniques and, among other applications, calibration of neutron measuring devices. In this work, the neutron calibration fields were investigated in terms of neutron energy spectra and dose equivalent rates using Monte Carlo simulations, an in-house developed neutron spectrometer and commercial survey meters. The characterized neutron fields can generate neutron dose equivalent rates ranging from 156 ?Sv/h to 3.5 mSv/h with nearly 100% of dose contributed by neutrons of energies larger than 0.01 MeV. The gamma contamination was less than 4.2-7.5% depending on the irradiation configuration. It is possible to use the described neutron fields for calibration test and routine quality assurance of neutron dose rate meters and passive dosemeters commonly used in radiation protection dosimetry.

  9. QUALITY SCIENCE IN THE COURTROOM: US EPA QA AND PEER REVIEW POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMPARED TO THE DAUBERT FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protection of the environment is, in part, dependent on the quality of data used in decision making. Whether the decisions are applied to science itself or to the laws governing people and their living conditions, good quality data are expected by two disciplines with distinct d...

  10. Factor Structure of the Schalock and Keith Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q): Validation on Mexican and Spanish Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballo, C.; Crespo, M.; Jenaro, C.; Verdugo, M. A.; Martinez, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q) is used widely to evaluate the quality of life of persons with intellectual disability (ID). Its validity for use with Spanish-speaking cultures has been demonstrated for individuals with visual disabilities, but not for those with physical or intellectual disabilities. Such was the purpose of…

  11. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life Among an Older Population in a Largely Rural Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Aday, Lu Ann; Xu, Ke Tom

    2004-01-01

    As elderly people become a larger proportion of the rural population, it is important to identify those at risk for poor health. Predictors of health-related quality of life can be useful in designing interventions. Purpose: One objective of the present study was to profile the health-related quality of life of community-dwelling, elderly people…

  12. 2212 WWW.CROPS.ORG CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, SEPTEMBEROCTOBER 2011 Turfgrass quality is evaluated by integrating factors of canopy

    E-print Network

    an observer rates the appearance of turf- grass on a numeric scale. Although this method is relatively fast in quality under deficit irrigation than tall fescue. The 95% confidence intervals surrounding predictions confidence intervals, represents a practical limi- tation to predicting visual quality with NDVI. D.J. Bremer

  13. Neutron interactions with biological tissue. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    An attempt is made to obtain information about the physical stage of neutron interactions with tissue through secondary charged particles. The authors use theoretical calculations whose input includes neutron cross section data; range, stopping power, ion yield, and straggling information; and geometrical properties. Outputs are initial and slowing-down spectra of charged particles, kerma factors, average values of quality factors, microdosimetric spectra, and integral microdosimetric parameters such as {bar y}{sub F}, {bar y}{sub D}, y{sup *}. Since it has become apparent that nanometer site sizes are more relevant to radiobiological effects, the calculations of event size spectra and their parameters have been extended to these smaller diameters. This information is basic to radiological physics, radiation biology, radiation protection of workers, and standards for neutron dose measurement.

  14. Prediction of in-phantom dose distribution using in-air neutron beam characteristics for BNCS

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.

    1999-12-14

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study is carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints, such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures-of-merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium absorbed dose to the skin absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium absorbed dose to the bone absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment, (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce by a factor of 10 the particle transport simulation time by modeling the moderator only.

  15. Measurement of quality factor and losses in superconducting microwave resonator integrated with NbN/AlN/NbN qubit circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, W.; Makise, K.; Terai, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Dielectric loss from two-level systems (TLSs) formed by local defects have shown a significant impact on the qubit coherence time. These defects can originate in the insulation material for superconducting wires isolation or in the Josephson junction tunnel barrier material. Due to the complexity of the qubit circuit fabrication process, identifying the contribution from each decoherence source is challenging. In an effort to address this issue, we have developed superconducting qubit that consists of full epitaxially-grown NbN/AlN/NbN Josephson junctions in NbN coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator circuit. The dielectric loss introduced from TLFs in tunnel junction barrier has been largely reduced due to the unique epitaxial feature of the tunnel junction. The quality factor Qi of the CPW resonator was measured and the dielectric loss tan? is 3×10-4. The relaxation time inferred from the measured resonator quality factor was comparable to the qubit relaxation time.

  16. Zooplankton community structure in relation to environmental factors and ecological assessment of water quality in the Harbin Section of the Songhua River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongxian; Ma, Chengxue

    2014-11-01

    To study the relationship between zooplankton community structure and environmental factors and water quality in the Harbin Section of the Songhua River, investigations were carried out in June, August, and October 2011. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and saprobic indices were used to process and analyze the data. Seasonal variability was identified as a significant source of variation, which explains the fluctuation in zooplankton density. In autumn, the dry season, water residence time increased and zooplankton biomass and abundance accumulated in the slow flowing waters. Zooplankton abundance increased when food conditions improved. Therefore, the total zooplankton abundance in autumn is much higher than that in spring and summer. According to the saprobic indices, all the sample sites had mesosaprobic water and water quality was worse in autumn. CCA revealed that temperature accounted for most of the spatial variation in the zooplankton community. Moreover, pH, dissolved oxygen saturation, and turbidity were important factors affecting zooplankton community distribution.

  17. Fast neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report concentrates on two major areas of dosimetry research: measurement of fast neutron kerma factors for several elements for monochromatic and white spectrum neutron fields and determination of the response of thermoluminescent phosphors to various ultra-soft X-ray energies and beta-rays. Dr. Zhixin Zhou from the Shanghai Institute of Radiation Medicine, People's Republic of China brought with him special expertise in the fabrication and use of ultra-thin TLD materials. Such materials are not available in the USA. The rather unique properties of these materials were investigated during this grant period.

  18. Selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays and impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huidong; Liu, Guowen; Wang, Jian; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2014-09-16

    A simple procedure for selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays is reported. The correct weighting factor is determined by the relationship between the standard deviation of instrument responses (?) and the concentrations (x). The weighting factor of 1, 1/x, or 1/x(2) should be selected if, over the entire concentration range, ? is a constant, ?(2) is proportional to x, or ? is proportional to x, respectively. For the first time, we demonstrated with detailed scientific reasoning, solid historical data, and convincing justification that 1/x(2) should always be used as the weighting factor for all bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays. The impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance were thoroughly investigated. It was found that the most stable curve could be obtained when the correct weighting factor was used, whereas other curves using incorrect weighting factors were unstable. It was also found that there was a very insignificant impact on the concentrations reported with calibration curves using incorrect weighting factors as the concentrations were always reported with the passing curves which actually overlapped with or were very close to the curves using the correct weighting factor. However, the use of incorrect weighting factors did impact the assay performance significantly. Finally, the difference between the weighting factors of 1/x(2) and 1/y(2) was discussed. All of the findings can be generalized and applied into other quantitative analysis techniques using calibration curves with weighted least-squares regression algorithm. PMID:25157966

  19. Neutron fan beam source for neutron radiography purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Le Tourneur, P.; Bach, P.; Dance, W. E.

    1999-06-10

    The development of the DIANE neutron radiography system included a sealed-tube neutron generator for this purpose and the optimization of the system's neutron beam quality in terms of divergence and useful thermal neutron yield for each 14-MeV neutron produced. Following this development, the concept of a DIANE fan beam source is herewith introduced. The goal which drives this design is one of economy: by simply increasing the aperture dimension of a conventional DIANE beam in one plane of its collimator axis to a small-angle, fan-shaped output, the useful beam area for neutron radiography would be substantially increased. Thus with the same source, the throughput, or number of objects under examination at any given time, would be augmented significantly. Presented here are the design of this thermal neutron source and the initial Monte Carlo calculations. Taking into account the experience with the conventional DIANE neutron radiography system, these result are discussed and the potential of and interest in such a fan-beam source are explored.

  20. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Lou, Tak Pui (Berkeley, CA); Reijonen, Jani (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  1. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0, ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.1 and EAF-2010 Evaluated Data Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2012-12-15

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.

  2. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0, ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.1 and EAF-2010 Evaluated Data Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.

  3. Neutron calibration facility with an Am-Be source for pulse shape discrimination measurement of CsI(Tl) crystals

    E-print Network

    H. S. Lee; H. Bhang; J. H. Choi; S. Choi; I. S. Hahn; E. J. Jeon; H. W. Joo; W. G. Kang; G. B. Kim; H. J. Kim; K. W. Kim; S. C. Kim; S. K. Kim; Y. D. Kim; Y. H. Kim; J. H. Lee; J. K. Lee; D. S. Leonard; J. Li; S. S. Myung; S. L. Olsen; J. H. So

    2014-11-06

    We constructed a neutron calibration facility based on a 300-mCi Am-Be source in conjunction with a search for weakly interacting massive particle candidates for dark matter. The facility is used to study the response of CsI(Tl) crystals to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from the Am-Be source and comparing them with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton scattering of 662-keV $\\gamma$-rays from a $^{137}$Cs source. The measured results on pulse shape discrimination (PSD) between nuclear- and electron-recoil events are quantified in terms of quality factors. A comparison with similar result from a neutron reactor demonstrate the feasibility of performing calibrations of PSD measurements using neutrons from a Am-Be source.

  4. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  5. An elongated model of the Xenopus laevis transcription factor IIIA-5S ribosomal RNA complex derived from neutron scattering and hydrodynamic measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Timmins, P A; Langowski, J; Brown, R S

    1988-01-01

    The precise molecular composition of the Xenopus laevis TFIIIA-5S ribosomal RNA complex (7S particle) has been established from small angle neutron and dynamic light scattering. The molecular weight of the particle was found to be 95,700 +/- 10,000 and 86,700 +/- 9000 daltons from these two methods respectively. The observed match point of 54.4% D2O obtained from contrast variation experiments indicates a 1:1 molar ratio. It is concluded that only a single molecule of TFIIIA, a zinc-finger protein, and of 5S RNA are present in this complex. At high neutron scattering contrast radius of gyration of 42.3 +/- 2 A was found for the 7S particle. In addition a diffusion coefficient of 4.4 x 10(-11) [m2 s-1] and a sedimentation coefficient of 6.2S were determined. The hydrodynamic radius obtained for the 7S particle is 48 +/- 5 A. A simple elongated cylindrical model with dimensions of 140 A length and 59 A diameter is compatible with the neutron results. A globular model can be excluded by the shallow nature of the neutron scattering curves. It is proposed that the observed difference of 15 A in length between the 7S particle and isolated 5S RNA most likely indicates that part(s) of the protein protrudes from the end(s) of the RNA molecule. There is no biochemical evidence for any gross alteration in 5S RNA conformation upon binding to TFIIIA. PMID:3419928

  6. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Morgan; Jeffrey C. King; Chad L. Pope

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 +_ 0.1 degrees, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum.

  7. Neutron reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice; Menelle, Alain

    2015-10-01

    The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples) and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  8. A Nationwide Survey on Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Koyama, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    The psychosocial outcomes of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) appear to be diverse and are often poor relative to their intellectual or language level. To identify predictive variables that are potentially ameliorable by therapeutic intervention, this study investigated self-reported psychosocial quality of life…

  9. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS IN IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL. VOLUME III. MIDDLE RIO GRANDE VALLEY CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Degradation of water quality as a consequence of use in irrigation in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico is a largely unavoidable phenomenon. In this region annual allocations of water to irrigated farms, about 2.5 acre-feet per acre, are little more than enough to produce...

  10. Influence of cold storage prior to and after ripening on quality factors and sensory attributes of ‘Hass’ avocados

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partially-ripened avocados are often held in cold storage in an attempt to enable the consistent delivery of ripe fruit to food service or retail outlets, although the effect on the quality of such fruit is incompletely understood. ‘Hass’ avocados were ripened to near ripeness (13.3 - 17.8 N) at 20 ...

  11. A sensory and chemical analysis of fresh strawberries over harvest dates and seasons reveals factors that affect eating quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to understand the components of eating quality of several strawberry genotypes grown in Florida, over two harvest seasons. Six genotypes of the University of Florida Breeding program, as well as two new cultivars from Australia, 'Rubygem' and 'Sugarbaby', harvested on diffe...

  12. Examining the Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Quality of Life Scale among People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M.; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Bishop, Malachy; Merchant, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation counseling researchers seeking to more fully understand the phenomenon of psychosocial adaptation to disability are devoting increased attention to the impact of disability on quality of life (QOL). This impact has been of particular interest among multiple sclerosis (MS) researchers. The complex etiology, unpredictable nature, and…

  13. Extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic {sup 3}He-vector(e-vector,e{sup '}) at Q{sup 2}=0.1-0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.; Petratos, G. G.; Prout, D.; Suleiman, R.; Watson, J.; Auberbach, L.; Choi, Seonho; Incerti, S.; Lakuriqi, E.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Schnee, M.; Slifer, K.; Averett, T.; Djawotho, P.; Finn, J. M.; Jones, M.; Kramer, K.; Bertozzi, W.; Black, T.; Chai, Z. W.

    2007-03-15

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T{sup '}} in the quasielastic {sup 3}He-vector(e-vector,e{sup '}) process with high precision at Q{sup 2} values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} was extracted at Q{sup 2} values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} using a nonrelativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of {sup 3}He-vector(e-vector,e{sup '}). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} at Q{sup 2} values of 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} based on plane wave impulse approximation calculations.

  14. Precise Extraction of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor from Quasi-elastic 3He(pol)(e(pol),e') at Q^2 = 0.1-0.6 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Jens-ole Hansen; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jiang-Ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G Corrado; Christopher Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Dipangkar Dutta; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; Jacek Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Piotr Zolnierczuk; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; Cathleen Jones; Mark Jones; R Kahl; H Kamada; A Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John LeRose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; Jeffery Martin; Kathy McCormick; Robert McKeown; Kevin McIlhany; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Greg Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; Emanuele Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; David Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Giovanni Salme; Michael Schnee; Charles Seely; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; M Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; John Watson; Claude Williamson; H Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Feng Xiong; Wang Xu; Jen-chuan Yeh

    2006-05-05

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} in the quasi-elastic {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e') process with high precision at Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} was extracted at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} using a non-relativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of {sup 3}/rvec He/(/rvec e/,e'). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} at Q{sup 2}-values of 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2} based on Plane Wave Impulse Approximation calculations.

  15. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q2 = 1.17 and 1.47(GeV/c)2 from the 2H (e, en)' H reaction.

    SciTech Connect

    William Tireman

    2003-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gne/Gnm, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2H(e,en)1 H reaction at q2 = 0.45, 1.17 and 1.47 (GeV/c)2 in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A polarimeter designed specifically for E93-038 was used to measure the up-down scattering asymmetry from the transverse component of the recoil neutron's polarization vector, and a dipole magnet located in front of the polarimeter was used to precess the polarization vector in the scattering plane through an angle of x. Sequential measurements of the scattering asymmetry with the polarization vector precessed through angles x = 0s and x = ±90s for Q2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)2 were made during January 2001 and through angles x = ±40s for Q2 = 1.17 (GeV/c)2 during April 2001 and will be reported on in this dissertation. This ratio method removes the need to know the analyzing power

  16. The COLON study: Colorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is clear evidence that nutrition and lifestyle can modify colorectal cancer risk. However, it is not clear if those factors can affect colorectal cancer treatment, recurrence, survival and quality of life. This paper describes the background and design of the “COlorectal cancer: Longitudinal, Observational study on Nutritional and lifestyle factors that may influence colorectal tumour recurrence, survival and quality of life” – COLON – study. The main aim of this study is to assess associations of diet and other lifestyle factors, with colorectal cancer recurrence, survival and quality of life. We extensively investigate diet and lifestyle of colorectal cancer patients at diagnosis and during the following years; this design paper focusses on the initial exposures of interest: diet and dietary supplement use, body composition, nutrient status (e.g. vitamin D), and composition of the gut microbiota. Methods/Design The COLON study is a multi-centre prospective cohort study among at least 1,000 incident colorectal cancer patients recruited from 11 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with colorectal cancer are invited upon diagnosis. Upon recruitment, after 6 months, 2 years and 5 years, patients fill out food-frequency questionnaires; questionnaires about dietary supplement use, physical activity, weight, height, and quality of life; and donate blood samples. Diagnostic CT-scans are collected to assess cross-sectional areas of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat and intermuscular fat, and to assess muscle attenuation. Blood samples are biobanked to facilitate future analyse of biomarkers, nutrients, DNA etc. Analysis of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, and analysis of metabolomic profiles are scheduled. A subgroup of patients with colon cancer is asked to provide faecal samples before and at several time points after colon resection to study changes in gut microbiota during treatment. For all patients, information on vital status is retrieved by linkage with national registries. Information on clinical characteristics is gathered from linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and with hospital databases. Hazards ratios will be calculated for dietary and lifestyle factors at diagnosis in relation to recurrence and survival. Repeated measures analyses will be performed to assess changes over time in dietary and other factors in relation to recurrence and survival. PMID:24886284

  17. Impact of the revision of 10CFR835 with regard to neutron field surveys.

    PubMed

    Veinot, K G

    2008-08-01

    The compliance requirements for Department of Energy facilities are codified in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835. The regulation was recently revised to adopt the 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Although the impacts of this change include areas other than neutron dosimetry, the intent of this text is to outline the new regulation's effect on neutron instrument calibrations and field surveys. A significant change as a result of the adoption of the ICRP 60 recommendations is the change in the quality factor applied to operational quantities including the quantity used for area monitoring and instrument calibrations, notably the ambient dose equivalent, H*(d). Since the definitions of the operational quantities were not changed, the absorbed dose values for these quantities remain consistent with previous recommendations so the only adjustment necessary is to account for the revised quality factors. For this work, commonly encountered neutron spectra were folded with energy dependent conversion coefficients, h*(10)(E), determined using the old and new quality factors to compute conversion coefficients for the various sources. Additionally, the effect on a single point calibration for the widely used "Rem ball" is discussed. In general, the change in conversion coefficients under the newer guidelines results in a 5 to 15% increase in H*(10), which will require modifications to instrument calibrations. PMID:18617798

  18. Neutron range spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Manglos, S.H.

    1988-03-10

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are colliminated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. 1 fig.

  19. FOREWORD: Neutron metrology Neutron metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, David J.; Nolte, Ralf; Gressier, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    The International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) has consultative committees covering various areas of metrology. The Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI) differs from the others in having three sections: Section (I) deals with radiation dosimetry, Section (II) with radionuclide metrology and Section (III) with neutron metrology. In 2003 a proposal was made to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the three Sections. Section (II) was the first to complete their task, and their special issue was published in 2007, volume 44(4). This was followed in 2009 by the special issue on radiation dosimetry, volume 46(2). The present issue, volume 48(6), completes the trilogy and attempts to explain neutron metrology, the youngest of the three disciplines, the neutron only having been discovered in 1932, to a wider audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of this field. When originally approached with the idea of this special issue, Section (III) immediately saw the value of a publication specifically on neutron metrology. It is a topic area where papers tend to be scattered throughout the literature in journals covering, for example, nuclear instrumentation, radiation protection or radiation measurements in general. Review articles tend to be few. People new to the field often ask for an introduction to the various topics. There are some excellent older textbooks, but these are now becoming obsolete. More experienced workers in specific areas of neutron metrology can find it difficult to know the latest position in related areas. The papers in this issue attempt, without presenting a purely historical outline, to describe the field in a sufficiently logical way to provide the novice with a clear introduction, while being sufficiently up-to-date to provide the more experienced reader with the latest scientific developments in the different topic areas. Neutron radiation fields obviously occur throughout the nuclear industry, from the initial fuel enrichment and fabrication processes right through to storage or reprocessing, and neutron metrology is clearly important in this area. Neutron fields do, however, occur in other areas, for example where neutron sources are used in oil well logging and moisture measurements. They also occur around high energy accelerators, including photon linear accelerators used for cancer therapy, and are expected to be a more serious problem around the new hadron radiation therapy facilities. Roughly 50% of the cosmic ray doses experienced by fliers at the flight altitudes of commercial aircraft are due to neutrons. Current research on fusion presents neutron metrology with a whole new range of challenges because of the very high fluences expected. One of the most significant features of neutron fields is the very wide range of possible neutron energies. In the nuclear industry, for example, neutrons occur with energies from those of thermal neutrons at a few meV to the upper end of the fission spectrum at perhaps 10 MeV. For cosmic ray dosimetry the energy range extends into the GeV region. This enormous range sets a challenge for designing measuring devices and a parallel challenge of developing measurement standards for characterizing these devices. One of the major considerations when deciding on topics for this special issue was agreeing on what not to include. Modelling, i.e. the use of radiation transport codes, is now a very important aspect of neutron measurements. These calculations are vital for shielding and for instrument design; nevertheless, the topic has only been included here where it has a direct bearing on metrology and the development of standards. Neutron spectrometry is an increasingly important technique for unravelling some of the problems of dose equivalent measurements and for plasma diagnostics in fusion research. However, this topic is at least one step removed from primary metrology and so it was felt that it should not be covered, particularly as a compendium of papers on spectrometry for radiation protection has

  20. The coherence of kHz quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-rays from accreting neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Didier Barret; Jean-Francois Olive; M. Coleman Miller

    2006-05-19

    We study in a systematic way the quality factor of the lower and upper kHz QPOs in a sample of low luminosity neutron star X-ray binaries, showing both QPOs varying over a wide frequency range. The sample includes 4U 1636-536, 4U 1608-522, 4U 1735-44, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1820-303 and 4U 0614+09. We find that all sources except 4U 0614+091 show evidence of a drop in the quality factor of their lower kHz QPOs at high frequency. For 4U 0614+091 only the rising part of the quality factor versus frequency curve has been sampled so far. At the same time, in all sources but 4U 1728-34, the quality factor of the upper kilo-Hz QPO increases all the way to the highest detectable frequencies. We show that the high-frequency behaviours of both the lower and upper kHz QPO quality factors are consistent with what is expected if the drop is produced by the approach of an active oscillating region to the innermost stable circular orbit: the existence of which is a key feature of General Relativity in the strong field regime. Within this interpretation, our results imply gravitational masses around 2 solar masses for the neutron stars in those systems.

  1. Using Local and Regional Air Quality Modeling and Source Apportionment Tools to Evaluate Vehicles and Biogenic Emission Factors 

    E-print Network

    Kota, Sri H

    2014-07-25

    using fluxes of 18 VOCs measured on a tall tower in urban Houston during 2008. Vehicle contributions to the observed flux were determined using the Multilinear Engine (ME-2), a receptor-oriented source apportionment model. Emission factors of vehicle...

  2. The Socio-Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Patients with Haematological Cancer in a Large Government Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Priscilla, Das; Hamidin, Awang; Azhar, Md Zain; Noorjan, Kon; Salmiah, Md Said; Bahariah, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Background: The paper examined the quality of life of haematological cancer patients according to their socio-demographic profiles and clinical diagnoses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary referral centre of Ampang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, involving 105 patients. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Results: The study involved patients diagnosed with all types of haematological cancer, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and multiple myeloma (MM), with a response rate of 83.3%. The patients with ALL, HL, without NHL, and without MM were younger than other patients. There were significant differences in quality of life scores in different socio-demographic groups and types of cancer diagnosis. The global quality of life of the female patients was much better than that of the male patients. Patients who were 40 years old or younger had a better global quality of life and physical functioning, as well as fewer symptoms of constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Employed patients were in less pain but showed greater impairments of cognitive function than did unemployed patients. Patients who earned a monthly wage of RM1000 or less had reduced physical function, more symptoms of pain, and more financial difficulties compared with patients who earned more. Patients with AML tended to have better physical functioning than did patients with MM, whose physical functioning was impaired. Comparatively, more symptoms of dyspnoea were found in ALL and HL patients than in other types of lymphoma. Compared with other patients, those with ALL had a greater loss of appetite, and other lymphoma patients had fewer symptoms of pain. Patients with NHL had impaired role functioning and more constipation compared with other patients. The results were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The quality of life of haematological cancer patients is affected by socio-demographic factors and clinical diagnoses. Efforts should be made to improve the overall quality of life of these patients. PMID:22135601

  3. Association between nutritional awareness and diet quality: evidence from the observation of cardiovascular risk factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Malan, Leoné; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between nutritional awareness and diet quality, as indicated by energy density, dietary diversity and adequacy to achieve dietary recommendations, while considering the potentially important role of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18-69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. Energy density score (EDS), dietary diversity score (DDS) and Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI) were calculated based on data derived from a food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional awareness was defined as self-perception of the importance assigned to eating balanced meals, and classified as high, moderate, or of little importance. Initially, a General Linear Model was fit that adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, and body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, simultaneous contributions to diet quality of individual-level socioeconomic factors, education, and household income were examined across levels of nutritional awareness. Attributing high importance was associated inversely with energy density (p = 0.02), positively with both dietary diversity (p < 0.0001), and adequacy to dietary recommendations (p < 0.0001), independent of demographic factors, weight status and SES. Further adjustment for household income in the EDS-related multivariable model, reduced the ? coefficient by 47% for the "moderate importance" category and 36% for the "high importance" category. Likewise, the ? coefficient decreased by 13.6% and 10.7% in the DDS-related model, and by 12.5%, and 7.1% in the RCI-related model, respectively, across awareness categories. Nutritional awareness has a direct effect on diet quality, with a minor component of variance explained by improved income. The impact of nutritional awareness on diet quality seems to be a promising area for both health promotion and health policy research. PMID:25875122

  4. Association between Nutritional Awareness and Diet Quality: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alkerwi, Ala’a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Malan, Leoné; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between nutritional awareness and diet quality, as indicated by energy density, dietary diversity and adequacy to achieve dietary recommendations, while considering the potentially important role of socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from 1351 subjects, aged 18–69 years and enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study. Energy density score (EDS), dietary diversity score (DDS) and Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI) were calculated based on data derived from a food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional awareness was defined as self-perception of the importance assigned to eating balanced meals, and classified as high, moderate, or of little importance. Initially, a General Linear Model was fit that adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, and body mass index (BMI). Furthermore, simultaneous contributions to diet quality of individual-level socioeconomic factors, education, and household income were examined across levels of nutritional awareness. Attributing high importance was associated inversely with energy density (p = 0.02), positively with both dietary diversity (p < 0.0001), and adequacy to dietary recommendations (p < 0.0001), independent of demographic factors, weight status and SES. Further adjustment for household income in the EDS-related multivariable model, reduced the ? coefficient by 47% for the “moderate importance” category and 36% for the “high importance” category. Likewise, the ? coefficient decreased by 13.6% and 10.7% in the DDS-related model, and by 12.5%, and 7.1% in the RCI-related model, respectively, across awareness categories. Nutritional awareness has a direct effect on diet quality, with a minor component of variance explained by improved income. The impact of nutritional awareness on diet quality seems to be a promising area for both health promotion and health policy research. PMID:25875122

  5. Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liwei

    2004-12-12

    Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

  6. Factors affecting the quality of fish caught by Native Americans in the Zone 6 fishery 1991 through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Abernethy, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    A program to monitor the salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) fishery in the lower Columbia River (Zone 6 fishery) was initiated in 1991 to respond to questions and comments frequently made by Native Americans at public meetings. Native Americans were concerned that the quality of the Columbia River had deteriorated and that the poor environmental conditions had affected the health and quality of fish they relied on for subsistence, ceremonial, religious, and commercial purposes. They also feared that eating contaminated fish might endanger the health of their children and future generations. Operations at the Hanford Site were listed as one of many causes of the deteriorating environment. Fisheries pathologists concluded that most of the external symptoms on fish were related to bacterial infection of gill net abrasions and pre-spawning trauma, and were not caused by pollution or contamination of the Columbia River. The pathologists also stated that consumption of the fish posed no threat to human consumers.

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host society and focus on improving social support networks in order to foster and maintain the health and HRQoL of this group. PMID:25835714

  8. Relevance of dietary protein concentration and quality as risk factors for the formation of calcium oxalate stones in cats.

    PubMed

    Paßlack, Nadine; Burmeier, Hannes; Brenten, Thomas; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary protein for the development of feline calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths has not been conclusively clarified. The present study evaluated the effects of a varying dietary protein concentration and quality on critical indices for the formation of CaOx uroliths. Three diets with a high protein quality (10-11 % greaves meal/diet) and a varying crude protein (CP) concentration (35, 44 and 57 % in DM) were compared. Additionally, the 57 % CP diet was compared with a fourth diet that had a similar CP concentration (55 % in DM), but a lower protein quality (34 % greaves meal/diet). The Ca and oxalate (Ox) concentrations were similar in all diets. A group of eight cats received the same diet at the same time. Each feeding period was divided into a 21 d adaptation period and a 7 d sampling period to collect urine. There were increases in urinary volume, urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with CaOx with increasing dietary protein concentrations. Urinary pH ranged between 6·34 and 6·66 among all groups, with no unidirectional effect of dietary protein. Lower renal Ca excretion was observed when feeding the diet with the lower protein quality, however, the underlying mechanism needs further evaluation. In conclusion, although the observed higher urinary volume is beneficial, the increase in urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary RSS CaOx associated with a high-protein diet may be critical for the development of CaOx uroliths in cats. PMID:26101619

  9. A 1.16-{\\mu}m-radius disk cavity in a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal with ultrahigh quality factor

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Xufeng; Tang, Hong X

    2012-01-01

    We present a 1.16-\\mum-radius disk cavity with ultrahigh quality (Q) factor by embedding the disk into a sunflower-type circular photonic crystal (CPC). The band gap of the CPC reduces the bending loss of the whispering-gallery mode of the disk, leading to a simulated Q of 10^7, at least one order of magnitude higher than a bare disk of the same size. The design is experimentally verified with a record high loaded Q of 7.4 \\times 10^5 measured from an optimized device fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate.

  10. Correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (KSNR) and clinical image quality for chest imaging with a computed radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. S.; Wood, T. J.; Saunderson, J. R.; Beavis, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    This work assessed the appropriateness of the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (KSNR) as a metric for the optimisation of computed radiography (CR) of the chest. The results of a previous study in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer simulated chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme to quantify the benefit of using an anti-scatter grid were used for the clinical image quality measurement (number of simulated patients??=??80). The KSNR was used to calculate the improvement in physical image quality measured in a physical chest phantom. KSNR correlation with VGAS was assessed as a function of chest region (lung, spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragm), and as a function of x-ray tube voltage in a given chest region. The correlation of the latter was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. VGAS and KSNR image quality metrics demonstrated no correlation in the lung region but did show correlation in the spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragmatic regions. However, there was no correlation as a function of tube voltage in any region; a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of???0.93 (p??=??0.015) was found for lung, a coefficient (R) of???0.95 (p??=??0.46) was found for spine, and a coefficient (R) of???0.85 (p??=??0.015) was found for diaphragm. All demonstrate strong negative correlations indicating conflicting results, i.e. KSNR increases with tube voltage but VGAS decreases. Medical physicists should use the KSNR metric with caution when assessing any potential improvement in clinical chest image quality when introducing an anti-scatter grid for CR imaging, especially in the lung region. This metric may also be a limited descriptor of clinical chest image quality as a function of tube voltage when a grid is used routinely.

  11. Correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (KSNR) and clinical image quality for chest imaging with a computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W

    2015-12-01

    This work assessed the appropriateness of the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (KSNR) as a metric for the optimisation of computed radiography (CR) of the chest. The results of a previous study in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer simulated chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme to quantify the benefit of using an anti-scatter grid were used for the clinical image quality measurement (number of simulated patients??=??80). The KSNR was used to calculate the improvement in physical image quality measured in a physical chest phantom. KSNR correlation with VGAS was assessed as a function of chest region (lung, spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragm), and as a function of x-ray tube voltage in a given chest region. The correlation of the latter was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. VGAS and KSNR image quality metrics demonstrated no correlation in the lung region but did show correlation in the spine and diaphragm/retrodiaphragmatic regions. However, there was no correlation as a function of tube voltage in any region; a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of??-0.93 (p??=??0.015) was found for lung, a coefficient (R) of??-0.95 (p??=??0.46) was found for spine, and a coefficient (R) of??-0.85 (p??=??0.015) was found for diaphragm. All demonstrate strong negative correlations indicating conflicting results, i.e. KSNR increases with tube voltage but VGAS decreases. Medical physicists should use the KSNR metric with caution when assessing any potential improvement in clinical chest image quality when introducing an anti-scatter grid for CR imaging, especially in the lung region. This metric may also be a limited descriptor of clinical chest image quality as a function of tube voltage when a grid is used routinely. PMID:26540441

  12. Processing of Neutron Diffraction Data for Strain Measurement in Geological Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polsky, Yarom; An, Ke; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Bingham, Philip R; Carmichael, Justin R; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius

    2014-01-01

    : Conventional rock mechanics testing techniques typically involve the loading of samples and measurement of displacements or strains on the outer boundary of the specimen surface. Neutron diffraction based strain measurement techniques represent a unique and powerful tool for measuring the strain within geological materials under load. The structural variability and non-uniform crystallinity of geological materials, however, create many complexities in the intensity patterns that must be analyzed to quantify strains within the material. The attenuating and scattering properties of the pressure cell housing the sample further add difficulties to the data analysis. This paper describes the methods and processes used to process neutron scattering data for strain measurement in geological materials. It is intended to provide a primer for those in the rock mechanics community that are interested in utilizing this technique along with additional discussion of neutron diffraction experimental factors that may affect data quality.

  13. A study of neutron leakage through an Fe shield at an accelerator.

    PubMed

    Elwyn, A J; Cossairt, J D

    1986-12-01

    The spectrum of neutrons, produced in the interactions of hadrons with energies up to several hundred GeV, that are emitted through a large Fe electro magnet has been determined by use of a multisphere spectrometer both before and after the shielding was augmented with concrete. The existence of leakage neutrons at energies of approximately 0.005-1.0 MeV was verified in the initial configuration, and found to be completely eliminated in the spectrum obtained after the concrete was added. The quality factor of the radiation field was measured; the values are reduced from about six to three with the extra shielding. Additional fluence measurements in the environs of the magnet can be interpreted in terms of a skyshine mechanism with source and attenuation parameters consistent with the energies and intensity of the leakage neutrons. PMID:3781849

  14. An Accelerator Neutron Source for BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas, E

    2006-03-14

    The overall goal of this project was to develop an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Specifically, our goals were to design, and confirm by measurement, a target assembly and a moderator assembly that would fulfill the design requirements of the ABNS. These design requirements were 1) that the neutron field quality be as good as the neutron field quality for the reactor-based neutron sources for BNCT, 2) that the patient treatment time be reasonable, 3) that the proton current required to treat patients in reasonable times be technologially achievable at reasonable cost with good reliability, and accelerator space requirements which can be met in a hospital, and finally 4) that the treatment be safe for the patients.

  15. Neutron Repulsion

    E-print Network

    Oliver K. Manuel

    2011-02-08

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch that locked together these puzzling space-age observations: 1.) Excess 136Xe accompanied primordial helium in the stellar debris that formed the solar system (Fig. 1); 2.) The Sun formed on the supernova core (Fig. 2); 3.) Waste products from the core pass through an iron-rich mantle, selectively carrying lighter elements and lighter isotopes of each element into the photosphere (Figs. 3-4); and 4.) Neutron repulsion powers the Sun and sustains life (Figs. 5-7). Together these findings offer a framework for understanding how: a.) The Sun generates and releases neutrinos, energy and solar-wind hydrogen and helium; b.) An inhabitable planet formed and life evolved around an ordinary-looking star; c.) Continuous climate change - induced by cyclic changes in gravitational interactions of the Sun's energetic core with planets - has favored survival by adaptation.

  16. Fibroblast growth factor 17 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 enhance cumulus expansion and improve quality of in vitro-produced embryos in cattle.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Fernandes; Caixeta, Ester Siqueira; Sudiman, Jaqueline; Gilchrist, Robert B; Thompson, Jeremy G; Lima, Paula Fernanda; Price, Christopher A; Buratini, José

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family are expressed by the oocyte and are involved in the control of cumulus cell function. We tested the hypothesis that FGF17, alone or combined with BMP15 in the maturation medium, enhances cumulus expansion, meiosis progression, embryonic development, and expression of mRNA encoding key genes regulating expansion (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [PTGS2], hyaluronan synthase 2 [HAS2], tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 [TNFAIP6], and pentraxin 3 [PTX3]) and markers of oocyte developmental competence (phosphofructokinase [PFKP], gremlin [GREM1], versican [VCAN], and the genomic progesterone receptor [nPR]) in cumulus cells. Fibroblast growth factor 17 and BMP15 increased the percentage of fully expanded cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), but there was no additive effect when both were combined. Neither FGF17 nor BMP15 altered the percentage of oocytes reaching meiosis II at the end of COC culture or cleavage and blastocyst rates after IVF. However, embryo quality, as assessed by the number of cells in the inner cell mass, was improved by the combination of FGF17 with BMP15. Fibroblast growth factor 17 alone did not alter gene expression in cumulus cells at the end of IVM, whereas BMP15 increased PTGS2 and PTX3 mRNA levels. The combination of FGF17 and BMP15 increased nPR mRNA abundance in cumulus cells but did not change the expression of other markers of developmental competence. This study provides novel evidence that FGF17 enhances cumulus expansion in bovine COCs submitted to IVM and that the supplementation of the IVM medium with FGF17 and BMP15 may improve embryo quality. PMID:25930732

  17. Quality of physical therapy from a patient’s perspective; factor analysis on web-based survey data revealed three dimensions on patient experiences with physical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing quality of care from the patient’s perspective has changed from patient satisfaction to the more general term patient experience, as satisfaction measures turned out to be less discriminative due to high scores. Literature describes four to ten dimensions of patient experience, tailored to specific conditions or types of care. Given the administrative burden on patients, less dimensions and items could increase feasibility. Ten dimensions of patient experiences with physical therapy (PT) were proposed in the Netherlands in a consensus-based process with patients, physical therapists, health insurers, and policy makers. The aim of this paper is to detect the number of dimensions from data of a field study using factor analysis at item level. Methods A web-based survey yielded data of 2,221 patients from 52 PT practices on 41 items. Principal component factor analysis at item level was used to assess the proposed distinction between the ten dimensions. Results Factor analysis revealed two dimensions: ‘personal interaction’ and ‘practice organisation’. The dimension ‘patient reported outcome’ was artificially established. The three dimensions ‘personal interaction’ (14 items) (medianpractice level?=?91.1; IQR?=?2.4), ‘practice organisation’ (9 items) (medianpractice level?=?88.9; IQR?=?6.0) and ‘outcome’ (3 items) (medianpractice level?=?80.6; IQR?=?19.5) reduced the number of dimensions from ten to three and the number of items by more than a third. Conclusions Factor analysis revealed three dimensions and achieved an item reduction of more than a third. It is a relevant step in the development process of a quality measurement tool to reduce respondent burden, increase clarity, and promote feasibility. PMID:24942662

  18. Evaluating The Air Quality Impacts Of The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: The Spatial Distribution Of Inhalable Particulate Matter And Their Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenhui; Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenji; Li, Xiaojuan; Tang, Ming

    2010-10-01

    To achieve good air quality and improve traffic during Olympic Games, the Beijing Municipal Government enacted a series of emission control regulations before and during these events. It created a valuable case study to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures on mitigating air pollution and protecting public health. In this paper, we report the results from our field campaign from summer 2007 to 2009 on the on- road emission factors of inhalable particulate matter (IPM) as well as the meteorological factors like temperature, wind speed and humidity. The control measures on vehicle and using light-duty gasoline vehicles showed considerable reduction in the Olympic year (2008) and after-Olympic year (2009) compared to the pre-Olympic year (2007). The concentration of IPM increased with higher construction ratio and population density, while decreased by the higher vegetation cover ratio (VCR). It is also influenced by meteorological factors: temperature has a positive correlation with coarse particle and negative correlation with fine particle. However, the correlation between humidity and fine IPM was positive and negative in coarse IPM. The most influence factor is humidity, the temperature was the second and the wind speed was the least.

  19. Factors associated with pre-eclampsia and quality care of affected teenagers during labour within health region H. in Kwa-Zulu Natal.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, N J

    1997-12-01

    This is a descriptive, exploratory study which aimed at identifying the factors that are associated with pre-eclampsia in teenagers. The study also aimed at assessing the quality of midwifery care during labour in teenagers with pre-eclampsia so that recommendations can be made based on empirical findings. The study was done within Health Region H of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. A structured interview schedule was designed to tap information from pre-eclamptic teenagers in an attempt to identify factors associated with pre-eclampsia. A checklist was also designed and administered to assess the care of a pre-eclamptic teenager during labour. The study revealed that factors like age, nulliparity and socio-economic status were associated with pre-eclampsia. In as far as the rest of the factors, there was no relationship as indicated in previous studies. The study also revealed that teenagers affected by pre-eclampsia delayed in attending the antenatal clinic resulting in the control of the disease being difficult. In as far as midwifery care, the study revealed that psychological and social care, as well as the hygienic state of patients was not satisfactory. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that health education on prevention of pre-eclampsia should be done on an ongoing process, while carers for teenage mothers should be given inservice education programmes on psychosocial care. The physical environment for maternity units must be improved. PMID:9538699

  20. Neutron therapy of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Nellans, H. N.; Shaw, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Reports relate applications of neutrons to the problem of cancer therapy. The biochemical and biophysical aspects of fast-neutron therapy, neutron-capture and neutron-conversion therapy with intermediate-range neutrons are presented. Also included is a computer program for neutron-gamma radiobiology.

  1. [Comparison of the absorbed dose at calibration depth of photon beams using the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 beam quality conversion factor in the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Naoki; Takemura, Akihiro; Kita, Akinobu; Murai, Emi; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Toi, Akiko; Shimada, Masato; Sasamoto, Kouhei; Adachi, Toshiki

    2013-10-01

    In standard external beam radiotherapy dosimetry, which is based on absorbed dose by water, the absorbed dose at any calibration depth is calculated using the same beam quality conversion factor, regardless of the presence or absence of a waterproofing sleeve. In this study, we evaluated whether there were differences between absorbed doses at calibration depths calculated using a beam quality conversion factor including a wall correction factor that corresponds to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, and without a waterproofing sleeve. The Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) has reported that the uncertainty of the results using a beam quality conversion factor that included a wall correction factor corresponding to a waterproofing sleeve thickness of 0.3 mm, regardless of the presence or absence of the sleeve, was 0.2%. This uncertainty proved to be in agreement with the reported range. PMID:24140905

  2. Assessment of water quality and factors affecting dissolved oxygen in the Sangamon River, Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, summer 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, A.R.; Stamer, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality and processes that affect the dissolved-oxygen concentration in a 45.9 mile reach of the Sangamon River from Decatur to Riverton, Illinois, were determined from data collected during low-flow periods in the summer of 1982. Relations among dissolved oxygen, water discharge, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations, and photosynthetic-oxygen production were simulated using a one-dimensional, steady-state computer model. Average dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.0 milligrams per liter at the upstream end of the study reach at Decatur to 5.2 milligrams per liter 12.2 miles downstream. Ammonia concentrations ranged from 45 milligrams per liter at the mouth of Stevens Creek (2.6 miles downstream from Decatur) to 0.03 milligram per liter at the downstream end of the study reach. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations exceeded the maximum concentration specified in the State water quality standard (0.04 milligram per liter) throughout most of the study reach. Model simulations indicated that oxidation of ammonia to form nitrite plus nitrate was the most significant process leading to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the river. (USGS)

  3. Facility for fast neutron irradiation tests of electronics at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Salsano, A.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Gerardin, S.; Frost, C. D.; Ansell, S.; Platt, S. P.

    2008-03-17

    The VESUVIO beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source was set up for neutron irradiation tests in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV. The neutron flux and energy spectrum were shown, in benchmark activation measurements, to provide a neutron spectrum similar to the ambient one at sea level, but with an enhancement in intensity of a factor of 10{sup 7}. Such conditions are suitable for accelerated testing of electronic components, as was demonstrated here by measurements of soft error rates in recent technology field programable gate arrays.

  4. Computation of synthetic seismograms in a 3 dimensional Earth and inversion of eigenfrequency and Q quality factor datasets of normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, Julien; Clevede, Eric; Roult, Genevieve

    2010-05-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman event is the third biggest earthquake that has never been recorded but the first recorded with high quality broad-band seismometers. Such an earthquake offered a good opportunity for studying the normal modes of the Earth and particularly the gravest ones (frequency lower than 1 mHz) which provide important information on deep Earth. The splitting of some modes has been carefully analyzed. The eigenfrequencies and the Q quality factors of particular singlets have been retrieved with an unprecedented precision. In some cases, the eigenfrequencies of some singlets exhibit a clear shift when compared to the theoretical eigenfrequencies. Some core modes such as the 3S2 mode present an anomalous splitting, that is to say, a splitting width much larger than the expected one. Such anomalous splitting is presently admitted to be due to the existence of lateral heterogeneities in the inner core. We need an accurate model of the whole Earth and a method to compute synthetic seismograms in order to compare synthetic and observed data and to explain the behavior of such modes. Synthetic seismograms are computed by normal modes summation using a perturbative method developed up to second order in amplitude and up to third order in frequency (HOPT method). The last step consists in inverting both eigenfrequency and Q quality factor datasets in order to better constrain the deep Earth structure and especially the inner core. In order to find models of acceptable data fit in a multidimensional parameter space, we use the neighborhood algorithm method which is a derivative-free search method. It is particularly well adapted in our case (non linear problem) and is easy to tune with only 2 parameters. Our purpose is to find an ensemble of models that fit the data rather than a unique model.

  5. Neutron rich nuclei and neutron stars

    E-print Network

    C. J. Horowitz

    2013-03-01

    The PREX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory measures the neutron radius of 208Pb with parity violating electron scattering in a way that is free from most strong interaction uncertainties. The 208Pb radius has important implications for neutron rich matter and the structure of neutron stars. We present first PREX results, describe future plans, and discuss a follow on measurement of the neutron radius of 48Ca. We review radio and X-ray observations of neutron star masses and radii. These constrain the equation of state (pressure versus density) of neutron rich matter. We present a new energy functional that is simultaneously fit to both nuclear and neutron star properties. In this approach, neutron star masses and radii constrain the energy of neutron matter. This avoids having to rely on model dependent microscopic calculations of neutron matter. The functional is then used to predict the location of the drip lines and the properties of very neutron rich heavy nuclei.

  6. Recent (2003-05) Water Quality of Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, With Emphasis on Factors Affecting Variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Garner, Bradley D.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Guilfoyle, Amber L.; Rao, Mohan V.

    2006-01-01

    From 2003 to 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected and analyzed water samples from the four springs (orifices) of Barton Springs in Austin, Texas (Upper, Main, Eliza, and Old Mill Springs), with the objective of characterizing water quality. Barton Springs is the major discharge point for the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer. A three-pronged sampling approach was used: physicochemical properties (including specific conductance and turbidity) were measured continuously; samples were collected from the four springs routinely every 2 weeks (during August-September 2003) to 3 weeks (during June 2004-June 2005) and analyzed for some or all major ions, nutrients, trace elements, soluble pesticides, and volatile organic compounds; and samples were collected from the four springs at more closely spaced intervals during the 2 weeks following two storms and analyzed for the same suite of constituents. Following the two storms, samples also were collected from five of the six major streams that provide recharge to Barton Springs. Spring discharge during both sample collection periods was above average (60 cubic feet per second or greater). Barton Springs was found to be affected by persistent low concentrations of atrazine (an herbicide), chloroform (a drinking-water disinfection by-product), and tetrachloroethene (a solvent). Increased recharge from the major recharging streams resulted in increased calcium, sulfate, atrazine, simazine, and tetrachloroethene concentrations and decreased concentrations of most other major ions, nitrate, and chloroform at one or more of the springs. These changes in concentration demonstrate the influence of water quality in recharging streams on water quality at the springs even during non-stormflow conditions. The geochemical compositions of the four springs indicate that Upper Spring is more contaminated and is influenced by a contributing flow path that is separate from those leading to other springs under all but stormflow conditions. Main, Eliza, and Old Mill Springs share at least one common flow path that contributes contaminants to the three springs. Old Mill Spring, however, is less affected by anthropogenic contaminants than the other springs and receives a greater component of water from a flow path whose geochemistry is influenced by water from the saline zone of the aquifer. At Main Spring, atrazine, simazine, chloroform, and tetrachloroethene concentrations increased following storms, describing breakthrough curves that peaked 2 days following rainfall; at Upper Spring, atrazine and simazine concentrations described breakthrough curves that peaked 1 day following rainfall. At both Main and Upper Springs, additional anthropogenic compounds were detected following storms. The geochemical response of the springs to recharge indicates that much of the transport occurs through conduits. When there is no flow in the recharging streams, ground water advects from the aquifer matrix into the conduits and is transported to the springs. When there is flow in the streams, recharge through the streambeds directly enters the conduit system and is transported to the springs. Following storms, surface runoff recharges through both interstream recharge features and streambeds, delivering runoff-related contaminants to Barton Springs.

  7. Calibration of a neutron polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Niculescu, I.; Eden, T.; Baker, K.

    1995-10-01

    We measured the average analyzing power (A{sub y}) and the efficiency of a neutron polarimeter that was designed for use in experiments to measure the electric form factor of the neutron at Bates and CEBAF. The measurements used the {sup 14}C(p, n) {sup 14}N with polarized protons at IUCF. For incident neutron energies of 159.5 and 195 MeV, (A{sub y}) is 0.329{plus_minus}0.006 and 0.300{plus_minus}0.008, respectively; the corresponding efficiencies are 0.16% and 0.28%. With a lead-steel wall, consisting of 10 cm of lead sandwiched between 3.5-cm steel plates, ahead of the polarimeter, the average analyzing power is 0.307{plus_minus}0.008 for 159.5 MeV incident neutrons. This result indicates a small depolarization from the lead-steel wall.

  8. Dynamic structure factor [S(Q,?)] of the S=1 quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet: Neutron-scattering study on AgVP2S6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutka, H.; Payen, C.; Molinié, P.; Soubeyroux, J. L.; Colombet, P.; Taylor, A. D.

    1991-07-01

    The spin correlations of the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in AgVP2S6 have been studied by neutron scattering at temperatures of the order of T~10-2 J/kB. On the polycrystalline samples, with a careful choice of experimental conditions, we have observed a Haldane gap of Eg=26 meV at the antiferromagnetic point at q=?. The excitation spectra are consistent with a mode that has a spin-wave velocity C=150 meV and a correlation length ?~=5.5, close to C/Eg. These results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions and numerical results on the Haldane state.

  9. Cumulin, an Oocyte-secreted Heterodimer of the Transforming Growth Factor-? Family, Is a Potent Activator of Granulosa Cells and Improves Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Mottershead, David G; Sugimura, Satoshi; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Li, Jing-Jie; Richani, Dulama; White, Melissa A; Martin, Georgia A; Trotta, Andrew P; Ritter, Lesley J; Shi, Junyan; Mueller, Thomas D; Harrison, Craig A; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2015-09-25

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes. We found that the potent synergistic actions of GDF9 and BMP15 on GC can be attributed to the formation of a heterodimer, which we have termed cumulin. Structural modeling of cumulin revealed a dimerization interface identical to homodimeric GDF9 and BMP15, indicating likely formation of a stable complex. This was confirmed by generation of recombinant heterodimeric complexes of pro/mature domains (pro-cumulin) and covalent mature domains (cumulin). Both pro-cumulin and cumulin exhibited highly potent bioactivity on GC, activating both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways and promoting proliferation and expression of a set of genes associated with oocyte-regulated GC differentiation. Cumulin was more potent than pro-cumulin, pro-GDF9, pro-BMP15, or the two combined on GC. However, on cumulus-oocyte complexes, pro-cumulin was more effective than all other growth factors at notably improving oocyte quality as assessed by subsequent day 7 embryo development. Our results support a model of activation for human GDF9 dependent on cumulin formation through heterodimerization with BMP15. Oocyte-secreted cumulin is likely to be a central regulator of fertility in mono-ovular mammals. PMID:26254468

  10. Measurements of the neutron spectra from the 7Li(p,n) accelerator based neutron source: Position and angular dependences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysiak, W.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2012-11-01

    Thick target 7Li(p,n) neutron spectra were measured using a 3He ion chamber in the proton energy range of 1.95 to 2.30 MeV. The fast neutron spectra were collected for various distances from the lithium target as well as for various neutron emission angles. By unfolding the 3He raw data with the iterative van Cittert algorithm, the neutron fluence spectra were obtained. The 3He measured neutron spectra were compared with both analytically computed and Monte Carlo simulated spectra to account for neutron scatterings in the lithium target assembly and in the experimental area. To verify the accuracy of the neutron dose computation, the fast neutron kerma was obtained for each neutron spectrum using the fluence to kerma conversion coefficients and was compared with the measured neutron dose using tissue-equivalent proportional counters. In the position dependence investigation at the 0° emission angle, the analytically computed neutron kerma overestimates the experimental kerma by a factor of two mainly due to neutron moderation. The corresponding neutron kerma from the 3He measured spectra were in agreement with the neutron doses measured using tissue-equivalent proportional counters within 20% for lower proton energies, but the discrepancy increased to ˜50% for higher proton energies. In the angular distribution investigation, a notable discrepancy between measured and computed neutron spectra were observed due to the neutron scattering effects in the target assembly and experimental room.

  11. Status and outlook of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunsing, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Be?vá?, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; de Albornoz, A. Carrillo; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krti?ka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; n TOF Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, fully operational since 2002, combines a high instantaneous neutron flux with high energy resolution. The wide energy range and the high neutron flux per time-of-flight burst result in a much enhanced signal to background ratio for neutron capture of radioactive isotopes and makes this facility well suited for the measurement of high quality neutron-induced reaction cross-sections. Neutrons are created by spallation reactions induced by a pulsed 20 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a lead target. A 5 cm water slab surrounding the lead target serves as a coolant and at the same time as a moderator of the spallation neutron spectrum, providing a wide energy spectrum from 0.1 eV to about 250 MeV. By the end of 2005, a first phase of data taking has been successfully terminated. Fission and capture experiments have been performed on a variety of isotopes of interest for nuclear astrophysics, advanced nuclear technologies and for basic nuclear physics. The instrumentation developed for this facility consists of parallel plate avalanche counter and fission ionization chamber detectors for the fission experiments and of low mass C6D6 detectors and a 4 pi BaF2 total absorption calorimeter for capture experiments. A new data acquisition system, based on sampling of the detector signals, has been developed to cope with the high count rates and to minimize the effective dead time to only a few tens of nanosecond. A second phase of data taking is planned to start in 2007, after an upgrade of the spallation target. On the longer term, the construction of a flight path at 20 m resulting in an increased neutron flux of about a factor of 100 opens new possibilities.

  12. Psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis of the CASP-19, a measure of quality of life in early old age: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyu Ri; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David; Peasey, Anne; Malyutina, Sofia; Simonova, Galina; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Croezen, Simone; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to assess the reliability and validity of the quality of life (QoL) instrument CASP-19, and three shorter versions of CASP-12 in large population sample of older adults from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. Methods: From the Czech Republic, Russia, and Poland, 13,210 HAPIEE participants aged 50 or older completed the retirement questionnaire including CASP-19 at baseline. Three shorter 12-item versions were also derived from original 19-item instrument. Psychometric validation used confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson's correlation, and construct validity. Results: The second-order four-factor model of CASP-19 did not provide a good fit to the data. Two-factor CASP-12v.3 including residual covariances for negative items to account for the method effect of negative items had the best fit to the data in all countries (CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.05, and WRMR = 1.65 in the Czech Republic; 0.96, 0.94, 0.07, and 2.70 in Poland; and 0.93, 0.90, 0.08, and 3.04 in Russia). Goodness-of-fit indices for the two-factor structure were substantially better than second-order models. Conclusions: This large population-based study is the first validation study of CASP scale in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), which includes a general population sample in Russia, Poland, and the Czech Republic. The results of this study have demonstrated that the CASP-12v.3 is a valid and reliable tool for assessing QoL among adults aged 50 years or older. This version of CASP is recommended for use in future studies investigating QoL in the CEE populations. PMID:25059754

  13. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Guillen, Donna P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Longhurst, Glen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Porter, Douglas L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parry, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  14. Experimental investigation of factors limiting slow axis beam quality in 9xx nm high power broad area diode lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Winterfeldt, M. Crump, P.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2014-08-14

    GaAs-based broad-area diode lasers are needed with improved lateral beam parameter product (BPP{sub lat}) at high power. An experimental study of the factors limiting BPP{sub lat} is therefore presented, using extreme double-asymmetric (EDAS) vertical structures emitting at 910?nm. Continuous wave, pulsed and polarization-resolved measurements are presented and compared to thermal simulation. The importance of thermal and packaging-induced effects is determined by comparing junction -up and -down devices. Process factors are clarified by comparing diodes with and without index-guiding trenches. We show that in all cases studied, BPP{sub lat} is limited by a non-thermal BPP ground-level and a thermal BPP, which depends linearly on self-heating. Measurements as a function of pulse width confirm that self-heating rather than bias-level dominates. Diodes without trenches show low BPP ground-level, and a thermal BPP which depends strongly on mounting, due to changes in the temperature profile. The additional lateral guiding in diodes with trenches strongly increases the BPP ground-level, but optically isolates the stripe from the device edges, suppressing the influence of the thermal profile, leading to a BPP-slope that is low and independent of mounting. Trenches are also shown to initiate strain fields that cause parasitic TM-polarized emission with large BPP{sub lat}, whose influence on total BPP{sub lat} remains small, provided the overall polarization purity is >95%.

  15. Optimism and Pessimism in Children with Cancer and Healthy Children: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Youth Life Orientation Test and Relations with Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Natalie A.; Davis, Genevieve; Hancock, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Objective?To test the measurement equivalence of the Youth Life Orientation Test (YLOT) in children with cancer (N = 199) and healthy controls (N = 108), and to examine optimism and pessimism as predictors of children's health-related quality of life (HRQL).?Methods?Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to establish the two factor structure of the YLOT and to test for metric invariance.?Results?A two-factor structure for the YLOT was confirmed and found to be stable across our study groups. There were no differences in mean levels of optimism and pessimism between cancer patients and controls after controlling for race/ethnicity. Higher optimism was associated with lower self-reports of pain and better emotional/behavioral functioning, whereas pessimism was related to poorer mental health and general behavior, and greater impact on the family.?Conclusions?Optimism and pessimism appear to be differentially related to certain aspects of children's HRQL, and should be investigated separately in relation to these outcomes. PMID:19797406

  16. Chronic fatigue is the most important factor limiting health-related quality of life of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Efficace, F; Baccarani, M; Breccia, M; Cottone, F; Alimena, G; Deliliers, G L; Baratè, C; Specchia, G; Di Lorenzo, R; Luciano, L; Turri, D; Martino, B; Stagno, F; Dabusti, M; Bergamaschi, M; Leoni, P; Simula, M P; Levato, L; Fava, C; Veneri, D; Sica, S; Rambaldi, A; Rosti, G; Vignetti, M; Mandelli, F

    2013-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important goal of therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with current molecular-targeted therapies. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with long-term HRQOL outcomes of CML patients receiving imatinib. Analysis was performed on 422 CML patients recruited in an observational multicenter study. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Key socio-demographic and clinical data were investigated for their association with HRQOL outcomes. Chronic fatigue and social support were also investigated. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify independent factors associated with HRQOL outcomes. Fatigue was the only variable showing an independent and consistent association across all physical and mental HRQOL outcomes (P<0.01). Differences between patients reporting low versus high fatigue levels were more than eight and seven times the magnitude of a clinically meaningful difference, respectively, for the role physical (?=70 points) and emotional scale (?=63 points) of the SF-36. Fatigue did not occur as an isolated symptom and was most highly correlated with musculoskeletal pain (r=0.511; P?0.001) and muscular cramps (r=0.448; P?0.001). Chronic fatigue is the major factor limiting HRQOL of CML patients receiving imatinib. PMID:23417029

  17. Rheumatoid factor and antibodies against citrullinated peptides in Moroccan patients with rheumatoid arthritis: association with disease parameters and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ibn Yacoub, Yousra; Amine, Bouchra; Laatiris, Assia; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the immunological status and its relationships with disease-related parameters of activity, severity and quality of life in Moroccan patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred forty-five consecutive patients with RA were recruited. The following data were collected: demographic characteristics, disease duration (years), disease activity (evaluated by the disease activity score, DAS28), structural damage (evaluated by Sharp's method as modified by van der Heijde), functional disability (assessed by using the Moroccan version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ) and quality of life (by using the Arabic version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey: the SF-36). Immunological status (rheumatoid factor rate, RF) and antibodies against citrullinated peptides rate (ACPAs) by the Elisa method were examined. ACPAs were detected in 75.1% of patients with a mean rate of 79.2?±?43.8?UI. RF was detected in 80.8% of patients with a mean rate of 80.1?±?50.6 UI. Patients with positive RF and ACPAs had higher disease activity, impaired functional ability, severe structural damage, more ocular symptoms and altered aspects of quality of life. In univariate analysis, higher levels of ACPAs were significantly correlated with the age at onset (r?=?0.307), disease duration (r?=?0.520), disease activity (DAS28) (r?=?0.531), Sharp score (r?=?0.431), and with the deterioration of all domains of SF-36 (for all p???0.01). RF levels were correlated with disease duration (r?=?0.517), disease activity (r?=?0.470), functional disability (r?=?0.521), and the alteration of physical domains of SF-36 (for all p???0.01). In multivariate analysis, the main factors associated to ACPAs and RF levels were functional disability, structural damage and impaired QoL. Furthermore, using the SF-36 scores as dependent variables, the impairment of physical domains and the domain of vitality were significantly associated with ACPA levels while the decrease of the domain of physical function was associated with the level of RF. Our study suggests that the presence and the levels of ACPAs and RF in our RA patients are associated with more active disease, more severe joint damage, worst functional disability and altered aspects of quality of life. PMID:21814754

  18. Measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at low momentum transfers using a vector polarized deuterium gas target at BLAST

    E-print Network

    Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2005-01-01

    Elastic form factors are fundamental quantities that characterize the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. High precision measurements of these quantities are essential in understanding the structure of hadronic matter. ...

  19. Recent Advances in Neutron Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Herman; Sheldon, Eric

    1977-01-01

    Discusses new studies in neutron physics within the last decade, such as ultracold neutrons, neutron bottles, resonance behavior, subthreshold fission, doubly radiative capture, and neutron stars. (MLH)

  20. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.