Science.gov

Sample records for neutron quality factor

  1. Neutron quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

  2. Quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Photon quality correction factors for ionization chambers in an epithermal neutron beam.

    PubMed

    Munck af Rosenschld, P M; Ceberg, C P; Giusti, V; Andreo, P

    2002-07-21

    Photon quality correction factors (kQy) for ionization chamber photon dosimetry in an epithermal neutron beam were determined according to a modified absorbed dose to water formalism which was extended to mixed radiation fields. We have studied two commercially available ionization chambers in the epithermal neutron beam optimized for BNCT at the facility at Studsvik, Sweden. One of the chambers is nominally neutron insensitive; a magnesium-walled detector flushed with pure argon gas (denoted by Mg/Ar). The second chamber has approximately the same sensitivity for neutrons and photons; it is considered a 'tissue equivalent' detector, with A-150 walls flushed with methane-based tissue-equivalent gas (denoted by TE/TE). The kQy-factors in epithermal neutron beams have previously been assumed to be equal to unity or estimated from measurements in clinical accelerator produced photon beams. In this work the kQy-factors have been determined from absorbed dose calculations using cavity theory together with Monte Carlo derived electron fluences obtained with the MCNP4c system for water and PMMA phantoms. The calculated quality correction factors differ substantially from unity, being in the order of 10% for the Mg/Ar detector at shallow phantom depths, and between 2 and 4% for other depths and for the TE/TE chamber. PMID:12171330

  4. Photon quality correction factors for ionization chambers in an epithermal neutron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenschld, P. M. Munck af; Ceberg, C. P.; Giusti, V.; Andreo, P.

    2002-07-01

    Photon quality correction factors (kQ?) for ionization chamber photon dosimetry in an epithermal neutron beam were determined according to a modified absorbed dose to water formalism which was extended to mixed radiation fields. We have studied two commercially available ionization chambers in the epithermal neutron beam optimized for BNCT at the facility at Studsvik, Sweden. One of the chambers is nominally neutron insensitive; a magnesium-walled detector flushed with pure argon gas (denoted by Mg/Ar). The second chamber has approximately the same sensitivity for neutrons and photons; it is considered a 'tissue equivalent' detector, with A-150 walls flushed with methane-based tissue-equivalent gas (denoted by TE/TE). The kQ?-factors in epithermal neutron beams have previously been assumed to be equal to unity or estimated from measurements in clinical accelerator produced photon beams. In this work the kQ?-factors have been determined from absorbed dose calculations using cavity theory together with Monte Carlo derived electron fluences obtained with the MCNP4c system for water and PMMA phantoms. The calculated quality correction factors differ substantially from unity, being in the order of 10% for the Mg/Ar detector at shallow phantom depths, and between 2 and 4% for other depths and for the TE/TE chamber.

  5. Quality factor measurements at NTF

    SciTech Connect

    Vaziri, K.; Krueger, F.; Kroc, T.; Lauten, G.; Lennox, A.; Leveling, T.

    1993-12-17

    The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements.

  6. Analyzing the effect of geometric factors on designing neutron radiography system.

    PubMed

    Amini, Moharam; Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Neutron radiography is one of the main applications of research reactors. It is a powerful tool to conduct nondestructive testing of materials. The parameters that affect the quality of a radiographic image must be considered during the design of a neutron radiography system. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effect of geometric factors on the quality of the neutron radiography system. The results show that the performance of the mentioned system can be increased by regulating the geometric factors. PMID:26343340

  7. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  8. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, T. R.; Crawford, C. B.

    2011-05-15

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G{sub E}{sup n}, vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}. Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G{sub E}{sup n} data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G{sub E}{sup n} (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  9. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  10. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Madey, Richard; Semenov, Andrei; Taylor, Simon; Aghalaryan, Aram; Crouse, Erick; MacLachlan, Glen; Plaster, Bradley; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Tireman, William; Yan, Chenyu; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Anderson, Brian; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, O; Baldwin, Alan; Breuer, Herbert; Carlini, Roger; Christy, Michael; Churchwell, Steve; Cole, Leon; Danagoulian, Samuel; Day, Donal; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Fenker, Howard; Finn, John; Gan, Liping; Garrow, Kenneth; Gueye, Paul; Howell, Calvin; Hu, Bitao; Jones, Mark; Kelly, James; Keppel, Cynthia; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Wooyoung; Kowalski, Stanley; Lung, Allison; Mack, David; Manley, D; Markowitz, Pete; Mitchell, Joseph; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Opper, Allena; Perdrisat, Charles; Punjabi, Vina; Raue, Brian; Reichelt, Tilmann; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Sato, Yoshinori; Seo, Wonick; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Stepanyan, Samuel; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tang, Liguang; Ulmer, Paul; Vulcan, William; Watson, John; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yan, Chen; Yang, Seunghoon; Yuan, Lulin; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Hong Guo; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2003-05-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

  11. Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

    2007-10-01

    Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

  12. BNCT beam quality sensitivity to a source neutron spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Vujic, J.; Ludewigt, B.

    1997-12-01

    It has been shown that the clinical quality of the neutron beam available for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) depends strongly on the design of the beam shaping assembly (BSA). The same study showed that a neutron source based on the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction, which is induced by protons accelerated to 2.5 MeV, could provide treatment beams having better depth-dose characteristics than those attainable using existing reactor sources. The neutron flux spectrum from the former source peaks closer to the optimal treatment energy and has a narrower distribution. This poses a question: Is the superior shape of the treatment flux spectrum from the accelerator-based source mainly due to its softer source spectrum-its maximum neutron energy is below 800 keV-or to nonoptimal design of the BSA for the reactor-based source?

  13. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  14. Analysis of SAR images quality degradation factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidowicz, Bartek; Samczynski, Piotr; Smolarczyk, Maciej; Kuzmiuk, Marek

    2006-03-01

    Quality of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is very sensitive for both pulse signal spectrum purity and stability of the radar platform flight path. In this paper detailed influence of this factors on SAR images quality is analyzed. Analysis is based mainly on computer simulations. This kind of analysis is very important because not all SAR image degradation factors can be compensated using digital signal processing algorithms.

  15. Electromagnetic N→Δ Transition and Neutron Form Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, A. J.

    2004-11-01

    The C2/M1 ratio of the electromagnetic N→Δ(1232) transition, which is important for determining the geometric shape of the nucleon, is shown to be related to the neutron elastic form factor ratio GnC/GnM. The proposed relation holds with good accuracy for the entire range of momentum transfers where data are available.

  16. Calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.D.; Harty, R.; McDonald, J.C.; Tanner, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a standard for the performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters for the US Department of Energy. Part of this effort requires the calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for finger and wrist extremities. This study focuses on conversion factors for two types of extremity models: namely the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom (as specified in the draft standard for performance testing of extremity dosimeters) and more realistic extremity models composed of tissue-and-bone. Calculations for each type of model are based on both bare and D{sub 2}O-moderated {sup 252}Cf sources. The results are then tabulated and compared with whole-body conversion factors. More appropriate energy-averaged quality factors for the extremity models have also been computed from the neutron fluence in 50 equally spaced energy bins with energies from 2.53 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 15 MeV. Tabulated results show that conversion factors for both types of extremity phantom are 15 to 30% lower than the corresponcung whole-body phantom conversion factors for {sup 252}Cf neutron sources. This difference in extremity and whole-body conversion factors is attributable to the proportionally smaller amount of back-scattering that occurs in the extremity phantoms compared with whole-body phantoms.

  17. Calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.D.; Harty, R.; McDonald, J.C.; Tanner, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a standard for the performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters for the US Department of Energy. Part of this effort requires the calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for finger and wrist extremities. This study focuses on conversion factors for two types of extremity models: namely the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom (as specified in the draft standard for performance testing of extremity dosimeters) and more realistic extremity models composed of tissue-and-bone. Calculations for each type of model are based on both bare and D[sub 2]O-moderated [sup 252]Cf sources. The results are then tabulated and compared with whole-body conversion factors. More appropriate energy-averaged quality factors for the extremity models have also been computed from the neutron fluence in 50 equally spaced energy bins with energies from 2.53 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] to 15 MeV. Tabulated results show that conversion factors for both types of extremity phantom are 15 to 30% lower than the corresponcung whole-body phantom conversion factors for [sup 252]Cf neutron sources. This difference in extremity and whole-body conversion factors is attributable to the proportionally smaller amount of back-scattering that occurs in the extremity phantoms compared with whole-body phantoms.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourva, L. C.-A.; Croft, S.

    1999-07-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM, has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM, or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this basis, previously published analytical results for the double exponential case are thought to be in error. As derived analytically, the numerical calculations have been found to be both independent of the detector's efficiency and of the spontaneous fission neutron multiplicity distribution used in the Monte Carlo calculations. Extension of the MCF calculations to multiplicity counting, and in particular to triple coincidence counting, confirmed that, for a single exponential die-away profile, the triple gate utilisation factor is equal to the square of the real gate utilisation factor. For other profiles this relation no longer holds. An analytical expression is given for the case of a double exponential profile. Comparison of the MCF results with earlier calculated estimates of the gate utilisation factor for the on-site laboratory neutron coincidence chamber showed a significant difference. Use of the MCF results led to much better agreement between the observed and calculated specific reals coincidence rate of the on-site laboratory counter for the assay of plutonium samples. Moreover, the present work constitutes a further step towards the improvement of the accuracy of absolute Monte Carlo calculations for active or passive neutron measurements of nuclear materials.

  19. Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bulla, S.; Nervo, M.

    2013-07-01

    The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

  20. Nonmotion factors which can affect ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Data pertaining to nonmotion factors affecting ride quality of transport aircraft were obtained as part of NASA in-house and sponsored research studies carried out onboard commuter-airline and research aircraft. From these data, quantitative effects on passenger discomfort of seat width, seat legroom, change in cabin pressure, and cabin noise are presented. Visual cue effects are also discussed.

  1. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  2. Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Tricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

  3. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  4. Calibration of a neutron polarimeter to measure the electric form factor of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Niculescu, I.; Madey, R.; Suleiman, R.

    1998-02-01

    The authors measured the analyzing power and the efficiency of a new neutron polarimeter that was designed to measure G{sub E}{sup n}, the neutron electric form factor. The polarimeter calibration was performed as experiment E377 at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with the {sup 14}C({rvec p}. {rvec n}){sup 14}N reaction at proton beam energies of 124.0, 164.6, and 199.7 MeV without any shielding material ahead of the polarimeter; in addition, at 164.6 MeV the authors measured the analyzing power with 10 cm of lead, sandwiched between 3.5-cm iron plates, ahead of the polarimeter.

  5. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolom, Javier; Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-01

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In2O3 microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor-solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 105 and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10-16 N/Hz1/2 demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  6. Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, Alan; Ni, Benwen; Anderson, Brian; Flanders, Bruce; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Hyde, Charles; Manley, D.; Tieger, Daniel; Barkhuff, David; Keane, Declan; Dodson, George; Arenhovel, Hartmuth; Kelly, James; Mougey, Jean; Cameron, John; Dow, Karen; Beard, Kevin; Weinstein, Lawrence; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Spraker, Mark; Finn, Michael; Rutt, Paul; Ulmer, Paul; Markowitz, Pete; Pella, Peter; Whitney, R.; Madey, Richard; Lourie, Robert; Van Verst, Scott; Kowalski, Stanley; Eden, Thomas; Payerle, Thomas; Reichelt, Tilmann; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Bertozzi, William; Turchinetz, William; Watson, William; Korsch, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The 2H(e,e'n)1H quasielastic cross section was measured at Q2 values of 0.109, 0.176, and 0.255 (GeV/c)2. The neutron detection efficiency was determined by the associated particle technique with the 2H( gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. These 2H(e,e'n) measurements of the coincidence cross sections are the first at low Q2. The cross sections are sensitive primarily to the neutron magnetic form factor GnM at these kinematics. The extracted GnM values have smaller uncertainties than previous data and are consistent with the dipole parametrization at the two higher momentum transfers; at the lowest momentum transfer, the value of GnM is ~10% higher than t

  7. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IVAllowances for Quality...

  8. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table IAllowances for Quality...

  9. 7 CFR 52.782 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.782 Section 52.782 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.782 Allowances for quality factors. Table IV—Allowances for Quality...

  10. 7 CFR 52.810 - Allowances for quality factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowances for quality factors. 52.810 Section 52.810 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... for Quality Factors § 52.810 Allowances for quality factors. Table I—Allowances for Quality...

  11. [Adolescents' diet quality and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Wendpap, Loiva Lide; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Loureiro, Anarlete da Silva; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze adolescents' diet quality and associated factors using the Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,326 adolescents from public and private schools. Food intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Crude prevalence ratio was used to evaluate the association between high DQI-R (≥ 75th percentile) and independent variables. Variables with p-value < 0.20 were included in the Poisson regression analysis. Mean DQI-R was 75.1 points (95%CI: 74.8-75.5). Higher DQI-R scores were associated with ≤ 2 hours per day of sedentary activities (e.g., TV, computer, and videogames), ≥ 300 minutes per week of physical activity, and overweight. Healthy lifestyle was associated with better diet quality. The results emphasize the importance of encouraging physical activity, reducing the number of daily hours in sedentary activities, and intervening in adolescents' eating habits. PMID:24627017

  12. Pressure Dependence of MEMS Oscillator Quality Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joshua; Geiger, Sarah; Gonzalez, Miguel; Zheng, Pan; Lee, Yoonseok

    2013-03-01

    This paper details a study in which the pressure dependence of the quality factor and resonance frequency of a micro-electro-mechanical device is examined. The results obtained will aid in the understanding of the effects of slide film damping in various gasses on oscillators operating at micrometer length scales. The device utilized was a capacitively driven plate oscillator positioned 1.25 ?m above a silicon substrate. The dominant damping mechanism for this geometry is slide film damping from the gaseous film between the oscillating plate and substrate. The mechanical resonance of the device was characterized as a function of pressure from 6 mTorr to 1 atm in air. We observed three distinct damping regimes in the quality factor. In addition to the characterization performed in air, pressure dependences in helium and argon were also examined at pressure ranges of 6.5 mTorr to 5 Torr and 750mTorr to 760 Torr, respectively. This work is supported by NSF under DMR-1205891 and DMR-01156737 (SJG).

  13. Neutron-Proton Asymmetry Dependence of Spectroscopic Factors in Ar Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jenny; Tsang, Betty; Shapira, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton-rich 34Ar and neutron-rich 46Ar using the (p, d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton-rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements.

  14. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-09-01

    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. PMID:25883309

  15. Factors affecting the quality of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Diduch, Malwina; Polkowska, ?aneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-03-01

    The ever-increasing popularity of bottled water means that it is important to analyze not only its mineral content but also, above all, its content of possible contaminants, especially the organic ones. In this respect, bottled waters are a special case, because apart from organic chemical contaminants derived from the well from which they were acquired, their secondary contamination is always possible, during treatment or storage or transport in unsuitable conditions (sunlight and elevated temperature). This paper describes how various factors, from the area around the well, and the method of drawing and treating water, to the manner in which the finished product is stored and transported may affect the quality of bottled waters. It also summarizes literature information on the levels of organic contaminants in various kinds of bottled water samples. PMID:23093103

  16. Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

  17. Nodal weighting factor method for ex-core fast neutron fluence evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, R. T.

    2012-07-01

    The nodal weighting factor method is developed for evaluating ex-core fast neutron flux in a nuclear reactor by utilizing adjoint neutron flux, a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV, the unit fission source, and relative assembly nodal powers. The method determines each nodal weighting factor for ex-core neutron fast flux evaluation by solving the steady-state adjoint neutron transport equation with a fictitious unit detector cross section for neutron energy above 1 or 0.1 MeV as the adjoint source, by integrating the unit fission source with a typical fission spectrum to the solved adjoint flux over all energies, all angles and given nodal volume, and by dividing it with the sum of all nodal weighting factors, which is a normalization factor. Then, the fast neutron flux can be obtained by summing the various relative nodal powers times the corresponding nodal weighting factors of the adjacent significantly contributed peripheral assembly nodes and times a proper fast neutron attenuation coefficient over an operating period. A generic set of nodal weighting factors can be used to evaluate neutron fluence at the same location for similar core design and fuel cycles, but the set of nodal weighting factors needs to be re-calibrated for a transition-fuel-cycle. This newly developed nodal weighting factor method should be a useful and simplified tool for evaluating fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in ex-core components of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)

  18. The pattern space factor and quality factor of cylindrical source antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarem, John M.

    1982-09-01

    For the first time the quality factor of cylindrical source antennas is derived by a plane wave expansion. The evanescent energy (and therefore the quality factor) as defined by a plane wave expansion is shown to be different from Collin and Rothschild's [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation AP-12, 23 (1964)] quality factor.

  19. Optimisation of fast-neutron radiography by using a new imaging quality concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; de Haan, V. O.; de Leege, P. F. A.

    2004-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the quality assessment of a neutron radiographic image. The quality of visualisation can be expressed as a Figure of Merit (FOM) defined as the image contrast in terms of the statistical uncertainty. The FOM enables optimisation of the image contrast of the object under investigation by changing the instrument or object characteristics. The FOM is used to investigate the influence of background countrate due to unwanted events or scattered neutrons by both analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  20. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster

    2004-02-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

  1. Understanding the Institutional-Level Factors of Urban School Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: This article addresses which school-level factors contribute to school quality. Previous research has focused on assessing the effects of school-level variables on student-level quality (e.g., achievement). However, the field has been limited in not evaluating the effects of school-level factors directly on measured…

  2. Understanding the Institutional-Level Factors of Urban School Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: This article addresses which school-level factors contribute to school quality. Previous research has focused on assessing the effects of school-level variables on student-level quality (e.g., achievement). However, the field has been limited in not evaluating the effects of school-level factors directly on measured

  3. Interpreting the neutron's electric form factor: Rest frame charge distribution or foldy term?

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-12-01

    The neutron's electric form factor contains vital information on nucleon structure, but its interpretation within many models has been obscured by relativistic effects. The author demonstrates that, to leading order in the relativistic expansion of a constituent quark model, the Foldy term cancels exactly against a contribution to the Dirac form factor F{sub 1} to leave intact the naive interpretation of G{sup n}{sub E} as arising from the neutron's rest frame charge distribution.

  4. Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences

    PubMed Central

    Satgunam, PremNandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most such metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition (HD) video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: (1) Participants could be broadly classified into two groups: those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth"). (2) Enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

  5. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs. (ACR)

  6. Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

  7. Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

  8. Photon attenuation and neutron moderation correction factors for the inspection of cargo containers with tagged neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carasco, C.; Perot, B.; Viesti, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bottosso, C.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.

    2007-11-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the D(T,n ?) reaction to detect explosives in cargo containers. Fast-neutron-induced reactions inside the container produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle. The definition of the neutron path and the time-of-flight measurement allow positioning the source of the gamma ray inside the container, while the chemical composition of the target material is correlated with the energy spectrum of the coincident gamma rays. However, in case of dense cargo, neutron moderation and photon attenuation inside the container make difficult the reconstruction of the material composition from the measured gamma-ray energy spectrum. An analytical method has been developed and validated against experimental data, which allows obtaining the chemical carbon-to-oxygen and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of the inspected items from the gamma-ray energy spectra. The principle of the method is presented along with validation tests.

  9. Prospects for Using Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering to Measure the Nuclear Neutron Form Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Kelly; Engel, Jon; McLaughlin, Gail; Scholberg, Kate

    2013-10-01

    We suggest coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS) as a method for measuring the neutron part of the nuclear form factor. Using an expansion into moments of the form factor, we show that the second moment (the neutron radius), as well as the fourth moment can be probed using neutrinos from a stopped pion source. We use Monte Carlo techniques to demonstrate that the neutron radius could be found with an uncertainty of a few percent in tonne scale detectors of argon, germanium, and xenon. The effects of detector shape uncertainty and detector size were also studied to determine the prospects of such a measurement. We find that in order to measure the neutron radius to 5%, the the spectral shape uncertainty of the detector needs to be known to 1% or better.

  10. Neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion factors for active marrow of the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Calculation of the absorbed dose to active marrow is a complex problem because charged particle equilibrium may not exist near a soft tissue-bone interface and it is difficult to model the intricate intermixture of soft tissue and bone in the skeleton. This study provides the first definitive calculations for a variety of bones and a wide range of neutron and photon energies. We avoid the assumption of a special geometry by using measured chord-length distributions to represent the microstructure of trabecular bone which contains the active marrow. Results of our calculations for neutrons and photons with energies up to 20 MeV are presented as dose response factors. The response factors can be applied in radiation transport calculations of absorbed dose in active marrow from photons and neutrons externally incident on the body and photons produced by neutrons interactions within the body. 34 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Training, Quality Assurance Factors, and Tools Investigation: a Work Report and Suggestions on Software Quality Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pen-Nan

    1991-01-01

    Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

  12. Calculated neutron KERMA factors based on the LLNL ENDL data file. Volume 27

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron KERMA factors calculated from the LLNL ENDL data file are tabulated for 15 composite materials and for the isotopes or elements in the ENDL file from Z = 1 to Z = 29. The incident neutron energies range from 1.882 x 10/sup -5/ to 20. MeV for the composite materials and from 1.30 x 10/sup -9/ to 20. MeV for the isotopes and elements.

  13. High quality factor single-crystal diamond mechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovartchaiyapong, P.; Pascal, L. M. A.; Myers, B. A.; Lauria, P.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.

    2012-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond is a promising material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) because of its low mechanical loss, compatibility with extreme environments, and built-in interface to high-quality spin centers. But its use has been limited by challenges in processing and growth. We demonstrate a wafer bonding-based technique to form diamond on insulator, from which we make single-crystal diamond micromechanical resonators with mechanical quality factors as high as 338 000 at room temperature. Variable temperature measurements down to 10 K reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of quality factor on temperature. These resonators enable integration of single-crystal diamond into MEMs technology for classical and quantum applications.

  14. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  15. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  16. Quality factor concept in piezoceramic transformer performance description.

    PubMed

    Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2006-02-01

    A new general approach based on the quality factor concept to piezoceramic transformer (PT) performance description is proposed. The system's quality factor, material elastic anisotropy, and coupling factors of the input and output sections of an electrically excited and electrically loaded PT fully characterize its resonance and near-resonance behavior. The PT efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output power were analytically analyzed and simulated as functions of the load and frequency for the simplest classical Langevin-type and Rosen-type PT designs. A new formulation of the electrical input impedance allows one to separate the power consumed by PT from the power transferred into the load. The system's PT quality factor takes into account losses in each PT "input-output-load" functional components. The loading process is changing PT input electrical impedance on the way that under loading the minimum series impedance is increasing and the maximum parallel impedance is decreasing coincidentally. The quality-factors ratio, between the states of fully loaded and nonloaded PT, is one of the best measures of PTs dynamic performance--practically, the lower the ratio is, the better PT efficiency. A simple and effective method for the loaded PT quality factor determination is proposed. As was found, a piezoceramic with low piezoelectric anisotropy is required to provide maximum PT efficiency and higher corresponding voltage gain. Limitations on the PT output voltage and power, caused by nonlinear effects in piezoceramics, were established. PMID:16529118

  17. Microscopic structure factor of liquid hydrogen by neutron-diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Celli, M.; Bafile, U.; Zoppi, M.; Cuello, G.J.; Formisano, F.; Magli, R.; Neumann, M.

    2005-01-01

    The center-of-mass structure factor of liquid para hydrogen has been measured, using neutron diffraction, in four thermodynamic states close to the triple point. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out at the same temperatures and densities. The present experimental data are in reasonable quantitative agreement with the simulations and closer to these results than previous neutron determinations available in the literature. The thermodynamic derivatives of the structure factor, from both experiment and simulation, have been compared to previous measurements obtaining a quantitative consistency.

  18. High-quality-factor photonic crystal ring resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Cheng; Li, Danping; Gao, Ge; Huang, Zengzhi; Yu, Jinzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2014-03-01

    A design for enhancing the quality (Q) factor of a photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR) is introduced. The highest Q factor based on simulations is 121,000. The analysis of momentum space distributions of the electric field profile for PCRR resonance shows that a high Q factor of a PCRR is attributed to the reduction of tangential k-vector component inside the leaky region. A high Q factor of 75,200 is experimentally demonstrated for a modified PCRR on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The high-Q-factor PCRR demonstrated here will be beneficial for channel drop filters, lasers, sensors, and other applications. PMID:24690727

  19. Model for water factor measurements with fission-neutron logging tools. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, C. J.

    1983-05-01

    During 1977 and 1978, a Fission Neutron Water Factor Model was designed and constructed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Grand Junction facility. This model features seven water-filled boreholes with different diameters. All of these boreholes penetrate, in order from the top of the model, a 5-foot-thick (1.52 m), uniform, concrete upper ''barren zone''; a 6-foot-thick (1.83 m), uniform, uranium-enriched, concrete ''ore zone''; and a 4-foot-thick (1.22 m), uniform, concrete lower ''barren zone''. The response of a fission neutron logging tool in a water-filled borehole is affected by variations in the borehole diameter. This diameter-dependent effect can be deduced from logs run in several different boreholes of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model. This report describes the construction of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model and also presents values for model parameters which are of interest in fission-neutron logging.

  20. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalari, G.; Maissen, C.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.; Faist, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  1. Updating the tritium quality factor: the argument for conservatism

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J E; Etnier, E L; Meyer, H R

    1980-01-01

    Estimated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor (Q) chosen for tritium beta radiation. In 1969 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended using 1 as the Q for all low energy beta radiation. Considerable improvements have been made in evaluating exposures to tritium at very low dose rates and in refining physiological and biological endpoints since the 1969 ICRP recommendations. This study summarizes recent experiments to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium. Based upon our study of published data related to quality factor, its importance in the calculation of dose, and the currently accepted conservative philosophy in radiation protection, it is concluded that a value of 2 would seem to be more defensible for environmental assessments and that a reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed.

  2. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  3. Impact of switching to the ICRP-74 neutron flux-to-dose equivalent rate conversion factors at the Sandia National Laboratory Building 818 Neutron Source Range.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Dann C.

    2009-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) maintains a neutron calibration facility which supports the calibration, maintenance, and repair of Radiation Protection Instruments. The SNL neutron reference fields are calibrated using the following methodology: Fluence rate is initially established by calculation using the NIST traceable source emission rate (decay corrected). Correction factors for the effects of room return or scatter, and source anisotropy are then developed by using a suitable radiation transport code to model the geometry of the facility. The conventionally true neutron dose rates are then determined using the appropriate fluence-todose equivalent conversion coefficients at several reference positions. This report describes the impact on calculated neutron dose rates of switching from NCRP-38 to CRP-74 neutron flux-todose equivalent rate conversion factors. This switch is driven by recent changes to dosimetry requirements addressed in 10 CFR 835 (Occupational Radiation Protection).

  4. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach.

    PubMed

    Borak, Thomas B; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Townsend, Lawrence W; McBeth, Rafe A; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA(Z,?) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, ?, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA(Z,?) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA(Z,?). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The revised quality factors are sufficiently generalized to be applicable to radiation protection practices beyond space exploration. PMID:26432594

  5. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  6. Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')

    SciTech Connect

    Dipangkar Dutta

    2000-12-12

    A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

  7. The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.

  8. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  9. Identifying Key Hospital Service Quality Factors in Online Health Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain

    2015-01-01

    Background The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. Objective As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. Methods We defined social mediabased key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Koreas two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social mediabased key quality factors for hospitals. Results To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and classification performance still has room for improvement, but the extraction results are applicable to more detailed analysis. Further analysis of the extracted information reveals that there are differences in the details of social mediabased key quality factors for hospitals according to the regions in Korea, and the patterns of change seem to accurately reflect social events (eg, influenza epidemics). Conclusions These findings could be used to provide timely information to caregivers, hospital officials, and medical officials for health care policies. PMID:25855612

  10. Measurement of Vortex Bragg Glass Structure Factor in Nb using Neutron Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Helen; Wang, Xi; Ling, Xinsheng; Maranville, Brian

    2009-03-01

    One of the key predictions in the Bragg Glass model of weakly pinned vortex lattices is a power-law structure factor similar to that of a 2D solid. Previous attempts using SANS in Nb and HTSC have provided results that are consistent with the Bragg Glass model. Here we report the first experiment using neutron reflectometry to resolve S(Q) in a Nb single crystal. This work was supported by a grant from DOE-BES. The experiments were carried out at NG-1- Advanced Neutron Diffractometer facility at NIST NCNR.

  11. Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes.

    PubMed

    Mazrou, Hakim; Sidahmed, Tassadit; Allab, Malika

    2010-10-01

    An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an (241)Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF(3) and (3)He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations. PMID:20471278

  12. Rating Educational Quality: Factors in the Erosion of Professional Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Discusses weaknesses in the system for rating educational quality in medical schools, and suggests ways to enhance the mechanics of the ratings task, the system used to obtain ratings, and factors affecting raters' judgments. The effect of the current health-care environment on ratings is examined, and guidelines are offered for a national effort

  13. Nuclear reaction effects in use of newly recommended quality factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The biological risk for energetic ion exposure cannot be reliably estimated exclusive of the target nuclear reaction products produced within the local tissue. A theoretical basis is derived for evaluating target fragment contributions that are evaluated for the newly proposed quality factor.

  14. FOXO transcription factors: key regulators of cellular quality control

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ashley E.; Brunet, Anne

    2014-01-01

    FOXO transcription factors are conserved regulators of longevity downstream of insulin signaling. These transcription factors integrate signals emanating from nutrient deprivation and stress stimuli to coordinate programs of genes involved in cellular metabolism and resistance to oxidative stress. Here we discuss emerging evidence for a pivotal role of FOXO factors in promoting the expression of genes involved in autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system – two cell clearance processes that are essential for maintaining organelle and protein homeostasis (proteostasis). The ability of FOXO to maintain cellular quality control appears to be critical in processes and pathologies where damaged proteins and organelles accumulate, including aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24630600

  15. Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

    2011-10-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

  16. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

    2014-05-01

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

  17. Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hlg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

    2014-05-21

    In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small. PMID:24778349

  18. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

  19. Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

  20. Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G(M)n in the few-GeV2 region.

    PubMed

    Lachniet, J; Afanasev, A; Arenhvel, H; Brooks, W K; Gilfoyle, G P; Higinbotham, D; Jeschonnek, S; Quinn, B; Vineyard, M F; Adams, G; Adhikari, K P; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bookwalter, C; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Bltmann, S; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Collins, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; Cummings, J P; Dale, D; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhamija, S; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Garon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kageya, T; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Konczykowski, P; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; Maccormick, M; Malace, S; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Mineeva, T; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Mueller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Pereira, S Anefalos; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabati, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Sandorfi, A; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Sharov, D; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Starostin, A; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Stopani, K A; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Yurov, M; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2009-05-15

    The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q;{2}=1.0-4.8 GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data. PMID:19518944

  1. Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

    2013-07-01

    For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

  2. The use of neutron radiography in agriculture to improve the food quality.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Selma P; Crispim, Verginia R; Brando, Lus E B

    2002-11-01

    The report presented in the 7th ONU's Conference (USA, 2001) about climatic changes that took place at the end of 2001 informs that, in less than 50 years, more than 45% of the world population will be suffering from lack of water. This fact occurs by the absence of management on water resources, mainly, in agriculture. As the excess as the lack of humidity in soil can change the harvest quality, causing physiologic anomalies in food and promoting soil diseases incidence caused by bacteria and fungus. In order to establish a larger control in the food quality, a study has been performed, through the neutron radiographic technique, that proposes the optimization of agricultural harvests in relation to the minimum quantity of water necessary for the plant to develop and, also, of the soil compactness. Thus, neutron radiographic images of the system root-soil can be produced so that each root will be evaluated for its ability to penetrate in the soil layers, having the advantage of not interfering in this system what it is not possible through the usual techniques yet. The initial tests using bean roots showed that the soil thickness, which involved the roots, resulted in low contrast images, what impeded their visualization with enough clearness so that their grow could not be observed. For this reason, it was opted to the gadolinium as a contrast agent so that we have been studying its transport through the roots. PMID:12619981

  3. Optimized Quality Factor of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced PVC Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

    2014-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite films were prepared by solution blending. The homogeneity of GO dispersion with PVC was confirmed by an optical microscope. Quality factor ( Q-factor) as a function of temperature (40-150 C) was measured within a broadband frequency range of 50-35 MHz. The controlled GO loading demonstrates a crucial impact on the optimization of the Q-factor, resonance frequency ( f 0) and wide bandwidth. This nanocomposite may be well suited for electronic applications. The further development of GO-reinforced polymer nanocomposites based on an optimized Q-factor may result in a material for electromagnetic frequency radiation shields for radar and communication towers/devices.

  4. Chaotic microcavity laser with high quality factor and unidirectional output

    SciTech Connect

    Song Qinghai; Cao Hui; Fang Wei; Solomon, Glenn S.; Liu Boyang; Ho, S.-T.

    2009-10-15

    We demonstrate a chaotic microcavity laser whose quality is comparable to typical nonchaotic microcavity lasers, yet it has the unique characteristic of unidirectional output. The cavity shape is a disk with the boundary defined by a curve called limacon of Pascal. For a lasing mode of volume less than 0.2 {mu}m{sup 3}, the measured quality factor is 23 000. The record-high quality and small modal volume result in extremely low-lasing threshold. The spontaneous emission coupling efficiency is approximately 6% and is the reported value for a chaotic microcavity laser. All the lasing modes have one output beam in the same direction with a divergence angle less than 40 deg. This universal directionality is determined by the chaotic ray dynamics in the open cavity.

  5. Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.

    PubMed Central

    Hansell, M J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women. PMID:1953875

  6. Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Glazier

    2007-09-30

    Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

  7. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes.

    PubMed

    Burda, O; Sato, T; Wissmann, F

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL)300 and FL400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown. PMID:23480894

  8. Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, O.; Sato, T.; Wissmann, F.

    2013-06-01

    Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown.

  9. Method for determining formation quality factor from seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M. Turhan; Treitel, Sven

    2005-08-16

    A method is disclosed for calculating the quality factor Q from a seismic data trace. The method includes calculating a first and a second minimum phase inverse wavelet at a first and a second time interval along the seismic data trace, synthetically dividing the first wavelet by the second wavelet, Fourier transforming the result of the synthetic division, calculating the logarithm of this quotient of Fourier transforms and determining the slope of a best fit line to the logarithm of the quotient.

  10. Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the transparent optical crystals. The larger values of F and Q result in the enhancement of various nonlinear processes. Low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations based on these resonators have been recently demonstrated. Theory predicts a possibility of nearly 10(exp 14) room-temperature optical Q-factors of optical crystalline WGM resonators, which correspond to finesse levels higher than 10(exp 9). Experiments have shown numbers a thousand times lower than that. The difference occurs due to media imperfections. To substantially reduce the optical losses caused by the imperfections, a specific, multi-step, asymptotic processing of the resonator is implemented. The technique has been initially developed to reduce microwave absorption in dielectric resonators. One step of the process consists of mechanical polishing performed after high temperature annealing. Several steps repeat one after another to lead to significant reduction in optical attenuation and, as a result, to the increase of Q-factor as well as finesse of the resonator which demonstrates a CaF2 WGM resonator with F greater than 10(exp 7) and Q greater than 10(exp 11).

  11. On the impact of neutron beam divergence and scattering on the quality of transmission acquired tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Lopes, Ricardo T.; de Almeida, Gevaldo L.; Gonalves, Marcelo Jos; Furieri, Rosanne C. A. A.

    2007-10-01

    The impact of the divergence of a thermal neutron beam and the scattered neutrons on the quality of tomographic images acquired by transmission have been evaluated by using a third generation tomographic system incorporating neutron collimators under several different arrangements. The system equipped with a gaseous position sensitive detector has been placed at the main channel outlet of the Argonauta Research Reactor in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-Brazil) which furnishes a thermal neutron flux of 2.3 105 n cm-2 s-1. Experiments have then been conducted using test-objects with well-known inner structure and composition to assess the influence of the collimators arrangement on the quality of the acquired images. Both, beam divergence and scattering - expected to spoil the image quality - have been reduced by using properly positioned collimators between the neutron source and the object, and in the gap between the object and the detector, respectively. The shadow cast by this last collimator on the projections used to reconstruct the tomographic images has been eliminated by a proper software specifically written for this purpose. Improvement of the tomographic images has been observed, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach to improve their quality by using properly positioned collimators.

  12. The measurement of passive neutron multiplicity counter gate utilisation factors and comparisons with theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Bourva, L. C.-A.

    2000-10-01

    In a recent paper, a new method of calculating the doublets and triplets gate utilisation factors f2 and f3 for passive neutron multiplicity counters has been developed resulting in the MCF computer code. In this paper we arrange the basic multiplicity equations and generate nuclear data parameter combinations to enable f2, f3, f2/ f3 and f22/ f3 to be derived from measurements taken using a calibrated 252Cf source and multiplicity shift-register electronics. The two approaches have been compared with reference to Harwell Instruments Ltd. N95 neutron coincidence counting measurement chamber operated both with and without an internal cadmium liner. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to calculate neutron capture time distributions and these were fed into the MCF code to produce theoretical gate utilisation factors to compare with the experimental data. Pre-delays of 2 and 4 ?s and coincidence gate widths between 16 and 240 ?s were investigated. The predicted values agreed with those measured within 1.5% and 5% for the f2 and f3 results, respectively. These results confirm the power of the new theoretical treatment in accurately predicting gate utilisation factors in an absolute sense and with confidence at the design stage. Relative predictions can be made with greater accuracy.

  13. Relationship factors and quality among mixed-orientation couples.

    PubMed

    Kays, Jill L; Yarhouse, Mark A; Ripley, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-orientation couples are defined as a heterosexual couple in which 1 partner experiences same-sex attraction and the other does not. Despite the fact that there is a sizable number of mixed-orientation couples in the U.S. adult population, few researchers have studied this population, and thus, there is limited understanding of these relationships. The authors examined the degree to which relationship commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values were associated with relationship quality, and how these variables predicted relationship quality. The total sample (N = 265) consisted of 2 independent samples-105 sexual minorities (i.e., the spouse who experiences same-sex attraction) and 160 heterosexual spouses. The data were not dyadic. Together, commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values accounted for roughly 43% of the variance in relationship quality. Relationship commitment was found to be the largest single predictor of relationship quality, followed by partner-focused forgivingness. Research and clinical implications are discussed. This study significantly adds to the current research base by quantitatively measuring various variables in these relationships, as well as expanding our understanding of relationship quality in mixed-orientation couples and factors that may play a role. PMID:24328786

  14. Quality factors of handwritten characters based on human visual perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahito; Yamada, Mitsuho

    1991-06-01

    Although various hand-written Kanji character recognition techniques have been developed, they are not yet satisfactory. Hand-written characters can vary in shape so much that the recognition rate depends greatly on their quality. It is very useful to know how humans recognize hand-written characters. Accordingly, we made two kinds of evaluations. First, we carried out a subjective experiment to ascertain whether humans use common criteria for judging character quality or not. Japanese adults were asked to rate the character quality on a 5 point- scale. The results suggested that the subjects used common criteria. Second, to find the character' key parts, we analyzed the subject's eye movement as the quality was evaluated. The experiments revealed that the parts on which the subject's attention was concentrated were: areas of high stroke density, the positioning of the stroke and its spacing, and character composition. Based on the results of these experiments, we have proposed new measures for stroke, pixel, line width, aspect ratio, and character balance. It was indicated that the measures are useful factors for determining the quality of hand-written Kanji characters.

  15. Fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for 20- to 180-MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Nabelssi, B.K.; Hertel, N.E. )

    1992-01-01

    The determination of dose equivalent quantities in the vicinity of high-energy accelerators is difficult because of the complexity and variety of radiation environments. Studies at high-energy facilities have shown that the major contribution to the dose equivalent can be due to particles above 20 MeV under certain conditions. In addition, data on particle spectra behind primary shields show that the neutron component is often significant from thermal energies up to [approximately]200 MeV. It has been 20 yr since calculations of high-energy dose equivalent conversion factors have been taken. Even then, the computed factors were widely dispersed over neutron energy and not addressed in a definitive or unified manner. Moreover, all existing data for high-energy neutron dose equivalent quantities had been obtained using a semi-infinite slab with tissuelike materials that do not correspond to the composition of the International Commission on radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) sphere. The present work undertakes the computation of such quantities using the ICRU sphere as a phantom. The LAHET code, the Los Alamos National Laboratory version of the high-energy transport code (HETC), was utilized in this work to perform absorbed dose calculations inside the ICRU sphere.

  16. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources. PMID:25748505

  17. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

    2010-06-22

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

  18. Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

  19. Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators

    PubMed Central

    Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality factor or Q. This term describes the photon lifetime (?o) within the resonator, which is directly related to the resonator's optical losses. Therefore, an optical resonator with a high Q factor has low optical losses, long photon lifetimes, and very low photon decay rates (1/?o). As a result of the long photon lifetimes, it is possible to build-up extremely large circulating optical field intensities in these devices. This very unique property has allowed these devices to be used as laser sources and integrated biosensors.10 A unique sub-class of resonators is the whispering gallery mode optical microcavity. In these devices, the light is confined in circular orbits at the periphery. Therefore, the field is not completely confined within the device, but evanesces into the environment. Whispering gallery mode optical cavities have demonstrated some of the highest quality factors of any optical resonant cavity to date.9,11 Therefore, these devices are used throughout science and engineering, including in fundamental physics studies and in telecommunications as well as in biodetection experiments. 3-7,12 Optical microcavities can be fabricated from a wide range of materials and in a wide variety of geometries. A few examples include silica and silicon microtoroids, silicon, silicon nitride, and silica microdisks, micropillars, and silica and polymer microrings.13-17 The range in quality factor (Q) varies as dramatically as the geometry. Although both geometry and high Q are important considerations in any field, in many applications, there is far greater leverage in boosting device performance through Q enhancement. Among the numerous options detailed previously, the silica microsphere and the silica microtoroid resonator have achieved some of the highest Q factors to date.1,9 Additionally, as a result of the extremely low optical loss of silica from the visible through the near-IR, both microspheres and microtoroids are able to maintain their Q factors over a wide range of testing wavelengths.18 Finally, because silica is inherently biocompatible,

  20. Treatment Intensification and Risk Factor Control: A Quality Improvement Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Joe V.; Uratsu, Connie S; Fireman, Bruce; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Peng, Tiffany; Rodondi, Nicolas; Karter, Andrew J; Kerr, Eve A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensification of pharmacotherapy in persons with poorly controlled chronic conditions has been proposed as a clinically meaningful process measure of quality. Objective To validate measures of treatment intensification by evaluating their associations with subsequent control in hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus across 35 medical facility populations in Kaiser Permanente, Northern California. Design Two-level, hierarchical analyses of associations of improvements in facility-level treatment intensification rates from 2001 to 2003 with patient-level risk factor levels at the end of 2003. Patients 515,072 and 626,130 members (age > 20 years) with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and/or diabetes mellitus in 2001 and 2003, respectively. Measurements Treatment intensification for each risk factor defined as an increase in number of drug classes prescribed, of dosage for at least one drug, or switching to a drug from another class within 3 months of observed poor risk factor control. Results Facility-level improvements in treatment intensification rates between 2001 and 2003 were strongly associated with greater likelihood of being in control at the end of 2003 (p≤0.01 for each risk factor) after adjustment for patient- and facility-level covariates. Compared to facility rankings based solely on control, addition of percentages of poorly controlled patients who received treatment intensification changed 2003 rankings substantially: 14%, 51%, and 29%) of the facilities changed ranks by 5 or more positions for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, respectively. Conclusions Treatment intensification is tightly linked to improved control. Thus, it should be an effective process measure for motivating quality improvement and for measuring clinical performance. PMID:19330888

  1. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

  2. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, G. Strmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Hche, D.; Lorenz, U.; Mller, M.; Schreyer, A.; Becker, H.-W.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.

    2015-01-21

    Due to the present shortage of {sup 3}He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with {sup 3}He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid {sup 10}B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings of up to 2??m thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The {sup 10}B{sub 4}C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical {sup 10}B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black {sup 3}He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of {sup 3}He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative {sup 3}He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  3. Boron carbide coatings for neutron detection probed by x-rays, ions, and neutrons to determine thin film quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, G.; Störmer, M.; Becker, H.-W.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Höche, D.; Haese-Seiller, M.; Moulin, J.-F.; Pomm, M.; Randau, C.; Lorenz, U.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Müller, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the present shortage of 3He and the associated tremendous increase of its price, the supply of large neutron detection systems with 3He becomes unaffordable. Alternative neutron detection concepts, therefore, have been invented based on solid 10B converters. These concepts require development in thin film deposition technique regarding high adhesion, thickness uniformity and chemical purity of the converter coating on large area substrates. We report on the sputter deposition of highly uniform large-area 10B4C coatings of up to 2 μm thickness with a thickness deviation below 4% using the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht large area sputtering system. The 10B4C coatings are x-ray amorphous and highly adhesive to the substrate. Material analysis by means of X-ray-Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, and Rutherford-Back-Scattering (RBS) revealed low impurities concentration in the coatings. The isotope composition determined by Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry, RBS, and inelastic nuclear reaction analysis of the converter coatings evidences almost identical 10B isotope contents in the sputter target and in the deposited coating. Neutron conversion and detection test measurements with variable irradiation geometry of the converter coating demonstrate an average relative quantum efficiency ranging from 65% to 90% for cold neutrons as compared to a black 3He-monitor. Thus, these converter coatings contribute to the development of 3He-free prototype detectors based on neutron grazing incidence. Transferring the developed coating process to an industrial scale sputtering system can make alternative 3He-free converter elements available for large area neutron detection systems.

  4. Postmenopausal Women's Quality of Sleep and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taavoni, Simin; Ekbatani, Neda Nazem; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To asses self-reported sleep disturbance and its associated factors in 50-60-year-old Menopause women. Settings and Design: This cross sectional study included 700 healthy 50-60-year-old women volunteers who were postmenopausal for at least 1 year. The volunteers were interviewed after providing informed consent. The study questioner included two main aspects: Personal characteristics and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed by using SPSS 14 software. Results: The mean sleep scale score was 7.84 4.4. Significant correlations had seen between sleep disturbance and characteristics of occupational status, educational status, husband's occupational status, and economical status, and (P = 0.002). There were no significant correlation between sleep disturbance and other personal characteristics, such as age; partner's age; number of children; family size; consumption of tea, coffee, or cola. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common in menopausal women. Taking into account the sleep-related personal characteristics, suitable interventions should be taken to improve sleep quality, which is a very important for maintaining the quality of life. PMID:25861204

  5. High Quality Factor Metallodielectric Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xindi; Shi, Lei; Han, Dezhuan; Zi, Jian; Braun, Paul V.

    2010-05-11

    A 2D polystyrene colloidal crystal self-assembled on a flat gold surface supports multiple photonic and plasmonic propagating resonance modes. For both classes of modes, the quality factors can exceed 100, higher than the quality factor of surface plasmons (SP) at a polymer–gold interface. The spatial energy distribution of those resonance modes are carefully studied by measuring the optical response of the hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal after coating with dielectric materials under different coating profiles. Computer simulations with results closely matching those of experiments provide a clear picture of the field distribution of each resonance mode. For the SP modes, there is strong confinement of electromagnetic energy near the metal surface, while for optical modes, the field is confined inside the spherical particles, far away from the metal. Coating of dielectric material on the crystal results in a large shift in optical features. A surface sensor based on the hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal is proposed, and it is shown to have atomic layer sensitivity. An example of ethanol vapor sensing based on physisorption of ethanol onto the sensor surface is demonstrated.

  6. Examining the Factor Structure and Hierarchical Nature of the Quality of Life Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mian; Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Christina

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable debate in the area of individual quality of life research regarding the factor structure and hierarchical nature of the quality of life construct. Our purpose in this study was to test via structural equation modeling an a priori quality of life model consisting of eight first-order factors and one second-order factor. Data

  7. Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

    2014-05-01

    Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 g m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 g m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 g m-3 for PM10; 1 g m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 g m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV at this location for the first time. The increased air pollution was associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. The glutathione dependent oxidative potential did not increase during the construction period but a significant increase was found when the new widened road was in operation.

  8. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, A.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor ga(Q2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure ga(Q2). If ga(Q2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q2 mapping of ga between 0.01 neutron magnetic form factor GMn. The experiment employs the usual techniques of electron-nucleon scattering and presents no special difficulty. Higher energy extensions are possible. They could yield measurements of ga(Q2) up to Q2=3 GeV2 and the possibility to access other form factors, such as the almost unknown pseudoscalar form factor gP. However, the experiments become much more challenging as soon as beam energies pass the pion production threshold.

  9. Factors affecting quality of dried low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, M.; Kuma, J.V.M.; Hoe, C.S.; Ngo, D.L.Y.

    2007-07-01

    The chemical and physical properties of coal are strongly affected by the upgrading process employed. For high-moisture coals, upgrading involves thermal dehydration to improve the calorific value of the coal on mass basis. This study evaluates the feasibility of upgrading a low-rank/grade coal using the oven drying method. The objective of this research work is to study the drying characteristics of low-rank coals and to understand the factors affecting the quality of dried low-rank coals. This article describes laboratory experiments conducted on the characterization of the low-rank coals before and after the drying process. The results on drying kinetics, re-absorption of coal samples, and proximate analysis of coal samples before and after drying are discussed. It was found that the upgrading process produced coal with better heating value and combustion characteristics than those of the raw coal samples.

  10. Estimation of quality factors by energy ratio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zong-Jun; Cao, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Qu, Ying-Ming; Yuan, Dian; Yang, Jin-Hao; Shao, Guan-Ming

    2015-03-01

    The quality factor Q, which reflects the energy attenuation of seismic waves in subsurface media, is a diagnostic tool for hydrocarbon detection and reservoir characterization. In this paper, we propose a new Q extraction method based on the energy ratio before and after the wavelet attenuation, named the energy-ratio method (ERM). The proposed method uses multipoint signal data in the time domain to estimate the wavelet energy without invoking the source wavelet spectrum, which is necessary in conventional Q extraction methods, and is applicable to any source wavelet spectrum; however, it requires high-precision seismic data. Forward zero-offset VSP modeling suggests that the ERM can be used for reliable Q inversion after nonintrinsic attenuation (geometric dispersion, reflection, and transmission loss) compensation. The application to real zero-offset VSP data shows that the Q values extracted by the ERM and spectral ratio methods are identical, which proves the reliability of the new method.

  11. Anomalous Behavior of High Quality Factor Planar Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, Ben; Dunsworth, Andrew; Quintana, Chris; Campbell, Brooks; Kelly, Julian; Barends, Rami; Chen, Yu; Jeffrey, Evan; Mutus, Josh; Neill, Charles; O'Malley, Peter; Sank, Daniel; Vainsencher, Amit; Wenner, Jim; White, Ted; Bochmann, Jorg; Hoi, Iochun; Palmstrom, Christopher; Martinis, John; Cleland, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have proven to be invaluable tools in studying some of the decoherence mechanisms found in superconducting qubits. Surface two-level states tend to dominate decoherence at temperatures below Tc/10 and at very low microwave powers, assuming loss through other channels (e.g. quasiparticles, vortices, and radiation loss) has been mitigated through proper shielding and design. I will present recent measurements of resonators whose behavior diverges significantly from the standard two-level state model at low temperatures and low excitation energies, resulting in startling behavior of the internal quality factor. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  12. High quality factor graphene varactors for wireless sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Steven J.

    2011-10-01

    A graphene wireless sensor concept is described. By utilizing thin gate dielectrics, the capacitance in a metal-insulator-graphene structure varies with charge concentration through the quantum capacitance effect. Simulations using realistic structural and transport parameters predict quality factors, Q, >60 at 1 GHz. When placed in series with an ideal inductor, a resonant frequency tuning ratio of 25% (54%) is predicted for sense charge densities ranging from 0.32 to 1.6 ?C/cm2 at an equivalent oxide thickness of 2.0 nm (0.5 nm). The resonant frequency has a temperature sensitivity, df/dT, less than 0.025%/K for sense charge densities >0.32 ?C/cm2.

  13. Enhancing selectivity of infrared emitters through quality-factor matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakr, Enas; Zhou, Zhiguang; Bermel, Peter

    2015-09-01

    It has recently been proposed that designing selective emitters with photonic crystals (PhCs) or plasmonic metamaterials can suppress low-energy photon emission, while enhancing higher-energy photon emission. Here, we will consider multiple approaches to designing and fabricating nanophotonic structures concentrating infrared thermal radiation at energies above a critical threshold. These are based on quality factor matching, in which one creates resonant cavities that couple light out at the same rate that the underlying materials emit it. When this quality-factor matching is done properly, emissivities can approach those of a blackbody, but only within a selected range of thermal photon energies. One potential application is for improving the conversion of heat to electricity via a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system, by using thermal radiation to illuminate a photovoltaic (PV) diode. In this study, realistic simulations of system efficiencies are performed using finite-difference time domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) to capture both thermal radiation and PV diode absorption. We first consider a previously studied 2D molybdenum photonic crystal with a commercially-available silicon PV diode, which can yield TPV efficiencies up to 26.2%. Second, a 1D-periodic samarium-doped glass emitter with a gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV diode is presented, which can yield efficiencies up to 38.5%. Finally, a 2D tungsten photonic crystal with a 1D integrated, chirped filter and the GaSb PV diode can yield efficiencies up to 38.2%; however, the fabrication procedure is expected to be more challenging. The advantages and disadvantages of each strategy will be discussed.

  14. Quality assurance program for the determination of selenium in foods and diets by instrumental neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A.

    1996-12-31

    The biological essentially of selenium for animals was first evidenced in 1957. However, it was not until 1973 that an enzyme called glutathione peroxidase was proven to be a selenoenzyme. At present, selenium is known to be a normal component of several enzymes, proteins, and some aminoacryl transfer nucleic acids. A few selenium compounds have been reported to possess anticarcinogenic properties. There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of selenium in human nutrition and metabolism. Analytical methods are being developed in several laboratories for the determination of total and species-specific selenium in whole blood, serum, urine, soft and hard tissues, food, water, proteins, etc. We have developed several instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods using the, Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facility for the determination of parts-per-billion levels of selenium. These methods include cyclic INAA (CINAA) and pseudocyclic INAA (PCINAA) using both conventional and anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry. Considering the immense health significance, it is imperative that the selenium levels in foods and diets be measured under an extensive quality assurance program for routine monitoring purposes.

  15. A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranium mass and neutron multiplication factor estimates from time-correlation coincidence counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenxiong; Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Time-correlation coincidence counts of neutrons are an important means to measure attributes of nuclear material. The main deficiency in the analysis is that an attribute of an unknown component can only be assessed by comparing it with similar known components. There is a lack of a universal method of measurement suitable for the different attributes of the components. This paper presents a new method that uses universal relations to estimate the mass and neutron multiplication factor of any uranium component with known enrichment. Based on numerical simulations and analyses of 64 highly enriched uranium components with different thicknesses and average radii, the relations between mass, multiplication and coincidence spectral features have been obtained by linear regression analysis. To examine the validity of the method in estimating the mass of uranium components with different sizes, shapes, enrichment, and shielding, the features of time-correlation coincidence-count spectra for other objects with similar attributes are simulated. Most of the masses and multiplications for these objects could also be derived by the formulation. Experimental measurements of highly enriched uranium castings have also been used to verify the formulation. The results show that for a well-designed time-dependent coincidence-count measuring system of a uranium attribute, there are a set of relations dependent on the uranium enrichment by which the mass and multiplication of the measured uranium components of any shape and size can be estimated from the features of the source-detector coincidence-count spectrum.

  17. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

  18. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams.

    PubMed

    Gomà, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bénédicte; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality (60)Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for (60)Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent--being higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other--except for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 ± 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber. PMID:25813370

  19. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gom, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bndicte; Safai, Sairos; Vrs, Sndor

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality 60Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for 60Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistentbeing higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each otherexcept for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber.

  20. Survey of ground state neutron spectroscopic factors from Li to Cr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hui-Ching; Tsang, Betty

    2005-04-01

    The success of the Shell Model has prompted many measurements to extract the spectroscopic factors which describe the configuration of single particle orbitals. We have extracted the ground state to ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 79 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions of (d,p) and (p,d) reactions in a systematic and consistent manner [1]. For the Ca isotopes from ^40Ca to ^48Ca, the spectroscopic factors follow the predictions of the single particle model predictions as well as predictions from shell model suggesting Ca isotopes have good spherical cores with well defined valence nucleons. For the 59 nuclei where modern shell model calculations [Oxbash] are available, with the exception of the deformed F and Ne isotopes, the experimental spectroscopic factors for most nuclei agree with predictions from modern day shell model to within 20%. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. NSF-PHY-01-10253 and SURE. Reference: [1] X.D.Liu, M.A.Famiano,W.G.Lynch,M.B.Tsang,and J.A.Tostevin, Phys. Rev. C69 (2004) 1.

  1. Benchmarking Potential Factors Leading to Education Quality: A Study of Cambodian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Yaw; Sok, Phyra; Sok, Keomony

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To study the quality in higher education in Cambodia and explore the potential factors leading to quality in Cambodian higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Five main factors that were deemed relevant in providing quality in Cambodian higher education were proposed: academic curriculum and extra-curricular activities, teachers'

  2. Correlation of Illumination and Topography Factors with Epithermal Neutron measurements at the Lunar Poles using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Evans, L. G.; Droege, G.; Garvin, J.; Harshman, K.; Litvak, M. L.; Malahov, A.; Nandikotkur, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Sanin, A.; Milikh, G.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is tasked with deriving the spatial distributions of Hydrogen on the lunar surface. Since LROs orbital insertion in June 2009, LEND has collected more than [9e+6, 8e+6] detailed epithermal measurements over the South and North poles above +/-75. Orbital neutron flux measurements from the Moon have been used to quantify H concentrations via the interpretation of the epithermal (medium energy) neutron flux. At the poles, H concentrations are shown to be enhanced in some regions (100s ppm) relative to the mid-latitudes. Past hypothesis postulated that H sublimation rates are minimal within persistently shadowed regions at the bottoms of polar craters, due to the inherently cold temperatures (< 100K). However, in smaller regional analysis using LEND, the H spatial distribution has only limited positive correlation with these regions and is elsewhere not seen with consistent effect. Conversely, some higher H concentrations are seen in low illumination regions. Instead, it appears the regional H budget is governed by a complex interplay between depositional processes and geophysical factors at work on the lunar surface. To begin to characterize and isolate these factors, this paper will correlate the results of the LEND orbital mission with topographic and illumination factors.

  3. Spallation Neutron Source Availability Top-Down Apportionment Using Characteristic Factors and Expert Opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Schryver, J.C.

    1999-10-01

    Apportionment is the assignment of top-level requirements to lower tier elements of the overall facility. A method for apportioning overall facility availability requirements among systems and subsystems is presented. Characteristics that influence equipment reliability and maintainability are discussed. Experts, using engineering judgment, scored each characteristic for each system whose availability design goal is to be established. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to produce a set of weighted rankings for each characteristic for each alternative system. A mathematical model is derived which incorporates these weighting factors. The method imposes higher availability requirements on those systems in which an incremental increase in availability is easier to achieve, and lower availability requirements where greater availability is more difficult and costly. An example is given of applying this top-down apportionment methodology to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility.

  4. Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1980-08-01

    This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

  5. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein quality control in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Taixing; Lai, Yimu; Janicki, Jospeh S; Wang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) acts to minimize the level and toxicity of malfolded proteins in the cell. It is performed by an elaborate network of molecular chaperones and targeted protein degradation pathways. PQC monitors and maintains protein homeostasis or proteostasis in the cells. Whilst chaperones may actively promote refolding of malfolded proteins, the malfolded proteins which cannot be correctly refolded are degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagic-lysosome pathway (ALP). The UPS degrades individual misfolded protein molecules, whereas the ALP removes large and less soluble protein aggregates and organelles. Emerging evidence indicates that dysregulated and inadequate PQC play an important role in the pathogenesis of not only classic conformational disease but more common forms of cardiac pathology such as cardiac pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor of cellular defense, appears to regulate the USP and the ALP by directly controlling the expression of UPS- and ALP- related genes. This article highlights an emerging role of Nrf2 in the regulation of intracellular PQC as well as its potential involvement in cardiac pathology. PMID:26709769

  6. On the Use of Quality Factor in Seismology (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, I. B.

    2009-12-01

    Despite its canonical character and widespread use in attenuation studies, suitability of the quality factor Q for describing the Earth still needs to be reviewed. Specifically, we need to consider the following fundamental questions: 1) How close is Q-1 to representing a true medium property? 2) Theoretically, can or should Q-1 be related to complex arguments of the elastic moduli of the medium? and 3) What attenuation property is typically measured and transformed into Q? An attempt for answering these questions shows that not Q but the spatial attenuation coefficient, ?, represents a consistent property of energy dissipation by the medium which is also actually measured in most cases. Transformation of ? into the apparent Q = ?f/?V (V is the wave velocity and f - frequency) makes this Q a phenomenological attribute of the wave and also leads to its built-in positive frequency dependence. Such strong positive Q(f) is often reported, particularly for the scattering Q, but it may be entirely due to near-constant values of ?. The above transformation is also prone of the well-known uncertainties related to the compensation of geometrical spreading (GS). Q can be adequately used to model wave amplitudes but it includes the effects of the structure (e.g., diving or reflected-wave GS) but becomes ambiguous when applied to describing the in-situ attenuation. By using ?(f) in interpretation, such effects are explicitly measured, and several general observations can be made, such as: 1) ?(f) often shows linear dependencies on f in both real data and modeling, whereas the corresponding Q(f) may be complex; 2) the zero-frequency limit of ?(f)=? can be interpreted as a generalized measure of geometrical spreading, and 3) frequency-dependent in-situ Q is not as widespread as it is commonly thought. Quantity ? is variable and correlates with tectonic age of the lithosphere, whereas the effective frequency-independent Qe is typically significantly higher than the 1-Hz Q0 often found in the Q(f)=Q0f? law with ?>0. Notably, ? appears to be consistently positive for body and surface waves, and negative for normal modes, leading to the apparent absorption band. Turning to the theoretical aspects of Q, energy dissipation is related to multiple external factors such as fracturing, fluid content and saturation, viscosity, porosity, permeability, properties of dry friction, and distributions of scatterers. Generally, all of these factors cannot be lumped in an unambiguous Q-1 or relaxation mechanisms included in the in-situ elastic moduli, as it is often assumed in visco-elastic models. Such assumptions may lead to observable discrepancies, such as opposite phases of reflections from attenuation contrasts, compared to the results of direct derivations from wave equations. Thus, the elastic moduli should better be treated as real and "instantaneous," and Lagrangian dissipation functions used to describe the attenuation. Further, and again contrary to what is often assumed, attenuation sensitivity kernels are different from velocity kernels. As illustrated on a 1D Love-wave example, usual assumptions of their equivalence lead to ~20% over-estimated predictions of the observed Love-wave QL-1. Once again, the use of ?(f)) instead of Q rectifies this problem. The above conclusions may have major implications for measuring, modeling, inverting, and interpreting the Earth's attenuation.

  7. Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables

  8. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been

  9. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  10. Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre P.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nicassio, Perry M.; Ormseth, Sarah R.; Custodio, Mara K.; Olmstead, Richard; Weisman, Michael H.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The sample included 107 patients with RA, 88 females and seven males, with an average age of 56.09 years, recruited from the greater Southern California area. Confirmatory factor analysis evaluated single, two- and three-factor models. The single factor solution yielded a poor fit to the data. While the three-factor solution had the best fit, the two-factor solution, comprised of sleep efficiency and perceived sleep quality factors, was optimal because it had very good fit, and acceptable reliability for its individual factors. Clinical indices were consistently correlated with the sleep quality factor, but not with the sleep efficiency factor. PMID:23390921

  12. Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic {sup 3}{rvec H}e({rvec e},e`)

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.

    1997-02-01

    Polarized {sup 3}He targets have proven to be a useful tool for studying the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron, and the spin structure of the neutron. The neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} was determined previously at MIT-Bates from the quasielastic {sup 3}{ital {rvec H}e({rvec e}, e{sup `})} process. New experiment was planned at TJNAF to systematically measure the inclusive {sup 3}He quasielastic transverse asymmetry, A{sub T{sup `}}, at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 - 0.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} with high statistical and systematic accuracy. A 2% statistical uncertainty is aimed at all the pro- posed values of Q{sup 2} , and 3% systematic uncertainty for A{sub T{sup `}} can be achieved for this experiment. The precise data will constrain theoretical calculations of {sup 3}He quasielastic asymmetry. Furthermore, the neutron magnetic form factor at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 - 0.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} will be extracted from the measured asymmetries with an overall uncertainty of 2%. Precise measurements of {ital G{sup n}{sub M}} at low Q{sup 2} will resolve the discrepancy among the existing data in the same Q{sup 2} region.

  13. First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martin; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

  14. Nuclear Reprogramming by Defined Factors: Quantity Versus Quality.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Shulamit; Buganim, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and directly converted cells holds great promise in regenerative medicine. However, after in-depth studies of the murine system, we know that the current methodologies to produce these cells are not ideal and mostly yield cells of poor quality that might hold a risk in therapeutic applications. In this review we address the duality found in the literature regarding the use of 'quality' as a criterion for the clinic. We discuss the elements that influence reprogramming quality, and provide evidence that safety and functionality are directly linked to cell quality. Finally, because most of the available data come from murine systems, we speculate about what aspects can be applied to human cells. PMID:26437595

  15. Analysis Supporting Factors and Constraints LPMP Performance in Improving the Quality of Education in Jambi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosadi, Kemas Imron

    2015-01-01

    Development of education in Indonesia is based on three aspects, namely equity and expansion, quality and relevance, as well as good governance. Quality education is influenced by several factors related to quality education managerial leaders, limited funds, facilities, educational facilities, media, learning resources, tools and training…

  16. The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, S.G.

    1990-01-01

    Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  17. A modulation quality factor for Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Glenn; Gutman, Lawrence; Connolly, Dan

    1991-02-01

    LPI (low probability of intercept) system quality factors were developed in a previous effort in order to provide a quantitative analysis tool for the system engineer to employ in evaluating the effectiveness of LPI techniques in the presence of jammers and intercept receivers. These LPI system quality factors were derived from the system link equations which describe the signal power gains and losses as a function of system link parameters. The issue is examined of LPI modulation by defining the modulation quality factor. The LPI modulation quality factor is a measure of the covertness of a particular type of modulation when detection is attempted by a particular type of intercept receiver. The utility of this quality factor is illustrated by examples and performance curves which demonstrate the concept.

  18. The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15MeV up to a penetration depth of 40mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3MeV for large penetration depths (>10mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

  19. Intelligent processing, a key factor to performance and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtes, Thierry; Mosser, Pierre E.

    With reference to engine manufacturing it is emphasized that it is necessary to implement new engineering and production methodologies based on phenomenological analysis and simulation to reduce the number of experiments. Intelligent processing signifies not only the implementation of analytical methods to avoid production quality drifts and scrapping, but essentially requires that the process be considered as a system and aims at life-cycle cost optimization. Using SNECMA examples, it is shown how it is possible to improve the performance and quality of the processes through the use of these methodologies.

  20. The electric form factor of the neutron from the d(e{down_arrow},e'n{down_arrow})p reaction at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Madey; Tom Eden; A. Lai; W. M. Zhang

    1992-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations indicate that electron-neutron coincidence events from (inelastic) background processes can be reduced to a small fraction of the (quasielastic) signal events by appropriate choices for the electron momentum bite and the horizontal angular acceptance of the neutron polarimeter. Electron scattering angles larger than about 25{sup o} are needed to achieve small uncertainties in the electric form factor of the neutron.

  1. Quantum dot micropillar cavities with quality factors exceeding 250,000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Gold, P.; Reitzenstein, S.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic investigation of quantum dot micropillar cavities with unprecedented quality factors. We observe a pronounced dependency of the quality factor on the measurement scheme and find that significantly larger quality factors can be extracted in photoreflectance compared to photoluminescence measurements. While the photoluminescence spectra of the microcavity resonances feature a Lorentzian lineshape and Q-factors up to 184,000 (±10,000), the reflectance spectra have a Fano-shaped asymmetry and feature significantly higher Q-factors in excess of 250,000 resulting from a full saturation of the embedded emitters. The very high quality factors in our cavities promote strong light-matter coupling with visibilities exceeding 0.5 for a single QD coupled to the cavity mode.

  2. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  3. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant

  4. Factors Influencing Assessment Quality in Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Gulikers, Judith; Dijkstra, Asha

    2013-01-01

    The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education institute. Per course, 4-11 teachers and 3-10…

  5. STREAM NETWORK EXPANSION: A RIPARIAN WATER QUALITY FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about how active stream network expansion during rainstorms influences the ability of riparian buffers to improve water quality. We used aerial photographs to quantify stream network expansion during the wet winter season in five agricultural watersheds in western...

  6. Do Non-Economic Quality of Life Factors Drive Immigration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Gail Anne; Rossouw, Stephanie; Lewer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the immigration literature by generating two unique non-economic quality of life (QOL) indices and testing their role on recent migration patterns. Applying the generated QOL indices in conjunction with four independent welfare measures to an augmented gravity model of immigration, this paper finds an insignificant…

  7. Factors Influencing Assessment Quality in Higher Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth; Gulikers, Judith; Dijkstra, Asha

    2013-01-01

    The development of assessments that are fit to assess professional competence in higher vocational education requires a reconsideration of assessment methods, quality criteria and (self)evaluation. This article examines the self-evaluations of nine courses of a large higher vocational education institute. Per course, 4-11 teachers and 3-10

  8. Factors that affect print quality in thermal dye transfer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Daniel J. P.; McInerney, Elizabeth

    1995-04-01

    Thermal dye transfer (TDT) imaging has established itself as the state- of-the-art process for high quality, continuous tone, nonimpact printing. Imaging quality from this process rivals conventional silver halide photography and exceeds other nonimpact printing technologies. Because this output appears to be virtually indistinguishable from photographic prints, there has been an expectation that all the quality attributes of silver halide photography are embodied in a TDT print. However, there are many significant differences that affect output quality between these two technologies. These differences are primarily in color gamut, print artifacts, Dmin, grain/sharpness, and image stability. The range of colors reproducible by a color, hard copy device, known as its color gamut, is dictated primarily by the image- forming dyes used by the device. The size and shape of a device's gamut is controlled by the spectral density distributions of these image forming dyes, the Dmin of the receiver base, the Dmax of each dye, the amount of light scatter, and the spectral distribution of the viewing illuminant. The spectral density distributions of dyes also have an impact on illuminant sensitivity, which is a predictor of how much the color balance of a print will change with a change in illuminant. By determining and then using characteristic curves for various image- forming dyes, we have been able to calculate and compare the color gamuts and illuminant sensitivity of TDT imaging with other technologies (color monitor and silver halide photography, for example). The differences we have found can have a significant impact on output quality, depending upon the application. Compared to conventional photography, thermal dye transfer prints have traditionally had inferior light stability and resistance to damage from fingerprints. In addition, thermal dye transfer prints have been aggressively attacked by plasticized polyvinyl chloride sheets and folders commonly found in office and home environments. We will describe a major advance in thermal dye transfer imaging technology that greatly improves the image stability position of thermal dye transfer images. This advance is derived from the addition of a thin protective layer onto the final print. To add to customer convenience, the protective layer is integrated into the dye donor ribbon as a 4th patch. The protective layer is laminated to the final print using the thermal print head. TDT print artifacts may also influence the quality of TDT output. These defects can include print head streaks, dust and dirt spots, printer banding, and donor ribbon wrinkling. The origin of these defects will be described.

  9. Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor at high Q-2 using the ratio method on deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    G.P. Gilfoyle, W.K. Brooks, K. Hafidi

    2011-05-01

    The 12-GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab will create an opportunity to dramatically extend our knowledge of the magnetic form factor of the neutron G^n_M and the other elastic, electromagnetic form factors. We describe here an approved experiment that will cover a Q2 range (3.5 14 GeV2) with significant discovery potential. Different theoretical approaches (generalized parton distributions, Dyson-Schwinger equations, etc) diverge is this region and existing data cannot distinguish among them. The proposed measurement will be performed in Hall B with the CLAS12 detector and will have statistical and systematic uncertainties below 3%. It is based on the ratio of electron-neutron to electron-proton scattering that was successfully applied in the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab.

  10. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  11. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Rosn, B.-G.

    2014-09-01

    Todays demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components.

  12. Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

    2005-03-01

    We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

  13. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; erovnik, Gaper; Jazbec, Ane; tancar, iga; Barbot, Loc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system. PMID:26141293

  14. Enhancement factor for two-neutron transfer reactions with a schematic coupled-channels model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Scamps, G.

    2015-12-01

    Probabilities for heavy-ion two-neutron transfer reactions P2 n are often discussed in comparison with the square of the corresponding probabilities for the one-neutron transfer process (P1n) 2, implicitly assuming that (P1n) 2 provides the probability of two-neutron transfer reactions in the absence of the pairing correlation. We use a schematic coupled-channels model, in which the transfers are treated as effective inelastic channels, and demonstrate that this model leads to P2 n=(P1n) 2/4 , rather than P2 n=(P1n) 2 , in the pure sequential limit. We argue that a simple model with spin-up and spin-down neutrons in a single-particle orbital also leads to the same conclusion.

  15. Factors influencing health-related quality of life among minority elders in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    This study described health-related quality of life and examined the relationship of factors influencing health-related quality of life among minority elders in southwest China. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with a convenience sample of 105 community-dwelling minority elders in Southwest China. The participants reported poor physical health-related quality of life. Depression, chronic diseases, and body mass index were predictors of health-related quality of life among the minority elders. Community health care providers need to assess chronic diseases, mental health and nutrition among minority elders, and consider interventions to assist minority elders to enhance their health-related quality of life. PMID:21809931

  16. The Use of a Multichannel Analyzer to Investigate Effects of Experimental Factors on Gross-Counting Gamma and Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Volz, Heather M.; Rennie, John A.; Lovejoy, Christopher M.; Martinez, Diana E. R; Dempsey, Michael A.; Livesay, Jake; Lousteau, Angela

    2012-07-12

    Radiation detection technology is invaluable to many fields of study in identifying nuclear materials. However, many detectors use gross-counting methods that give only a relative count rate. Without a spectrum (information on counts over time vs energy), it can be more difficult to discern if an alarm is false, innocent, or real. In particular, we would like to understand better the effect of experimental factors (i.e., external conditions and equipment parameters) on detector data, with possible implications for false alarms. To more thoroughly characterize detector technology, a multichannel analyzer (MCA) was used to record spectra from neutron (helium-3 tubes) and gamma (photomultiplier tubes) gross-counting detectors. Several factors could affect the signal-to-noise ratio of sources. For example, we examined the effects of neutron detector high voltage setting on the appearance of a californium-252 spectrum, the effect of discriminator values on integrated counts in neutron detection, and the effect of gain changes on the gamma spectra from several sources. Possible implications of ambient temperature of the experiment on the data collected will be discussed. The input impedance of the MCA must be considered to ensure that data are not affected by the measurement itself. Moreover, a calibration on the MCA was performed to verify the conversion of a MCA channel number to a voltage. In summary, the series of source spectra collected on an MCA with a variety of experimental conditions allow us to understand factors that affect data better, and assure us that gross-counting neutron and gamma detectors will have minimal false alarms.

  17. Quality management and safety culture in medicine Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?

    PubMed Central

    Wischet, Werner; Schusterschitz, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report To err is human: building a safer healthcare system highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety. PMID:20049068

  18. Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

    2014-03-01

    To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

  19. Characteristics of double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator to increase quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Sei; Kataoka, Mai; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    We have numerically evaluated wavelength characteristics at telecommunication wavelengths by means of a doubleplasmonic-racetrack resonator using the finite-difference time domain method. We investigated the effect of the space between the two plasmonic racetracks of the resonator on the quality factor. The quality factor of the proposed structure is 57 when the space between two racetracks is 600 nm. The quality factor of a double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of a dielectric-filled trench is 1.5 times greater than that of a single-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of an air-filled trench. The phase mismatch of the trench channel plasmon polaritons contributes to the quality factor of the double-plasmonicracetrack resonator.

  20. The impact of gate width setting and gate utilization factors on plutonium assay in passive correlated neutron counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Croft, S.; Favalli, A.; Santi, P.

    2015-10-01

    In the field of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting (PNMC) is a method typically employed in non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM) for nonproliferation, verification and accountability purposes. PNMC is generally performed using a well-type thermal neutron counter and relies on the detection of correlated pairs or higher order multiplets of neutrons emitted by an assayed item. To assay SNM, a set of parameters for a given well-counter is required to link the measured multiplicity rates to the assayed item properties. Detection efficiency, die-away time, gate utilization factors (tightly connected to die-away time) as well as optimum gate width setting are among the key parameters. These parameters along with the underlying model assumptions directly affect the accuracy of the SNM assay. In this paper we examine the role of gate utilization factors and the single exponential die-away time assumption and their impact on the measurements for a range of plutonium materials. In addition, we examine the importance of item-optimized coincidence gate width setting as opposed to using a universal gate width value. Finally, the traditional PNMC based on multiplicity shift register electronics is extended to Feynman-type analysis and application of this approach to Pu mass assay is demonstrated.

  1. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for

  2. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

  3. Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured

  4. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  5. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p

    SciTech Connect

    Hongguo Zhu; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; H. Arenhoevel; Chris Armstrong; C. Bernet; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Paul Brindza; D. Brown; S. Bueltmann; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; D. B. Day; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Yusuf Farah; Renee Fatimi; Kenneth Garrow; Chris Harris; Markus Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; M. Kaufmann; Mahbub Khandaker; Gunther Kubon; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; Robert Lourie; Allison Lung; David Mack; Sudhir Malik; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; Geoffrey Milanovich; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; M. Muehlbauer; Thomas Petitjean; Yelena Prok; Daniela Rohe; Emmanuel Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ingo Sick; C. Smith; Tim Southern; Michael Steinacher; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Al Tobias; Bill Vulcan; Glen Warren; H. Woehrle; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Marko Zeier; Jianguo Zhao; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-08-20

    We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor G{sup n}{sub E} via d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p. G{sup n}{sub E} was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ({sup 15}ND{sub 3}). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle segmented detector. We find G{sup n}{sub E} = 0.04632{+-}0.00616(stat){+-}0.00341(syst) at Q{sup 2} = 0.495 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  6. Measurement of coherent Debye-Waller factor in in vivo deuterated C-phycocyanin by inelastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed Central

    Bellissent-Funel, M C; Filabozzi, A; Chen, S H

    1997-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements of dry and 35% D2O hydrated amorphous protein powder of C-phycocyanin were made as a function of temperature ranging from 313K down to 100K. The protein is grown from blue-green algae cultured in D2O and is deuterated up to 99%. The scattering is thus dominated by coherent scattering. Within the best energy resolution of the time-of-flight instrument, which is 28 mueV FWHM, the scattering appears entirely elastic. For this reason we are able to extract a coherent Debye-Waller factor by making an independent measurement of the static structure factor. We observe a considerable difference in the q dependence of the Debye-Waller factor between the dry and hydrated proteins; furthermore, there is an interesting temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor that is quite different from that predicted for dense hard-sphere liquids. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9083683

  7. A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PubMed Central

    Ababneh, Qutaiba O.; Tindall, Amanda J.; Herman, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Entry into sporulation is governed by the master regulator Spo0A. Spo0A accumulates in its active form, Spo0A-P, as cells enter stationary phase. Prior reports have shown that the acute induction of constitutively active Spo0A during exponential growth does not result in sporulation. However, a subsequent study also found that a gradual increase in Spo0A-P, mediated through artificial expression of the kinase, KinA, during exponential growth, is sufficient to trigger sporulation. We report here that sporulation via KinA induction depends on the presence of an extracellular factor or factors (FacX) that only accumulates to active levels during post-exponential growth. FacX is retained by dialysis with a cutoff smaller than 500 Dalton, can be concentrated, and is susceptible to proteinase K digestion, similar to described quorum-sensing peptides shown to be involved in promoting sporulation. However, unlike previously characterized peptides, FacX activity does not require the Opp or App oligopeptide transporter systems. In addition, FacX activity does not depend on SigH, Spo0A, or ComX. Importantly, we find that in the presence of FacX, B. subtilis can be induced to sporulate following the artificial induction of constitutively active Spo0A. These results indicate that there is no formal requirement for gradual Spo0A-P accumulation and instead support the idea that sporulation requires both sufficient levels of active Spo0A and at least one other signal or condition. PMID:26657919

  8. A systematic review and analysis of factors associated with methodological quality in laparoscopic randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Stavros Athanasios; Andreou, Alexandros; Antoniou, George Athanasios; Bertsias, Antonios; Khler, Gernot; Koch, Oliver Owen; Pointner, Rudolph; Granderath, Frank-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for assessment of methodological quality in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been developed during the past few years. Factors associated with quality in laparoscopic surgery have not been defined till date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between bibliometric and the methodological quality of laparoscopic RCTs. The PubMed search engine was queried to identify RCTs on minimally invasive surgery published in 2012 in the 10 highest impact factor surgery journals and the 5 highest impact factor laparoscopic journals. Eligible studies were blindly assessed by two independent investigators using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) tool for RCTs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify potential associations with methodological quality. A total of 114 relevant RCTs were identified. More than half of the trials were of high or acceptable quality. Half of the reports provided information on comparative demo graphic data and only 21% performed intention-to-treat analysis. RCTs with sample size of at least 60 patients presented higher methodological quality (p = 0.025). Upon multiple regression, reporting on preoperative care and the experience level of surgeons were independent factors of quality. PMID:25896540

  9. Factors controlling air quality in different European subway systems.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Mendes, Luís; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Alves, Célia A; Duarte, Márcio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier; Minguillón, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Sampling campaigns using the same equipment and methodology were conducted to assess and compare the air quality at three South European subway systems (Barcelona, Athens and Oporto), focusing on concentrations and chemical composition of PM2.5 on subway platforms, as well as PM2.5 concentrations inside trains. Experimental results showed that the mean PM2.5 concentrations widely varied among the European subway systems, and even among different platforms within the same underground system, which might be associated to distinct station and tunnel designs and ventilation systems. In all cases PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms were higher than those in the urban ambient air, evidencing that there is generation of PM2.5 associated with the subway systems operation. Subway PM2.5 consisted of elemental iron, total carbon, crustal matter, secondary inorganic compounds, insoluble sulphate, halite and trace elements. Of all metals, Fe was the most abundant, accounting for 29-43% of the total PM2.5 mass (41-61% if Fe2O3 is considered), indicating the existence of an Fe source in the subway system, which could have its origin in mechanical friction and wear processes between rails, wheels and brakes. The trace elements with the highest enrichment in the subway PM2.5 were Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Sb, Sr, Ni, Sn, Co, Zr and Mo. Similar PM2.5 diurnal trends were observed on platforms from different subway systems, with higher concentrations during subway operating hours than during the transport service interruption, and lower levels on weekends than on weekdays. PM2.5 concentrations depended largely on the operation and frequency of the trains and the ventilation system, and were lower inside the trains, when air conditioning system was operating properly, than on the platforms. However, the PM2.5 concentrations increased considerably when the train windows were open. The PM2.5 levels inside the trains decreased with the trains passage in aboveground sections. PMID:26717078

  10. Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.

    PubMed

    de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

    2014-09-01

    Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality. PMID:25252342

  11. No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2014-05-01

    The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio ?PSNR?? Mean Square Error?MSE? and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

  12. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural

  13. Factors Affecting Perceived Learning, Satisfaction, and Quality in the Online MBA: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastianelli, Rose; Swift, Caroline; Tamimi, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how six factors related to content and interaction affect students' perceptions of learning, satisfaction, and quality in online master of business administration (MBA) courses. They developed three scale items to measure each factor. Using survey data from MBA students at a private university, the authors estimated structural…

  14. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend

  15. Complex seismic amplitude inversion for P-wave and S-wave quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen

    2015-07-01

    Stratum quality factors (P-wave and S-wave quality factors, Qp and Qs) have gradually been utilized in the study of physical state of crust and uppermost mantle, tectonic evolution, hydrogeololgy, gas hydrates, petroleum exploration, etc. Different opinions of the seismic attenuation mechanism result in various approaches to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Considering the viscoelasticity of the underground medium, the constitutive matrix of the Earth medium is written as the superposition of homogeneous background medium, elastic perturbation medium and viscoelastic perturbation medium. Under the hypothesis of Born integral and stationary phase approximation, the seismic reflectivity is initially raised in terms of P-wave and S-wave moduli, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors. Furthermore, incorporating the complex seismic traces with the seismic wavelets at different offsets, a two-step inversion approach is proposed to estimate the P-wave and S-wave quality factors. The AVO/AVA Bayesian inversion approach is suggested to estimate the P-wave modulus and S-wave modulus with the real component of the pre-stack seismic data initially. Taking the estimated P-wave and S-wave moduli as prior information, the P-wave and S-wave quality factors are further estimated with the imaginary component of the complex pre-stack seismic data, which is the quadrature of the original data. Finally, synthetic examples demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to estimate P-wave and S-wave quality factors stably and properly, and two field data examples demonstrate that the proposed approach may work as an efficient approach to fluid identification.

  16. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction investigation of temperature factors in the Zn blende semiconductor InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Bocchi, C.; Moze, O.; Wilson, C. C.; Fornari, R.

    1992-06-01

    A structural investigation of the Zn blende structure semiconductor InP has been carried out using the single crystal diffractometer SXD at the pulsed neutron facility ISIS. The ability to measure structure factors accurately at large Q values even with highly absorbing materials such as InP is demonstrated. Measurements were performed on a single crystal of InP at 293, 100 and 50 K with the <1 overline10> crystallographic axis mounted perpendicular to the scattering plane. This enabled collection of ( h h l) reflections up to a maximum with Miller indices (10, 10, 8).

  17. Neutron spectroscopic factors of Nickel-56 via Nickel(p,d)-56 Nickel-55 reaction in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanetullaev, Alisher

    Transfer reactions have been the classic tool for studying the angular distributions, the excitation energies, and the spectroscopic factors of possible single-particles states. With the advent of radioactive beams, there has been a renewed effort to utilize these beams in transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. The exact shell structure of the unstable doubly magic nucleus 56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if 56Ni has a closed f7/2 orbital, we have carried out the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni transfer reaction measurement with the radioactive 56Ni beam in inverse kinematics for the first time at the NSCL using the HiRA array and S800 spectrograph. The spectroscopic factor predicted by the independent particle model is 8, shell-model calculations give value of 6.8. We have extracted spectroscopic factors of the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni reaction, for the ground and two excited states of 55Ni. The neutron SF value of 7 for the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni ground state agrees with shell-model calculations supports the view that 56Ni is a closed shell nucleus. This result supports the use of 56Ni as a core in shell-model calculations. Another important goal was to study the structure of 55Ni by determining the spin and parities of excited states. We have assigned an ℓ value of 1 to first excited state of 55Ni for 2.089 MeV state of 55Ni. We have extracted a spectroscopic factor of 0.14 for this state. This serves as a second test of the shell model, and the results agree with the shell model calculations. We have confirmed the tentative ℓ = 0 assumption for 3.185 MeV state. A neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.2 was obtained for this state.

  18. Assessment of the neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed AmBe source by means of measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron emission anisotropy factor of a sealed Americium-Beryllium source is experimentally determined and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The measurements were done at the Italian Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations using a long counter neutron detector and a "X.3" type AmBe sealed neutron source. Experimental data are compared to simulations performed with the MCNP code where the precise structure of the source is taken into account starting from its technical design. The contributions of the single structural parts are described to point out the effective sources of the emission anisotropy.

  19. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices - AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p< .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

  20. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q{sup 2} and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized {sup 3}He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. G{sup n}{sub E} was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q{sup 2} = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV{sup 2}, respectively.

  1. Quantum Limit of Quality Factor in Silicon Micro and Nano Mechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A.; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J.; Ahn, Chae H.; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit. PMID:24247809

  2. Quantum limit of quality factor in silicon micro and nano mechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J; Ahn, Chae H; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit. PMID:24247809

  3. Tuning the quality factor of split nanobeam cavity by nanoelectromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Du, Han; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya; Deng, Jie

    2015-07-27

    A split nanobeam cavity is theoretically designed and experimentally demonstrated. Compared with the traditional photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, it has an air-slot in its center. Through the longitudinal and lateral movement of half part of the cavity, the resonance wavelength and quality factor are tuned. Instead of achieving a cavity with a large tunable wavelength range, the proposed split nanobeam cavity demonstrates a considerable quality factor change but the resonance wavelength is hardly varied. Using a nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) comb-drive actuator to control the longitudinal and lateral movement of the split nanobeam cavity, the experimentally-measured change of quality factor agrees well with the simulated value. Meanwhile, the variation range of resonance wavelength is smaller than the full width at half maximum of the resonance. The proposed structure may have potential application in Q-switched lasers. PMID:26367594

  4. Overcoming Si_3N_4 film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Kevin; Dutt, Avik; Poitras, Carl B.; Lipson, Michal

    2013-09-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonators are critical for a variety of photonic devices. However the intrinsically high film stress of silicon nitride has limited both the optical confinement and quality factor (Q) of ring resonators. We show that stress in Si3N4 films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating photonic devices from propagating cracks. We demonstrate a Si3N4 ring resonator with an intrinsic quality factor of 7 million, corresponding to a propagation loss of 4.2 dB/m. This is the highest quality factor reported to date for high confinement Si3N4 ring resonators in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  5. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Quality Factor in a Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pin-Jia; Wang, Yi-Wen; Wei, Lian-Fu

    2014-06-01

    We present the measurements of the temperature dependence of the internal quality factor (Qi) of a microwave resonator, well below the superconducting transition temperature. The device is a quarter-wavelength niobium (Tc = 9.2 K) coplanar waveguide resonator. The measured |S21| parameter shows typically the skewed Lorentzian distributions, from which the fitted quality factor monotonically decreases with the temperature increasing from 30 mK to 900 mK. It is observed that for the lower temperature range (i.e., at T < 700 mK) the temperature dependence of the fitted Qi deviates significantly from the predictions of the usual MattisBardeen theory. The measured 3 dB internal quality factor Q'i also verifies such an anomalous temperature dependence. Physically, this phenomenon could be attributed dominantly to the effects of the two-level systems in the device, rather than the usual temperature-dependent complex conductance.

  6. Factors associated with data quality in the routine health information system of Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine health information systems (RHIS) are crucial to the acquisition of data for health sector planning. In developing countries, the insufficient quality of the data produced by these systems limits their usefulness in regards to decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with poor data quality in the RHIS in Benin. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study included health workers who were responsible for data collection in public and private health centers. The technique and tools used were an interview with a self-administered questionnaire. The dependent variable was the quality of the data. The independent variables were socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, personal and work-related resources, and the perception of the technical factors. The quality of the data was assessed using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. We used survival analysis with univariate proportional hazards (PH) Cox models to derive hazards ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Focus group data were evaluated with a content analysis. Results A significant link was found between data quality and level of responsibility (p = 0.011), sector of employment (p = 0.007), RHIS training (p = 0.026), level of work engagement (p < 0.001), and the level of perceived self-efficacy (p = 0.03). The focus groups confirmed a positive relationship with organizational factors such as the availability of resources, supervision, and the perceived complexity of the technical factors. Conclusion This exploratory study identified several factors associated with the quality of the data in the RHIS in Benin. The results could provide strategic decision support in improving the system’s performance. PMID:25114792

  7. Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a womans organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

  8. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. PMID:21054473

  9. Estimation of near-surface quality factors by constrained inversion of Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Miller, Richard D.; Ivanov, Julian

    2012-07-01

    Quality factors (Q) of near-surface materials are as important as velocities of the materials in many applications. Only phase information of surface-wave data is utilized when high-frequency (? 2 Hz) surface-wave data are routinely inverted to determine near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities. Amplitude information of high-frequency surface-wave data can be used to determine quality factors of near-surface materials. Given S-wave velocity, compressional (P)-wave velocity, and Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, it is feasible to solve for S-wave quality factor QS and P-wave quality factor QP (for some specific velocity models) down to 30 m below the ground surface in many settings by inverting high-frequency Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients in a layered earth model. Amplitude of seismic data is an exponential function of attenuation coefficients. When calculating attenuation coefficients from changes in amplitude, this nonlinear nature would result in that small variations in amplitude cause huge changes in attenuation coefficients. This result suggests data (attenuation coefficients) that normally possess large errors could eventually transfer to a model (quality factors); therefore, constraints (or a priori information) on models are necessary. Because an inversion system to solve this problem is unstable, a regularization parameter must be introduced into an inversion algorithm to stabilize the inversion. These characteristics of the inversion problem allow us to solve the problem as a constrained and regularized linear system. Usually, a set of models that meet the defined constraints can be obtained by solving the system. Based on the linear nature of the inversion system, a smooth model can be selected from the set of models as a solution of the inversion using the L-curve method. This approach is a trade-off solution between data misfit and model length. Several real-world examples demonstrate the importance of constraints in finding acceptable realistic quality factors from empirical data.

  10. Poor sleep quality as a risk factor for lapse following a cannabis quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Harris, Alex H; Stickle, Timothy R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-04-01

    Treatments for cannabis dependence are associated with high rates of lapse/relapse, underscoring the importance of identifying malleable risk factors that are associated with quit failure. Whereas research has demonstrated that poor sleep quality following cannabis discontinuation is related to subsequent use, there has yet to be an examination of whether poor sleep quality prior to a quit attempt results in a similar pattern of lapse. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of pre-quit sleep quality on early lapse to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, among 55 cannabis dependent military veterans. Results indicated that participants who experienced poor pre-quit sleep quality had greater risk for lapse within the first 2 days (out of 7) following their quit attempt. Findings are discussed in terms of improving treatments for individuals who report poor sleep quality prior to a cannabis quit attempt. PMID:23098380

  11. Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

  12. Enhanced quality factor of Fano resonance in optical metamaterials by manipulating configuration of unit cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    By changing unit cell configurations, we demonstrated enhancement of quality factors (Q-factors) of Fano resonance in optical metamaterials composed of asymmetric double bars. The Q-factors of Fano resonance at wavelengths around 1500 nm were extracted from absorption spectra, and the dependence of the degree of asymmetry was studied. Observed enhancement is qualitatively interpreted by dipole-dipole interactions, and destructive interactions were essential for achieving high Q-factors. These results will be useful for improving performance of potential applications using metamaterial resonators such as light emitting devises and sensors.

  13. Compartmentalization of endoplasmic reticulum quality control and ER-associated degradation factors.

    PubMed

    Leitman, Julia; Ron, Efrat; Ogen-Shtern, Navit; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies are delineating a detailed picture of the architecture and function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the early secretory pathway, showing the existence of dynamic compartmentalization of ER quality control and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) factors. The compartmentalization is regulated by ER protein load and in turn regulates protein processing and cell fate. This compartmentalization is intimately linked to the protein quality control processes, protein disposal through ERAD, the unfolded protein response, and the initiation of apoptosis. It includes novel compartments, the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), vesicles implicated in "ERAD-tuning," and the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). PMID:23194074

  14. Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life in chronic portuguese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic illnesses are diseases of long duration and generally of slow progression. They cause significant quality of life impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse psychosocial predictors of quality of life and of subjective well-being in chronic Portuguese patients. Methods Chronic disease patients (n?=?774) were recruited from central Portuguese Hospitals. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and outcome variables: quality of life (HRQL) and subjective well-being (SWB). MANCOVA analyses were used to test psychosocial factors as determinants of HRQL and SWB. Results After controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables, results showed that dispositional optimism, positive affect, spirituality, social support and treatment adherence are significant predictors of HRQL and SWB. Similar predictors of quality of life, such as positive affect, treatment adherence and spirituality, were found for subgroups of disease classified by medical condition. Conclusions The work identifies psychosocial factors associated with quality of life. The predictors for the entire group of different chronic diseases are similar to the ones found in different chronic disease subgroups: positive affect, social support, treatment adherence and spirituality. Patients with more positive affect, additional social support, an adequate treatment adherence and a feel-good spirituality, felt better with the disease conditions and consequently had a better quality of life. This study contributes to understanding and improving the processes associated with quality of life, which is relevant for health care providers and chronic diseases support. PMID:24405802

  15. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  16. Quality of carrots as affected by pre- and postharvest factors and processing.

    PubMed

    Seljsen, Randi; Kristensen, Hanne L; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Wyss, Gabriela S; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Birlouez-Aragone, Ins; Kahl, Johannes

    2013-08-30

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, ?-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for ?-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in ?-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in ?-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. PMID:23744724

  17. Space Radiation Quality Factors and the Delta Ray Dose and Dose-Rate Reduction Effectiveness Factor.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna; Alp, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors recommend that the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor used for space radiation risk assessments should be based on a comparison of the biological effects of energetic electrons produced along a cosmic ray particles path in low fluence exposures to high dose-rate gamma-ray exposures of doses of about 1 Gy. Methods to implement this approach are described. PMID:26808878

  18. Perceptual gamut mapping on the basis of image quality and preference factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Cho, Min-Ki; Choh, Heui-Keun; Kim, Chang-Yeong

    2006-01-01

    This study has three primary aims circumventing current limitations of color reproduction technologies: firstly, to derive base-line image quality factors from both color printer experts and academic research works. Individual factors were verified by systematic experiments, secondly, to develop a perceptual gamut mapping algorithm covering the image quality and preference factors derived, thirdly, to apply the algorithm to printer driver as acting for a vendor specific perceptual intent. Algorithm of this study tried to optimization between control parameters of gamut mapping and color shifting factors of preference, e.g. skin, sky and green grass. Profile builder using this algorithm outperforms, in industrial and academic aspects, existing commercial tool and CIE recommended algorithms.

  19. Effective factors in crystals optic quality and some of their applicable examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samavat, F.; Solgi, S.

    2015-11-01

    This research attempts to introduce internal and external factors effective in the optical quality of materials. It presents two crystal groups in oxides and alkali halides with appropriate optical efficiency. Then, these two groups are compared with each other and common semiconductive crystals and their appropriate efficiency in each spectral area is mentioned. Finally, the factors and alterations which increase their output compared to similar items are presented.

  20. Operator role definition: An initial step in the human factors engineering design of the advanced neutron source (ANS)

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.; Houser, M.M.; Hill, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new basic and applied research facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy that is proposed for construction. It will provide neutron beams for measurements and experiments in the fields of materials science and engineering, biology, chemistry, materials analysis, and nuclear science. The facility will provide a useful neutron beam flux that is at least five times more than is available at the world`s best existing facilities. It will also provide world-class facilities for isotopes production, materials irradiation testing, materials analysis, and the production of positrons. ANS will be unique in the United States in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles will be included in its design and construction. Initial HFE accomplishments include the development of a functional analysis, an operating philosophy, and a program plan. In fiscal year 1994, HFE activities are focusing on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO should function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  1. Physical, biophysical, and cell-biological factors that can contribute to enhanced neoplastic transformation by fission-spectrum neutrons.

    PubMed

    Elkind, M M

    1991-10-01

    In radiobiology, fission-spectrum neutrons frequently have been used as a surrogate for other high-LET radiations, particularly when thick absorbers were involved as in animal studies. However, the spectrum of proton secondaries, plus the gamma rays generated in the absorption processes, suggests that a characterization of such a beam, based upon an average LET alone, may not adequately account for the spectrum of biological properties that it may have. Conflicting results have been reported on the relative effectiveness of reduced dose rates of fission-spectrum neutrons, and other high-LET radiations, for the induction of noeplastic transformation of cells in culture. Enhanced rates of neoplastic transformation were reported for C3H 10T1/2 mouse cells, Syrian hamster embryo cells, and human hybrid cells-all with the same beam of fission-spectrum neutrons generated by the JANUS reactor at the Argonne National Laboratory. No enhancement was observed with C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to the beam from the TRIGA reactor at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, or to maximally effective alpha particles. The recent report that an enhancement was also observed when human hybrid cells were exposed at a low dose rate to the TRIGA beam indicated that physical factors alone were not responsible for the differences observed with C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to these various beams. To resolve the lack of consistency in the results that had been reported, a biophysical model was developed based, in part, on the existence of a narrow age interval in the growth cycle of a cell during which it is particularly sensitive to radiation neoplastic transformation. Because of the special physical and biological properties of cells in M phase, and/or in late G2 phase or early G1 phase, these cohorts of cells were proposed as those that are hypersensitive to neoplastic transformation by radiation. PMID:1924748

  2. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  3. Factors Affecting the Quality of Diabetic Care in Primary Care Settings in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Azri, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Fatma; Al-Rasbi, Samira; El-Shafie, Kawther; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The quality of services delivered to type 2 diabetic patients in primary health care has an important impact on long-term outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore diabetic patients views of factors affecting quality of diabetic services delivered in primary care in Oman, a developing country with a high burden of diabetes. Methods: Semi-structured face to face interviews were conducted with 19 type 2 diabetic patients recruited from four selected primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in Muscat region, the capital city of Oman. A framework approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: Participants identified several factors which could affect the quality of diabetic services provided in PHCs: delays in the follow-up process; lack of continuity of care; diabetes educational materials unavailable in waiting areas; shortage of Omani nurses able to speak the patients language; inadequate explanations from the attending primary care physician (PCP); under involvement of dieticians in patient management; delays in provision of laboratory results; inadequate supplies of diabetic medication between appointments, and long waits to see ophthalmologists. Conclusion: Several factors were identified by diabetic patients that may influence the quality of diabetic services provided in the PHC setting in Oman. Health care professionals and decision makers in the Ministry of Health (MOH) and other health care sectors in Oman should consider patients views and concerns in order to improve the quality of diabetic care services in primary health care. PMID:21969892

  4. [Factors related to the quality of life of the elderly in programs for senior citizens].

    PubMed

    Dawalibi, Nathaly Wehbe; Goulart, Rita Maria Monteiro; Prearo, Leandro Campi

    2014-08-01

    Population aging is a social phenomenon that demands the attention of health professionals. This article seeks to analyze the influence of possible intervening factors on the quality of life of the elderly. It was a cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive and exploratory study, in which 182 elderly of both genders participated. They were aged ? 60 years and were enrolled in programs for senior citizens from three universities located in the cities of Sao Paulo, Sao Caetano do Sul and Mogi das Cruzes. To evaluate the subjective perception of quality of life, the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref) was used. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the dependent and independent variables. A significance level of 5% was adopted. The results showed that the absence of disease positively influenced the quality of life on the four domains evaluated. In the environmental domain, full tertiary education, old age, the absence of disease and being a resident in Sao Caetano do Sul positively influenced the quality of life of the elderly. The factors associated with better quality of life were: full tertiary education, old age, the absence of disease and being a resident in Sao Caetano do Sul, in that order of importance. PMID:25119089

  5. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were

  6. A Review of Research on Factors that Impact Aspects of Online Discussions Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatariu, Alexandru; Quinn, Linda F.; Hartley, Kendall

    2007-01-01

    In support of online discussions research, this review classifies and describes instructional interventions and learner characteristics that affect the quality of discussions. The review will help educators better understand factors such as group structure, mentoring, argumentation, and learner characteristics that play a role in shaping online

  7. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact

  8. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge

  9. The Impact of Institutional Factors on Student Academic Results: Implications for "Quality" in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry; Wortley, Richard; Bates, Merrelyn; Allard, Troy

    2006-01-01

    This paper situates the topic of student assessment and the moderation of assessment within a broader context of policy debates about the quality of teaching and learning in universities. The focus and discussion grew out of a research project that aimed to investigate factors related to academic success and failure in a Faculty of Arts. The

  10. Factors Influencing Learners' Perceptions of the Quality of Computer Based Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Online and paper instruments were used by 159 learners to evaluate 5 computer-based learning materials requiring information technology skills. Top factors influencing perceptions of quality were as follows: user friendliness, presentation, graphics, engagement, information, knowledge, understanding, level, learning mode, and language. (SK)

  11. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  12. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  13. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  14. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  15. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A

  16. Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

  17. Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spokus, Diane

    2008-01-01

    High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

  18. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  19. Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students' college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various

  20. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body

  1. Impact of solvent quality on the density profiles of looped triblock copolymer brushes by neutron reflectivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Alonzo, Jose; Liu, Ming; Ji, Haining; Yin, Fang; Smith, Grant; Mays, Jimmy; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Dadmun, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-deuterated polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-dPS-PVP) triblock copolymers from toluene onto silicon leads to the formation of dPS loops tethered by the PVP end blocks. Using neutron reflectometry, we have determined the segment density profiles of these looped polymer brushes in toluene, a good solvent for the dPS block, and in cyclohexane at 20 C (poor solvent), 32 C, (near- solvent), and 50 C (marginal solvent). While the swelling behavior qualitatively agrees with that observed for singly grafted brushes, there are interesting differences in the local structural details: In a good solvent, the segment density profiles are composed of an inner parabolic region and a long, extended tail. In cyclohexane, the profiles are described by exponential decays. We ascribe these features to a novel polydispersity effect that arises due to tethering the PS loops by both ends. The results also show that the less dense layers undergo more significant changes in swollen height as solvent quality is changed and that the looped brushes of different molecular weight, asymmetry, and tethering density adhere to scaling relationships derived for lightly cross-linked polymer gels.

  2. Management of thermal peaking factors in CONFU-B PWR assemblies using neutron poisons and tailored enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Visosky, M.; Hejzlar, P.; Kazimi, M.

    2006-07-01

    CONFU-B assemblies are PWR assemblies containing standard Uranium fuel rods and TRU bearing inert material fuel rods and are designed to achieve net TRU destruction over a 4.5-year irradiation. These highly heterogeneous assemblies tend to exhibit large intra-assembly power peaking factors (IAPPF). Neutronic strategies to reduce IAPPF are developed. The IAPPF are calculated at the assembly level using CASMO4, and these are used to calculate the most restrictive thermal margin (the Minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio, MDNBR) using a whole-core VIPRE-01 model. This paper examines two strategies to manage the thermal margin of a CONFU-B assembly while retaining the TRU destruction performance: use of neutron poisons and tailored enrichment schemes. Burnable poisons can be used to suppress BOL reactivity of fresh CONFU-B assemblies with only minor impact on MDNBR and TRU destruction performance. Tailored enrichment, along with the use of soluble boron, can achieve significant improvements in MDNBR, but at some cost to TRU destruction performance. (authors)

  3. Differential response to environmental and nutritional factors of high-quality tomato varieties.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, María José; García-López, Jesús; Collados-Luján, Juan Fernando; López-Ortiz, Fernando; Díaz, Manuel; Toresano, Fernando; Camacho, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    The effect of salinity and silicon treatments on the marketable quality of four Marmande tomato varieties was investigated through conventional quality attributes and (1)H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy. Following variations in ripening through the content of GABA deduced from NMR was crucial for understanding the effects of environmental and nutritional factors. NMR data also lead to a new taste index, which increases from December to January. For Raf, Delizia and Conquista varieties, it was associated to ripening. In Tigre tomatoes the change, exclusively due to the decrease in sourness, does not affect the GABA content. The effect of the harvest day was more pronounced than treatments. However, increasing electrical conductivity seems an efficient alternative for improving fruit quality of Raf tomatoes harvest under non-optimal conditions. Silicon addition appears to reinforce the effect of light intensity on the quantity of photoassimilates available to the fruits without a clear effect on organoleptic quality. PMID:25624234

  4. Factors determining cost and quality of the electrical insulation in the VPI-process

    SciTech Connect

    Bruetsch, R.; Allison, J.; Thaler, T.

    1996-12-31

    The construction of the electrical insulation and the carrying out of the VPI-process are critical steps in the production of rotating high voltage machines. On the other hand the manufacture of the insulation and the VPI-process are cost factors. It is therefore important to know the factors influencing cost and quality of the insulation in the VPI-process in order to determine the optimal production parameters and to achieve a high reliability of the resulting machine. This article gives an overview of the relevant factors and some considerations regarding costs.

  5. Psychosocial factors influencing calcium intake and bone quality in middle school girls.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela V; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H; Diamond, Pamela; Day, R Sue; Hergenroeder, Albert

    2010-06-01

    Calcium intake has been associated with promoting bone health in children and adolescents, thus preventing osteoporosis later in life. Behavior change such as increased calcium intake, as well as physiological factors such as bone quality, may be facilitated by psychosocial and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to identify pathways by which psychosocial factors influence calcium intake and bone quality in middle school girls. The study design was cross-sectional. Baseline data from the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) study, collected in 2001-2003, were used. IMPACT was a 1.5-year nutrition and physical activity intervention study, designed to improve bone density in 717 middle school girls in Texas. Main outcome measures were calcium intake determined using mean milligrams of calcium consumed per day and number of glasses of milk consumed per day, and bone quality determined using a calcaneal stiffness index. Confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were performed to identify the direct and indirect pathways used by various psychosocial factors such as knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and milk availability at home, to influence calcium intake and bone quality. Results showed that knowledge of osteoporosis and calcium-rich foods had an indirect effect on calcium intake, with outcome expectations as the mediating variable (beta=.035 and beta=.03, respectively; P<0.05). Calcium self-efficacy had a significant indirect effect on calcium intake, with outcome expectations as the mediator (beta=.085, P<0.05). None of the variables significantly influenced bone quality. Thus, several direct and indirect pathways used to influence calcium intake among adolescent girls were identified. These findings are critical for the development of effective interventions to promote calcium intake in this population. PMID:20497785

  6. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  7. Hearing the patient's voice? Factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E; Cleary, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement. Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature. Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care. Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers). Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas. Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with technical expertise with the data. PMID:16326789

  8. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  9. Neutron source for Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hctor Ren; Manzanares-Acua, Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed to obtain a thermal neutron field from a 239PuBe neutron source inside a cylindrical heterogeneous moderators for Neutron Capture Synovectomy. Studied moderators were light water and heavy water, graphite and heavy water, lucite and polyethylene and heavy water. The neutron spectrum of polyethylene and heavy water moderator was used to determine neutron spectra inside a knee model. In this model the elemental composition of synovium and synovial liquid was assumed like blood. Kerma factors for synovium and synovial liquid were calculated to compare with water Kerma factors, in this calculations the synovium was loaded with two different concentrations of Boron.

  10. Sensorless enhancement of an atomic force microscope micro-cantilever quality factor using piezoelectric shunt control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, M.; Moheimani, S. O. R.

    2013-05-01

    The image quality and resolution of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is dependent on the quality (Q) factor of the sensing micro-cantilever. Increasing the cantilever Q factor improves image resolution and reduces the risk of sample and cantilever damage. Active piezoelectric shunt control is introduced in this work as a new technique for modifying the Q factor of a piezoelectric self-actuating AFM micro-cantilever. An active impedance is placed in series with the tip oscillation voltage source to modify the mechanical dynamics of the cantilever. The benefit of using this control technique is that it removes the optical displacement sensor from the Q control feedback loop to reduce measurement noise in the loop and allows for a reduction in instrument size.

  11. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (Editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  12. Current risk estimates based on the A-bomb survivors data - a discussion in terms of the ICRP recommendations on the neutron weighting factor.

    PubMed

    Rhm, W; Walsh, L

    2007-01-01

    Currently, most analyses of the A-bomb survivors' solid tumour and leukaemia data are based on a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 10 that is applied to all survivors, independent of their distance to the hypocentre at the time of bombing. The results of these analyses are then used as a major basis for current risk estimates suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use in international safety guidelines. It is shown here that (i) a constant value of 10 is not consistent with weighting factors recommended by the ICRP for neutrons and (ii) it does not account for the hardening of the neutron spectra in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which takes place with increasing distance from the hypocentres. The purpose of this paper is to present new RBE values for the neutrons, calculated as a function of distance from the hypocentres for both cities that are consistent with the ICRP60 neutron weighting factor. If based on neutron spectra from the DS86 dosimetry system, these calculations suggest values of about 31 at 1000 m and 23 at 2000 m ground range in Hiroshima, while the corresponding values for Nagasaki are 24 and 22. If the neutron weighting factor that is consistent with ICRP92 is used, the corresponding values are about 23 and 21 for Hiroshima and 21 and 20 for Nagasaki, respectively. It is concluded that the current risk estimates will be subject to some changes in view of the changed RBE values. This conclusion does not change significantly if the new doses from the Dosimetry System DS02 are used. PMID:17533156

  13. Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

    2011-10-10

    Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

  14. Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health

    SciTech Connect

    Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

  15. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    PubMed

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  17. Factors Affecting Cirrus-HD OCT Optic Disc Scan Quality: A Review with Case Examples

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Joshua S.; Taibbi, Giovanni; Nelson, Seth C.; Chao, Diana; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2015-01-01

    Spectral-domain OCT is an established tool to assist clinicians in detecting glaucoma and monitor disease progression. The widespread use of this imaging modality is due, at least in part, to continuous hardware and software advancements. However, recent evidence indicates that OCT scan artifacts are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Poor image quality invariably challenges the interpretation of test results, with potential implications for the care of glaucoma patients. Therefore, adequate knowledge of various imaging artifacts is necessary. In this work, we describe several factors affecting Cirrus HD-OCT optic disc scan quality and their effects on measurement variability. PMID:26351574

  18. Quality-factor amplification in piezoelectric MEMS resonators applying an all-electrical feedback loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzaneque, T.; Hernando-Garca, J.; Ababneh, A.; Schwarz, P.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.; Snchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2011-02-01

    An all-electrical velocity feedback control to enhance the quality factor of piezoelectric aluminium nitride (AlN)-based microcantilevers and microbridges was implemented. Two alternatives to obtain a velocity-proportional signal were demonstrated depending on the top electrode configuration. For a straightforward electrode design in one-port configuration (i.e. self-actuation and self-sensing), a velocity signal, proportional to the piezoelectric current, was used in the feedback loop by cancelling out the dielectric current electronically. For top electrodes allowing a two-port configuration (i.e. one for actuation and one for sensing), the piezoelectric current is directly extracted and its relationship with velocity is analysed taking the symmetry of the modal shape into account. Standard operational amplifier-based configurations for the feedback circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board. Quality factors were determined from the transient electrical response of the devices. Comparable results were obtained from the displacement spectrum applying a laser Doppler vibrometer. Quality factors as high as 2 105, corresponding to an enhancement factor of about 200, were achieved in air for the lowest gain margin achievable before the circuit becomes unstable, making this kind of device more competitive for mass sensor applications due to enhanced spectral resolution.

  19. Interactions among Ecological Factors That Explain the Psychosocial Quality of Life of Children with Complex Needs

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Sandy; Paul, Louise; Ye, Chenglin; Loney, Patricia; Browne, Gina; Thabane, Lehana; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the associations and interactions among ecological factors and explain the psychosocial quality of life of children with complex needs. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey consenting parents were identified by the Children's Treatment Network. Families were eligible if the child from 0 to 19 years, resided in Simcoe/York, and there were multiple family needs. Regression analysis was used to explore associations and interactions. n = 429. Results. Younger children, without conduct disorder, without hostile and punitive parenting and with low adverse family impact demonstrated the highest levels of psychosocial quality of life. Statistically significant interactions between processes of care and parent variables highlight the complexity of real life situations. Conclusions. It is not possible to fully understand the child's psychosocial quality of life in complex needs families by considering only simple associations between ecological factors. A multitude of factors and interactions between these factors are simultaneously present and the care of these families requires a holistic approach. PMID:20628505

  20. Evaluation of variations and affecting factors of eco-environmental quality during urbanization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2015-03-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the foundation of economic sustainable development and rational utilization of resources. It is necessary to understand and evaluate the regional eco-environmental quality correctly. Based on national remote sensing land use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data and some other statistical data, this paper established an eco-environmental quality index (EQI) model to evaluate the ecological status of Jinan from 2000 to 2011. The results of eco-environmental quality showed little variation, with EQI values ranged from 62.00 to 69.01. EQI of each region in Jinan firstly decreased sharply and then increased slowly with the development of local economy. Besides the spatial and temporal variations analysis, affecting factors of eco-environmental quality was also discussed in this article. According to the results of correlation and regression analysis, meteorological conditions (rainfall and sunshine duration) and industrial structure (the proportion of primary industry) had relatively high correlations with eco-environmental quality. To summarize, a better eco-environmental status is associated with increasing rainfall, shorter sunshine duration, and lower proportion of primary industry. This article aims to giving supporting data and decision-making bases to restore the ecological environment and promote the sustainable development of Jinan. PMID:25369921

  1. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (p<0.0001) more in very remote areas than the major city with fruit (32%, p<0.0001), vegetables (26.1%, p<0.0005) and dairy (40%, p<0.0001) higher. Higher price did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  2. The Transverse Asymmetry A{sub T}, from Quasi-elastic {sup 3}{ovr He}({rvec e}, e{prime}) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xu; Dipangkar Dutta; Feng Xiong; Brian Anderson; Leonard Auerbach; Todd Averett; William Bertozzi; Tim Black; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Gordon Cates; Zhengwei Chai; Jian-ping Chen; Seonho Choi; Eugene Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; G.S. Corrado; C. Crawford; Daniel Dale; Alexandre Deur; Pibero Djawotho; Bradley Filippone; John Finn; Haiyan Gao; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Walter Gloeckle; J. Golak; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Jens-ole Hansen; F. Hersman; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Calvin Howell; Emlyn Hughes; Thomas Humensky; Sebastien Incerti; Cornelis De Jager; John Jensen; Xiaodong Jiang; C.E. Jones; Mark Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; Ioannis Kominis; Wolfgang Korsch; Kevin Kramer; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Michael Kuss; Enkeleida Lakuriqi; Meihua Liang; Nilanga Liyanage; John Lerose; Sergey Malov; Demetrius Margaziotis; J.W. Martin; Kathy Mccormick; Robert Mckeown; Kevin Mcilhany; Zein-eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; G.W. Miller; Joseph Mitchell; Sirish Nanda; E. Pace; Tina Pavlin; Gerassimos Petratos; Roman Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; David Prout; Ronald Ransome; Yves Roblin; Marat Rvachev; Arunava Saha; G. Salme; Michael Schnee; Taeksu Shin; Karl Slifer; Paul Souder; Steffen Strauch; Riad Suleiman; Mark Sutter; Bryan Tipton; Luminita Todor; Michele Viviani; Branislav Vlahovic; J. Watson; Claude Williamson; H. Witala; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Jen-chuan Yeh; Piotr Zolnierczuk

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the transverse asymmetry from inclusive scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized {sup 3}He nuclei at quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab with high statistical and systematic precision. The neutron magnetic form factor was extracted based on Faddeev calculations with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

  3. A high quality factor photonic crystal channel-drop filter with a linear gradient microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Fan, Qing-bin; Lu, Ye; Luo, De-jun; Kong, Yi-bu; Zhang, Dong-chuang

    2015-05-01

    We design a channel-drop filter (CDF) with a linear gradient microcavity in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC). The model of three-port CDF with reflector is used to achieve high quality factor (Q-factor) and 100% channel-drop efficiency. The research indicates that adjusting the distance between reference plane and reflector can simultaneously influence the Q-factor due to coupling to a bus waveguide and the phase retardation occurring in the round trip between a microcavity and a reflector. The calculation results of 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that the designed filter can achieve the drop efficiency of 96.7% and ultra-high Q-factor with an ultra-small modal volume.

  4. Levels of hepatocyte growth factor in serum correlate with quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Ewa; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Ma?kowiak, Beata; Sosinska, Patrycja; Matecka, Monika; Kolodziejczak, Barbara; Musielak, Micha?; Breborowicz, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with end stage renal failure (ESRD) report low quality of life and inflammation may be one of the contributing factors. We studied if the hemodialysis induced inflammation correlates with the patients quality of life. Methods: Study was performed in 76 (35 males and 41 females) ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis. Effect of one dialysis session on blood concentration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) was studied. Results were correlated with answers given by patients to a short questionnaire composed of questions from Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQoL-SF) questionnaire. Results: Hemodialysis induced increase of serum level of HGF (+117%) and IL-6 (+17%). Declared by patients health status correlated with their age, GFR, kt/V and hemodialysis induced change in serum IL6 and HGF level (R2 = 0469, P < 0.001). Physical activity correlated with age, serum IL-6 and hemodialysis induced change in serum HGF and VEGF (R2 = 0.362, P < 0.001). Presence of social/mental problems during previous 4 weeks correlated with age, serum HGF and hemodialysis induced changes in serum HGF and VEGF levels (R2 = 0.333, P < 0.001). Interference of the kidney disease with daily life activities correlated with age, serum VEGF and hemodialysis induced change in serum HGF and IL6 levels (R2 = 0.422, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Inflammation correlates with reduced quality of life in ESRD. Low hemodialysis-induced release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine HGF correlates with impaired quality of life in that group of patients. PMID:26722560

  5. Doping optimization for ultra-high quality factor superconducting niobium cavities for particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexander; Grassellino, Anna; Kim, Young-Kee

    2014-03-01

    Increasing quality factor of the fundamental mode in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities is vital for development of the future particle accelerator facilities, i.e. LCLS-II, Project X, ERLs, and ADS for nuclear energy and waste transmutation, since it directly affects the dissipated power in cavity walls. It has been discovered that doping of certain concentration of nitrogen into the surface of superconducting niobium significantly improves the quality factor of SRF cavities. We report the results of the nitrogen doping optimization guided by diffusion model and present two surface treatment procedures that allow achieving optimal value of nitrogen concentration at the surface of cavity: one with electropolishing required, another one without it.

  6. External high-quality-factor resonator tunes up nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suefke, Martin; Liebisch, Alexander; Blmich, Bernhard; Appelt, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    The development of powerful sensors for the detection of weak electromagnetic fields is crucial for many spectroscopic applications, in particular for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical model for boosting the NMR signal-to-noise ratio, validated by liquid-state 1H, 129Xe and 6Li NMR experiments at low frequencies, using an external resonator with a high quality-factor combined with a low-quality-factor input coil. In addition to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, this approach exhibits striking features such as a high degree of flexibility with respect to input coil parameters and a square-root dependence on the sample volume, and signifies an important step towards compact NMR spectroscopy at low frequencies with small and large coils.

  7. Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

  8. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Rochman, Jake; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-11

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystal. PMID:26832284

  9. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Rochman, Jake; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystals.

  10. Predictors and Effective Factors on Quality of Life Among Iranian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Saied; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Shokri, Azad; Mottaghi, Payman; Qolipour, Kamal; Kordi, Ayan; Bahman Ziari, Najmeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that leads to joint swelling, stiffness, pain and progressive joint destruction. It is a common disease with prevalence of 1% worldwide that affecting all aspects of patients lives. Therefore, this study was conducted to summarize and provide a clear view of quality of life among the patients in Iran through a literature review. Methods: This study was conducted as a literature review over article published between 2000 to 2013, by using data bases comprise of Google scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, IRANDOC, SID, Medlib, Magiran and by key words: quality of life, rheumatoid arthritis, Iran and their Persian equivalents. Finally 2065 articles assessed and according to the aim of the study are 11 studies synthesized. Extracted results first were summarized in Extraction Table, and then analyzed manually. Results: In reviewed articles rheumatoid arthritis patients quality of life was measured by using five different tools, the most important one of them was SF36 questionnaire. Among eight dimensions of SF36 questionnaire, the highest mean according included articles result was social functioning with average score of 63.4 and the lowest for physical limitation (physical role functioning) with score of 43. Overall, mean of eight dimensions was 52.47. The most important factors affecting quality of life were disease severity and pain, depression, income, educational, occupational status, married status, sign of disease, fatigue, anxiety and disease activity scores. Conclusion: The results of the study showed relatively low quality of life of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Iran. Empowering patients by participating them in service delivery process and decision making can improves quality of life and in this regard health care provider must be focused on patient self-care abilities and reinforcing this factor by training them. PMID:24167426

  11. A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

  12. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

  13. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  14. Human factors affecting the quality of routinely collected data in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Edward; Bradshaw, Debbie; Phillips, Tamsin; Dudley, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations that have looked at the people aspect of the health information system in South Africa have only focused on the availability of human resources and not on competence or other behavioural factors. Using the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) tool that assumes relationships between technical, behavioural and organizational determinants of the routine information processes and performance, this paper highlights some behavioural factors affecting the quality of routinely collected data in South Africa. In the context of monitoring maternal and child health programmes, data were collected from 161 health information personnel in 58 health facilities and 2 district offices from 2 conveniently sampled health districts. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess confidence and competence levels of routine health information system (RHIS) tasks, problem solving anddata quality checking skills, and motivation. The findings suggest that 64% of the respondents have poor numerical skills and limited statistical and data quality checking skills. While the average confidence levels at performing RHIS tasks is 69%, only 22% actually displayed competence above 50%. Personnel appear to be reasonably motivated but there is considerable deficiency in their competency to interpret and use data. This may undermine the quality and utility of the RHIS. PMID:23920665

  15. A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

  16. Does the photon beam quality factor depend on the type of ionization chamber?

    PubMed

    Christ, G; Major, J; Nüsslin, F

    1995-08-01

    The photon beam quality factor Q of 6- and 15-MV photon beams has been measured using different types of thimble ionization chambers with various wall, electrode and insulator materials. Some types of chambers seem to overestimate the corresponding Q-value by 0.4% (6 MV) and 0.7% (15 MV), respectively. The effect on the stopping power ratio water to air and on the pertubation correction will be discussed. PMID:7501813

  17. Study of the noise of micromechanical oscillators under quality factor enhancement via driving force control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Javier

    2005-02-01

    The performance of devices based on micro- and nanomechanical oscillators depends critically on the quality factor (Q). The quality factor can be externally increased about two orders of magnitude by coherent amplification of the oscillation at resonance with a fast feedback amplifier. Here, theory and experiments performed with microcantilevers are presented to study the oscillation noise under external Q enhancement and how it differs from the noise when the Q is naturally enhanced by decreasing the mechanical energy loss. The application of the feedback amplifier produces a significant increase of the thermal noise and the noise that arises from the cantilever-displacement sensor. The main consequence is that the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) remains constant and independent of the Q enhancement when measuring the amplitude and phase of the oscillation in the slope detection technique. This behavior is opposite to the enhancement of the S/N when the Q naturally increases, which is proportional to Q1/2, ignoring instrumental sources of noise. More important, by taking into account the maximum driving force provided by the actuator, it is concluded that external Q enhancement does not enhance the sensitivity of devices based on micro- and nanomechanical oscillators, using the slope detection technique. The lack of sensitivity enhancement is attributed to the fact that thermal forces are not altered by the increase of the quality factor via the fast feedback amplifier. Finally, it is proposed to use the fast feedback amplifier in a different measurement mode to obtain high sensitivity. This consists in the self-excitation of the cantilever without application of a reference driving force, and the measurement of the frequency of the oscillation. Self-excitation of the cantilever produces amplification of the noise and its squeezing around the resonant frequency, hence the oscillation resembles Brownian motion of the cantilever with a superior quality factor.

  18. Modeling water quality in an urban river using hydrological factors--data driven approaches.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Pin-An; Coynel, Alexandra; Vachaud, Georges

    2015-03-15

    Contrasting seasonal variations occur in river flow and water quality as a result of short duration, severe intensity storms and typhoons in Taiwan. Sudden changes in river flow caused by impending extreme events may impose serious degradation on river water quality and fateful impacts on ecosystems. Water quality is measured in a monthly/quarterly scale, and therefore an estimation of water quality in a daily scale would be of good help for timely river pollution management. This study proposes a systematic analysis scheme (SAS) to assess the spatio-temporal interrelation of water quality in an urban river and construct water quality estimation models using two static and one dynamic artificial neural networks (ANNs) coupled with the Gamma test (GT) based on water quality, hydrological and economic data. The Dahan River basin in Taiwan is the study area. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) is considered as the representative parameter, a correlative indicator in judging the contamination level over the study. Key factors the most closely related to the representative parameter (NH3-N) are extracted by the Gamma test for modeling NH3-N concentration, and as a result, four hydrological factors (discharge, days w/o discharge, water temperature and rainfall) are identified as model inputs. The modeling results demonstrate that the nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) network furnished with recurrent connections can accurately estimate NH3-N concentration with a very high coefficient of efficiency value (0.926) and a low RMSE value (0.386 mg/l). Besides, the NARX network can suitably catch peak values that mainly occur in dry periods (September-April in the study area), which is particularly important to water pollution treatment. The proposed SAS suggests a promising approach to reliably modeling the spatio-temporal NH3-N concentration based solely on hydrological data, without using water quality sampling data. It is worth noticing that such estimation can be made in a much shorter time interval of interest (span from a monthly scale to a daily scale) because hydrological data are long-term collected in a daily scale. The proposed SAS favorably makes NH3-N concentration estimation much easier (with only hydrological field sampling) and more efficient (in shorter time intervals), which can substantially help river managers interpret and estimate water quality responses to natural and/or manmade pollution in a more effective and timely way for river pollution management. PMID:25544251

  19. Evaluated cross-section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Cox, L.; Young, P.G.; Meigooni, A.

    1995-04-11

    A program is being carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop high-energy evaluated nuclear data libraries for use in Monte Carlo simulations of cancer radiation therapy. In this report we describe evaluated cross sections and kerma factors for neutrons with incident energies up to 100 MeV on {sup 12}C. The aim of this effort is to incorporate advanced nuclear physics modeling methods, with new experimental measurements, to generate cross section libraries needed for an accurate simulation of dose deposition in fast neutron therapy. The evaluated libraries are based mainly on nuclear model calculations, benchmarked to experimental measurements where they exist. We use the GNASH code system, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms. The libraries tabulate elastic and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated production spectra for light ejectiles with A{le}and kinetic energies given to light ejectiles and heavy recoil fragments. The major steps involved in this effort are: (1) development and validation of nuclear models for incident energies up to 100 MeV; (2) collation of experimental measurements, including new results from Louvain-la-Nueve and Los Alamos; (3) extension of the Livermore ENDL formats for representing high-energy data; (4) calculation and evaluation of nuclear data; and (5) validation of the libraries. We describe the evaluations in detail, with particular emphasis on our new high-energy modeling developments. Our evaluations agree well with experimental measurements of integrated and differential cross sections. We compare our results with the recent ENDF/B-VI evaluation which extends up to 32 MeV.

  20. Effects of weak noise on oscillating flows: Linking quality factor, Floquet modes, and Koopman spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Shervin

    2014-09-01

    Many fluid flows, such as bluff body wakes, exhibit stable self-sustained oscillations for a wide range of parameters. Here we study the effect of weak noise on such flows. In the presence of noise, a flow with self-sustained oscillations is characterized not only by its period, but also by the quality factor. This measure gives an estimation of the number of oscillations over which periodicity is maintained. Using a recent theory [P. Gaspard, J. Stat. Phys. 106, 57 (2002)], we report on two observations. First, for weak noise the quality factor can be approximated using a linear Floquet analysis of the deterministic system; its size is inversely proportional to the inner-product between first direct and adjoint Floquet vectors. Second, the quality factor can readily be observed from the spectrum of evolution operators. This has consequences for Koopman/Dynamic mode decomposition analyses, which extract coherent structures associated with different frequencies from numerical or experimental flows. In particular, the presence of noise induces a damping on the eigenvalues, which increases quadratically with the frequency and linearly with the noise amplitude.

  1. Effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Charron, L; Geffard, O; Chaumot, A; Coulaud, R; Queau, H; Geffard, A; Dedourge-Geffard, O

    2013-12-01

    The feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in Gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. However, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary to establish reference values based on its natural variability as a function of changing biotic and abiotic factors. To limit the confounding influence of biotic factors, a caging approach with calibrated male organisms from the same population was used. This study applied an in situ deployment at 23 sites of the Rhone basin rivers, complemented by a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of two abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity). The results showed a small effect of conductivity on cellulase activity and a significant effect of temperature on digestive enzyme activity but only at the lowest temperature (7 °C). The experimental conditions allowed us to define an environmental reference value for digestive enzyme activities to select sites where the quality of the water impacted the digestive capacity of the organisms. In addition to the feeding rate, this study showed the relevance of digestive enzymes as biomarkers to be used as an early warning tool to reflect organisms' health and the chemical quality of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23784059

  2. Physics and material science of ultra-high quality factor superconducting resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, Alexander

    The nitrogen doping into niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity walls aiming to improve the fundamental mode quality factor is the subject of the research in the given work. Quantitative nitrogen diffusion into niobium model calculating the concentration profile was developed. The model estimations were confirmed with secondary ion mass spectrometry technique measurements. The model made controlled nitrogen doping recipe optimization possible. As a result the robust reproducible recipe for SRF cavity walls treatment with nitrogen doping was developed. The cavities produced with optimized recipe met LCLS--II requirements on quality factor of 2. · 10 10 at acceleration field of 16~MV/m. The microscopic effects of nitrogen doping on superconducting niobium properties were studied with low energy muon spin rotation technique and magnetometer measurements. No significant effect of nitrogen on the following features was found: electron mean free path, magnetic field penetration depth, and upper and surface critical magnetic fields. It was detected that for nitrogen doped niobium samples magnetic flux starts to penetrate inside the superconductor at lower external magnetic field value compared to the low temperature baked niobium ones. This explains lower quench field of SRF cavities treated with nitrogen. Quality factor improvement of fundamental mode forced to analyze the high order mode (HOM) impact on the particle beam dynamics. Both resonant and cumulative effects caused by monopole and dipole HOMs respectively are found to be negligible within the requirements for LCLS--II.

  3. Neutron measurements onboard the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Keith, J. E.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation environment inside a shielded volume is highly complex, consisting of both charged and neutral particles. Since the inception of human space flights, the charged particle component has received virtually all of the attention. There is however, a significant production of secondary neutrons, particularly from the aluminum structure in low earth orbiting spacecrafts. The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and solar energetic particles with the earth's atmosphere produce a non-isotropic distribution of albedo neutrons. Inside any reasonable habitable module, the average radiation quality factor of neutrons is about 4-5 times larger than the corresponding average quality factor of charged particles. The measurement of neutrons and their energy spectra is a difficult problem due the intense sources of charged particles. This paper reviews the results of Shuttle flight experiments (made during both solar maximum and solar minimum) to measure the contribution of neutrons to the dose equivalent, as well as theoretical calculations to estimate the appropriate range of neutron energies that contribute most to the dose equivalent. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

  5. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

  6. Measurement of the neutron's electric form factor G(E)(n) via doubly polarized, quasi-elastic scattering at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Wesselmann

    2004-11-01

    We determined the electric form factor of the neutron GEn via the reaction d(e,e?n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a frozen, polarized 15ND3 target at Jefferson Lab. The knocked out neutrons were detected in a segmented plastic scintillator in coincidence with the quasi-elastically scattered electrons which were tracked in Hall C's High Momentum Spectrometer. To extract GEn, we compared the experimental beam-target asymmetry with theoretical calculations based on different GEn models. We report the results of the fall 2001 run at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)2.

  7. A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Design Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. Study sample 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. Results We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed “speech understanding”, “spatial perception”, and “clarity, separation, and identification”. Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, “effort and concentration”, representing two more questions. Conclusions These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores. PMID:24417459

  8. Effects of hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous filters on the quality of a p(66)Be(49) neutron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, I.; Awschalom, M.; Ten Haken, R.K.

    1982-03-01

    The hardening effects of hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous filters on a p(66)Be(49) neutron beam have been investigated. It was found that all materials studied, Teflon, aluminum, lead, steel, and polyethylene, harden the neutron beam, albeit polyethylene to a greater extent. Relationships were found to exist between the attenuation of a filter and its hardening effect, and also between the build-up characteristics and the depth for half-maximum dose of the hardened beams.

  9. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran's national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  10. Risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Najand, Ladan; Rezaii, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Irans national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit. PMID:25992256

  11. Effects of various factors on sleep disorders and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Telarovic, Srdjana; Mijatovic, Dragana; Telarovic, Irma

    2015-12-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), sleep disorders (SD) occur as a result of the neurochemical changes in sleep centres, neurodegenerative changes in dopaminergic neurons, and other factors. The most common SD include excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs syndrome and nocturia. The aim of the study was to compare quality of sleep, as a factor that greatly impacts quality of life (QoL), between PD patients and a control group and to further examine SD in the PD group with focus on incidence and SD types as well as on effects various factors (age, sex, PD characteristics, medication usage) have on these disorders. The study included 110 patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of PD and 110 age-matched healthy controls. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PD Sleep Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, PD QoL Questionnaire-8 and PD Questionnaire-39 (items 30 and 33). In the group with PD, we considered the duration of the disease, the stage of disease according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale, medications and their impact on the SD. The average duration of the disease was 6 years and the mean stage was 2.44. The result showed significant differences in the sleep quality between groups. In the PD group, SD differences were also found according to gender, duration of the disease and medication usage. The most common SD were fragmented sleep, insomnia and nocturia. To improve the QoL of PD patients, it is necessary to pay more attention to detecting and solving SD. PMID:25944510

  12. The Ephithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter Design and Performance Manual: More Rapid Plutonium and Uranium Inventory Verifications by Factors of 5-20

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Stewart; H. O. Menlove; D. R. Mayo; W. H. Geist; L. A. Carrillo; G. D. Herrera

    2000-08-01

    Thermal neutron multiplicity counters (TNMCs) assay {sup 240}Pu-effective mass, isolating spontaneous-fission (SF), induced-fission, and ({alpha},n) neutrons emitted from plutonium metal, oxide, scrap, and residue items. Three independent parameters are measured: single, double, and triple neutron-pulse-coincidence count rates. TNMC assays can become precision limited by high ({alpha},n) neutron rates arising from low-Z impurities and {sup 241}Am. TNMCs capture thermal neutrons in 4-atm {sup 3}He tubes after fast-source-neutron moderation by polyethylene. TNMCs are {approximately}50% efficient with {approximately}-{micro}s die-away times. Simultaneously increasing efficiency and reducing die-away time dramatically improve assay precision. Using 10-atm {sup 3}He tubes, they've developed and performance-tested the first of a new generation of neutron assay counters for a wide range of plutonium items. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) has an efficiency of 65% and a 22-{micro}s die-away time. The ENMC detects neutrons before thermalization using higher {sup 3}He pressure counters and less moderator than TNMCs. A special insert raises efficiency to 80% for small samples. For five bulk samples containing 50 to 875 g of {sup 240}Pu-effective, ENMC assay times are reduced by factors of 5 to 21, compared with prior state-of-the-art TNMCs. The largest relative gains are for the most impure items, where gains are needed most. In active mode, the ENMC assay times are reduced by factors of 5 to 11, compared with the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The ENMC, with high precision and low multiplicity dead time (37 ns), can be used in standards verification mode to precisely and accurately characterize plutonium standards and isotopic sources. The ENMC's performance is very competitive with calorimetry. This report describes the ENMC; presents results of characterization, calibration, and verification measurements; and shows the clear performance and economic advantages of implementing the ENMC for nuclear materials control and accountability.

  13. Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime

    SciTech Connect

    Marko Zeier

    2000-12-12

    We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

  14. Quality Assessment and Factor Analysis of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Endoscopic Ultrasound Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Danlu; Jin, Jiaxin; Tian, Jinhui; Yang, Kehu

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive monitoring of the quality of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) requires complete and accurate reporting and methodology. Objective To assess the reporting and methodological quality of SRs/MAs on EUS diagnosis and to explore the potential factors influencing articles quality. Methods The quality of the reporting and methodology was evaluated in relation to the adherence of papers to the PRISMA checklist and the AMSTAR quality scale. The total scores for every criterion and for every article on the two standards were calculated. Data were evaluated and analyzed using SPSS17.0 and RevMan 5.1 in terms of publication time, category of reviews, category of journals, and funding resource. Results A total of 72 SRs/MAs was included, but no Cochrane Systematic Reviews (CSRs) were obtained. The number of SRs/MAs ranged from 1 in 1998 to 15 in 2013; 88.1% used the QUADAS tool; the average overall scores by PRISMA statement and AMSTAR tool were 19.9 and 5.4, respectively. Scores on some items showed substantial improvement after publication of PRISMA and AMSTAR. However, no reviews followed the criterion of protocol and registration, and only 11.1% of articles fulfilled the criterion of literature search. SRs/MAs from the Science Citation Index (SCI) were of better quality than non-SCI studies. Funding resource made no difference to quality. Regression analysis showed that time of publication and inclusion in the SCI were significantly correlated with total scores on the two standards. Conclusion The reporting and methodological quality of SRs/MAs on EUS diagnosis has improved measurably since PRISMA and AMSTAR checklists released. It is hoped that CSR in this field will be produced. Literature searching and protocol criteria, as well as QUADAS-2 tool need to be addressed more in the future. Time of publication and SCI relate more to the overall quality of SRs/MAs than does funding resource. PMID:25905713

  15. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Overweight or Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Sereika, Susan M.; Styn, Mindi A.; Burke, Lora E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and objectives To identify factors associated with HRQL among overweight or obese adults. Background The obesity epidemic presents a global challenge. Obesity is associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQL); however, no study has comprehensively examined correlates of HRQL in this population. Design A cross-sectional design. Methods The physical component score (PCS), mental component score (MCS), and eight domain scores of the SF-36 v2 were used to assess HRQL. We identified 23 possible correlates of HRQL, including age, BMI, health and weight histories, perceived stress, cholesterol-lowering diet self-efficacy, problem-solving, binge eating, dietary intake and physical activity. Correlational analyses were used to examine the bivariate associations between correlates and HRQL variables. All possible subsets regression was used to develop predictive models of HRQL. Results The sample (N = 210) was predominantly White (84.8%), female (78.1%), and middle-aged (average age=46.80 years). Age, BMI, education, having children at home, and being hypertensive were identified as the best predictors of PCS, explaining about 9% of the variance. Age, marital status, having hyperlipidemia, perceived stress, problem-solving, self-efficacy, binge eating, and barriers to healthy eating predicted MCS, explaining approximately 48% of the variance. Physical functioning and role physical domains of HRQL had similar sets of predictors, with 15% and 13% of the variance explained, respectively; while similar predictors were identified for bodily pain (6%), general health (26%), vitality (40%), social functioning (32%), role emotional (42%), and mental health (46%) domains. Conclusions Psychosocial factors were associated with the mental-related quality of life. Further exploration of factors related to physical-related quality of life is warranted in this population. Relevance to clinical practice When working with overweight/obese adults who are trying to lose weight, nurses need to consider sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in the development of a treatment plan that will improve HRQL in this population. PMID:23829404

  16. The endocrine interface of environmental and egg factors affecting chick quality.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2007-05-01

    Day-old chicks are the endproduct of the hatchery industry and form important starting material for the broiler farms. The major objective is to obtain a high hatchability of marketable chicks and a low spread of hatch. For the farmers, these chicks have to perform well, which is translated in high viability, high growth rate, high breast meat yield, and low feed conversion. A good-quality 1-d-old chick is hence a crucial hinge between the hatchery and the broiler farm. Moreover, maximal hatchability is not always synonymous with maximal posthatch viability and growth potential of the chick. Quantitative and qualitative scoring of chick quality is assessed. We will briefly discuss some recently developed scoring systems, which will convert differences in qualitative parameters into a quantitative score. Preincubation factors such as egg storage duration and age of broiler breeders, as well as incubation conditions, affect day-old chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Heat production and metabolism, hormonal balances of thyroid hormones and corticosterone, and gas exchange (O(2), CO(2)) are of fundamental importance for embryonic development and survival during incubation. Results from our studies indicated that embryos with higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell and higher triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratios at internal pipping or in the newly hatched chicks had higher hatchability, chick quality, and posthatch chick growth until 7 d of age. Incubation factors such as temperature, turning conditions, or gaseous environment also affect development, change concentrations of hormones related to metabolism and growth of the embryo, and in this way affect 1-d-old chick quality. Moreover, the spread of the hatch process is affected by incubation conditions as well as by the aforementioned preincubation factors. Depending on the spread of the hatching curve together with the place in the sequence of hatching (early or late) and in interaction with quality of the eggs set for incubation, storage duration, and age of breeders, there will be a period between hatch and first feeding of variable length. This may have repercussions on overall growth and many related physiological processes such as yolk uptake, metabolic level, and gastrointestinal development. In its turn, time of first feeding is related to some crucial hormone levels and enzyme activities for growth that are strongly influenced by posthatch food intake such as insulin and p70S6 kinase activity, a key enzyme in the control of protein synthesis. The magnitude of the effect of delayed feeding is dependent on the spread of hatching as well as on the hatching period within the hatching window. This may be related to the different intrinsic quality or characteristics of chicks, e.g., early vs. late hatchers, as is shown by their respective hormonal levels. The latter may be a causal factor for the actual hatching time within the hatching window as well as for the later intrinsic quality of the hatched chick, which is not reflected in any of the actual scoring systems for chick quality. This is largely ignored in previous studies and in hatchery practice so far. PMID:17435044

  17. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q^2=0.45 and 1.13 (GeV/c)^2

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeyuki Tajima

    2003-12-31

    Precise measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, over a wide range of the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q2, are important for understanding nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. In the non-relativistic limit, the electric and magnetic form factors are related to the charge and magnetization distribution inside a nucleon, respectively. The measured values of the form factors also serve as an important test for nucleon models. Among the four nucleon form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, is the most difficult one to measure and therefore has been very poorly known especially in the region Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2 due to the lack of a free neutron target and the small value of Gn E. The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gn E/Gn M, at three acceptance-averaged Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 using the quasi-elastic 2H({approx}e, e0{approx}n)1H reaction. In our experiment, an electron was scattered quasielastically from a neutron in a liquid-deuterium target, and the electron was detected in an electron spectrometer in coincidence with the neutron which was detected in a neutron polarimeter. The polarimeter was used to analyze the polarization of the recoil neutrons by measuring the np elastic scattering asymmetry. The experiment was performed in Hall-C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the period from September 2000 to April 2001. The value of g was determined from the measured ratio of the sideways and longitudinal components of the neutron polarization vector. The values for Gn E were computed from our measured values of g = Gn E/Gn M using the Gn M values obtained from a fit to the world data. The E93-038 collaboration reported the first measurements of Gn E using polarization techniques at Q2 greater than 1 (GeV/c)2. Furthermore, our measurements of Gn E at the two higher Q2 values of 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 are more precise than prior measurements at lower Q2. In this dissertation, the data analyses and our results for g and Gn E at Q2=0.45 (GeV/c)2 and Q2=1.13 (GeV/c)2 are given. Our high-accuracy data are included with the ?world? data for Gn E to form an improved data set that was fit with an empirical function to give a simple parameterization of Gn E as a function of Q2. In addition, the data for the ratio Gn E/Gn M are compared to theoretical models of the nucleon. We found that no theoretical model predicts both proton and neutron form factor data.

  18. Sleep quality and associated factors among patients with chronic heart failure in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Mina; Mehrdad, Neda; Nikpour, Soghra; Haghani, Hamid; Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Sharifi, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep disorders are common among patients with chronic heart failure (HF), and it can have a significant effect on patients daily activities as well as their health. The purpose of this study was to assess sleep quality and its predictors in Iranian patients with chronic HF. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 patients with HF in two hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from June to November 2009. These patients completed a demographic questionnaire, and their sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and Linear regression were used for data analysis. Results: Seventy-nine percent of patients (n = 158) reported poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5). The range of global PSQI scores was 320. Also, a significant relationship was found between PSQI scores and patients age (p<0.004), gender (p< 0.042), educational level (p< 0.001), occupational status (p< 0.038), number of hospitalizations (p< 0.005), type of referral (p< 0.001), non-cardiac diseases (p< 0.001), diuretic use (p< 0.021) and left ventricular ejection fraction (p< 0.015). Three predictors were identified using regression analyses with stepwise methods, and included age, type of referral and educational level. Conclusion: The high prevalence of poor sleep quality highlighted the importance of sleep disorders in HF patients. There are many factors associated with sleep quality and sleep disorders that health providers should recognize for improved and effective management. PMID:25695007

  19. Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, P P; Say, Y H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

  20. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors

    PubMed Central

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  1. A time-domain Discontinuous Galerkin method for mechanical resonator quality factor computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindjee, Sanjay; Persson, Per-Olof

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations are becoming increasingly important in the design of micromechanical resonators, in particular for the prediction of complex frequency response in high quality devices where damping is controlled by anchor losses. Frequency based approaches have been shown to predict these accurately, however, they require the solution of eigenvalue problems or the inversion of Helmholtz-type operators which are known to be very difficult for large-scale iterative solvers. We propose using a time-domain approach instead, where a broadband input signal is propagated through the system with a local explicit time-stepper. This is achieved using a new high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization for the linear elasticity equations, in particular a second-order formulation with Compact DG fluxes and a Runge-Kutta time integrator, where the block-diagonal mass matrices allow for efficient, stable, and accurate time stepping. Our solver scales well on distributed parallel computers, even in three spatial dimension and for large problem sizes. The resulting output signal is analyzed using a well-known filter diagonalization method, which is capable of finding accurate frequencies and quality factors for as little as a hundred periods of data. We validate the properties of our scheme on model problems, and demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed analysis process on two high quality factor disk resonators, using an axisymmetric formulation as well as full three dimensional simulations which is shown to scale well.

  2. Analysis of Ecological Quality of the Environment and Influencing Factors in China during 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005–2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005–2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005–2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  3. Does spinal stenosis correlate with MRI findings and pain, psychologic factor and quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Young; Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Su Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate and analyze MRI findings in relation to visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), psychological-factor, sleep-quality, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores among patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) for the purpose of elucidating a correlation. Methods From July 2013 to May 2014, 117 consecutive patients with central LSS were included in this study. All of the MRIs were evaluated by one of the authors, and the evaluated items were the dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA), the number of stenotic levels, and the presence and levels of spondylolisthesis. The ODI, VAS, 36-item SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were used to evaluate the participants. Results There are no correlations between the ODI, VAS, BDI, BAI, PSQI, and SF-36 scores and the minimum DSCSA; however, a significant correlation was found between the ODI scores and multilevel LSS. The BDI, BAI, and PSQI scores are higher for multilevel LSS compared with single-level LSS, but the difference of this mean value is not statistically significant. Conclusions A significant correlation was shown between those patients with multilevel LSS and the ODI scores; however, significant correlations were not found between the MRI findings and the psychological factors pertaining to sleep and life qualities. PMID:26495059

  4. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

  5. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    PubMed

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions. PMID:26284011

  6. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  7. Modeling study on the factors affecting regional air quality during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Cheng, Y.; Tang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; Pierce, R.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Ramanathan, V.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese government took measures to control emissions of pollutants before and during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in order to get better air quality for the event. A 3-dimensional regional chemical transport model, the University of Iowas Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM), is used to evaluate the effects of emission reductions on regional air quality by this event. The emission inventories with and without the consideration of emission reductions are used in case studies. Impacts of the emissions from different regions and sectors on Beijing and regional air quality are discussed in this study. Meteorological factor on the improvement of air quality during this event is also assessed by using the meteorological conditions from different years to drive the model. Model performance is evaluated by comparing the modeled trace gases and aerosols with the surface measurements from Beijing, the field observations from the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX) during this summer, and satellite data from NASA.

  8. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5 μm thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24 ± 3 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46 kHz–8 MHz and showed a maximum measured Q ≈ 86 000 at f{sub n} = 46.849 kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ≈788 GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  9. Academic mobility as a key factor of quality assurance in tertiary education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Academic mobility of both faculty and students forms a critical element of the international dimension of higher education and is one of the most important factors of quality assurance of higher education institutions worldwide. Internationalization and globalization of Russian higher education system is having one of the major impacts on the quality management and assurance. Faculty and student mobility figures are now one of the core factors for obtaining state accreditation for Russian universities as well as an important indicator showing the university success and prestige. The aim of the paper is a closer look at the perspectives and results of the academic mobility, the factors stimulating and discouraging mobility, and the outcomes of the mobility influencing the education in Russian universities. Siberian State Aerospace University has had more than 10 years experience in organizing student mobility. Most of the problems in carrying out international activities are common for the whole Russia but still there are some peculiarities featuring technical universities situated in the centre of Russia.

  10. High Quality Factor Silicon Cantilever Transduced by Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate Film for Mass Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Zhang, Yi; Mihara, Takashi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we present a single-crystal silicon cantilever integrated with piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film as both an actuator and a sensor for resonant-based mass sensing applications. The pattern size of the PZT film was restricted to the fixed end of the cantilever to suppress intrinsic energy loss from the PZT film and multi layered structure. The energy dissipation mechanism of the cantilever was discussed. The mechanical quality factor (Q-factor) and sensitivity dependence on the cantilevers geometry were investigated. It was found that the Q-factor and sensitivity of the cantilever can be markedly improved by partially covering the cantilever with the PZT film. Under atmospheric pressure, excellent Q-factor of 808 was achieved by a 30-?m-wide 100-?m-long cantilever at fundamental resonant mode. Under reduced pressure, the proposed cantilever exhibits Q-factor several times greater than that of our previous reported fully PZT-covered cantilever. Moreover, high-mode vibration was successfully demonstrated using the proposed structure for the pursuit of higher mass-detection sensitivity.

  11. Design and optimizations of quasiperiodic microcavity with high-quality factor and its application in quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosallanezhad, Gholamreza; Keshavarz, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    We propose an optimized quasiperiodic microcavity with the aim of achieving the highest quality factor. The proposed structure consists of two quasicrystal rings with different geometries. By performing several optimizations on the structure, the highest quality factor of 8.16107 for a femtosecond laser with a wavelength of 1040nm can be achieved. The quasiperiodic microcavity is used for a quantum dot laser application that obtained the highest output power of 3800 W/m2. The most important characteristics of this structure are the improvement of the quality factor and a simultaneously stable cavity wavelength.

  12. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI) teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of QI teams on the quality of healthcare can be drawn, but support of the management and active, inspirational team leadership appear to be important. Not only patient outcomes but also the performance indicators of monitoring and screening/assessment showed improvement in many but not all of the QI teams with such characteristics. More studies are needed to identify factors associated with the impact of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in mental healthcare. PMID:22230594

  13. Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.; Badolato, A.; Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Galli, M.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.

    2014-06-16

    We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ≃ 2 × 10{sup 6} in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

  14. Symmetric reflection line resonator and its quality factor modulation by a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Siddiqi, Irfan

    2014-02-24

    We have designed and fabricated a half-wavelength reflection line resonator that consists of a pair of coupled microstrip lines on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. By changing the top gate voltage on a small square with a two-dimensional electron gas under the resonator, the quality factor was tuned over a large range from 2700 to below 600. Apart from being of fundamental interest, this gate modulation technique has the potential for use in on-chip resonator applications.

  15. A high quality factor carbon nanotube mechanical resonator at 39 GHz.

    PubMed

    Laird, Edward A; Pei, Fei; Tang, Wei; Steele, Gary A; Kouwenhoven, Leo P

    2012-01-11

    We measure the mechanical resonances of an as-grown suspended carbon nanotube, detected via electrical mixing in the device. A sequence of modes extending to 39 GHz is observed with a quality factor of 35,000 in the highest mode. This unprecedentedly high combination corresponds to a thermal excited state probability below 10(-8) and a relaxation time of 140 ns with microsecond relaxation times for lower modes. The effect of electron tunneling on the mechanical resonance is found to depend on frequency as the tunneling time becomes comparable to the vibration period. PMID:22111547

  16. Chip scale mechanical spectrum analyzers based on high quality factor overmoded bulk acouslic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, R. H., III

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop high frequency quality factor (fQ) product acoustic resonators matched to a standard RF impedance of 50 {Omega} using overmoded bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. These resonators are intended to serve as filters in a chip scale mechanical RF spectrum analyzer. Under this program different BAW resonator designs and materials were studied theoretically and experimentally. The effort resulted in a 3 GHz, 50 {Omega}, sapphire overmoded BAW with a fQ product of 8 x 10{sup 13}, among the highest values ever reported for an acoustic resonator.

  17. Factors affecting the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin: experience of one cardiac centre

    PubMed Central

    Ciurus, Tomasz; Cichocka-Radwan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The risk of complications in anticoagulation therapy can be reduced by maximising the percentage of time spent by the patient in the optimal therapeutic range (TTR). However, little is known about the predictors of anticoagulation control. The aim of this paper was to assess the quality of anticoagulant therapy in patients on warfarin and to identify the factors affecting its deterioration. Material and methods We studied 149 patients who required anticoagulant therapy with warfarin due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or venous thromboembolism. Each patient underwent proper training regarding the implemented treatment and remained under constant medical care. Results The mean age of the patients was 68.8 12.6 years, and 59% were male. A total of 2460 international normalised ratio (INR) measurements were collected during the 18-month period. The mean TTR in the studied cohort was 76 21%, and the median was 80%. The level at which high-quality anticoagulation was recorded for this study was based on TTR values above 80%. Seventy-five patients with TTR ? 80% were included in the stable anticoagulation group (TTR ? 80%); the remaining 74 patients constituted the unstable anticoagulation group (TTR < 80%). According to multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the independent variables increasing the risk of deterioration of anticoagulation quality were: arterial hypertension (OR 2.74 [CI 95%: 1.06-7.10]; p = 0.038), amiodarone therapy (OR 4.22 [CI 95%: 1.30-13.70]; p = 0.017), and obesity (OR 1.11 [CI 95%: 1.02-1.21]; p = 0.013). Conclusions The presence of obesity, hypertension, or amiodarone therapy decreases the quality of anticoagulation with warfarin. High quality of anticoagulation can be achieved through proper monitoring and education of patients. PMID:26855650

  18. Household Air Quality Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Pneumonia in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Pavani K.; Dutt, Dhiman; Silk, Benjamin J.; Doshi, Saumil; Rudra, Carole B.; Abedin, Jaynal; Goswami, Doli; Fry, Alicia M.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Luby, Stephen P.; Cohen, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009–2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces. PMID:24664785

  19. Methods of incorporation of biomagnification and bioavailability into Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative bioaccumulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, L.; Cook, P.

    1995-12-31

    In the Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative, the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) accounts for bioavailability and food chain biomagnification. A summary of the derivation and uses of these methodologies will be made. The method for determining the freely dissolved (bioavailable) portion of the chemical in the ambient water is based upon a three compartment partitioning model which consists of the freely dissolved chemical, and chemical sorbed to dissolved and particulate organic carbon. The methodology accounting for food chain biomagnification in the prediction of BAFs uses food chain multipliers to adjust bioconcentration factors to BAFS. The food chain multipliers were developed using the food chain model of Gobas (1993) and Great Lakes data.

  20. Laser-vibrometric ultrasonic characterization of resonant modes and quality factors of Ge membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushkevych, Oksana; Shah, Vishal A.; Myronov, Maksym; Halpin, John E.; Rhead, Stephen D.; Prest, Martin J.; Leadley, David R.; Edwards, Rachel S.

    2014-04-01

    The vibrations of a single-crystal germanium (Ge) membrane are studied in air and vacuum using laser vibrometry, in order to determine mechanical properties such as Q-factors, tensile stress, anisotropy, and robustness to shock. Resonance modes up to 3:2 are identified, giving a residual stress measurement of 0.22 GPa, consistent with the value obtained from x-ray relaxation studies. The membrane is found to be isotropic, with Q-factors ranging from around 40 at atmospheric pressure to over 3200 at 5\\times {{10}^{-4}} mbar, significantly lower than those found in polycrystalline Ge micromechanical devices. The robustness to shock is explained through the high resonance mode frequencies and the dissipation mechanism into the substrate, which is a direct consequence of having a high quality film with low residual tensile stress, giving the potential for such films to be used in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) in Graduate Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Boerebach, Benjamin C M; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-03-01

    The System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) was developed as a formative system for the continuous evaluation and development of physicians' teaching performance in graduate medical training. It has been seven years since the introduction and initial exploratory psychometric analysis of the SETQ questionnaires. This study investigates the validity and reliability of the SETQ questionnaires across hospitals and medical specialties using confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), reliability analysis, and generalizability analysis. The SETQ questionnaires were tested in a sample of 3,025 physicians and 2,848 trainees in 46 hospitals. The CFA revealed acceptable fit of the data to the previously identified five-factor model. The high internal consistency estimates suggest satisfactory reliability of the subscales. These results provide robust evidence for the validity and reliability of the SETQ questionnaires for evaluating physicians' teaching performance. PMID:25280728

  2. Theoretical and empirical quality assessment of transcription factor-binding motifs

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Thomas-Chollier, Morgane; Salgado, Heladia; Collado-Vides, Julio; van Helden, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) are routinely used to predict transcription factor (TF)-binding sites in genome sequences. However, their reliability to predict novel binding sites can be far from optimum, due to the use of a small number of training sites or the inappropriate choice of parameters when building the matrix or when scanning sequences with it. Measures of matrix quality such as E-value and information content rely on theoretical models, and may fail in the context of full genome sequences. We propose a method, implemented in the program matrix-quality, that combines theoretical and empirical score distributions to assess reliability of PSSMs for predicting TF-binding sites. We applied matrix-quality to estimate the predictive capacity of matrices for bacterial, yeast and mouse TFs. The evaluation of matrices from RegulonDB revealed some poorly predictive motifs, and allowed us to quantify the improvements obtained by applying multi-genome motif discovery. Interestingly, the method reveals differences between global and specific regulators. It also highlights the enrichment of binding sites in sequence sets obtained from high-throughput ChIP-chip (bacterial and yeast TFs), and ChIPseq and experiments (mouse TFs). The method presented here has many applications, including: selecting reliable motifs before scanning sequences; improving motif collections in TFs databases; evaluating motifs discovered using high-throughput data sets. PMID:20923783

  3. Factors Associated with Perceived Patient-Provider Communication Quality among Puerto Ricans

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Colon, Vivian; Krasny, Sarah; Tortolero-Luna, Guillemo

    2014-01-01

    Patient-provider communication is an important factor influencing patients' health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between patient-provider communication quality and sociodemographic, health care access, trusted information sources, and health status variables. Data were from a representative sample of 450 Puerto Rican adults who participated in the Health Information National Trends Survey. A composite score rating perceived patient-provider communication quality was created from five items (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted. Patient-provider communication ratings were lower among the unemployed (p=0.049), those who do not trust a lot in the information provided by their providers (p=0.003), and respondents with higher depressive symptoms scores (p=0.036). Perceived patient-provider communication quality, however, was higher among respondents who visited their providers five or more times in the last year (p=0.023). Understanding patient perceptions of provider communication may serve to develop system-level interventions aimed at eliminating communication disparities and improving patients' health outcomes. PMID:24858864

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ′}) are provided. These factors avoid the use of gradient correction factors as used in the TG-51 protocol although a chamber dependent optimal shift in the EPOM is required when using plane-parallel chambers while no shift is needed with cylindrical chambers. The sensitivity of these results to parameters used to model the ion chambers is discussed and the uncertainty related to the practical use of these results is evaluated. Conclusions: These results will prove useful as electron beam reference dosimetry protocols are being updated. The analysis of this work indicates that cylindrical ion chambers may be appropriate for use in low-energy electron beams but measurements are required to characterize their use in these beams.

  5. An analytical study on the diffraction quality factor of open cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. J.; Chu, K. R.; Yeh, L. H.

    2014-10-15

    Open cavities are often employed as interaction structures in a new generation of coherent millimeter, sub-millimeter, and terahertz (THz) radiation sources called the gyrotron. One of the open ends of the cavity is intended for rapid extraction of the radiation generated by a powerful electron beam. Up to the sub-THz regime, the diffraction loss from this open end dominates over the Ohmic losses on the walls, which results in a much lower diffraction quality factor (Q{sub d}) than the Ohmic quality factor (Q{sub ohm}). Early analytical studies have led to various expressions for Q{sub d} and shed much light on its properties. In this study, we begin with a review of these studies, and then proceed with the derivation of an analytical expression for Q{sub d} accurate to high order. Its validity is verified with numerical solutions for a step-tunable cavity commonly employed for the development of sub-THz and THz gyrotrons. On the basis of the results, a simplified equation is obtained which explicitly expresses the scaling laws of Q{sub d} with respect to mode indices and cavity dimensions.

  6. Confirmatory factor analysis for indicators of perceived environmental quality of the stadium (IPEQS).

    PubMed

    Manca, Sara; Fornara, Ferdinando

    2015-09-01

    Studies conducted in the 1980s (see Canter et al. in Football in its place. An environmental psychology of football grounds. Routledge, London, 1989) highlighted the prominent role of the spatial-physical features of football grounds in influencing users' perception of safety, comfort, and general satisfaction towards the stadium experience. In particular, the importance of fulfilling the spectators' needs of personal space (e.g. presence of an open view, proper distance between the seats) and movement opportunity was analysed. The aim of this study is to confirm the factorial structure of a set of indicators--the IPEQS--concerning the perceived quality of an array of aspects (i.e. architectural, social, functional, and safety issues) related to the stadium design. Participants (N = 255), who were selected on the basis of their stadium experience, filled in a self-report questionnaire measuring a set of indicators developed on the basis of both validated tools [i.e. the perceived residential environment quality indicators (PREQIs): Bonaiuto et al. in J Environ Psychol 19:331-352, 1999] and outcomes of semi-structured interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed for each scale, and reliability assessments were then carried out for each indicator. IPEQS' factorial structures found through the CFA procedure substantially confirm the results of exploratory factor analyses run with previous data. Outcomes of this study should provide a useful tool for managers and designers of football grounds, in order to improve the overall experience of the spectators. PMID:26239754

  7. Using condition factor and blood variable biomarkers in fish to assess water quality.

    PubMed

    Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise M; Paulino, Marcelo G; Fernandes, Marisa N

    2011-10-01

    The condition factor and blood variables, including erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in two ecologically distinct fish species (Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus) were evaluated at five sites in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir (Brazil) to assess water quality. Aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide, and metolachlor were detected at different concentrations in four of the sites. Condition factor was not directly affected by such contaminants. A negative correlation between hematocrit and heptachlor was detected in P. maculatus. Positive correlations between red blood cells and heptachlor as well as an interactive effect of metolachlor and aldrin/dieldrin were detected in A. fasciatus. The erythrocytes of both species collected from the contaminated sites showed high levels of LPO, an increase in SOD and GPx activities and a decrease in CAT activity. Although the leukocyte number and the differential percentage of leukocytes varied among the sites, the hematological variables, the LPO levels, and the antioxidant enzyme activities could be used to assess water quality, regardless of the differences in the responses of the fish species. PMID:21152972

  8. Student Motivation and the "Feel Good" Factor: An Empirical Examination of Motivational Predictors of University Service Quality Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Yit Sean; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of the higher education industry, service quality in the higher education services is seen as a vital factor in determining a university's competitive advantage. The purpose of this study is to extend current conceptualisation of quality research in higher education by investigating the influence of self-determination

  9. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high percentages of urban or agricultural land, or a combination of both, had higher concentrations and higher frequency of detections for most of the anthropogenic contaminants than areas with other combinations of land use and degree of aquifer confinement. Redox status is an indicator of more recently recharged water and affects the fate of some contaminants. Median concentrations of nitrate were highest in the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont aquifers and lowest in the Biscayne and Silurian-Devonian/Upper carbonate aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were significantly higher in unconfined aquifers than in confined aquifers and semiconfined/mixed confined aquifers (wells in aquifers with breached confining layers or wells open to both a confined and an unconfined aquifer). Water recharged after 1953 had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate than water recharged prior to 1953. Redox status was also a key factor affecting nitrate concentrations; in recently recharged waters, samples in oxic waters had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate than anoxic waters, regardless of land use in the area around the well. Samples from 54 wells (5 percent) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MCL of 10 mg/L for nitrate in drinking water. Most of the samples exceeding the drinking-water standard (52 samples, or 5 percent) were in domestic supply wells in agricultural areas. The Piedmont and Valley and Ridge aquifers had the largest number of samples (45) exceeding the MCL; in the remaining aquifers only 9 samples had concentrations of nitrate that exceeded the MCL (about 1 percent). None of the water recharged prior to 1953 and only a single sample from a confined aquifer had nitrate concentrations that exceeded 10 mg/L as N. Wells were sampled for a minimum of 47 pesticides. Detection frequencies and comparisons varied depending on the assessment level used. At least 1 of the 47 pesticides was detected at 510 (50 percent) of the 1,027 sites where pestic

  10. Design and Analysis of High Quality Factor Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Diamond Micromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motieian Najar, Mohammad Hadi

    Diamond is an excellent material for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) due to its superlative material properties compared to commonly used materials such as silicon. In its single crystalline form, diamond offers properties such as very high Young's modulus, low thermal coefficient of expansion, and very high thermal conductivity as well as being chemically inert. Specifically, diamond's high thermal conductivity offers the potential for very low thermoelastic damping (TED) in micromechanical resonators. Polycrystalline (Poly-C) diamond films deposited by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) have been explored in this research. HFCVD Poly-C diamond films are easy and inexpensive to deposit at wafer-scale, and retain many material properties that single crystalline diamond possesses. The first part of the study focuses on fabrication and testing of high quality factor micro-resonators such as double-ended tuning forks (DETF) and micro-cantilevers fabricated from microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond films with grain sizes ranging from 20 nm (nanocrystalline films) to 2.5 microm (microcrystalline films). The aim of this first study was to determine whether the quality factor of HFCVD diamond resonators could reach the limits imposed by intrinsic dissipation mechanisms such as thermoelastic damping (TED). Previous studies showed large differences between measured Q-factors and the TED limit, in part because these studies assumed thermal conductivity similar to that of single crystalline diamond. Here the thermal conductivity of NCD and MCD films was measured using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), and the resulting Q-factor measurements were shown to agree well with the theoretical TED limit. The second part of this research focuses on identifying the causes of dissipation in diamond resonators and suggesting approaches to improve the mechanical Q-factor. It is shown that, besides variations in deposition conditions such as decreasing the CH4:H2 ratio and increasing the deposition temperature, the thermal conductivity can be improved by increasing the thickness of the film and decreasing the wafer-to-filament distance to increase the abundance of monatomic hydrogen. Applying the suggested methods, the thermal conductivity was increased threefold to ~ 300 Wm-1K-1. Finally, we identified the limiting dissipation mechanism of low-frequency micro-resonators to be surface loss. To reduce surface loss, step-by-step annealing was performed and the Q-factor was increased to a maximum value of 365,000, the highest reported Q for any flexural poly-crystalline resonator to date.

  11. High quality 99mTc obtained from 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) using accelerator neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Ohta, Akio; Shiina, Takayuki; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Special GroupGeneration Technology using Accelerator Neutrons Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    99m Tc, the daughter nuclide of 99Mo, is widely used for medical diagnosis. In Japan, about 0.9 million diagnostic procedures are carried out using 99mTc. 99Mo has been mostly produced using 235U in research reactors. Because of recent shortages of 99Mo, a variety of alternative production methods of 99Mo or 99mTc were proposed. We proposed to produce 99Mo by 100Mo(n,2 n) using neutrons from an accelerator. The route is characterized to produce a large quantity of high-quality 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive wastes, since the cross section of the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction at 11 < En < 18 MeV is large, and the cross sections of the (nα) , (nn ' p) , and (np) reactions on 100Mo are quite small. Intense neutrons are available because of recent progresses of accelerator and target technologies. In the talk, we show our recent experimental results to obtain 99mTc with high-quality using 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2 n) .

  12. Factors contributing to quality of life in COPD patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Kim, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease, and the burden of COPD is expected to increase in the rapidly aging nation of South Korea. This study aims to examine the factors contributing to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in COPD patients. Patients and methods This study was based on 6-year-data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012. COPD was diagnosed in 2,734 survey participants and the severity was graded according to the criteria set by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index was used to assess the quality of life. Results The EQ-5D index scores for COPD patients and the general population were 0.915±0.003 and 0.943±0.001, respectively. Males, younger people, and patients with higher education attainment and income levels had a higher utility score. In addition, the adjusted EQ-5D index scores for severity level IV significantly decreased by 0.100 (P=0.041), compared to the severity group I scores. No significant differences were found in stage II and III patients. Comorbidities (excluding cancer and hypertension) appeared to negatively influence HRQOL among COPD patients. In particular, depression (EQ-5D index score =−0.089, P=0.0003) and osteoporosis (EQ-5D index score=−0.062, P=0.0039) had a significant influence, while smoking status did not appear to influence patient HRQOL. Conclusion In this study, we found that the higher the severity of COPD, the lower the quality of life. In particular, patients with depression and osteoporosis had a relatively low utility score. Therefore, these comorbidities should be carefully monitored in order to improve quality of life. PMID:26834467

  13. Influence of sociodemographic factors on quality of life in women living in Lublin Province in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Teresa B.; Janiszewska, Mariola; Stefanowicz, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life (QOL) in 45-65-year-old women. Material and methods The research by means of a survey method, postal questionnaire technique, comprised 2143 women – a representative sample of the female population living in Lublin Province. Three standardized questionnaires – WHOQOL-BREF, Women's Health Questionnaire and SF-36 – as well as an original questionnaire were used as research tools. In statistical analysis Student's t-test for two groups, an analysis of variance, Dunnett's T3 test for multiple comparisons, a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and a stepwise logistic regression analysis were used. Results In the population of peri- and postmenopausal women a significantly better quality of life in comparison with the rest of the studied women was established in women aged 45-49 years, respondents living permanently in urban areas as well as better educated women, those with full-time employment, especially those doing intellectual work, women remaining in a long-lasting relationship, and women assessing their financial situation and living conditions as well. Logistic regression analysis showed that the strong predictors of poor quality of life were as follows: self-assessment of living conditions as poor, self-assessment of financial situation as poor, permanent place of residence in the country, lower education level (incomplete primary education, primary education). Conclusions The group of women with worse quality of life should become the main addressee of preventive programmes and health policy programmes designed for peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26327822

  14. Factors affecting the incidence of first-quality wheels of Trentingrana cheese.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A; Cologna, N; Penasa, M; Tiezzi, F; De Marchi, M

    2011-07-01

    Trentingrana (or Grana Trentino) is a Protected Designation of Origin hard cheese produced in the eastern Italian Alps by small cooperative dairy factories. To obtain the certification of quality, wheels are evaluated at 9±1 mo of ripening and those classified as first quality are revaluated at 18±1 mo. Traditionally, the assessment is based on 2 sensory features: namely, the external aspect of the wheel and the internal texture; the latter is evaluated through the sound produced by beating the wheel with a special hammer. Traits considered in the study were the percentage of first-quality wheels of total wheels examined at 9±1 (QW(9 mo)) and 18±1 (QW(18 mo)) mo of ripening, and their combination [i.e., the percentage of first-quality wheels at 18±1 mo of ripening of the number of wheels evaluated at 9±1 mo (QW(tot))]. The experimental unit was the batch of 2 mo of production of each of 10 cooperative dairy factories from 2002 to 2008. Data were analyzed with a model that included fixed effects of dairy factory, year and season of production, and interactions between dairy factory and year, and dairy factory and season. The coefficients of determination of the models were 0.57, 0.68, and 0.67 for QW(9mo), QW(18 mo), and QW(tot), respectively. All factors significantly influenced the traits, with dairy factory being the most important source of variation, followed by season and year of production. Remarkable differences were found between the best and the worst dairy factory for QW(9 mo) (11.5%), QW(18 mo) (21.1%), and QW(tot) (25.6%). The first 4 yr of production had a negative effect on the percentage of wheels labeled as first quality and QW(tot) decreased from 74 to 64%; nevertheless, a complete recovery was detected in the following years. The season of production strongly influenced the studied traits with the best results in spring and summer, and the worst in autumn and winter. Compared with average, the 3 best dairy factories were smaller, with smaller associated farms, and showed lower variation across years and seasons of production. Results support the relevance of routinely assessing and monitoring the quality of Trentingrana cheese. PMID:21700060

  15. Neutron interactions with biological tissue. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-17

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of neutrons with tissue through the ejected secondary charged particles. The authors used theoretical calculations whose input includes neutron cross section data; range, stopping power, ion yield, and straggling information; and geometrical properties. Outputs are initial and slowing-down spectra of charged particles, kerma factors, average values of quality factors, microdosimetric spectra, and integral microdosimetric parameters such as {bar y}{sub F}, {bar y}{sub D}, y{sup *}. Since it has become apparent that nanometer site sizes are also relevant to radiobiological effects, the calculations of event size spectra and their parameters were extended to these smaller diameters. This information is basic to radiological physics, radiation biology, radiation protection of workers, and standards for neutron dose measurement.

  16. Neutron scatter camera

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  17. Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD.

    PubMed

    Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, V L

    2014-03-15

    COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (χ² = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test - Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism. PMID:24653767

  18. Structural equation modeling of factors contributing to quality of life in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To improve quality of life (QOL) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to decrease disability and prevent relapse. The aim of this study was to examine the causal and mutual relationships contributing to QOL in Japanese patients with MS, develop path diagrams, and explore interventions with the potential to improve patient QOL. Methods Data of 163 Japanese MS patients were obtained using the Functional Assessment of MS (FAMS) and Nottingham Adjustment Scale-Japanese version (NAS-J) tests, as well as four additional factors that affect QOL (employment status, change of income, availability of disease information, and communication with medical staff). Data were then used in structural equation modeling to develop path diagrams for factors contributing to QOL. Results The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score had a significant effect on the total FAMS score. Although EDSS negatively affected the FAMS symptom score, NAS-J subscale scores of anxiety/depression and acceptance were positively related to the FAMS symptom score. Changes in employment status after MS onset negatively affected all NAS-J scores. Knowledge of disease information improved the total NAS-J score, which in turn improved many FAMS subscale scores. Communication with doctors and nurses directly and positively affected some FAMS subscale scores. Conclusions Disability and change in employment status decrease patient QOL. However, the present findings suggest that other factors, such as acquiring information on MS and communicating with medical staff, can compensate for the worsening of QOL. PMID:23339479

  19. [Analysis on the key water quality factors to phytoplankton community in Wujingang Region of Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu; Wen, Hang; Wang, Dong-Wei; Sun, Jin-Hua; Huang, Yi

    2011-07-01

    Field investigations on the phytoplankton community were carried out in July 2009 and January 2010 in Wujingang Region of Taihu Lake (WRTL). Results show that there are 46 genus, 24 families and 6 phylum phytoplankton were identified in wet season, which is mainly composed of the Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta, the average phytoplankton abundance of this season is 14. 8 x 10(6) cell/L. There are 29 genus, 18 families and 5 phylum phytoplankton were found in level season, and Diatoms were the dominant category, the average phytoplankton abundance of the season is 3 113 cell/L. It shows that a remarkable discrepancy in community and density between the two seasons. The principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to assess the phytoplankton community structure with regard to 8 aquatic environmental factors and their spatial distribution, which result on the key aquatic environmental quality factors show that NH4(+) -N and TN were the most extraordinary pollution factors which affect the phytoplankton community and WRTL was in extrophication level. PMID:21922813

  20. Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Housestaff Perceptions of Quality-Limiting Factors in Discharge Care at Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Greysen, S. Ryan; Schiliro, Danise; Horwitz, Leora I.; Curry, Leslie; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Improving hospital discharge has become a national priority for teaching hospitals, yet little is known about physician perspectives on factors limiting the quality of discharge care. OBJECTIVES To describe the discharge process from the perspective of housestaff physicians, and to generate hypotheses about quality-limiting factors and key strategies for improvement. METHODS Qualitative study with in-depth, in-person interviews with a diverse sample of 29 internal medicine housestaff, in 20102011, at 2 separate internal medicine training programs, including 7 different hospitals. We used the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis to explore the experiences and perceptions of factors affecting the quality of discharge care. RESULTS We identified 5 unifying themes describing factors perceived to limit the quality of discharge care: (1) competing priorities in the discharge process; (2) inadequate coordination within multidisciplinary discharge teams; (3) lack of standardization in discharge procedures; (4) poor patient and family communication; and (5) lack of postdischarge feedback and clinical responsibility. CONCLUSIONS Quality-limiting factors described by housestaff identified key processes for intervention. Establishment of clear standards for discharge procedures, including interdisciplinary teamwork, patient communication, and postdischarge continuity of care, may improve the quality of discharge care by housestaff at teaching hospitals. PMID:22378723

  1. DS02 fluence spectra for neutrons and gamma rays at Hiroshima and Nagasaki with fluence-to-kerma coefficients and transmission factors for sample measurements.

    PubMed

    Egbert, Stephen D; Kerr, George D; Cullings, Harry M

    2007-11-01

    Fluence spectra at several ground distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are provided along with associated fluence-to-kerma coefficients from the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02). Also included are transmission factors for calculating expected responses of in situ sample measurements of neutron activation products such as (32)P,(36)Cl,(39)Ar,(41)Ca, (60)Co,(63)Ni,(152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The free-in-air (FIA) fluences calculated in 2002 are available for 240 angles, 69 energy groups, 101 ground distances, 5 heights, 4 radiation source components, 2 cities. The DS02 code uses these fluences partitioned to a prompt and delayed portion, collapsed to 58 energy groups and restricted to 97 ground distances. This is because the fluence spectra were required to be in the same format that was used in the older Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) computer code, of which the DS02 computer code is a modification. The 2002 calculation fluences and the collapsed DS02 code fluences are presented and briefly discussed. A report on DS02, which is available on the website at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, provides tables and figures of the A-bomb neutron and gamma-ray output used as the sources in the 2002 radiation transport calculations. While figures illustrating the fluence spectra at several ground ranges are presented in the DS02 Report, it does not include any tables of the calculated fluence spectra in the DS02 report. This paper provides, at several standard distances from the hypocenter, the numerical information which is required to translate the FIA neutron fluences given in DS02 to a neutron activation measurement or neutron and gamma-ray soft-tissue dose. PMID:17643260

  2. Broad-bandwidth pulse propagation through ultrahigh-quality-factor microcavity with chirped pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2015-12-01

    We propose and numerically investigate a method that enables the transmission of pulses with broader bandwidth than the spectrum width of the resonance of an ultrahigh-quality-factor (Q) microcavity. The method is based on prechirping of the input pulse and the use of the optical Kerr effect in a microcavity, with which we designed the instantaneous frequency of the input pulse to meet the resonant frequency of the dynamically modulated microcavity. We showed that a prechirped pulse can transmit about 11.8 times higher energy than a Fourier-limited pulse having the same spectrum width. We also found that adiabatic wavelength conversion is inherent in this system and the spectrum intensity of particular wavelength components is even higher than the peak of the transmitted spectrum of a linear cavity.

  3. High Quality Factor MBE-grown Aluminum on Silicon Planar Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrant, Anthony; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Quintana, C.; Campbell, B.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Palmstrom, C.; Martinis, J. M.; Cleland, A. N.

    2015-03-01

    Linear arrays of planer Xmon qubit circuits fabricated using thin aluminum films on sapphire substrates have resulted in long coherence times and high fidelity gates. Scaling up to larger circuits, including two-dimensional qubit arrays, may however benefit from building circuits on silicon instead of sapphire substrates. I will present recent tests in this direction, reporting on measurements of superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fabricated using aluminum films deposited on silicon in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. These resonators exhibit exceptional performance, with quality factors at low temperatures and single photon excitation energies exceeding 5x106. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through the Army Research Office Grant W911NF-09-1-0375.

  4. Factors influencing psychological status and quality of life in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Kajanov, Alena; Bulava, Alan; Eisenberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Various mental and social problems can negatively impact the quality of life and overall health in patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD). In this report, we review and summarize the main studies and research related to this topic. Depression, anxiety, panic attacks, stress and post-traumatic stress are the most common symptoms of ICD-related disorders that can negatively impact mental status. Factors than can influence the impact of these psychological disorders include socio-demographic variables (younger age, gender, and employment), variables related to the ICD (number of ICD shocks, generator size, time from ICD implant, etc.) and psycho-social variables (negative coping strategies, lack of social support and personality type). Fortunately, these disorders, and their symptoms, can be prevented, treated or managed, if recognized. PMID:25433355

  5. Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

    1975-01-01

    The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

  6. Note: Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using only their resonant frequency and quality factor

    SciTech Connect

    Sader, John E.; Friend, James R.

    2014-11-15

    A simplified method for calibrating atomic force microscope cantilevers was recently proposed by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 103705 (2012); Sec. III D] that relies solely on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air). This method eliminates the need to measure the hydrodynamic function of the cantilever, which can be time consuming given the wide range of cantilevers now available. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we rigorously assess the accuracy of this method for a series of commercially available cantilevers and explore its performance under non-ideal conditions. This shows that the simplified method is highly accurate and can be easily implemented to perform fast, robust, and non-invasive spring constant calibration.

  7. Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

  8. Oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers and related factors.

    PubMed

    Shaghaghian, S; Taghva, M; Abduo, J; Bagheri, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a group of removable partial denture (RPD) wearers in Shiraz (Iran), using the Persian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Two hundred removable partial denture wearers had completed a questionnaire regarding patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors. In addition, the OHIP-14 questionnaire was filled out by interviewing the patients. Two measures of interpreting the OHIP-14 scales were utilised: OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence. The relationship of the patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors, with their OHRQoL was investigated. The mean OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence of RPD wearers were 1380 (1008) and 445%, respectively. The most problematic aspects of OHIP-14 were physical disability and physical pain. Twenty-seven percentage and 24% of participants had reported meal interruption and eating discomfort, respectively. OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were found to be significantly associated with factors representing RPD wearer's oral health such as self-reported oral health and frequency of denture cleaning. Furthermore, OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were significantly associated with factors related to frequency of denture use such as hours of wearing the denture during the day and wearing the denture while eating and sleeping. Therefore, it can be concluded that the OHRQoL of the patients of the study was generally not optimal and found to be strongly associated with oral health. PMID:25146999

  9. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Obese Students in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Ping; Wang, Hong-Mei; Edwards, Todd C.; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Lv, Yi-Ran; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of overweight and obese middle or high school students and identify relevant factors influencing their QOL scores. Methods 716 students were recruited from 6 middle or high schools in Hangzhou, China. The Chinese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument–Weight Module (YQOL-W) was self administered. The YQOL-W scores were compared among different BMI groups, gender, educational status, annual household income, parental education and recruitment community using t test or one-way analysis of variance. The independent association of these variables with QOL among overweight and obese students was examined using multivariable linear regression modeling. Results Overweight and obese students reported lower total scores, self, social and environment scores than their normal weight peers (all P<0.001). The QOL of overweight and obese middle and high school students was associated with BMI value, gender, educational status, parental education, and recruitment community. Girls had lower total scores, self, social and environment domain scores than boys (all P<0.001); high school students had lower total and three domain scores than middle school students (all P<0.05). Students whose fathers had higher education reported higher total scores, self and social scores than students with less educated fathers (all P<0.05). Students whose mothers had higher education reported higher environment scores than students with less educated mothers (P = 0.01). Students from migrant communities reported significantly lower total scores, self and social scores than those from rural communities (all P<0.05), but comparable scores with those from urban communities (P>0.05). Students from migrant communities reported comparable environment scores with those from rural and urban communities (P>0.05). Conclusions Overweight and obesity have negative effects on students’ quality of life. Therefore weight specific QOL could be included in weight reduction interventions as a relevant outcome. PMID:25799275

  10. Fracture History in Osteoporosis: Risk Factors and its Effect on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, P?nar; Akyz, Glseren; Cer?it, Hlya Peynirci; elenlio?lu, Alp Eren; Cumhur, Ahmet; Biricik, ?efikcan; Kozan, Seda; Gk?en, Aylin; zdemir, Mikail; Lleci, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fractures are one of the main outcomes in osteoporosis and have an important effect on the general health status. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of major fracture history on quality of life. We also investigated the important risk factors and their effect on bone mineral density and fracture history. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We recruited 105 patients who were admitted to an osteoporosis outpatient clinic. Medical history, family history, calcium intake, physical activity level and biochemical tests were evaluated. Lumbar spine and femur neck bone mineral density were measured. The Qualeffo-41 questionnaire was also used for evaluating quality of life. Results: The average age of the 105 patients included in the study was 56.0413.73 and 89% of them were post-menopausal women. The average body mass index was 26.845.99, which means that the women were overweight. Also, 48.5% of the patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis and 51.5% of them were diagnosed as low bone density. A total of 34 patients had a fracture history with minor trauma and some of the patients had more than one fracture (12 ankle and foot, 10 forearm, 9 vertebral, 4 hand, 3 hip, 2 rib, 1 tibial). When the patients with and without fracture history were compared, the mean Qualeffo-41 score in patients with fracture was 43.852.57 and in the non-fracture group was 36.272.01. Conclusion: Forearm, ankle and foot fractures can be commonly seen in osteoporosis patients with fracture history. We suggest that it is important to recognise osteoporosis prior to first fracture and disease-specific quality of life assessment should be done. PMID:25667782

  11. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Wendy M.; Clement, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to determine which factors (clinical and demographic) are associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people with multiple sclerosis (MS) aged 60 years and older. Methods: Data were collected at four MS centers on Long Island, New York, from a total of 211 patients. Three surveys were administered that collected demographic information and included validated questionnaires measuring quality of life (QOL), cognition, depression, and disability. Multivariate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between patient demographics and scores on standardized scales measuring mental and physical HRQOL (Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life54). Variables included in the regression models were selected on the basis of the Andersen Healthcare Utilization model. This framework encompasses the multiple influences on health status, including predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, and health behavior. Results: We found that mental HRQOL was negatively associated with having a high school education or less, risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, and depression. No variables were positively associated with mental HRQOL. Physical HRQOL was negatively associated with risk of neurologic impairment, physical disability, depression, and the comorbidity of thyroid disease. However, patient employment and, surprisingly, being widowed were positively associated with physical HRQOL. These findings are consistent with those of similar studies among younger patients in which lower HRQOL was associated with increased disability, depression, risk of neurologic impairment, and lower levels of education. Conclusions: The findings that patient employment and being widowed were associated with better physical HRQOL suggest that older patients have the ability to adapt and adjust to the challenges of MS over time. Clinicians should regularly screen for HRQOL in older patients with MS. PMID:24688350

  12. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  13. Perforated diode neutron sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Walter J.

    A novel design of neutron sensor was investigated and developed. The perforated, or micro-structured, diode neutron sensor is a concept that has the potential to enhance neutron sensitivity of a common solid-state sensor configuration. The common thin-film coated diode neutron sensor is the only semiconductor-based neutron sensor that has proven feasible for commercial use. However, the thin-film coating restricts neutron counting efficiency and severely limits the usefulness of the sensor. This research has shown that the perforated design, when properly implemented, can increase the neutron counting efficiency by greater than a factor of 4. Methods developed in this work enable detectors to be fabricated to meet needs such as miniaturization, portability, ruggedness, and adaptability. The new detectors may be used for unique applications such as neutron imaging or the search for special nuclear materials. The research and developments described in the work include the successful fabrication of variant perforated diode neutron detector designs, general explanations of fundamental radiation detector design (with added focus on neutron detection and compactness), as well as descriptive theory and sensor design modeling useful in predicting performance of these unique solid-state radiation sensors. Several aspects in design, fabrication, and operational performance have been considered and tested including neutron counting efficiency, gamma-ray response, perforation shapes and depths, and silicon processing variations. Finally, the successfully proven technology was applied to a 1-dimensional neutron sensor array system.

  14. Factors associated with the quality of prenatal care: an approach to premature birth.

    PubMed

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2015-08-01

    OBJECTIVETo assess the quality of prenatal care in mothers with premature and term births and identify maternal and gestational factors associated with inadequate prenatal care.METHODCross-sectional study collecting data with the pregnant card, hospital records and interviews with mothers living in Maringa-PR. Data were collected from 576 mothers and their born alive infants who were attended in the public service from October 2013 to February 2014, using three different evaluation criteria. The association of prenatal care quality with prematurity was performed by univariate analysis and occurred only at Kessner criteria (CI=1.79;8.02).RESULTSThe indicators that contributed most to the inadequacy of prenatal care were tests of hemoglobin, urine, and fetal presentation. After logistic regression analysis, maternal and gestational variables associated to inadequate prenatal care were combined prenatal (CI=2.93;11.09), non-white skin color (CI=1.11;2.51); unplanned pregnancy (CI=1.34;3.17) and multiparity (CI=1.17;4.03).CONCLUSIONPrenatal care must follow the minimum recommended protocols, more attention is required to black and brown women, multiparous and with unplanned pregnancies to prevent preterm birth and maternal and child morbimortality. PMID:26353089

  15. A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, E.; Hao, W.; Baker, S.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Miller, W.; Weise, D. R.; Johnson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Prescribed fire is a significant emissions source in the U.S. and that needs to be adequately characterized in atmospheric transport/chemistry models. In addition, the Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Several published papers contain a few emission factors for prescribed fire and additional results are found in unpublished documents whose quality has to be assessed. In conjunction with three research projects developing detailed new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately, this database will be available on the Internet and will contain older emissions information that has been assessed and newer emissions information that has been developed from both laboratory-scale and field measurements. The database currently contains emissions information from over 300 burns of different wildland vegetation types, including grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, forests, and tundra over much of North America. A summary of the compiled data will be presented, along with suggestions for additional categories.

  16. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    SciTech Connect

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  17. Factors associated with quality of life in patients with severe asthma: the impact of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Daiane Silva; Noblat, Lcia de Arajo Costa Beisl; Santos, Pablo de Moura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify, characterize, and quantify associations of various factors with quality of life (QoL) in patients with asthma, according to the pharmacotherapy employed. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 patients (? 18 years of age) with severe uncontrolled or refractory asthma treated at a specialized outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, regularly using high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) or other medications, and presenting comorbidities. At a single time point, QoL was assessed with the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The overall AQLQ score and those of its domains were correlated with demographic variables (gender and age); Asthma Control Questionnaire score; pharmacotherapy (initial IC dose, inhaler devices, and polytherapy); and comorbidities. RESULTS: Better AQLQ scores were associated with asthma control-overall (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.004-0.341; p < 0.001), "symptoms" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001), and "emotional function" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001)-and with IC dose ? 800 g-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.885; p = 0.029). Worse AQLQ scores were associated with polytherapy-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 3.651; 95% CI: 1.061-12.561; p = 0.036)-and number of comorbidities ? 5-"environmental stimuli" domain (OR = 5.042; 95% CI: 1.316-19.317; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, the importance of this issue, and the lack of studies taking pharmacotherapy into consideration warrant longitudinal studies to establish a causal relationship between the identified factors and QoL in asthma patients. PMID:26785957

  18. Pressure dependence of the quality factor of a micromachined cantilever in rarefied gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, Michael; Sachse, Matthias; Sauter, Thilo; Hortschitz, Wilfried; Keplinger, Franz

    2012-05-01

    We present a study of the damping behavior of monocrystalline silicon cantilevers in different rarefied gas regimes. Mechanical quality factors Q were analyzed at controlled ambient pressures in the range of 0.01 Pa to 100 Pa. Emphasis was laid on the investigation of the fundamental vibration mode. Hence, the test structures were harmonically excited by the Lorentz force acting on the current carrying lead attached to the top surface of the cantilever. The micromachined clamped-free cantilevers featuring a length of 2 mm, a width of 1.5 mm and a thickness of 20 ?m, were manufactured in SOI technology. The experimental results were compared with existing theories revealing an underestimate of the damping parameter for the Knudsen range Kn = 0.1 to 10. So far, squeeze-film damping by free molecular flow and kinetic damping were taken into account in damping models for the quasi-molecular regime. However, our measurements indicate that also the ongoing molecular flow around the test structures has to be considered. Hence the damping coefficient has to be calculated with methods of the free molecular aerodynamics. Thus, we used an algorithm based on the random walk model that allows the usage of already available knowledge in the field of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo. With this approach the quality factor of a squeezed-film damped cantilever in the quasi-molecular regime was derived. The results were compared with the most recent stochastic model, where the theoretical predictions and the experimental investigations indicate significant squeezing up to a Knudsen number of 10. In a superposition of both damping mechanisms, kinetic and squeeze-film damping, a satisfactory characterization of the damping behavior of an oscillating cantilever in the quasi-molecular regime with Knudsen numbers in the range of 10 down to 0.02 was achieved.

  19. Health status and quality of life in postpartum women: a systematic review of associated factors.

    PubMed

    Van der Woude, Daisy A A; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; de Vries, Jolanda

    2015-02-01

    Since health care is becoming more and more patient centered, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life (QOL) and health status (HS) are becoming increasingly important. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of physical, psychological, and social domains of QOL and HS in postpartum women, and to assess which factors are associated with QOL and HS domains postpartum. A computerized literature search was performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. Studies were selected if the three domains of QOL or HS were measured in a (sub)group of postpartum women, by using validated standardized questionnaires. The methodological quality of the 66 included studies was examined by two independent reviewers. All three domains of QOL were impaired in postpartum women with urinary incontinence, with even worse QOL in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Mental QOL was impaired in women with urge urinary incontinence after cesarean section. Social QOL was decreased in HIV-positive women. HS was impaired in all three domains in postpartum depressed women. Physical HS was impaired after cesarean section for at least two months postpartum. Additional supportive interventions from health care social support were not associated with improved HS. Urinary incontinence and being HIV-positive seemed to be associated with impaired QOL. Postpartum depression and a cesarean section seemed to be associated with impaired HS. Prospective longitudinal research is needed in order to draw valid conclusions regarding postpartum HS and QOL, and the predictive value of the associated factors. PMID:25522118

  20. Factors affecting the use of patient survey data for quality improvement in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about how to use patient feedback to improve experiences of health care. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) conducts regular patient surveys that have indicated improved care experiences over the past decade. The goal of this study was to assess factors that were barriers to, or promoters of, efforts to improve care experiences in VA facilities. Methods We conducted case studies at two VA facilities, one with stable high scores on inpatient reports of emotional support between 2002 and 2006, and one with stable low scores over the same period. A semi-structured interview was used to gather information from staff who worked with patient survey data at the study facilities. Data were analyzed using a previously developed qualitative framework describing organizational, professional and data-related barriers and promoters to data use. Results Respondents reported more promoters than barriers to using survey data, and particularly support for improvement efforts. Themes included developing patient-centered cultures, quality improvement structures such as regular data review, and training staff in patient-centered behaviors. The influence of incentives, the role of nursing leadership, and triangulating survey data with other data on patients' views also emerged as important. It was easier to collect data on current organization and practice than those in the past and this made it difficult to deduce which factors might influence differing facility performance. Conclusions Interviews with VA staff provided promising examples of how systematic processes for using survey data can be implemented as part of wider quality improvement efforts. However, prospective studies are needed to identify the most effective strategies for using patient feedback to improve specific aspects of patient-centered care. PMID:22151714

  1. Producing persistent, high-current, high-duty-factor H{sup -} beams for routine 1 MW operation of Spallation Neutron Source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Hardek, T. W.; Kang, Y. W.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2012-02-15

    Since 2009, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been producing neutrons with ion beam powers near 1 MW, which requires the extraction of {approx}50 mA H{sup -} ions from the ion source with a {approx}5% duty factor. The 50 mA are achieved after an initial dose of {approx}3 mg of Cs and heating the Cs collar to {approx}170 deg. C. The 50 mA normally persist for the entire 4-week source service cycles. Fundamental processes are reviewed to elucidate the persistence of the SNS H{sup -} beams without a steady feed of Cs and why the Cs collar temperature may have to be kept near 170 deg. C.

  2. Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

  3. Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

    2013-07-01

    The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

  4. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-05-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

  5. Identifying Factors Influencing Pancreatic Cancer Management to Inform Quality Improvement Efforts and Future Research: A Scoping Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Soong, Daniel; Gallinger, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients appear to receive suboptimal care. We conducted a systematic review to identify factors that influence PC management which are amenable to quality improvement. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the references of eligible studies were searched from 1996 to July 2014. Two authors independently selected and reviewed eligible studies. Identified factors were mapped onto a framework of determinants of care delivery and outcomes. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using Downs and Black criteria. Most of the 33 eligible studies were population-based observational studies conducted in the United States. Patient (age, socioeconomic status, race) and institutional (case volume, academic status) factors influence care delivery and outcomes (complications, mortality, readmission, survival). Two studies implemented interventions to improve quality of care (centralization to high-volume hospitals, multidisciplinary care). One study examined system determinants (referral wait times). No studies examined the influence of guideline or provider characteristics. The overall lack of health services research in PC is striking. Factors and interventions identified here can be used to plan PC quality improvement programs. Further research is needed to explore the influence of guideline and provider factors on PC management and evaluate the impact of quality improvement interventions. PMID:26752254

  6. A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results from a series of simulation and flight investigations undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks were analyzed to assess handling-quality factors common to both tasks. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping and rotor-system cross-coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate-command, attitude-command, and control-input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. NOE agility and instrument flying handling-quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

  7. A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

  8. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo

    2014-12-08

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength λ∼1.3 μm, with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  9. Effect of Threading Dislocations on the Quality Factor of InGaN/GaN Microdisk Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the theoretical advantages associated with nitride microcavities, the quality factors of devices with embedded indium gallium nitride (InGaN) or gallium nitride (GaN) optical emitters still remain low. In this work we identify threading dislocations (TDs) as a major limitation to the fabrication of high quality factor devices in the nitrides. We report on the use of cathodoluminescence (CL) to identify individual TD positions within microdisk lasers containing either InGaN quantum wells or quantum dots. Using CL to accurately count the number, and map the position, of dislocations within several individual cavities, we have found a clear correlation between the density of defects in the high-field region of a microdisk and its corresponding quality factor (Q). We discuss possible mechanisms associated with defects, photon scattering, and absorption, which could be responsible for degraded device performance. PMID:25839048

  10. Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG

    SciTech Connect

    Romanenko, A. Grassellino, A.; Crawford, A. C.; Sergatskov, D. A.; Melnychuk, O.

    2014-12-08

    Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here, we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: (1) record quality factors Q > 2 × 10{sup 11} up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; (2) Q ∼ 3 × 10{sup 10} at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

  11. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Sleep Quality in Hospitalized Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bano, Milena; Chiaromanni, Federica; Corrias, Michela; Turco, Matteo; De Rui, Michele; Amodio, Piero; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Mazzotta, Gabriella; Costa, Rodolfo; Montagnese, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sleepwake disturbances are common in hospitalized patients but few studies have assessed them systematically. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep quality in a group of medical inpatients, in relation to environmental factors, and the switch to daylight-saving time. Methods: Between March and April 2013, 118 consecutive inpatients were screened and 99 (76??11?years; hospitalization: 8??7?days) enrolled. They slept in double or quadruple rooms, facing South/South-East, and were qualified as sleeping near/far from the window. They underwent daily sleep assessment by standard questionnaires/diaries. Illuminance was measured by a luxmeter at each patients eye-level, four times per day. Noise was measured at the same times by a phonometer. Information was recorded on room lighting, position of the rolling shutters and number/type of extra people in the room. Results: Compliance with sleep-wake assessment was poor, with a range of completion of 259%, depending on the questionnaires. Reported sleep quality was sufficient and sleep timing dictated by hospital routine; 33% of the patients reported one/more sleepless nights. Illuminance was generally low, and rolling shutters half-way down for most of the 24?h. Patients who slept near the window were exposed to more light in the morning (i.e., 222??72 vs. 174??85 lux, p?quality and bed position/light exposure, which is worthy of further study. PMID:25566173

  12. Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

  13. Evaluation of image quality and factor for international telepathology through the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Yukako; Azumi, Norio; Elsayed, Alaa M.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    In the telepathology, rendering devices significantly influence the perceived image quality. If the resolution and color depth are reduced beyond a certain point, however, it is not possible to obtain images which can be used in telepathology even in an ideal situation. With this in mind, we evaluated image quality, compression, size and rates of data exchange with several histological cases on several kinds of systems for our International Consortium for Internet Telepathology (ICIT) project. The ICIT network uses widely available nonpropriety hardware and software with the Internet as a means of communication.In this study, we discuss the effective image acquisition methods for telepathology. To evaluate microscopic images, various resolution size were used. The images were also evaluated at different JPEG compression ratio, including zero compression, and different format. To evaluate an entire glass slide image, a scanner in transparency mode and an NTSC camera were used. Every case showed similar results. For he microscopic image, although the high resolution images, such as 2k X 1.5k or higher, contain more diagnostic information than lower resolution images; sufficient data was retained in the latter that it does not appear to negatively effect diagnosis. The circumstance and condition for image acquisition, such as specimen thickness or dast of glass slide, are most influenced on the highest image resolution. Usually, we use 5-10 images/case for a telepathology conference. To see all images of a case at a glance before detailed observation, or to switch to the other images immediately, a lower resolution,such as 1k X 0.7k is useful. For the entire glass slide, the reviewer could select the desired area by scanner; however, selecting it by the NTSC camera, was not easy to do. On the monitor, the scanned image has almost the same information as the microscopic image captured by the NTSC camera with 2x objective lens. To ge ta high enough quality image, the important factors are correct usage of the microscope and the condition of glass slide, not only high performance equipment.Since we have been using the Internet as the communication medium, we selected 1024 X 774 and 640 X 480 with 1/7-1/15 compressed image for microscopic image and 2700 dpi scanned image for entire glass slide. For the static image telepathology, the most important image is the low power image such as the entire specimen. High resolution images such as 3k X 2k are also useful for different purpose such as publication.

  14. Reference dosimetry condition and beam quality correction factor for CyberKnife beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kawachi, Toru; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Katayose, Tetsurou; Myojoyama, Atsushi; Hatano, Kazuo

    2008-10-15

    This article is intended to improve the certainty of the absorbed dose determination for reference dosimetry in CyberKnife beams. The CyberKnife beams do not satisfy some conditions of the standard reference dosimetry protocols because of its unique treatment head structure and beam collimating system. Under the present state of affairs, the reference dosimetry has not been performed under uniform conditions and the beam quality correction factor k{sub Q} for an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator has been temporally substituted for the k{sub Q} of the CyberKnife in many sites. Therefore, the reference conditions and k{sub Q} as a function of the beam quality index in a new way are required. The dose flatness and the error of dosimeter reading caused by radiation fields and detector size were analyzed to determine the reference conditions. Owing to the absence of beam flattening filter, the dose flatness of the CyberKnife beam was inferior to that of an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator. And if the absorbed dose is measured with an ionization chamber which has cavity length of 2.4, 1.0 and 0.7 cm in reference dosimetry, the dose at the beam axis for a field of 6.0 cm collimator was underestimated 1.5%, 0.4%, and 0.2% on a calculation. Therefore, the maximum field shaped with a 6.0 cm collimator and ionization chamber which has a cavity length of 1.0 cm or shorter were recommended as the conditions of reference dosimetry. Furthermore, to determine the k{sub Q} for the CyberKnife, the realistic energy spectrum of photons and electrons in water was simulated with the BEAMnrc. The absence of beam flattening filter also caused softer photon energy spectrum than that of an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator. Consequently, the k{sub Q} for ionization chambers of a suitable size were determined and tabulated as a function of measurable beam quality indexes in the CyberKnife beam.

  15. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land use patterns in the watershed. The results indicate that peak concentrations of agrochemicals in groundwater could be reduced by improving fertilization practices (by splitting and modifying timing of applications) and by operating the regional canal system to maintain the water table low, especially during the rainy periods. PMID:16102872

  16. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land use patterns in the watershed. The results indicate that peak concentrations of agrochemicals in groundwater could be reduced by improving fertilization practices (by splitting and modifying timing of applications) and by operating the regional canal system to maintain the water table low, especially during the rainy periods.

  17. Investigation of systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality correction factors.

    PubMed

    Wulff, J; Heverhagen, J T; Zink, K; Kawrakow, I

    2010-08-21

    Modern Monte Carlo codes allow for the calculation of ion chamber specific beam quality correction factors k(Q), which are needed for dosimetry in radiotherapy. While statistical (type A) uncertainties of the calculated data can be minimized sufficiently, the influence of systematic (type B) uncertainties is mostly unknown. This study presents an investigation of systematic uncertainties of Monte Carlo-based k(Q) values for a NE2571 thimble ion chamber, calculated with the EGSnrc system. Starting with some general investigation on transport parameter settings, the influence of geometry and source variations is studied. Furthermore, a systematic examination of uncertainties due to cross section is introduced by determining the sensitivity of k(Q) results to changes in cross section data. For this purpose, single components of the photon cross sections and the mean excitation energy I in the electron stopping powers are varied. The corresponding sensitivities are subsequently applied with information of standard uncertainties for the cross section data found in the literature. It turns out that the calculation of k(Q) factors with EGSnrc is mostly insensitive to transport settings within the statistical uncertainties of approximately 0.1%. Severe changes in the dimensions of the chamber lead to comparatively small, insignificant changes. Further, the inclusion of realistic beam models, delivering a complete phase space instead of simple photon spectra, does not significantly influence the result. However, the uncertainties in electron cross sections have an impact on the final uncertainty of k(Q) to a comparatively large degree. For the NE2571 chamber investigated in this work, this uncertainty amounts to 0.4% at 24 MV, decreasing to 0.2% at 6 MV. PMID:20668340

  18. The Effect of Quality of Care on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Teimouri, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Amini, Massoud; Hovsepian, Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background: In this study, we evaluated the quality of care and control of cardiovascular risk factors in newly diagnosed diabetic patients, identified during diabetes screening program, 1 year after diagnosis. Methods: In this prospective study, 83 newly diagnosed diabetic patients identified at screening in Isfahan, were studied. Height, weight, blood pressure, plasma glucose, lipids, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of these patients were measured 2 times, first at the time of diagnosis and then 1 year later, and the results were compared between two groups, with and without regular course of treatment. Results: Nearly 46.99% and 53.1% of the studied patients have regular and irregular course of treatment. After 1 year, significant improvement in the mean of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein and HbA1c was seen in patients with regular course of treatment except for blood pressure (P < 0.05). Frequency of controlled cardiovascular risk factors including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and LDL was significantly improved in patients with regular course of treatment (P < 0.05). Mentioned changes were not seen in patients with irregular course of treatment. Conclusions: The findings of the current study demonstrated that though diabetes screening program result in earlier diagnosis of patients with type 2 diabetes, but it seems that regular follow-up and proper management of newly diagnosed patients is crucial for appropriate glycemic and metabolic control and preventing its related micro and macrovascular complication. PMID:25538839

  19. Drip loss in pork: influencing factors and relation to further meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K

    2007-11-01

    The paper deals with some general features of drip loss and the most important factors influencing it. Moreover, it shows some exemplary results of an own investigation. Up to now there is no generally valid definition of drip loss available. Therefore measurement procedures have to be strongly standardized, otherwise they provide no comparable results. Drip loss depends on the shortening of sarcomeres which is regulated by the interaction of muscle temperature and rigour development. Hence, the chilling conditions are highly important. However, the main point is the velocity and the extent of the pH fall after slaughter. All factors influencing the occurrence of quality deviations like PSE, DFD, Acid meat, RSE, PFN will inevitably affect the degree of drip loss too. Under the conditions of an own study, investigating material of a progeny testing station, untypically, one third of the loins with higher-than-average wateriness were red rather than pale, and one third of the loins with higher-than-average brightness were only slightly exudative, which is untypical too. Pork with higher-than-average brightness and low wateriness exhibited, apart from the colour deviation, no crucial disadvantages. It showed only a marginally higher loss during storage, thawing and heating. Pork with higher-than-average drip loss - regardless of dark or pale colour - was predominantly combined with a pH(1) less than 6.2, an electrical conductivity 24 h p.m. higher than 5.0 and a loin area higher than 56 cm(2). PMID:17988246

  20. A directional dose equivalent monitor for neutrons.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, F; Alberts, W G; Curzio, G; Matzke, M; Nath, R; Siebert, B R

    2001-01-01

    A directional dose equivalent monitor is introduced which consists of a 30 cm diameter spherical phantom hosting a superheated drop detector embedded at a depth of 10 mm. The device relies on the similarity between the fluence response of neutron superheated drop detectors based on halocarbon-12 and the quality-factor-weighted kerma factor. This implies that these detectors can be used for in-phantom dosimetry and provide a direct reading of dose equivalent at depth. The directional dose equivalent monitor was characterised experimentally with fast neutron calibrations and numerically with Monte Carlo simulations. The fluence response was determined at angles of 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degrees for thermal to 20 MeV neutrons. The response of the device is closely proportional to the fluence-to-directional dose equivalent conversion coefficient, h'phi (10; alpha, E). Therefore, our monitor is suitable for a direct measurement of neutron directional dose equivalent, H'(10), regardless of angle and energy distribution of the neutron fluence. PMID:11548358

  1. Key factors for a high-quality peritoneal dialysis program--the role of the PD team and continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhaohui; Qian, Jiaqi

    2014-06-01

    The proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased very fast in China over the last decade. Renji Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, is a recognized high-quality PD unit with a high PD utilization rate, excellent patient and technique survival (1-year and 5-year patient survival rate of 93% and 71%, and 1-year and 5-year technique survival of 96% and 82%, respectively), low peritonitis rate and a well-documented good quality of life of the treated patients. We believe that a dedicated and experienced PD team, a structured patient training program, continuous patient support, establishing and utilizing standardized protocols, starting PD with low dialysis dose, monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), and continuous quality improvement (CQI) are the key factors underlying this successful PD program. PMID:24962961

  2. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lvia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. PMID:26388123

  3. Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haiming; Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Gong, Zizhou; Ding, Qi; Gustafsson, Martin V.; Trinh, M. Tuan; Jin, Song; Zhu, X.-Y.

    2015-06-01

    The remarkable performance of lead halide perovskites in solar cells can be attributed to the long carrier lifetimes and low non-radiative recombination rates, the same physical properties that are ideal for semiconductor lasers. Here, we show room-temperature and wavelength-tunable lasing from single-crystal lead halide perovskite nanowires with very low lasing thresholds (220 nJ cm-2) and high quality factors (Q ~ 3,600). The lasing threshold corresponds to a charge carrier density as low as 1.5 1016 cm-3. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved fluorescence reveals little charge carrier trapping in these single-crystal nanowires and gives estimated lasing quantum yields approaching 100%. Such lasing performance, coupled with the facile solution growth of single-crystal nanowires and the broad stoichiometry-dependent tunability of emission colour, makes lead halide perovskites ideal materials for the development of nanophotonics, in parallel with the rapid development in photovoltaics from the same materials.

  4. Factors that affect the quality of life of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Koeda, Hideki; Naruse, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the quality of life (QOL) of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders and factors that affect it. [Subjects] The subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their physical and psychological conditions, QOL, and other characteristics were researched. [Methods] The Japanese version of Life-Space Assessment was used to assess the subjects’ daily life activities; the Japanese version of Fall Efficacy Scale (FES), to assess their fear of falling; the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15), to assess their depression status; and the Life Satisfaction Index K (LSIK), to assess their QOL. [Results] The results indicated that the number of family members living together, degree of pain, fear of falling, and depression affect the LSIK scores of the community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] The study results suggest that the LSIK scores of community-dwelling elderly women with musculoskeletal disorders can be improved by easing their pain, improving their physical abilities to prevent falls, and improving their mobility. The results also suggest that continuing rehabilitation treatment is required. PMID:26696713

  5. Ultra High Quality Factor Microtoroid for Chemical and Biomedical Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woosung

    Optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities have drawn attentions in various types of sensing, such as chemical- and bio-sensing. Even though various types of microcavity geometries have been investigated, research about on-chip WGM toroidal resonator has been discontinued for the sensing applications in aquatic environment. The strong benefits of the microtoroid are ultra-high-Q and small mode volume leading to high sensitivity to small change of environment, surrounding media refractive index change or light scatterer induced effective refractive index change. By using this ultra high-Q WGM resonator, radius >75nm polystyrene nanoparticle are detected in aquatic environment. In addition to polystyrene nanoparticle sensing, individual synthetic hemozoin crystals are detected and its size is measured. The hemozoin crystal sensing ultimately leads to malaria infection diagnose. A sol-gel method fabricated microlaser, co-work with Lina He, extended the sensing capability, detecting >30nm radius polystyrene nanoparticle. Since the water experiment is challenging and tackling the difficulty is main task, theoretical investigations are performed about WGM resonance quality factor, resonator mode volume, and noise to minimum detectable particle size. The research described in this dissertation will shed light on advanced chemical- and bio-sensor developments.

  6. Sociodemographic Factors Related to Quality of Life Among Premenopausal Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Akinyele, Isaac Olaoluwa

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) of premenopausal women (PW) was assessed using primary data collected between September and December 2011. A 26-item questionnaire (WHO-QoL BREF) was administered to 285 apparently healthy women selected from two local government areas in Ibadan. The scores were categorized into poor (? 79.53) and good (>79.53) QoL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study factors associated with QoL. The mean score for the overall QoL (OQoL) was 65.18 11.35 (range = 81.25). The Cronbach's alpha for all domains as well as the OQoL were within an acceptable range. The proportion of women with good OQoL was significantly higher in the urban areas (18.2 percent) than in the rural areas (9.2 percent) (p < .05). The proportion of respondents with good OQoL was significantly higher for women aged <20 years (37.5 percent) than older women (p < .01). Teenage participants were almost ten times as likely to have a good social relationship than participants above 35 years of age (odds ratio: 9.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.83-49.40). The authors' results suggest that the WHO-QoL BREF is a reliable instrument for measuring QoL among PW in Nigeria. Younger PW and women in the urban areas were more likely to have good QoL. PMID:26020293

  7. Confounding factors in using upward feedback to assess the quality of medical training: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medical and non-medical literature, were included. A simple pro-forma was used initially to identify the pertinent areas of upward feedback, so that a focused pro-forma could be designed for data extraction. Results: A total of 204 articles were reviewed. Most studies on upward feedback bias were evaluative studies and only covered Kirkpatrick level 1-reaction. Most studies evaluated trainers or training, were used for formative purposes and presented quantitative data. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common overt biases, whereas method of feedback was the most commonly implied bias within articles. Conclusion: Although different types of bias do exist, upward feedback does have a role in evaluating medical training. Accountability and confidentiality were the most common biases. Further research is required to evaluate which types of bias are associated with specific survey characteristics and which are potentially modifiable. PMID:25112445

  8. Controlling damping and quality factors of silicon microcantilevers by selective metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosale, Guruprasad; Das, Kaushik; Fréchette, Luc; Vengallatore, Srikar

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic microresonators coated with relatively thin metallic films are widely used for sensing, scanning probe microscopy, signal processing and vibration energy harvesting. The metallization improves optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity, but invariably degrades the quality factor (Q) of resonance by increasing the amount of energy dissipated during vibration. Developing strategies for controlling damping due to metallization is vital for the design of high-performance microresonators. This paper presents a strategy based on the insight that dissipation is a function of the deformation experienced by the thin film during oscillation. Therefore, damping can be controlled by patterning the metal in regions of low strain. A simple analytical model is developed to quantify the change in damping as a function of selective metallization along the length of a microcantilever. The predictions of this model are in good agreement with measurements of damping in single-crystal silicon microcantilevers that are partially coated on one surface with 100 nm thick aluminum films. Crucially, damping due to clamping, support and viscous losses is minimized in these structures to enable a careful comparison of theory with experiments. Coating 20% of the length of the beam starting from the tip has no significant impact on damping in either the first or the second mode of vibration. In contrast, placing the same size of metallization at the root leads to considerable dissipation; in the first mode, the damping due to this patch is ~60% of that caused by a full coat.

  9. Effective Use of Discovery Learning to Improve Understanding of Factors That Affect Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate business majors are required to take a course in operations management. In this course, a great deal of emphasis is put on developing a good understanding of quality because this is likely to be the only required course that covers this important topic. Quality of output exhibits a great deal of variation. To produce high quality on

  10. Effective Use of Discovery Learning to Improve Understanding of Factors That Affect Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Arup

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate business majors are required to take a course in operations management. In this course, a great deal of emphasis is put on developing a good understanding of quality because this is likely to be the only required course that covers this important topic. Quality of output exhibits a great deal of variation. To produce high quality on…

  11. Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia (DUQuA): a study protocol for a nationwide, multilevel analysis of relationships between hospital quality management systems and patient factors

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Natalie; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Hogden, Emily; Pye, Victoria; Li, Zhicheng; Groene, Oliver; Suñol, Rosa; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the growing body of research on quality and safety in healthcare, there is little evidence of the association between the way hospitals are organised for quality and patient factors, limiting our understanding of how to effect large-scale change. The ‘Deepening our Understanding of Quality in Australia’ (DUQuA) study aims to measure and examine relationships between (1) organisation and department-level quality management systems (QMS), clinician leadership and culture, and (2) clinical treatment processes, clinical outcomes and patient-reported perceptions of care within Australian hospitals. Methods and analysis The DUQuA project is a national, multilevel, cross-sectional study with data collection at organisation (hospital), department, professional and patient levels. Sample size calculations indicate a minimum of 43 hospitals are required to adequately power the study. To allow for rejection and attrition, 70 hospitals across all Australian jurisdictions that meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate. Participants will consist of hospital quality management professionals; clinicians; and patients with stroke, acute myocardial infarction and hip fracture. Organisation and department-level QMS, clinician leadership and culture, patient perceptions of safety, clinical treatment processes, and patient outcomes will be assessed using validated, evidence-based or consensus-based measurement tools. Data analysis will consist of simple correlations, linear and logistic regression and multilevel modelling. Multilevel modelling methods will enable identification of the amount of variation in outcomes attributed to the hospital and department levels, and the factors contributing to this variation. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained. Results will be disseminated to individual hospitals in de-identified national and international benchmarking reports with data-driven recommendations. This ground-breaking national study has the potential to influence decision-making on the implementation of quality and safety systems and processes in Australian and international hospitals. PMID:26644128

  12. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life of Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Gubbins, Paul O.; Ragland, Denise; Flowers, Schwanda K.; Stowe, Cindy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of student pharmacists and explore factors related to HRQoL outcomes of student pharmacists in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at a public university. Methods. A survey instrument was administered to all student pharmacists in a PharmD program at a public university to evaluate differences and factors related to the HRQoL outcomes of first-year (P1), second-year (P2), third-year (P3), and fourth-year (P4) student pharmacists in the college. The survey instrument included attitudes and academic-related self-perception, a 12-item short form health survey, and personal information components. Results. There were 304 students (68.6%) who completed the survey instrument. The average health state classification measure and mental health component scale (MCS-12) scores were significantly higher for P4 students when compared with the P1through P3 students. There was no difference observed in the physical component scale (PCS-12) scores among each of the 4 class years. Significant negative impact on HRQoL outcomes was observed in students with higher levels of confusion about how they should study (scale lack of regulation) and concern about not being negatively perceived by others (self-defeating ego orientation), while school satisfaction increased HRQoL outcomes (SF-6D, p<0.001; MCS-12, p=0.013). A greater desire to be judged capable (self-enhancing ego-orientation) and career satisfaction were positively associated with the PCS-12 scores (p<0.05). Conclusion. Factors associated with the HRQoL of student pharmacists were confusion regarding how to study, ego orientation, satisfaction with the chosen college of pharmacy, and career satisfaction. First-year through third-year student pharmacists had lower HRQoL as compared with P4 students and the US general population. Support programs may be helpful for students to maintain or improve their mental and overall health. PMID:24558275

  13. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO₂ laser welding.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high-Q-factor of 2.12 × 10(6) in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid. PMID:26480452

  14. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO_2 laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high Q-factor of 2.12*10^6 in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid.

  15. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J. (Augusta, GA); Babcock, Dale F. (Wilmington, DE); Menegus, Robert L. (Wilmington, DE)

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor includes an active portion with fissionable fuel and neutron moderating material surrounded by neutron reflecting material. A control element in the active portion includes a group of movable rods constructed of neutron-absorbing material. Each rod is movable with respect to the other rods to vary the absorption of neutrons and effect control over neutron flux.

  16. DOE personnel neutron dosimetry evaluation and upgrade program

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Stroud, C.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsors an extensive research program to improve the methods, dosimeters, and instruments available to DOE facilities for measuring neutron dose and assessing its effects on the work force. The Total Dose Meter was recently developed for measuring in real time the adsorbed dose of mixed neutron and gamma radiation and for calculating the dose equivalent. The Field Neutron Spectrometer was developed to provide a portable instrument for determining neutron spectra in the workplace for flux-to-dose equivalent conversion and quality factor calculation. The Combination Thermoluminescence/Track Etch Dosimeter (TLD/TED) was developed to extend the effective neutron energy range of the conventional TLDs to improve detection of fast-energy neutrons. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter is presently being developed for application to gamma, neutron, and beta radiation. An Effective Dose Equivalent System is being developed to provide guidance in implementing the January 1987 Presidential Directive to determine effective dose equivalent. Superheated Drop Detectors are being investigated for their potential as real time neutron dosimeters. This paper includes discussions of these improvements brought about by the DOE research program. 3 refs.

  17. Sensitivity of different dose scoring methods on organ-specific neutron dose calculations in proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharatou Jarlskog, Christina; Paganetti, Harald

    2008-09-01

    Scattered doses, e.g. neutron doses in proton therapy, are of concern in radiation therapy. Although measured data are the gold standard, Monte Carlo simulations allow a more realistic consideration of patient anatomy via whole-body phantoms. When calculating neutron doses with Monte Carlo techniques, the dose can be scored in different ways because neutrons deposit dose indirectly. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in neutron dose predictions when using different dose scoring methods. Two methods were tested. In the first method, the organ dose was calculated by accumulating dose from each individual dose deposition event with a particle-specific radiation weighting factor applied. Alternatively, we applied a method where the calculation was done by averaging the dose over the total number of events irrespective of particle type and applying average neutron radiation weighting factors. In addition, we assessed the sensitivity of different neutron quality factor assignments based on two recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). We found that the scoring procedure can lead to differences in the organ equivalent dose of about 25%. As to the ICRP definition of neutron quality factors, the most recent recommendation results in about 10% higher organ doses.

  18. The Association Between Psychological Factors and Orofacial Pain and Its Effect on Quality of Life: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Reddy, Sreedevi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the hypothesis that psychological factors of psychological distress and perception of unhappiness in childhood are associated with self reported orofacial pain and to examine whether such patients have a poorer perception of their oral health related quality of life and if so then to what extent. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted in Hitkarini Dental College and Hospital, Jabalpur amongst 400 cases and 400 controls. Patients were included based on Locker and Slades criteria. Patients were asked to complete 27 items Questionnaire which included the General Health Questionnaire to assess for psychological distress and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 for evaluating impact on quality of life. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between psychological factors, unhappy childhood and quality of life. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results An increased propensity to report orofacial pain was seen for those individuals with higher levels of Psychological Distress and with perception of Unhappiness in Childhood. These individuals also reported with poorer perception of their oral health related Quality of Life. Conclusion The present study has shown relationship between Orofacial Pain, Quality of Life and Psychological Factors. PMID:26155560

  19. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that observed in the presence of the carbonate-rich Collingwood limestone. In addition to assessing U leaching, we also measured the activity of 226Ra and 228Ra via high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. Laboratory results will be compared to observations from a complimentary field sampling campaign of Antrim produced brine.

  20. Comparison between the quality factors of microstrip resonators using films made by deeping pyrolisis and laser ablation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, M. T.; Lancaste, M. J.; Ferreira, J. M.; Albino Aguiar, J.

    For comparison, measurements in transmission mode of some laser ablated film and pyrolysis-film resonators are carried out. Typical responses are presented. Keeping the same geometric parameters for all measured films, values of unload quality factor and surface resistance of the films are calculated from the data.

  1. Factors Associated with Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School-Based Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual

  2. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The

  3. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

  5. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,…

  6. Factors Associated with Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School-Based Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Foster, Lyndsay R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors associated with middle school students' perceptions of the quality of the sexual health education (SHE) they received at school. Participants were 478 predominately White young people (256 girls, 222 boys) in grades 6-8 who completed a survey assessing their demographic characteristics; dating and sexual…

  7. Lecturers' and Students' Perception on Educational Policy Implementation Factors as Predictors for Quality Education in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oredein, Afolakemi O.; Durojaye, Toluwase G.

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on lecturers' and students' perception on educational policy implementation factors and quality education in Nigerian universities. Educational policies have always been formulated purposely to guide the present and future thinking, actions and decisions of managers. The potency of policy is not in formulation but in its proper

  8. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,

  9. Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program

  10. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

  11. The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics

  12. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoof, Sebastian; Nand Gosvami, Nitya; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here, we show that a high-quality resonance (Q >20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivityas expressed via the minimum detectable force gradientis hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Through the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up that includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and that can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  13. Identifying nearshore groundwater and river hydrochemical variables influencing water quality of Kaoping River Estuary using dynamic factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chen, Su-Chin; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe Kaoping River Estuary receives a large amount of nonpoint source pollution and sedimentary discharge from the Kaoping and Tungkang Rivers each year. The Kaoping River Estuary is an integral part of the Kaoping River, shelf, and submarine canyon, which makes prediction of water quality variation difficult. This study attempts to determine the main factors regulating temporal and spatial variations in the water quality in the Kaoping River Estuary over a 9-year period (2003-2011), using dynamic factor analysis (DFA) and min/max autocorrelation factor analysis (MAFA). The result from the MAFA shows that Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) has the highest canonical correlation coefficient with the min/max autocorrelation factor (MAF) axis of water quality. Therefore, Chl-a can be used as an indicator of water quality in the Kaoping River Estuary. The water quality and environmental variables measured downstream of the Kaoping and Tungkang Rivers, as well as submarine groundwater, influence temporal variations of Chl-a in the estuary. The optimal DFA model successfully described Chl-a variations (coefficient of efficiency = 0.969) in the Kaoping River Estuary. DFA results indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended sediment (TSS), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), chemical oxygen demand (COD), as well as the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of river discharge, and the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration of groundwater discharge significantly influenced Chl-a dynamics. Submarine groundwater discharge, which is a significant source of nutrients for the coastal ocean, appears to impact the level of Chl-a concentration substantially. Understanding the relationship between environmental variables and the variability of Chl-a concentration provides a useful approach for setting water quality criteria and pollution prevention plans for the Kaoping River Estuary.

  14. [Quality of life in patients with essential arterial hypertension. Part I: The effect o socio-demographic factors ].

    PubMed

    Klocek, Marek; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2003-01-01

    Currently, one of the methods of comprehensive evaluation of patient health status is quality of life assessment. In the management of hypertension, evaluation of quality of life helps in individualization of therapy and improves its efficiency. The aim of the study was to compare the general quality of life between patients with essential hypertension and normal blood pressure values, and to analyse the effect of socio-demographic factors on the quality of life. An open questionnaire was distributed among 1539 patients (775 men and 764 women), aged from 18 to 88 years (x = 51.7 +/- 14.6 years) with essential hypertension detected at least 3 months earlier, referring to treatment for the first time or already treated by general practitioners and the Outpatient Department on Hypertension of the I Cardiac Department. Hypotensive treatment was given to 82.6% of the subjects, whereas 17.4% were untreated. A group of 995 subjects (459 men and 536 women) aged from 18 to 82 years (x = 48.6 +/- 11.2 years) with normal blood pressure values served as controls. All subjects provided data on education employment, body mass index, duration of arterial hypertension, family history, target organ damage, co-morbidity, blood pressure value, heart rate and pharmacological treatment. All subjects filled out a standardised questionnaire--Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), which evaluated the general quality of life and its sin dimensions: Anxiety, Depressive mood, Subjective Well-being, Self-control, General health and Vitality. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and multiple regression. The general quality of life in patients with essential hypertension was significantly lower than that in age-matched normotensives. The quality of life in women was lower than that in men irrespective of arterial hypertension presence. The quality of life was decreasing with age both in hypertensive and normotensives; however in hypertensive men there was a trend towards improved quality of life above 65 years of age in contrast to age-matched women in whom the quality of life deteriorated. The quality of life in untreated hypertensives was lower than that in age-matched healthy subjects, but until 40 years of age was higher than in treated age-matched hypertensives. The quality of life was related to the level of education, employment and familial history of hypertension. A lower quality of life was observed among hypertensives with coronary heart disease and diabetes. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender, education, age and familial hypertension were the socio-demographic factors, which independently affected the quality of life among hypertensives. These factors accounted for 32.7% of the observed variance of quality of life. In normotensives subjects the independent factors were gender, age, education and employment--accounting for 65.8% of variance of quality of life. PMID:12939855

  15. Evaluated cross section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1995-07-01

    We present evaluations of the interaction of 20 to 100 MeV neutrons with oxygen and nitrogen nuclei, which follows on from our previous work on carbon. Our aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. We apply the FKK-GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. We determine total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra, for light ejectiles with A{<=}4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions. Our results for charged-particle emission spectra agree well with the measurements of Subramanian et al.. We compare kerma factors derived from our evaluated cross sections with experimental data, providing an integral benchmarking of our work. The evaluated data libraries are available as electronic files.

  16. Evaluated cross section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 31}P

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-11-01

    The authors present evaluations of the interaction of 20 to 100 MeV neutrons with calcium and phosphorus, which follows on from the previous work on carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. They apply the GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. Total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra for light ejectiles with A {le} 4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions, are determined. The expected accuracy of the calculated cross sections and kerma factors is discussed.

  17. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-07-30

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G{sup n}E/G{sup n}M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic {sup 2}H({rvec e},e/{rvec n}){sup 1}H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} lies slightly above the Galster parameterization.

  18. Demographic factors affecting quality of life of hemodialysis patients – Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Anees, Muhammad; Malik, Muzammil Riaz; Abbasi, Tanzeel; Nasir, Zeeshan; Hussain, Yasir; Ibrahim, Muhamamd

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the demographic factors affecting Quality Of Life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This observational study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and on maintenance HD for more than three months were included during the period March to June 2012. Patient of ESRD not on dialysis and Acute Renal Failure were excluded. One hundred and twenty five patients who fulfilled the criteria were included. Demographic data containing age, sex, residence, socio economic status, education, mode of traveling for dialysis, total time consumed in dialysis were collected by the investigators. QOL index was measured using 26 items, WHO QOL BREF. Results: There were 89(71.2%) male and 36(28.8%) female patients. Environmental domain score was highest (p=0.000) than all other domains in HD Patients. In overall analysis age, marital status and total time consumed in getting HD effect QOL significantly (p=<0.05). In domain wise analysis, male has better QOL in social relationship domain than female. Age has negative relationship with physical health and psychological health domain. QOL of unmarried and literate patients is significantly better (p=<0.05) in physical health domain. Employed patients have better QOL in physical, psychological and social relationship domain (p=<0.05) than unemployed patients. Patients of residence of rural areas have better QOL in physical and environment domain. Financial status of HD patients affect QOL in social domain. Distance covered to reach hospital effect QOL in psychological domain (p=<0.05). Patients traveling in private transport have better QOL in environmental domain (p=<0.05). Total time consumed in getting HD effect social relation in QOL (p=<0.05). According to linear regression model, marital status is positive predictor and unemployment is negative predictor of QOL in physical health domain. Age is negative predictor of QOL in psychological domain, monthly income is positive predictor of QOL in domain. Unemployment is positive predictor of QOL in social relation domain. Monthly income and place of residence is positive predictor of QOL in environment domain. Conclusion: Gender, age, marital status, unemployment, residence of rural area, economical status, distance covered to reach hospital, mode of transport, total time consumed in getting HD, effect QOL in HD patient. Education level is a positive factor for improving QOL of HD patients. PMID:25225539

  19. Quality of Life and Related Factors Among People With Spinal Cord Injuries in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghimian, Maryam; Kashani, Fahimeh; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is one of the biggest health problems. Disabilities resulting from injuries such as spinal disability requires special attention because of their potential reduced to cause adverse effects in different systems of the body. Today, improving the Quality of Life (QOL) in patients with SCIs is an important goal of treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the QOL and related factors among people with SCIs. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 106 patients with SCI were selected through sampling based on census. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a Short-Form 36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire for measuring the QOL among patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS 14 software and descriptive and inferential statistics. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean QOL in these patients was 37.1 1.7 years (21 - 65 years) and mean disease duration was 7.36 years. The most common injury was paraplegia. Most of the patients have moderate QOL (54.7 %). The results showed a significant relationship between QOL and marital status and employment status (P < 0.05). Also, results showed a significant relationship between QOL and education levels (P = 0.002), age (P = 0.001), and duration of illness (P = 0.001).The highest and lowest scores were 64 7.1 and 36 5.3 for understanding General Health (GH) and role physical, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that patients with SCI have a moderate health-related QOL Determining the QOL is needed to focus on the strengths and weaknesses of patients with spinal cord injuries. Planning principles is recommended in order to reform the disability. PMID:26557639

  20. Factors influencing the quality of food extracts for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vieths, S; Hoffmann, A; Holzhauser, T; Müller, U; Reindl, J; Haustein, D

    1998-01-01

    Food extracts for diagnostic purposes often lack sufficient activity and consistency. Biologically standardized food extracts are not available on the market. Using extracts from plant-derived foods as examples, we investigated factors which may be important for the quality of such extracts. Divergent allergenic activities were found between strains of apples, but not within varieties of celery tuber (celeriac), hazelnut, and peanut, respectively. Heating of the food remarkably reduced the activity of apple, hazelnut, and celeriac, but had little effect on peanut. By contrast, heating of semipurified protein extracts from celery tuber and apple for 30 min at 100 degrees C did not deplete the immunoreactivity of the major allergens, indicating that this is an inappropriate test for identifying labile food allergens. Due to their high endogenous enzyme activities, apples and other fruits require special extraction procedures applying either low temperature or enzyme inhibitors. Variation of extraction conditions had little effect on the composition and activity of extracts from hazelnut. The storage stability of skin test solutions from plant foods can be improved by avoiding phenol as an additive and by including 50% of glycerol. For model studies considering neoallergens, IgE was raised in mice against native and heated celery tuber, respectively. When extracts from nonthermally and thermally processed celeriac were subjected to an RBL-cell mediator release assay with these sera, an inverse ranking was obtained with anti-heated celeriac IgE and anti-native celeriac IgE, respectively. These data indicated that new epitopes had been formed by the heating process. Since all parameters were tested in model experiments with either human or murine IgE, their relevance has to be proven in further clinical investigations. PMID:9826003

  1. Isoprene Emission Factors for Subtropical Street Trees for Regional Air Quality Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Johnston, Kristina A; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Plant, Lyndal; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the environmental benefits and consequences of urban trees supports their sustainable management in cities. Models such as i-Tree Eco enable decision-making by quantifying effects associated with particular tree species. Of specific concern are emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, particularly isoprene, that contribute to the formation of photochemical smog and ground level ozone. Few studies have quantified these potential disservices of urban trees, and current models predominantly use emissions data from trees that differ from those in our target region of subtropical Australia. The present study aimed (i) to quantify isoprene emission rates of three tree species that together represent 16% of the inventoried street trees in the target region; (ii) to evaluate outputs of the i-Tree Eco model using species-specific versus currently used, generic isoprene emission rates; and (iii) to evaluate the findings in the context of regional air quality. Isoprene emission rates of (Myrtaceae) and (Proteaceae) were 2.61 and 2.06 µg g dry leaf weight h, respectively, whereas (Sapindaceae) was a nonisoprene emitter. We substituted the generic isoprene emission rates with these three empirical values in i-Tree Eco, resulting in a 182 kg yr (97%) reduction in isoprene emissions, totaling 6284 kg yr when extrapolated to the target region. From these results we conclude that care has to be taken when using generic isoprene emission factors for urban tree models. We recommend that emissions be quantified for commonly planted trees, allowing decision-makers to select tree species with the greatest overall benefit for the urban environment. PMID:26828179

  2. [Influential factors on health-related quality of life after cerebral vascular disease].

    PubMed

    Eto, F; Sakata, T

    2000-07-01

    A mail survey was conducted to elucidate the influential factors on heath-related quality of life (HRQOL) after cerebral vascular disease. Questionnaires for clinicians and their patients were mailed to 2,587 hospitals with more than 100 beds, which have at least one of the following departments: neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry or rehabilitation. Each mailing contained a request to the clinician and questionnaires for 5 cases. 378 effective questionnaires could be collected, meaning the collection rate was 2.9%. The questions for the physicians concerned diagnosis (cerebral infarction or hemorrhage), duration of illness, activities of daily living(ADL), manifestation of paralysis and psychiatric symptoms and so forth. The questionnaire for the patients was composed of items from the EuroQol clinical version (EuroQol). Geriatric Depression Scale short form (GDS) and inquiries concerning family living with the patients, their housekeeping and so on. A visual analogue scale (VAS) concerning health state of the EuroQol was used as a measure of HRQOL. Coefficients of determination between VAS and other inquiries were calculated by regression analysis or ANOVA, revealing that "anxiety/depression", "GDS" and 16 other items were statistically significant on VAS (p < 0.05). General linear model (GLM) analysis using VAS as a criterion variable and these 18 items as predictor variables showed that "sleep disturbance" and GDS score were most influential on VAS according to the F value of the type 3 sum of squares. "Health state today compared to that during the past one year", "shopping as housekeeping", "ADL" and "pain/discomfort" also have some influence on VAS. In conclusion, sleep disturbance and depression had the most deleterious effect on HRQOL. PMID:11031829

  3. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Alejandra H.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the contributions of coping and social constraint to disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to examine group differences in disease activity and HRQOL between patients with high versus low anxiety or depression symptoms in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis in which disease activity was measured with either the Harvey-Bradshaw Index or the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index. HRQOL was measured with the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Coping was measured with a modified COPE questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Social constraint was measured with the Social Constraint Questionnaire. Correlational and regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between social constraint, coping, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and HRQOL and disease activity. Results: Data from 80 adults with IBD were reviewed. Social constraint, disengagement coping, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms were inversely correlated with HRQOL. Disengagement coping was positively correlated with disease activity. Regression analyses showed that smokers had significantly worse HRQOL than nonsmokers and that greater use of engagement coping was associated with significantly diminished HRQOL. Regression analyses also showed that patients diagnosed between 17 and 40 years of age were significantly less likely to have active disease than patients diagnosed before 16 years of age and that greater use of disengagement coping was associated with increased odds of having active disease. Conclusions: Medical providers should be aware that coexisting social constraint and symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in patients with IBD. Screening for these factors, as well as patients' coping styles, should be strongly considered, and patients should be referred to mental health providers as appropriate. PMID:22675279

  4. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

  5. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-10-01

    Neutron generators based on the 2H(d,n)3He and 3H(d,n)4He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >109 n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 1014 n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 105 n/cm2s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The neutron flux required for positron production could not be provided with a single D-T neutron generator. Therefore, a subcritical fission multiplier was designed to increase the neutron yield. The neutron flux was increased by a factor of 25. A D-D driven fission multiplier was also studied for BNCT and a gain of 17 was obtained. The fission multiplier system gain was shown to be limited by the neutron absorption in the fuel and the reduction of source brightness. A brief discussion was also given regarding the neutron generator applications for fast neutron brachytherapy and neutron interrogation systems. It was concluded that new designs of compact D-D/D-T neutron generators are feasible and that superior quality neutron beams could be produced and used for various applications.

  6. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-05-01

    Neutron generators based on the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He and {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >10{sup 9} n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 10{sup 14} n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The neutron flux required for positron production could not be provided with a single D-T neutron generator. Therefore, a subcritical fission multiplier was designed to increase the neutron yield. The neutron flux was increased by a factor of 25. A D-D driven fission multiplier was also studied for BNCT and a gain of 17 was obtained. The fission multiplier system gain was shown to be limited by the neutron absorption in the fuel and the reduction of source brightness. A brief discussion was also given regarding the neutron generator applications for fast neutron brachytherapy and neutron interrogation systems. It was concluded that new designs of compact D-D/D-T neutron generators are feasible and that superior quality neutron beams could be produced and used for various applications.

  7. From Social Structural Factors to Perceptions of Relationship Quality and Loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J.; Masi, Christopher M.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. Methods We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Results Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Discussion Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness. PMID:19092047

  8. Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific radiation type (Z = 1 to 28). Because the anomalous response has been observed at large event sizes in the experiment due to the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta-rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume cavity, Monte Carlo simulation was also made for the response of a walled-TEPC with wall thickness 2 mm and density 1 g/cm(exp 3). The radius of cavity was set to 6.35 mm and a gas density 7.874 x 10(exp -5) g/cm(exp 3). The response of the walled- and the wall-less counters were compared. The average quality factor Q(sub ave)(y) for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrated the good agreement between the model calculations and flight TEPC data as shown. Using an integrated space radiation model (this includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions of walled-TEPC from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. The Q(sub ave)(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Q(sub ave)(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Q(sub ave)(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis for a proper interpretation of data supports the use of TEPCs for monitoring space radiation environment.

  9. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The Han River basin is one of the most important industrial and grain production bases in the central China. A lot of factories and towns have been established along the river where large farmlands are located nearby. In the last few decades the water quality of the Han River, specifically in middle and lower reaches, has gradually declined. The agricultural nonpoint pollution and municipal and industrial point pollution significantly degrade the water quality of the Han River. Factor analysis can be applied to reduce the dimensionality of a data set consisting of a large number of inter-related variables. Cluster analysis can classify the samples according to their similar characters. In this study, factor analysis is used to identify major pollution indicators, and cluster analysis is employed to classify the samples based on the sample locations and hydrochemical variables. Water samples were collected from 12 sample sites collected from Xiangyang City (middle Han River) to Wuhan City (lower Han River). Correlations among 25 hydrochemical variables are statistically examined. The important pollutants are determined by factor analysis. A three-factor model is determined and explains over 85% of the total river water quality variation. Factor 1, including SS, Chl-a, TN and TP, can be considered as the nonpoint source pollution. Factor 2, including Cl-, Br-, SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Fe2+ and PO43-, can be treated as the industrial pollutant pollution. Factor 3, including F- and NO3-, reflects the influence of the groundwater or self-purification capability of the river water. The various land uses along the Han River correlate well with the pollution types. In addition, the result showed that the water quality of Han River deteriorated gradually from middle to lower Han River. Some tributaries have been seriously polluted and significantly influence the mainstream water quality of the Han River. Finally, the result showed that the nonpoint pollution and the point pollution both significantly influence water quality in the middle and lower Han River. This study provides an effective method for watershed management and pollution control in Han River.

  10. [Life quality in individuals having occupational diseases caused by various occupational factors].

    PubMed

    D'iakovich, M P; Semenikhin, V A; Kazakova, P V; Odintseva, O V; D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents main results of studies concerning life quality in individuals having chronic occupational diseases of important social value. Life quality in patients with chronic mercurial intoxication and dust bronchitis appeared to result from personal, social and psychologic features. PMID:25073338

  11. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by

  12. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  13. New observations of Q quality factors of a few gravest normal modes from the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roult, G.; Rosat, S.; Hinderer, J.; Millot-Langet, R.; Clevede, E.

    2004-12-01

    he high quality of the GGP superconducting gravimeters contributes to the clear observation of seismic normal modes at frequencies lower than 1mHz and offers a good opportunity for studying the behaviour of these modes. The interest of scientists for the gravest normal modes is due to the fact that these modes do contribute to a better knowledge of the density profile in the Earth, helping to constrain Earth's models. These modes have been clearly identified after some large recent events recorded on superconducting gravimeters. The Peruvian earthquake of June 2001 provided us with individual spectra (in a unique station) with a clear splitting of the fundamental mode 0S2 and identification of each of the five individual singlets, with a resolution never obtained from broad-band seismometers records. The Q quality factors have been determined from the apparent decrease of the amplitude of each singlet with time, according to a well suited technique (Roult & Clvd, 2000). The results are compared to the theoretical frequencies and Q quality factors computed in the PREM model, taking into account the rotation and the ellipticity of the Earth. The two datasets (frequencies and Q quality factors) exhibits a small shift between the splitting of the observed values and that of the predicted ones. That seems to point out that the rotation and the ellipticity don't explain the observations and that we have to take into account additional effects. A new dataset of Q quality factors of all singlets of the gravest modes is under construction, including the 0S2 and 0S3 modes, the radial 0S0 mode and the 2S1 mode recently identified by Rosat et al. (2003).

  14. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorriaux, J; Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J; Bertrand, D; Orban de Xivry, J.; Lee, J; Palmans, H; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 ± 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  15. Neutron beam therapy for advanced tumours of the parotid, sinus, salivary glands and for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Catterall, M.; Errington, R.D.; Blake, P.R.; Rampling, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The use of fast neutrons in the treatment of solid tumours is based on radiobiological data. These are concerned with the variability of sensitivity according to the phase in the cell cycle, the histological type and the degree of hypoxia. In all of these, neutrons have a greater tumouricidal effect. Whereas 40% of cells are resistant to X-rays at certain phases in the cell cycle, there is no such difference to neutrons. There is much less resistance to neutrons as a result of histological type and neutrons are more effective against hypoxic cells than are photons. Hypoxia is less important than previously thought but nevertheless it exists and there is a therapeutic gain using neutrons of 3-30%. A fourth factor is the effect of hydrogen atoms; where these are prolific, such as in soft tissue tumors, neutrons are absorbed more readily than in adjacent bone which is relatively lacking in hydrogen atoms. It is unfortunately impossible, at the present time, to define tumors with these characteristics, so that the clinical investigation cannot be precisely directed to an appropriate type or site. A further consideration is that the investigation has so far been adversely affected by the clinical quality of the neutron beams. It was because factors such as these that the Hammersmith investigation has been directed to the close observation of the effects of neutrons on bulky or radioresistant tumours and normal tissues in certain sites.

  16. Use of Ecological Momentary Assessment to Determine Which Structural Factors Impact Perceived Teaching Quality of Attending Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Lisa; Houston, Thomas K.; Heudebert, Gustavo R.; Estrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Providing high-quality teaching to residents during attending rounds is challenging. Reasons include structural factors that affect rounds, which are beyond the attending's teaching style and control. Objective To develop a new evaluation tool to identify the structural components of ward rounds that most affect teaching quality in an internal medicine (IM) residency program. Methods The authors developed a 10-item Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) tool and collected daily evaluations for 18months from IM residents rotating on inpatient services. Residents ranked the quality of teaching on rounds that day, and questions related to their service (general medicine, medical intensive care unit, and subspecialty services), patient census, absenteeism of team members, call status, and number of teaching methods used by the attending. Results Residents completed 488 evaluation cards over 18months. This found no association between perceived teaching quality and training level, team absenteeism, and call status. We observed differences by service (P?quality, regardless of service or census (P for trend?quality, but the results were also influenced by the type of teaching service. We found that, regardless of census or teaching service, attendings can improve their teaching by diversifying the number of methods used in daily rounds. PMID:23997876

  17. LIFE QUALITY RELATED TO SPIRITUAL HEALTH AND FACTORS AFFECTING IT IN PATIENTS AFFLICTED BY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM METASTATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Jabbar; Jafari, Hedayat; Janbabaei, Ghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spiritual health is of the basic elements in chronic patients. This concept can be considered as an important approach in promoting physical & spiritual health & life quality Goal: The present study has been planned aiming to study life quality related to metastatic phase gastrointestinal (digestive) cancer referring to Mazandaran Medical Science University Educational Center in Iran. Material and Methods: This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method with 250 patients through available sampling method. The data has been collected via spiritual health & life quality questionnaire. The data analysis has been performed by calculating X², T Test, variance analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean & standard deviation of the patients were 12.56 ±94/47. The highest relationship between age & spirituality was related to ages over 60. There was a meaningful statistical relationship between spirituality & life quality scale (p<0.001), between spirituality & respiratory disorder (p<0.047), anorexia (p<0.004), exhaustion (p<0.006), financial problems (p<0.006). Conclusion: regarding the results, we can perceive the necessity behind improving spiritual health aspect as an influencing factor on the patients’ life quality. Through enhancing spiritual beliefs, it is possible to help the patients’ spiritual quality get promoted. PMID:26622196

  18. Estimating quality factor from surface seismic data: A comparison of current approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Nunes, Bonnie Ives; Eugnio de Medeiros, Walter; Farias do Nascimento, Aderson; de Morais Moreira, Jos Antonio

    2011-10-01

    The performances of the spectral ratio (SR), frequency centroid shift (FCS), and frequency peak shift (FPS) methods to estimate the effective quality factor Q are compared. These methods do not demand true amplitude data and their implementations were done following an "as simple as possible" approach to highlight their intrinsic potentials and limitations. We use synthetic zero-offset seismic data generated with a simple layer-cake isotropic model. The methods can be ranked from simple to complex in terms of automation as: FPS, FCS and SR. This is a consequence of: (i) peak identification consists basically of a sorting procedure, (ii) centroid estimation involves basically the evaluation of two well-behaved integrals, and (iii) implementation of the SR method involves at least choosing a usable frequency bandwidth and fitting a gradient. The methods can be ranked from robust to sensitive in the presence of noise content in the sequence SR, FCS, and FPS. This is consequence of: (i) the gradient estimate associated to the SR method averages out the noise content in the entire usable frequency bandwidth, (ii) in the presence of moderate-to-high noise level, the centroid estimation is biassed towards overestimating Q due to noise contribution in the tail of the amplitude spectrum, and (iii) peak identification is unstable due to local noise fluctuation in the amplitude spectrum around the peak frequency. Regarding the stability of the estimates relative to the attenuation amount, SR and FCS methods show similar behaviours, whereas FPS method presents an inferior performance. This fact is an indirect consequence of the sensitivity of FPS method to the noise content because the higher is the attenuation the lower is the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, regarding the robustness of the methods to the presence of dipping layers, only SR and FCS methods provide good estimates, at least to typical dips in non-faulted sedimentary layers, with the estimates obtained with SR method being more accurate that those obtained with FCS method. Except in relation to the automation complexity, which is less important than the performances of the methods, SR method was superior or showed similar performance to FCS method in all scenarios we tried.

  19. Neutron capture therapies

    DOEpatents

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  20. Neutron capture therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  1. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  2. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Las Arajo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of Joo Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  3. Neutron dosimetry in low-earth orbit using passive detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes neutron dosimetry measurements made by the USF Physics Research Laboratory aboard US and Russian LEO spacecraft over the past 20 years using two types of passive detector. Thermal/resonance neutron detectors exploiting the 6Li(n,T) alpha reaction were used to measure neutrons of energies <1 MeV. Fission foil neutron detectors were used to measure neutrons of energies above 1 MeV. While originally analysed in terms of dose equivalent using the NCRP-38 definition of quality factor, for the purposes of this paper the measured neutron data have been reanalyzed and are presented in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Dose equivalent rate for neutrons <1 MeV ranged from 0.80 microSv/d on the low altitude, low inclination STS-41B mission to 22.0 microSv/d measured in the Shuttle's cargo bay on the highly inclined STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. In one particular instance a detector embedded within a large hydrogenous mass on STS-61 (in the ECT experiment) measured 34.6 microSv/d. Dose equivalent rate measurements of neutrons >1 MeV ranged from 4.5 microSv/d on the low altitude STS-3 mission to 172 microSv/d on the 6 year LDEF mission. Thermal neutrons (<0.3 eV) were observed to make a negligible contribution to neutron dose equivalent in all cases. The major fraction of neutron dose equivalent was found to be from neutrons >1 MeV and, on LDEF, neutrons >1 MeV are responsible for over 98% of the total neutron dose equivalent. Estimates of the neutron contribution to the total dose equivalent are somewhat lower than model estimates, ranging from 5.7% at a location under low shielding on LDEF to 18.4% on the highly inclined (82.3 degrees) Biocosmos-2044 mission. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Litter quality as driving factor for plant nutrition via grazing of protozoa on soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Robin, Christophe; Bonkowski, Michael; Ruess, Liliane; Scheu, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Plant residues provide a major source of nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Litter N mineralization varies with litter carbon-to-nitrogen (C-to-N) ratio and presence of bacterial-feeding fauna. We assessed the effect of amoebae, major bacterial feeders in soil, on mineralization of litter of low (high quality) and high C-to-N ratio (low quality) and evaluated consequences for plant growth. We used stable isotopes to determine plant N uptake from litter and plant C partitioning. Stable isotope probing of phospholipid fatty acids was used to follow incorporation of plant C into microorganisms. Amoebae increased plant N uptake independent of litter quality and thereby the biomass of shoots and roots by 33% and 66%, respectively. Plant allocation of total (13)C to roots in low (42%) exceeded that of high-quality litter treatments (26%). Amoebae increased plant allocation of (13)C to roots by 37%. Microbial community structure and incorporation of (13)C into PLFAs varied significantly with litter quality and in the low-quality litter treatment also with the presence of amoebae. Overall, the results suggest that in particular at low nutrient conditions, root-derived C fosters the mobilization of bacterial N by protozoa, thereby increasing plant growth when microorganisms and plants compete for nutrients. PMID:23521364

  5. Quality indicators for colorectal cancer surgery and care according to patient-, tumor-, and hospital-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) care has improved considerably, particularly since the implementation of a quality of care program centered on national evidence-based guidelines. Formal quality assessment is however still needed. The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with practice variation in CRC patient care. Methods CRC patients identified from all cancer centers in South-West France were included. We investigated variations in practices (from diagnosis to surgery), and compliance with recommended guidelines for colon and rectal cancer. We identified factors associated with three colon cancer practice variations potentially linked to better survival: examination of ?12 lymph nodes (LN), non-use and use of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and stage III patients, respectively. Results We included 1,206 patients, 825 (68%) with colon and 381 (32%) with rectal cancer, from 53 hospitals. Compliance was high for resection, pathology report, LN examination, and chemotherapy use for stage III patients. In colon cancer, 26% of stage II patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and 71% of stage III patients. 84% of stage US T3T4 rectal cancer patients received pre-operative radiotherapy. In colon cancer, factors associated with examination of ?12 LNs were: lower ECOG score, advanced stage and larger hospital volume; factors negatively associated were: left sided tumor location and one hospital district. Use of chemotherapy in stage II patients was associated with younger age, advanced stage, emergency setting and care structure (private and location); whereas under-use in stage III patients was associated with advanced age, presence of comorbidities and private hospitals. Conclusions Although some changes in practices may have occurred since this observational study, these findings represent the most recent report on practices in CRC in this region, and offer a useful methodological approach for assessing quality of care. Guideline compliance was high, although some organizational factors such as hospital size or location influence practice variation. These factors should be the focus of any future guideline implementation. PMID:22813349

  6. Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

    2013-10-01

    spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

  7. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization

    DOEpatents

    Walls, Joel; Taner, M. Turhan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2006-08-08

    A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of compressional velocity and shear velocity, and determining reservoir parameters of subsurface Earth formations, at least including density, from data obtained from a wellbore penetrating the formations. A quality factor for the subsurface formations is calculated from the velocity, the density and the water saturation. A synthetic seismogram is calculated from the calculated quality factor and from the velocity and density. The synthetic seismogram is compared to a seismic survey made in the vicinity of the wellbore. At least one parameter is adjusted. The synthetic seismogram is recalculated using the adjusted parameter, and the adjusting, recalculating and comparing are repeated until a difference between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic survey falls below a selected threshold.

  8. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  9. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report Versus Maternal Reports.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-04-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter's QoL. PMID:26707626

  10. Design of subwavelength-size, indium tin oxide (ITO)-clad optical disk cavities with quality-factors exceeding 10?.

    PubMed

    Senlik, Ozlem; Cheong, Hwi Yoon; Yoshie, Tomoyuki

    2011-11-01

    Indium tin oxide is used as a top cladding electrode of optical disk resonators with subwavelength size in all dimensions. Calculated quality (Q)-factors exceed 10? in visible wavelengths (650-670nm). The disk aspect ratio is an important parameter to optimize the resonator properties. The Q-factor and threshold material gain based on finite-difference time-domain method are optimized for eight different disk resonator optical modes. Proposed cavity designs are promising for building electrically-pumped, low-threshold nano-lasers at room temperature. PMID:22109224

  11. Modeling of High-Quality Factor XNOR Gate Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers at 1 Tb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb, Amer

    2015-06-01

    The modeling of all-optical logic XNOR gate is realized by a series combination of XOR and INVERT gates. This Boolean function is simulated by using Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) utilizing quantum-dots semiconductor optical amplifiers (QDs-SOAs). The study is carried out when the effect of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is included. The dependence of the output quality factor ( Q-factor) on signals and QDs-SOAs' parameters is also investigated and discussed. The simulation is conducted under a repetition rate of 1 Tb/s.

  12. Photon beam quality correction factors for the NE2571A and NE2581A thimble ionization chambers using PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Erazo, Fabián; Lallena, Antonio M

    2016-01-01

    The beam quality correction factor [Formula: see text] and the perturbation factor pQ for photon beams were calculated for the NE2571A and NE2581A ionization chambers, using the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE. Results are compared to those quoted for the NE2571 and NE2581 chambers in previous works. Both [Formula: see text] and pQ obtained for NE2571A and NE2581A chambers agree with those of their predecessors NE2571 and NE2581 ones. PMID:26602965

  13. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorptionmore » loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.« less

  14. All-dielectric metasurface analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency [High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuanmu; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2014-12-16

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than ~10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high quality factor (Q-factor) of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows the metamaterial to serve as a refractive index sensor with a figure-of-merit (FOM) of 101, far exceeding the performance of previously demonstrated localized surface plasmon resonance sensors.

  15. Evaluation of diet quality and its associated factors among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Rezali, Fara Wahida; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Sanker, Kaartina; Woon, Fui Chee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study aims to determine contribution of meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods towards diet quality of adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted among 373 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years old. Diet quality of the respondents was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians. Meal frequency, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were assessed through the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire (EBQ), self-efficacy for healthy eating scale, and availability of healthy foods scale, respectively. RESULTS The majority of the respondents (80.7%) were at risk of poor diet quality. Males (mean = 34.2 ± 8.2%) had poorer diet quality than females (mean = 39.9 ± 9.0%) (t = -5.941, P < 0.05). Malay respondents (mean = 36.9 ± 8.7%) had poorer diet quality than Indian respondents (mean = 41.3 ± 10.0%) (F = 2.762, P < 0.05). Age (r = 0.123, P < 0.05), self-efficacy for healthy eating (r = 0.129, P < 0.05), and availability of healthy foods (r = 0.159, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. However, meal frequency was not correlated with the diet quality of the respondents. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that being a male, being a Malay, low self-efficacy for healthy eating, and low availability of healthy foods contributed significantly towards poor diet quality among respondents. CONCLUSIONS In short, sex, ethnicity, self-efficacy for healthy eating, and availability of healthy foods were associated with diet quality among adolescents. Health practitioners should take into consideration of differences in sex and ethnicity during implementation of nutrition-related intervention programs. Self-efficacy for healthy eating and availability of healthy foods should be included as important components in improving diet quality of adolescents. PMID:26425281

  16. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate.

    PubMed

    Chankow, Nares; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research are to study properties of a neutron imaging plate (NIP) and to test it for use in nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials. The experiments were carried out by using a BAS-ND 2040 Fuji NIP and a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1. The neutron intensity and Cd ratio at the specimen position were approximately 9x10(5) ns/cm(2) s and 100 respectively. It was found that the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time and approximately 40 times faster than the conventional NR using Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The sensitivities of the imaging plate to slow neutron and to Ir-192 gamma-rays were found to be approximately 4.2x10(-3) PSL/mm(2) per neutron and 6.7x10(-5) PSL/mm(2) per gamma-ray photon respectively. Finally, some specimens containing light elements were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the NIP and the Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The image quality obtained from the two recording media was found to be comparable. PMID:19828321

  17. Effect of boron and gadolinium concentration on the calculated neutron multiplication factor of U(3)O/sub 2/ fuel pins in optimum geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.T.

    1984-10-01

    The KENO-Va improved Monte Carlo criticality program is used to calculate the neutron multiplication factor for TMI-U2 fuel compositions in a variety of configurations and to display parametric regions giving rise to maximum reactivity contributions. The lattice pitch of UO/sub 2/ fuel pins producing a maximum k/sub eff/ is determined as a function of boron concentrations in the coolant for infinite and finite systems. The characteristics of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-coolant mixtures of interest to modeling the rubble region of the core are presented. Several disrupted core configurations are calculated and comparisons made. The results should be useful to proposed defueling of the TMI-U2 reactor.

  18. Health related quality of life in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and factors with impact: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has been applied as a significant outcome indicator for patients with chronic diseases. No HRQOL study, however, has looked at HRQOL in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. This paper focuses on comparing HRQOL in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers and examining the factors that influence the HRQOL of such patients. Results can be used for making decisions in clinical trials as well as aiding individual management and preventive care of these diseases. Methods The Chinese version of the SF-36 (CSF-36) was administered twice to 244 patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Mean scores across the two disease groups were compared using t-tests, change over time was analyzed with paired samples t-tests, and factors predicting HRQOL were investigated using the univariate general linear model. Results The mean domain scores of patients with chronic gastritis were lower than those for patients with peptic ulcers, with the exception of physical functioning. Both groups had lower HRQOL compared with population norms. Mean domain scores increased after treatment in both groups. HRQOL in patients with these two chronic diseases differed by age, education level, marriage, income, and gender, but their explanatory power was relatively low. Conclusion Quality of life of patients with chronic gastritis was lower than that of patients with peptic ulcers, which was lower than population norms. Quality of life in both patients groups was associated with socio-demographic risk factors. PMID:25141760

  19. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed. PMID:26903917

  20. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed. PMID:26903917

  1. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. PMID:26231106

  2. [Factors explaining quality of primary health care in Logone Occidental (Chad)].

    PubMed

    Richard, V; Morel, B; Wadack, N A; Banguio, M

    2004-06-01

    The extent of the deficit in human and financial resources associated with alarming health indicators in the developing countries has prompted us to undertake an evaluation of the quality of the primary health care provided in our country. The study was designed to identify the determinants of the quality of primary care delivered in the health centers of Western Logone in Chad by comparing systematic data collected from public and private health structures and an adapted questionnaire. Data were collected from 24 healthcare centers providing care for 395699 people, 73.1% of the population of the district of Logone Occidental. The average costs born by patients receiving care delivered by the different centers was not statistically different between the centers financed by public funds and those with denominational support: 944 Fcfa versus 1315 Fcfa. Variable statistically correlated with quality of care were: number of qualified healthcare workers in the center, training level of the center's manager, average patient-born cost of consultation, average healthcare expenditure per capita in the recruitment area (p<0.01). Considering the importance of the medical district in the organization of healthcare systems in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, quality assessment must become a continuous, supervised activity enabling proper description of the processes involved and propositions for local solutions designed to improve the quality of care. PMID:15356438

  3. Prediction of In-Phantom Dose Distribution Using In-Air Neutron Beam Characteristics for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Chen, Allen S.; Vujic, Jasmina L.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2000-08-15

    A monoenergetic neutron beam simulation study was carried out to determine the optimal neutron energy range for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using radiation synovectomy. The goal of the treatment is the ablation of diseased synovial membranes in joints such as knees and fingers. This study focuses on human knee joints. Two figures of merit are used to measure the neutron beam quality, the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the skin-absorbed dose, and the ratio of the synovium-absorbed dose to the bone-absorbed dose. It was found that (a) thermal neutron beams are optimal for treatment and that (b) similar absorbed dose rates and therapeutic ratios are obtained with monodirectional and isotropic neutron beams. Computation of the dose distribution in a human knee requires the simulation of particle transport from the neutron source to the knee phantom through the moderator. A method was developed to predict the dose distribution in a knee phantom from any neutron and photon beam spectra incident on the knee. This method was revealed to be reasonably accurate and enabled one to reduce the particle transport simulation time by a factor of 10 by modeling the moderator only.

  4. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

  5. Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

  6. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not. PMID:20143342

  7. Factors affecting surface quality in diamond turning of oxygen-free high-conductance copper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Zhang, X

    1994-04-01

    In identical cutting conditions, it has been shown that the surface quality of ultraprecisely machined oxygen-free high-conductance copper samples, for which a single-point diamond tool is used, depends on the microstructure and properties of the materials, as well as the processing sequence. It has been found that samples subjected to colddeformation-recrystallization annealing have the best surface quality after being diamond turned. In addition, crystal uniformity and the processing sequence affect the roughness and residual stress of the finished surface. PMID:20885541

  8. Improving the Quality and Scientific Understanding of Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This short 1000 word report presents a series of research needs for improving the measurement and understanding of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMFs are useful measures of trophic magnification and represent the diet-weighted average biomagnification factor (BMF) of che...

  9. Application of positive matrix factorization to source apportionment of surface water quality of the Daliao River basin, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Hopke, Philip K; Liu, Xiande; Du, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2015-03-01

    Surface water monitoring networks play an important role in the stream water quality management. Since a time series of data is obtained from the monitoring network, multivariate statistical techniques can be used to identify important factors or pollution sources of water system. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is an improved factor analysis tool that has had limited application to water systems. The objective was to apply PMF to monitoring data to apportion water pollution sources in the Daliao River (DLR) basin. The DLR basin includes the Hun and Taizi River catchments in northeast China. This basin is densely populated and heavily industrialized. Fourteen monitoring stations located on the two rivers were used for monitoring 13 physical and chemical parameters from 1990 to 2002. Results show that five sources/processes in the Hun River and four in the Taizi River were identified by marker species and spatial-temporal variations of resolved factors, including point and nonpoint sources for both rivers. In addition, the industrial pollution source emission inventory data were used to compare with the resolved industrial sources. Results reveal that chemical transformations have influenced some chemical species. However, this influence is small compared with observed seasonal variations. Therefore, identification of pollution point and nonpoint sources by their seasonal variations is possible, which will also aid in water quality management. The spatial variation of the industrial pollutants typically corresponded with the urban industrial pollution source inventories. PMID:25655122

  10. Comparison of coronary risk factors and quality of life in coronary artery disease patients with versus without diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pischke, Claudia R; Weidner, Gerdi; Elliott-Eller, Melanie; Scherwitz, Larry; Merritt-Worden, Terri A; Marlin, Ruth; Lipsenthal, Lee; Finkel, Robert; Saunders, Donald; McCormac, Patty; Scheer, Judith M; Collins, Richard E; Guarneri, Erminia M; Ornish, Dean

    2006-05-01

    It is unclear whether patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) can make comprehensive lifestyle changes that produce similar changes in coronary risk factors and quality of life compared with patients with CAD and without DM. We examined medical characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life by diabetic status and gender in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project (MLDP), a study of 440 nonsmoking patients with CAD (347 men, 55 with DM; 15.9%; 93 women, 36 with DM; 38.7%). Patients met in groups to improve lifestyle (plant-based, low-fat diet; exercise; stress management) for 1 year. Follow-ups were conducted at 3 and 12 months. At baseline, body mass and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher among patients with DM. Men with DM had a worse medical history (e.g., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CAD) than did those without DM. Patients with DM, especially women, reported poorer quality of life than did patients without DM. The 2 groups of patients were able to adhere to the recommended lifestyle, as demonstrated by significant improvements in weight (mean -5 kg), body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, exercise capacity, and quality of life. No significant changes in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were noted. By the end of 12 months, improvements in glucose-lowering medications (i.e., discontinuation or a change from insulin to oral hypoglycemic agents) were noted for 19.8% (n = 18) of patients with DM. In conclusion, patients with CAD and DM are able to follow a comprehensive lifestyle change program and show similar improvements in coronary risk factors and quality of life as those without DM. PMID:16635593

  11. Student as Customer: Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Assessments of Institutional Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Beverly A.; Kaldenberg, Dennis O.; Browne, William G.; Brown, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 736 college students investigated satisfaction with a university's business education program, with attention to ratings of services and educational quality, and their relationship to students' global satisfaction, willingness to recommend the institution, and satisfaction with educational value received. Results suggest institutions

  12. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a

  13. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, a national treasure and the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority, and documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality conditions in a tributary of the Chesapeake, the Choptank R...

  14. Cumberland Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 6: analysis of water quality factors

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, W.L.; Fehring, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report evaluates and compares water quality data from selected stream reaches within the Tennessee Valley with respect to their adaptability for support of certain mussel fauna. Fifteen sample locations were chosen from the Duck, Clinch, Powell, Buffalo, Elk, and Nolichucky Rivers and from Estill Fork (Paint Rock River) and Copper Creek (Clinch River) areas.

  15. Depression, Control, and Climate: An Examination of Factors Impacting Teaching Quality in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Sawyer, Brook E.; Lpez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationship of preschool teachers' self-reported depressive symptomatology, perception of classroom control, and perception of school climate to classroom quality as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System Pre-K. The sample consisted of 59 urban preschool classrooms serving low-income and

  16. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution. PMID:26904402

  17. How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,

  18. Management as a Factor Affecting the Quality of Institutional Performance: The Experience of Kaunas College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spudyte, Irma; Misiunas, Mindaugas

    2004-01-01

    The article deals with the necessity of the development of higher education institutions, improvement of their performance and management in the context of constant changes and reforms. The outcomes of the research carried out at Kaunas College in 2003 while implementing the college performance quality improvement plan are presented. Research…

  19. A Phenomenological Study Identifying Factors Influencing Participation in Quality Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Educators do not have continual support to actively seek out and participate in high quality professional development. The research study focused on the problem of early childhood instructors employed by National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) accredited institutions in Cook County, Illinois, not always participating in…

  20. Multi-scale Landscape Factors Influencing Stream Water Quality in the State of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci bacteria are used to indicate the presence of human and/or animal fecal materials in surface water. In addition to human influences on the quality of surface water, a cattle grazing is a widespread and persistent ecological stressor in the Western United States. Cattl...

  1. Factors affecting quality of batter-based gluten-free bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While wheat bread has been extensively studied, the quality basis for gluten-free bread remains controversial. Common gluten-free breads are prepared from soft batters, and in such systems, intact and damaged starch, pentosans, added hydrocolloids like xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (...

  2. Evaluation of the Factors That Determine Quality in Higher Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsinidou, Maria; Gerogiannis, Vassilis; Fitsilis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the quality determinants for education services provided by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece and to measure their relative importance from the students' points of view. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-criteria decision-making methodology was used for assessing the relative importance…

  3. Self-Concept as a Factor in the Quality of Diets of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, G. Kathleen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated effect of self-concept on quality of diets of 160 adolescent girls by obtaining scores for self-concept and fat area values. Fat area values were correlated negatively with Physical Self scores. Significant predictors of mean dietary adequacy ratio values below 80 percent were Total Conflict, Moral-Ethical Self, Family Self, Identity,

  4. Factors Affecting Quality Discourse and Knowledge Construction in an Online University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lourdes M.

    2012-01-01

    Asynchronous discussion boards are an important element of online courses in higher education settings. Currently, questions persist about the quality of online interaction and discussions in which students are engaged. In addition, online instructors may not be utilizing instructional strategies that are appropriate for web-based learning

  5. Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,

  6. Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprang, Ginny; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Clark, James J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider

  7. How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

  8. Factors Affecting Professional Job Mastery: Quality of Study or Work Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aamodt, Per Olaf; Havnes, Anton

    2008-01-01

    For students and for society a core aspect of higher education is to prepare for future employment. Employability, however, goes beyond getting a job and this paper focuses on the quality of job performance, or job mastery. Employability is understood as a process and a product of learning both in higher education and in work life. The paper…

  9. A Phenomenological Study Identifying Factors Influencing Participation in Quality Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Educators do not have continual support to actively seek out and participate in high quality professional development. The research study focused on the problem of early childhood instructors employed by National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) accredited institutions in Cook County, Illinois, not always participating in

  10. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution. PMID:26904402

  11. A Taxonomy of Factors to Promote Quality Web-Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresen, Jill

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of the e-learning production unit at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Phase 1 of the study, completed in 2003, was the design and development of a process-based quality management system for web-supported learning (WSL) using a basic ISO 9000 approach (University of Pretoria, 2003). The second phase,

  12. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

  13. Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,…

  14. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed. PMID:25844820

  15. Factors impacting equine sperm recovery rate and quality following cushioned centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Waite, J A; Love, C C; Brinsko, S P; Teague, S R; Salazar, J L; Mancill, S S; Varner, D D

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate modifications in cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen. Specifically, the effects of tube type, centrifugation medium, cushion type, and centrifugation force on post-centrifugation sperm recovery rate and quality were evaluated. In Experiment 1, sperm recovery rate was higher (P<0.05) in conventional plastic conical-bottom tubes (103%) than in newly developed glass nipple-bottom tubes (96%) following cushioned centrifugation; however, several measures of semen quality (i.e., % total motility [MOT], % progressive motility [PMOT], curvilinear velocity, and average-path velocity) yielded higher values following centrifugation in nipple-bottom tubes (P<0.05). Sperm recovery rate following cushioned centrifugation was similar between semen previously diluted in optically clear centrifugation extender (100%) and semen diluted in opaque centrifugation extender (100%); however, MOT and PMOT were higher in semen subjected to cushioned centrifugation in opaque extender (P<0.05). An extender by tube-type interaction was not detected for recovery rate or post-centrifugation semen quality. In Experiment 2, sperm recovery rate following cushioned centrifugation in nipple-bottom tubes was similar when forces of 400xg or 600xg were applied (90 and 90%, respectively; P>0.05), and no resulting differences in semen quality were detected between these treatment groups (P>0.05). The type of iodixanol cushion medium used (i.e., OptiPrep, Eqcellsire Component B, or Cushion Fluid did not impact post-centrifugation semen quality, based on the laboratory values measured (P>0.05). In conclusion, cushioned centrifugation of stallion semen in either conical-bottom or nipple-bottom tubes yielded a high sperm harvest, while maintaining sperm function. An optically opaque extender, commonly used in the equine breeding industry, can be used to achieve this goal. PMID:18573520

  16. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality.

    PubMed

    Whitall, David; Hively, W Dean; Leight, Andrew K; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Fisher, Thomas; Rice, Clifford P; Codling, Eton; McCarty, Gregory W; Sadeghi, Ali M; Gustafson, Anne; Bialek, Krystyna

    2010-04-01

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy. PMID:20171715

  17. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Whitall D; Hively WD; Leight AK; Hapeman CJ; McConnell LL; Fisher T; Rice CP; Codling E; McCarty GW; Sadeghi AM; Gustafson A; Bialek K

    2010-04-01

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy.

  18. Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: Factors influencing water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitall, D.; Hively, W.D.; Leight, A.K.; Hapeman, C.J.; McConnell, L.L.; Fisher, T.; Rice, C.P.; Codling, E.; McCarty, G.W.; Sadeghi, A.M.; Gustafson, A.; Bialek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy.

  19. The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H.-J.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13114

  20. The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausder, H. J.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-Earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment.

  1. Effective neutron targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.

    1997-07-01

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the {sup 3}He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized {sup 3}He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized {sup 3}He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized {sup 3}He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized {sup 3}He targets will also be discussed.

  2. The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, S.

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential (urban) whereas that of Woolper Creek is agricultural and residential (rural). Two testing sites were selected along the Banklick Creek; one site was upstream the confluence with an overflow stream from an adjacent lake; the second site was downstream the confluence. Most of the drainage into the lake is over a near-by industrial park and the urban residential areas of the cities of Elsmere and Erlanger, Kentucky. Four sampling locations were selected within the Woolper Creek watershed to evaluate the effect of channelization and subsequent sedimentation on the health of the creek. Water quality parameters tested for include dissolved oxygen, phosphates, chlorophyll, total suspended sediments (TSS), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), nitrates, and electrical conductivity. Sampling and testing were conducted weekly and also immediately after storm events that occurred before the regular sampling dates. Sampling and testing proceeded over a period of 29 weeks. Biological impact was determined, only in Woolper Creek watershed, by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates once every four weeks. The results showed significant differences in the water quality between the two sites within the Banklick Creek. The water quality may be affected by the stream overflow from the dammed lake. Also, channelization in the Woolper Creek seemed to have adverse effects on the water quality. A retention pond, constructed to prevent sediments from flowing into the Woolper Creek, did not seem to be effective. This is because the water quality downstream of the retention pond was significantly worse than that of the upstream site. The benthic macroinvertebrates sampled indicate worse water quality downstream of the sediment retention pond. Overall, landuse and the channelization have some effect on the water quality in the two creeks.

  3. The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) Questionnaire Identifies Quality of Instruction as a Key Factor Predicting Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study analyzes the reliability of the PHEEM questionnaire translated into Portuguese. We present the results of PHEEM following distribution to doctors in three different medical residency programs at a university hospital in Brazil. INTRODUCTION Efforts to understand environmental factors that foster effective learning resulted in the development of a questionnaire to measure medical residents perceptions of the level of autonomy, teaching quality and social support in their programs. METHODS The questionnaire was translated using the modified Brislin back-translation technique. Cronbachs alpha test was used to ensure good reliability and ANOVA was used to compare PHEEM results among residents from the Surgery, Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine departments. The Kappa coefficient was used as a measure of agreement, and factor analysis was employed to evaluate the construct strength of the three domains suggested by the original PHEEM questionnaire. RESULTS The PHEEM survey was completed by 306 medical residents and the resulting Cronbachs alpha was 0.899. The weighted Kappa was showed excellent reliability. Autonomy was rated most highly by Internal Medicine residents (63.7% 13.6%). Teaching was rated highest in Anesthesiology (66.7% 15.4%). Residents across the three areas had similar perceptions of social support (59.0% 13.3% for Surgery; 60.5% 13.6% for Internal Medicine; 61.4% 14.4% for Anesthesiology). Factor analysis suggested that nine factors explained 58.9% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS This study indicates that PHEEM is a reliable instrument for measuring the quality of medical residency programs at a Brazilian teaching hospital. The results suggest that quality of teaching was the best indicator of overall response to the questionnaire. PMID:19060994

  4. Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lin, Kao-Hung; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2003-09-01

    Factor analysis is applied to 28 groundwater samples collected from wells in the coastal blackfoot disease area of Yun-Lin, Taiwan. Correlations among 13 hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A two-factor model is suggested and explains over 77.8% of the total groundwater quality variation. Factor 1 (seawater salinization) includes concentrations of EC, TDS, Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), Na(+), K(+) and Mg(2+), and Factor 2 (arsenic pollutant) includes concentrations of Alk, TOC and arsenic. Maps are drawn to show the geographical distribution of the factors. These maps delineate high salinity and arsenic concentrations. The geographical distribution of the factor scores at individual wells does not reveal the sources of the constituents, which are instead, deduced from geological and hydrological evidence. The areas of high seawater salinization and arsenic pollution correspond well to the groundwater over-pumping area. Over-pumping of the local groundwater causes land subsidence and gradual salinization by seawater. The over-pumping also introduces excess dissolved oxygen that oxidizes the immobile minerals, releases arsenic by reductive dissolution of arsenic-rich iron oxyhydroxides and increases the arsenic concentration in water. The over-extraction of groundwater is the major cause of groundwater salinization and arsenic pollution in the coastal area of Yun-Lin, Taiwan. PMID:12922062

  5. Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors in proton beams using detailed simulation of ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Gomà, Carles; Andreo, Pedro; Sempau, Josep

    2016-03-21

    This work calculates beam quality correction factors (k Q ) in monoenergetic proton beams using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of ionization chambers. It uses the Monte Carlo code penh and the electronic stopping powers resulting from the adoption of two different sets of mean excitation energy values for water and graphite: (i) the currently ICRU 37 and ICRU 49 recommended [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] and (ii) the recently proposed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Twelve different ionization chambers were studied. The k Q factors calculated using the two different sets of I-values were found to agree with each other within 1.6% or better. k Q factors calculated using current ICRU I-values were found to agree within 2.3% or better with the k Q factors tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, and within 1% or better with experimental values published in the literature. k Q factors calculated using the new I-values were also found to agree within 1.1% or better with the experimental values. This work concludes that perturbation correction factors in proton beams-currently assumed to be equal to unity-are in fact significantly different from unity for some of the ionization chambers studied. PMID:26943497

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors in proton beams using detailed simulation of ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomà, Carles; Andreo, Pedro; Sempau, Josep

    2016-03-01

    This work calculates beam quality correction factors (k Q ) in monoenergetic proton beams using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of ionization chambers. It uses the Monte Carlo code penh and the electronic stopping powers resulting from the adoption of two different sets of mean excitation energy values for water and graphite: (i) the currently ICRU 37 and ICRU 49 recommended {{I}\\text{w}}=75~\\text{eV} and {{I}\\text{g}}=78~\\text{eV} and (ii) the recently proposed {{I}\\text{w}}=78~\\text{eV} and {{I}\\text{g}}=81.1~\\text{eV} . Twelve different ionization chambers were studied. The k Q factors calculated using the two different sets of I-values were found to agree with each other within 1.6% or better. k Q factors calculated using current ICRU I-values were found to agree within 2.3% or better with the k Q factors tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, and within 1% or better with experimental values published in the literature. k Q factors calculated using the new I-values were also found to agree within 1.1% or better with the experimental values. This work concludes that perturbation correction factors in proton beams—currently assumed to be equal to unity—are in fact significantly different from unity for some of the ionization chambers studied.

  7. Ultrahigh quality factor in a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Kumano, Hidekazu; Suemune, Ikuo

    2015-12-15

    We numerically and theoretically investigate electrodynamics of a metal-embedded semiconductor microdisk cavity. The electrodynamics of a cavity mode is discussed from the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, which clarifies the condition for high Q factor. Using numerical calculations, we optimize the cavity structure and show that the Q factor can be increased up to 1,700,000. Our study suggests that the metal-embedded cavity is a promising candidate for cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) devices. PMID:26670507

  8. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    PubMed

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.380.57 U/L) and pHu (6.30.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.80.78) a* (17.50.53) and b* (12.80.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  9. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.380.57 U/L) and pHu (6.30.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.80.78) a* (17.50.53) and b* (12.80.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  10. Professional Quality of Life and Associated Factors Among Ugandan Midwives Working in Mubende and Mityana Rural Districts.

    PubMed

    Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Ssendikadiwa, Vito Bosco

    2016-03-01

    Objective To explore the professional quality of life and associated factors among Ugandan midwives working in Mubende and Mityana rural district to recommend interventions to improve professional well-being and outcomes of midwifery care. Background Professional quality of life of midwives working in rural areas may be influenced by several personal and work setting factors of care professionals often impacting the quality and outcomes of patient care. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 224 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda. Findings The majority of participants were female (80 %), with an associate degree in midwifery (92 %). The mean age and years of experience were 34 ± 6.3 and 4 ± 2.1 years, respectively. The mean scores on the professional quality of life scale showed average compassionate satisfaction (19 ± 4.88), burnout (36.9 ± 6.22) and secondary traumatic stress (22.9 ± 6.69). The midwives' compassion satisfaction was related to psychological well-being (p < 0.01) and job satisfaction (p < 0.01). Conversely, their burnout levels and secondary traumatic stress were associated with education level (p < 0.01), marital status (p < 0.01), involvement in non-midwifery health care activities (p < 0.01), and physical well-being (p < 0.01). Conclusion and Implication to practice Midwives working in rural areas of resourcepoor countries have moderate professional quality of life and tend to experience moderate to high levels of burnout, secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction in their professional work. Therefore, employers need to provide deliberate work based services such as counselling, debriefing, training and social support to enhance midwives professional quality of life and quality of midwifery care and practice. PMID:26525560

  11. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women facing social and economic disadvantage in stressed communities of developing countries are at greater risk due to health problems. This paper investigates the relationships between structural, health and psychosocial predictors among women in mining and agricultural communities. This paper is a report of a study of the predictors of the health-related quality of life among Indian women in mining and agricultural communities. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The instruments used are SF-36 Health Survey and Coping Strategy Checklist. ANOVA, MANOVA and GLM were used in the analysis. The study was conducted between January-September 2008 with randomly selected women in a mining (145) and an agricultural community (133) in India. Results Women in the agricultural community had significantly increased Physical Health, Mental Health and SF36 scores compared with those in the mining community. Years of stay, education and employment were significant predictors among women in the agricultural community. 39% (33%) and 40% (26%) of the variance in Physical and Mental health respectively among women in agricultural and mining communities are predicted by the structural, health and psychosocial variables. Conclusion Perceived health status should be recognised as an important assessment of Physical and Mental Health among women in rural stressed communities. Cognitive, emotional and behavioural coping strategies are significant predictors of health related quality of life. Implications. Nurses should use the SF-36 as a diagnostic tool for assessing health related quality of life among women and discuss coping strategies, so that these can target women’s adaptive behaviour. This should be an essential part of the nursing process for facilitating adaptive process for improved health related quality of life. PMID:23336256

  12. Analysis of some predictive factors of quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Tol, Azar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Eslami, Ahmadali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Alhani, Fatemeh; Tehrani, Mohamadreza Mohajeri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the chronic nature of diabetes and its significant effect on quality of life of patients, the present study was conducted to evaluate predictors of quality of life in these patients in order to facilitate planning health promotion intervention programs. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed as a cross-sectional study on 140 type 2 diabetic patients of Om-ol-Banin Diabetes Center of Isfahan. Data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire including demographic and disease related data (12 items), the standard scale for diabetes distress (17 items), the standard scale for self-efficacy in diabetic patients (8 items), and standard scale for specific quality of life of diabetic patients (15 items). Collected data were evaluated by SPSS version 11.5 using the Chi-square test, Independent T-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Results showed that the quality of life of diabetic patients had a statistically significant correlation with diabetes distress variable (P < 0.001) and self-efficacy variable (P < 0.001). In this study R2 (predictive power) was 0.66. Multivariate regression model indicated diabetes distress (? = -0.277, P = 0.01) and self-efficacy (? = -0.161, P < 0.001) as variables influencing adjusted self-management for other variables. Conclusion: The result of the present study urges that in planning health promotion interventions in the field of diabetes, more attention be paid to self-efficacy and diabetes distress variables in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the interventions carried out. PMID:25767820

  13. Electron beam quality k(Q,Q0) factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Erazo, F; Brualla, L; Lallena, A M

    2014-11-01

    In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor k(Q,Q0) for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code PENELOPE/PENEASY have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor f(c,Q) for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a (60)Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm(2) and 20 × 20 cm(2) have been considered. The k(Q,Q0) factors have been calculated as the ratio between f(c,Q) and f(c,Q0). Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The k(Q,Q0) values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427-44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors. PMID:25325343

  14. Electron beam quality kQ,Q0 factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with penelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erazo, F.; Brualla, L.; Lallena, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code penelope/penEasy have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor fc,Q for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a 60Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2 have been considered. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} factors have been calculated as the ratio between fc,Q and {{f}\\text{c,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} . Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427-44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors.

  15. Photon and neutron fluence-to-kerma conversion factors for ICRP-1975 reference man using improved elemental compositions for bone and marrow of the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, G.D.

    1982-11-01

    A twelve-element approximation of the total-body, soft-tissue and skeletal components of ICRP-1975 Reference Man is used to investigate particle fluence-to-kerma conversion factors for photons with energies between 1 keV and 20 MeV and neutrons with energies between 0.0253 eV and 20 MeV. Several recent ICRP revisions to the elemental composition of Reference Man, which have not been included in other kerma-factor calculations, are taken into account. This work suggests some additional revisions to the major-element content (i.e., H, C, N, and O) and to the mineral and trace-element content (i.e., Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe) of various total-body, soft-tissue, and skeletal components of Reference Man. The revisions to the bone and red marrow of the skeleton offer significant new refinements in red-bone-marrow dosimetry.

  16. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2013-11-07

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  17. Retrospective study of factors affecting multiple ovulations, embryo recovery, quality, and diameter in a commercial equine embryo transfer program.

    PubMed

    Panzani, Duccio; Rota, Alessandra; Marmorini, Paola; Vannozzi, Iacopo; Camillo, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    In this study, 198 donor mares of different breeds, ages, and reproductive category were inseminated with fresh, cooled and frozen or frozen and cooled semen at the embryo transfer station or in private artificial insemination centers during 10 breeding seasons. The results of this activity were retrospectively analyzed by Pearson Chi-square test and logistic regression to evaluate factors affecting multiple ovulations, embryo recovery, embryo quality, and embryo diameter. Out of the 661 cycles, 937 ovulations were recorded (mean ovulations/cycle: 1.42 0.58). Ovulation rate and incidence of multiple ovulations were significantly affected by age, breed, and reproductive category. Uterine flushings for embryo recovery were performed between 7 and 10 days after ovulation and resulted in the recovery of 338 embryos (51.1% embryos/cycle and 36.1% embryos/ovulation, respectively). At least one embryo was recovered in 298 flushings (45.1%). The factors affecting embryo recovery were age, breed, reproductive category, type of semen, number of ovulations, and location of artificial insemination. Flushing protocol and day of flushing had no effect on embryo recovery. Age, type of semen, number of ovulations, and day of flushing had a significant influence on embryo diameter (N = 215). None of the factors included in the model had an effect on embryo quality distribution. PMID:25085596

  18. Estimation of the Free Core Nutation period and quality factor from tidal gravity measurements at Jozefoslaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajner, M.; Brzezinski, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate determination of the Free Core Nutation (FCN) period and quality factor Q from gravity measurements. The study is based on a 3.5-year gravity record collected with use of the LaCoste&Romberg Earth Tide gravimeter no.26 located in Jozefoslaw Observatory near Warsaw, Poland. Our investigation is focused on diurnal tidal gravity constituents which are affected by the fluid core resonance. The FCN eigenperiod was inferred from the resonant enhancement of gravimetric factor and phase. Its estimated value equal to 430 sidereal days is in good agreement with previous determinations based on both tidal gravity and VLBI nutation data. This value confirms the discrepancy of the dynamic flattening of the outer core from its theoretical value predicted under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. The value of the quality factor Q estimated from our analysis, ca. 1300, is considerably smaller than the value derived from VLBI nutation data, ca. 20000. That lead us to already reported conclusion that gravity measurements are more sensitive than VLBI observations to the site-dependent phenomena like atmospheric and indirect ocean tidal effects. For better understanding of the role of local phenomena, we also investigate the importance of environmental corrections of gravity measurements and their influence on the estimated FCN parameters.

  19. Effect of aqueous, acid, and alkaline thermal treatments on antinutritional factors content and protein quality in Lupinus campestris seed flour.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Jiménez-Martínez; Rosalva, Mora-Escobedo; Anaberta, Cardador Martínez; Mercedes, Muzquiz; Mercedes, Martin Pedrosa; Gloria, Dávila-Ortiz

    2010-02-10

    Lupinus campestris seeds grown in Mexico have a similar composition to soybean (44% protein, 13% lipids). Use of lupin seed in human and animal diets is limited by its quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) and other antinutritional factor contents. The effect of aqueous, acid, and alkaline thermal debittering treatments with L. campestris seeds flour was evaluated on QAs, oligosaccharides (RFOs), and phenolic compounds (PCs) contents, as well as protein quality. The alkaline treatment most effectively eliminated QAs. Protein content increased from 430 g/kg in untreated seeds to 543 in the aqueous treatment, 567 in the alkaline treatment, and 563 g/kg in the acid treatment. RFOs were eliminated in all treatments. The obtained sample with alkaline treatment had the best protein quality (2.04); this value was 17% lower than that of casein (2.45). The apparent digestibility was over 90% in all treatments, with the aqueous treatment exhibiting the best value (93%). PMID:20058925

  20. Elder Abuse by Adult Children: An Applied Ecological Framework for Understanding Contextual Risk Factors and the Intergenerational Character of Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Gans, Daphna

    2000-01-01

    Using an applied ecological model, this study focuses on contextual risk factors of elder abuse. Five levels of environment were used to interpret existing research on risk factors. Configuration of risk factors provides a framework for understanding the intergenerational character of quality of life for older adults, developing recommendations