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1

Quality factors  

SciTech Connect

The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in gray (or rad), to dose equivalent, expressed in sievert (or rem). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE obtained from biological experiments depends in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism and the experimental conditions. Judgment is involved, therefore, in the choice of Q. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were first raised in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to the possibility of a future increase between a factor of 3 to 10 in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of 2 in Q for fast neutrons. Both these advisory groups are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of 2. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. These issues are discussed, together with the current database for the neutron quality factor. Improvements are needed to provide better guidance with regard to both Q for neutrons and its application in radiation protection.

Kerr, G.D.

1988-08-01

2

Quality factor measurements at NTF  

SciTech Connect

The dose equivalent rate in the radiation field outside of the polydoor at the Neutron Therapy Facility has been measured, using a Chipmunk, assuming a quality factor (QF) of 5, to be 25 mrem/hr. This kind of dose rate if true introduced occupancy restrictions and NTF is operating under an exemption. Based on the previous CR-39 studies of the neutron field around NTF,and the amount of shielding around the NTF, it was difficult to believe that a significant neutron field exists in this area, and contributes to the measured dose rate. If the field was mostly due to gamma rays the QF setting on the Chipmunk could be reliably set to a value of one. One method of obtaining a qualitative understanding of the relative abundance of neutron and gamma contribution to the absorbed doses, is to measure the quality factor for the field. This was determined using a recombination chamber. The recombination chamber is a gas filled ion chamber that can measure the average quality factor of a radiation field of unknown composition and energy spectrum. To use the recombination chamber in an unknown field, one needs to measured a calibration curve using radiation fields of known quality factor. The individual neutron and gamma components of the radiation field were also determined in these studies by use of an Andersson-Braun counter to measure the dose equivalent rate due to neutrons, and a Cutup ion chamber to measure the gamma dose rate. The neutron dose equivalent rate in this area of NTF has been estimated by Vylet and is consistent with the present measurements.

Vaziri, K.; Krueger, F.; Kroc, T.; Lauten, G.; Lennox, A.; Leveling, T.

1993-12-17

3

Important Water Quality Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

4

Isobaric Analog States for Neutron Spectroscopic Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the modified R-matrix method for extraction of neutron spectroscopic factors from isobaric analog resonances in proton elastic scattering polarization and cross section excitation functions is presented for several parent analog states in Zirc...

W. J. Thompson J. L. Ellis

1969-01-01

5

Neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Isobaric Analog States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spectroscopic factors S sub n of bound neutron states are usually found from (d,p) stripping reactions. An alternative method of finding S sub n for medium-to-heavy nuclei is to analyze isobaric analog resonances observed in (p,p) scattering from thes...

W. J. Thompson J. L. Adams D. Robson

1968-01-01

6

Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of neutron and proton yields at quasifree kinematics was measured for the reactions {sup 2}H({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital n}) and {sup 2}H({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital p}) at momentum transfers {ital Q}{sup 2}=0.125, 0.255, 0.417, and 0.605(GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}, detecting the neutron and the proton simultaneously in the same scintillator array. The neutron detection efficiency was measured {ital in} {ital situ} with the {sup 1}H({gamma},{pi}{sup +}){ital n} reaction. From this the ratio {ital R} of {sup 2}H({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital n}) and {sup 2}H({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital p}) cross sections was determined and used to extract the neutron magnetic form factor {ital G}{sup {ital n}}{sub {ital M}} in a model insensitive approach, resulting in an inaccuracy between 2.1% and 3.3% in {ital G}{sup {ital n}}{sub {ital M}}.

Bruins, E.E.W.; Bauer, T.S.; den Bok, H.W.; Duif, C.P.; van Hoek, W.C.; de Lange, D.J.J.; Misiejuk, A.; Papandreou, Z.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Tjon, J.A.; Willering, H.W.; Yeomans, D.M. [Universiteit Utrecht/Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica, P.O. Box 80000, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Universiteit Utrecht/Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica, P.O. Box 80000, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Reike, H.; Durek, D.; Frommberger, F.; Gothe, R.; Jakob, D.; Kranefeld, G.; Kunz, C.; Leiendecker, N.; Pfeiffer, G.; Putsch, H.; Reichelt, T.; Schoch, B.; Wacker, D.; Wehrmeister, D.; Wilhelm, M. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Jans, E.; Konijn, J.; de Vries, R. [Sektie Kernfysica, Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica, P.O. Box 41822, NL-1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Sektie Kernfysica, Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica, P.O. Box 41822, NL-1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Furget, C.; Voutier, E. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-UJF, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)] [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-UJF, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Arenhoevel, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

1995-07-03

7

NE11 experiment at SLAC and the neutron form factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutron electromagnetic form factors G(sub En) and G(sub Mn), which reflect the charge and magnetization distributions within the neutron, are of fundamental importance for understanding nucleon structure, and are necessary for calculations of process...

L. M. Stuart A. Lung P. E. Bosted

1993-01-01

8

Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-05-01

9

Calibration factors for the SNOOPY NP-100 neutron dosimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within CANDU nuclear power facilities, only a small fraction of workers are exposed to neutron radiation. For these individuals, roughly 4.5% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. When this figure is considered across all workers receiving external exposure of any kind, only 0.25% of the total radiation equivalent dose is the result of exposure to neutrons. At many facilities, the NP-100 neutron dosimeter, manufactured by Canberra Industries Incorporated, is employed in both direct and indirect dosimetry methods. Also known as "SNOOPY", these detectors undergo calibration, which results in a calibration factor relating the neutron count rate to the ambient dose equivalent rate, using a standard Am-Be neutron source. Using measurements presented in a technical note, readings from the dosimeter for six different neutron fields in six source-detector orientations were used, to determine a calibration factor for each of these sources. The calibration factor depends on the neutron energy spectrum and the radiation weighting factor to link neutron fluence to equivalent dose. Although the neutron energy spectra measured in the CANDU workplace are quite different than that of the Am-Be calibration source, the calibration factor remains constant - within acceptable limits - regardless of the neutron source used in the calibration; for the specified calibration orientation and current radiation weighting factors. However, changing the value of the radiation weighting factors would result in changes to the calibration factor. In the event of changes to the radiation weighting factors, it will be necessary to assess whether a change to the calibration process or resulting calibration factor is warranted.

Moscu, D. F.; McNeill, F. E.; Chase, J.

2007-10-01

10

Quality factors in interventional neuroradiology.  

PubMed

The interest we take in medical economics and strategy is like the one we take in politics: we may scorn politics, but it cannot be denied that it commands our entire life. For this reason, we must try to determine the conditions required to evaluate the quality of interventional neuroradiology, its operators, its practice, its advances, its teaching, and to maintain this quality. It is probably vital to the freedom of our future therapeutic decisions that we contribute effectively to this discussion before the standard is forced upon us by an exclusively economical or administrative logic. On the other hand, any advance can only be turned into progress if it is diffused and applied. There is no doubt that several levels of quality are acceptable, thus the best approach will be to look for and identify the minimum standard for quality or the limits of non-quality. We shall refrain from suggesting that the level of excellence at a given moment should be imposed upon all operators and constitute the standard level of practice. Practice is based on knowledge and competence. The most skilled surgical act cannot guarantee safe medical treatment if it is not supported by sufficient knowledge about the diseases and their symptoms. Mastership of the decision process requires a thorough vision of the therapeutic decision tree involved. Quality is a composition of global view and detailed analysis to allow a fuzzy gestion of the performance. Regardless of the plan chosen, openmindedness should be kept to allow adaptation, correction or interruption of a given therapeutic process in view of unpredicted pieces of information. Such input is a predictable possibility that should be explained to the patient prior to starting the procedure. Dealing with human beings, the attitude along with the technical management will be of paramount importance in the overall quality assessment. PMID:11840701

Lasjaunias, P

2001-01-01

11

Field calibration of PADC track etch detectors for local neutron dosimetry in man using different radiation qualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to quantify the dose from neutrons to a patient for contemporary radiation treatment techniques, measurements inside phantoms, representing the patient, are necessary. Published reports on neutron dose measurements cover measurements performed free in air or on the surface of phantoms and the doses are expressed in terms of personal dose equivalent or ambient dose equivalent. This study focuses on measurements of local neutron doses inside a radiotherapy phantom and presents a field calibration procedure for PADC track etch detectors. An initial absolute calibration factor in terms of Hp(10) for personal dosimetry is converted into neutron dose equivalent and additional calibration factors are derived to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence for different radiation therapy beam qualities and depths in the phantom. The neutron spectra used for the calculation of the calibration factors are determined in different depths by Monte Carlo simulations for the investigated radiation qualities. These spectra are used together with the energy dependent response function of the PADC detectors to account for the spectral changes in the neutron fluence. The resulting total calibration factors are 0.76 for a photon beam (in- and out-of-field), 1.00 (in-field) and 0.84 (out-of-field) for an active proton beam and 1.05 (in-field) and 0.91 (out-of-field) for a passive proton beam, respectively. The uncertainty for neutron dose measurements using this field calibration method is less than 40%. The extended calibration procedure presented in this work showed that it is possible to use PADC track etch detectors for measurements of local neutron dose equivalent inside anthropomorphic phantoms by accounting for spectral changes in the neutron fluence.

Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Boschung, Markus; Mayer, Sabine; Clasie, Benjamin; Kry, Stephen F.; Schneider, Uwe

2012-12-01

12

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio G{sub c}ⁿ\\/G{sub m}ⁿ of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron has been measured by analyzing the polarization of the recoiling neutron in quasi-elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium at the Q² values of 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV\\/c)². The experiment has been performed in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator

T. Reichelt; R. Madey; A. Yu. Semenov; S. Taylor; A. Aghalarian; E. Crouse; G. MacLachlan; B. Plaster; S. Tajima; W. Tireman; C. Y. Yan; A. Ahmidouch; B. D. Anderson; R. Asaturian; O. Baker; A. R. Baldwin; H. Breuer; R. Carlini; E. Christy; S. Churchwell; L. Cole; S. Danagulian; D. Day; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; H. Fenker; J. M. Finn; L. Gan; K. Garrow; P. Gueye; C. Howell; B. Hu; M. K. Jones; J. J. Kelly; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; W. Y. Kim; S. Kowalski; A. Lung; D. Mack; D. M. Manley; P. Markowitz; J. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchian; A. K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; Y. Sato; W. Seo; N. Simicevic; G. Smith; S. Stepanian; V. Tadevosian; L. Tang; P. Ulmer; W. Vulcan; J. W. Watson; S. Wells; F. Wesselmann; S. Wood; S. Yang; L. Yuan; W. M. Zhang; H. Zhu; X. Zhu; H. Arenhovel

2003-01-01

13

Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

Hastings, Tricia A.

2009-01-01

14

Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

2013-12-01

15

Quality assessment of neutron delivery system for small-angle neutron scattering diffractometers of the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at the FRM II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the shutdown of FRJ-2 research reactor in Jülich, the pinhole small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1 and KWS-2 have been moved to the research reactor FRM II in Garching. The installation of these 40 m long instruments required the design and setup of new neutron guides with geometrical and optical features imposed by the instruments' positioning in the neutron guide hall, such as, the predetermined length and beam height as well as the foreseen improvement of the instrument performance. We report here about the quality assessment of the newly constructed neutron guides with respect to the optical, geometrical and alignment characteristics and the positioning of the velocity selector integrated in the neutron guide system by comparing the features of the measured neutron beams (in terms of neutron flux, intensity distribution and beam profile) with the results of the simulations of optimal neutron guide systems.

Radulescu, Aurel; Pipich, Vitaliy; Ioffe, Alexander

2012-10-01

16

Neutron electric form factor at large momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the recent, high-precision data for elastic electron scattering from protons and deuterons, at relatively large momentum transfer Q2, we determine the neutron electric form factor up to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2. The values obtained from the data (in the framework of the nonrelativistic impulse approximation) are larger than commonly assumed and are in good agreement with the Gari-Krümpelmann parametrization of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors.

Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Rekalo, M. P.

2001-07-01

17

[Factors that affect inpatients' quality of sleep].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify factors that interfere with the sleep quality of patients admitted to a university hospital in a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. This was an exploratory, cross sectional study using non-probability sampling. Participants were 117 patients (59% men, mean age 48.0 years, standard deviation 16.9) hospitalized for at least 72 hours in stable clinical condition. The data were collected with an identification questionnaire and the Factors Affecting Sleep Quality (FASQ) questionnaire. Data processing was performed with descriptive statistics; each item of the FASQ underwent a test and a retest. The factors most often reported were waking up early (55.6%), disrupted sleep (52.1%), excessive lighting (34.2%), receipt of care by nursing staff (33.3%) and organic disorders such as pain and fatigue (26.5%). It is suggested that nurses should plan interventions to modify factors that require intense noise and lighting at night in order to reduce disruption and, consequently, sleep deprivation among patients. PMID:23515802

da Costa, Shíntia Viana; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

2013-02-01

18

Neutron Spectroscopic factors of ^56Ni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact shell-structure of the unstable doubly-magic nucleus ^56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if ^56Ni is a good core, ^56Ni(p, d)^55Ni transfer reactions were measured using ^56Ni beam at two different energies, 37 MeV/u and 80 MeV/u, in inverse kinematics in two experiments. The second measurement was done in order to test the sensitivity of reaction cross sections and models to reaction energies. The measurements were performed at NSCL using HiRA array and S800 spectrometer. Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the first experiment. The results show good agreement with shell-model calculations. Preliminary results of the measurements with 80 MeV/u beam will be presented as well.

Sanetullaev, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Lynch, W. G.; Bazin, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, Daniel; Hodges, R.; Lee, Jenny; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Famiano, M.; Clement, R. R. C.; Howard, M. E.; Cizewski, J. A.; O'Malley, P. D.; Manning, B.; Charity, R. J.; Charity, L. G.; Shapira, D.; Shmitt, K. T.

2011-10-01

19

Performance of non-conventional factorization approaches for neutron kinetics  

SciTech Connect

The use of factorization techniques provides a interesting option for the simulation of the time-dependent behavior of nuclear systems with a reduced computational effort. While point kinetics neglects all spatial and spectral effects, quasi-statics and multipoint kinetics allow to produce results with a higher accuracy for transients involving relevant modifications of the neutron distribution. However, in some conditions these methods can not work efficiently. In this paper, we discuss some possible alternative formulations for the factorization process for neutron kinetics, leading to mathematical models of reduced complications that can allow an accurate simulation of transients involving spatial and spectral effects. The performance of these innovative approaches are compared to standard techniques for some test cases, showing the benefits and shortcomings of the method proposed. (authors)

Bulla, S.; Nervo, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)] [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

2013-07-01

20

[Adolescents' diet quality and associated factors].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to analyze adolescents' diet quality and associated factors using the Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,326 adolescents from public and private schools. Food intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Crude prevalence ratio was used to evaluate the association between high DQI-R (? 75th percentile) and independent variables. Variables with p-value < 0.20 were included in the Poisson regression analysis. Mean DQI-R was 75.1 points (95%CI: 74.8-75.5). Higher DQI-R scores were associated with ? 2 hours per day of sedentary activities (e.g., TV, computer, and videogames), ? 300 minutes per week of physical activity, and overweight. Healthy lifestyle was associated with better diet quality. The results emphasize the importance of encouraging physical activity, reducing the number of daily hours in sedentary activities, and intervening in adolescents' eating habits. PMID:24627017

Wendpap, Loiva Lide; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Loureiro, Anarlete da Silva; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras

2014-01-01

21

Beam quality factor for coherently combined fiber laser beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beam quality factor for a coherently combined beam is studied in detail. A theoretical analysis and a numerical calculation are given to illustrate that the M2 factor is not a proper means for evaluating the beam quality of a coherently combined beam. The beam propagation factor is introduced to evaluate the beam quality. The effect of phase error on

Pu Zhou; Zejin Liu; Xiaojun Xu; Zilun Chen; Xiaolin Wang

2009-01-01

22

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

SciTech Connect

The ratio G{sub c}{sup n}/G{sub m}{sup n} of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron has been measured by analyzing the polarization of the recoiling neutron in quasi-elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from deuterium at the Q{sup 2} values of 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The experiment has been performed in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. With G{sub m}{sup n} being known G can be deduced. The preliminary results show that the lowest Q{sup 2} points follow the Galster parameterization and that the 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} point rises above this parameterization.

T. Reichelt; R. Madey; A.Yu. Semenov; S. Taylor; A. Aghalarian; E. Crouse; G. MacLachlan; B. Plaster; S. Tajima; W. Tireman; C.Y. Yan; A. Ahmidouch; B.D. Anderson; R. Asaturian; O. Baker; A.R. Baldwin; H. Breuer; R. Carlini; E. Christy; S. Churchwell; L. Cole; S. Danagulian; D. Day; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; M. Farkhondeh; H. Fenker; J.M. Finn; L. Gan; K. Garrow; P. Gueye; C. Howell; B. Hu; M.K. Jones; J.J. Kelly; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; W.Y. Kim; S. Kowalski; A. Lung; D. Mack; D.M. Manley; P. Markowitz; J. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchian; A.K. Opper; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; Y. Sato; W. Seo; N. Simicevic; G. Smith; S. Stepanian; V. Tadevosian; L. Tang; P. Ulmer; W. Vulcan; J.W. Watson; S. Wells; F. Wesselmann; S. Wood; C. Yan; S. Yang; L. Yuan; W.M. Zhang; H. Zhu; X. Zhu; H. Arenhovel

2003-10-22

23

A study of measuring the critical factors of quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saraph et al. systematically attempted to organize and synthesize the various perceptions offered by other authors on the critical factors of quality management. The authors provided a synthesis of the quality literature by identifying eight critical factors of quality management in a business unit. They stated that the measures were both valid and reliable. In the light of this, empirically

Masood A. Badri; Donald Davis; Donna Davis

1995-01-01

24

Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

25

Factors Affecting Water Quality in Cherokee Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the pro...

M. L. Iwanski J. M. Higgins B. R. Kim R. C. Young

1980-01-01

26

Neutron spectroscopic factors of Ni isotopes from transfer reactions  

SciTech Connect

177 neutron spectroscopic factors for nickel isotopes have been extracted by performing a systematic analysis of the angular distributions measured from (d,p) transfer reactions. A subset of the extracted spectroscopic factors are compared to predictions of large-basis shell models in the full pf model space using the GXPF1A effective interaction, and the (f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2},g{sub 9/2}) model space using the JJ4PNA interaction. For ground states, the predicted spectroscopic factors using the GXPF1A effective interaction in the full pf model space agree very well with the experimental values, while predictions based on several other effective interactions and model spaces are about 30% higher than the experimental values. For low-energy excited states (<3.5 MeV), the agreement between the extracted spectroscopic factors and shell model calculations is not better than a factor of two.

Lee, Jenny; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Horoi, M.; Su, S. C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Physics Department, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

2009-05-15

27

Neutron-proton asymmetry dependence of spectroscopic factors in ar isotopes.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic factors have been extracted for proton-rich 34Ar and neutron-rich 46Ar using the (p, d) neutron transfer reaction. The experimental results show little reduction of the ground state neutron spectroscopic factor of the proton-rich nucleus 34Ar compared to that of 46Ar. The results suggest that correlations, which generally reduce such spectroscopic factors, do not depend strongly on the neutron-proton asymmetry of the nucleus in this isotopic region as was reported in knockout reactions. The present results are consistent with results from systematic studies of transfer reactions but inconsistent with the trends observed in knockout reaction measurements. PMID:20366470

Lee, Jenny; Tsang, M B; Bazin, D; Coupland, D; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Rogers, A M; Sanetullaev, A; Signoracci, A; Sun, Z Y; Youngs, M; Chae, K Y; Charity, R J; Cheung, H K; Famiano, M; Hudan, S; O'Malley, P; Peters, W A; Schmitt, K; Shapira, D; Sobotka, L G

2010-03-19

28

Determination of thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f), epithermal neutron flux shape factor (?) and comparator factor (F c ) in the Triga Mark II reactor, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f or Ø\\u000a \\u000a th\\u000a \\/Ø\\u000a \\u000a e\\u000a ), epithermal neutron flux shape factor (?) and comparator factor (F\\u000a \\u000a c\\u000a ) are essential parameters when calculating the concentration of sample using k\\u000a 0-standardization method in the neutron activation analysis (NAA). The work was performed in the Triga Mark II reactor of Malaysian\\u000a Institute for Nuclear

K. S. Khoo; S. B. Sarmani; I. O. Abugassa

2007-01-01

29

Factors affecting enhanced video quality preferences.  

PubMed

The development of video quality metrics requires methods for measuring perceived video quality. Most of these metrics are designed and tested using databases of images degraded by compression and scored using opinion ratings. We studied video quality preferences for enhanced images of normally-sighted participants using the method of paired comparisons with a thorough statistical analysis. Participants (n=40) made pair-wise comparisons of high definition video clips enhanced at four different levels using a commercially available enhancement device. Perceptual scales were computed with binary logistic regression to estimate preferences for each level and to provide statistical inference of the differences among levels and the impact of other variables. While moderate preference for enhanced videos was found, two unexpected effects were also uncovered: 1) participants could be broadly classified into two groups: a) those who preferred enhancement ("Sharp") and b) those who disliked enhancement ("Smooth") and 2) enhancement preferences depended on video content, particularly for human faces to be enhanced less. The results suggest that algorithms to evaluate image quality (at least for enhancement) may need to be adjusted or applied differentially based on video content and viewer preferences. The possible impact of similar effects on image quality of compressed video needs to be evaluated. PMID:24107400

Satgunam, Prem Nandhini; Woods, Russell L; Bronstad, P Matthew; Peli, Eli

2013-12-01

30

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women.

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

31

Some measurement quality criteria for a multichannel neutron supermonitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work sets forth a method for estimating the accuracy of the recorded intensity of cosmic radiation as measured by a multichannel neutron supermonitor by studying parameters characterizing simultaneously the measurements of all sections of the device. An expression is given for the systematic error of neutron supermonitor measurements in the case of no knowledge regarding high-voltage changes on the BF3 counters and level discrimination. The validity of certain presuppositions in order that this estimate be reliable is investigated. These presuppositions are: (1) in a given time interval, the number of counts in any channel is a random normally distributed quantity, (2) the cosmic ray intensity affects the counting rate of all sections in an identical manner for the given time interval, and (3) the measurements of each section are equally accurate, that is, have identical dispersion.

Kudela, K.

1974-09-01

32

Training, quality assurance factors, and tools investigation: A work report and suggestions on software quality assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previously, several research tasks have been conducted, some observations were obtained, and several possible suggestions have been contemplated involving software quality assurance engineering at NASA Johnson. These research tasks are briefly described. Also, a brief discussion is given on the role of software quality assurance in software engineering along with some observations and suggestions. A brief discussion on a training program for software quality assurance engineers is provided. A list of assurance factors as well as quality factors are also included. Finally, a process model which can be used for searching and collecting software quality assurance tools is presented.

Lee, Pen-Nan

1991-01-01

33

Planar superconducting resonators with internal quality factors above one million  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the fabrication and measurement of microwave coplanar waveguide resonators with internal quality factors above 107 at high microwave powers and over 106 at low powers, with the best low power results approaching 2×106, corresponding to ~1 photon in the resonator. These quality factors are achieved by controllably producing very smooth and clean interfaces between the resonators' aluminum metallization and the underlying single crystal sapphire substrate. Additionally, we describe a method for analyzing the resonator microwave response, with which we can directly determine the internal quality factor and frequency of a resonator embedded in an imperfect measurement circuit.

Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; Barends, R.; Chiaro, B.; Chen, Yu; Feigl, L.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, Erik; Mariantoni, Matteo; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Yin, Y.; Zhao, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Martinis, John M.; Cleland, A. N.

2012-03-01

34

Prospects for Using Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering to Measure the Nuclear Neutron Form Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the prospects of using coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS) to measure the nuclear neutron form factor. The merits and limitations of several potential neutrino sources are discussed. The effects of detector shape uncertainty and detector size on a measurement of the neutron RMS radius are also considered. We find that the detector spectral shape uncertainty is the important limiting factor on a measurement of the neutron RMS radius. In order to measure the neutron RMS radius to 5%, the spectral shape uncertainty of the detector needs to be known to 1% or better.

Patton, Kelly M.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Scholberg, Kate

2013-06-01

35

Factor Substitution and Unobserved Factor Quality in Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home

John Cawley; David C. Grabowski; Richard A. Hirth

2004-01-01

36

The relationship of performance with soft factors and quality improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of soft factors of quality management on firm performance, and analyse the link between quality improvement practice and firm performance. The study used data from 255 electrical and electronics (E&E) firms in Malaysia and it developed regression and correlation analysis to test these relationships. The findings showed that the following

Muhammad Madi Bin Abdullah; Jegak Uli; Juan José Tarí

2009-01-01

37

[Effect of ecological factors on citrus fruit quality].  

PubMed

This paper summarized the research advance on the physiological foundation of citrus fruit's major quality factors such as color formation and organic acid and sugar accumulation, and analyzed the effects of main ecological factors such as temperature, sunshine, water, soil, terrain and landforms on them. The existing problems and the research prospects of citrus ecology were expounded, and a useful proposal on the quality sub-distribution of citrus in China was put forward. PMID:15574012

Bao, Jiangfeng; Xia, Renxue; Peng, Shu'ang

2004-08-01

38

Energy dependence of neutron self-shielding factors in an isolated resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new approach for calculating neutron self-shielding factors taking into account isotropic multiple scattering, recently developed for the thermal region, is extended to epithermal resonance energies. The method is based on a collision function determined solely by the cross sections and the geometry of the probe submitted to the neutron field. The influence of the external field is separately included

M. D. C. Lopes; J. M. Avila

1990-01-01

39

Snow shielding factors for cosmogenic nuclide dating inferred from Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional formulations of changes in cosmogenic nuclide production rates with snow cover are based on a mass-shielding approach, which neglects the role of neutron moderation by hydrogen. This approach can produce erroneous correction factors and add to the uncertainty of the calculated cosmogenic exposure ages. We use a Monte Carlo particle transport model to simulate fluxes of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons near the surface of the Earth and vary surface snow depth to show changes in neutron fluxes above rock or soil surface. To correspond with shielding factors for spallation and low-energy neutron capture, neutron fluxes are partitioned into high-energy, epithermal and thermal components. The results suggest that high-energy neutrons are attenuated by snow cover at a significantly higher rate (shorter attenuation length) than indicated by the commonly-used mass-shielding formulation. As thermal and epithermal neutrons derive from the moderation of high-energy neutrons, the presence of a strong moderator such as hydrogen in snow increases the thermal neutron flux both within the snow layer and above it. This means that low-energy production rates are affected by snow cover in a manner inconsistent with the mass-shielding approach and those formulations cannot be used to compute snow correction factors for nuclides produced by thermal neutrons. Additionally, as above-ground low-energy neutron fluxes vary with snow cover as a result of reduced diffusion from the ground, low-energy neutron fluxes are affected by snow even if the snow is at some distance from the site where measurements are made.

Zweck, Christopher; Zreda, Marek; Desilets, Darin

2013-10-01

40

The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²  

SciTech Connect

The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

Bradley Plaster

2004-02-01

41

Interpreting the neutron's electric form factor: Rest frame charge distribution or foldy term?  

SciTech Connect

The neutron's electric form factor contains vital information on nucleon structure, but its interpretation within many models has been obscured by relativistic effects. The author demonstrates that, to leading order in the relativistic expansion of a constituent quark model, the Foldy term cancels exactly against a contribution to the Dirac form factor F{sub 1} to leave intact the naive interpretation of G{sup n}{sub E} as arising from the neutron's rest frame charge distribution.

Nathan Isgur

1998-12-01

42

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

43

High quality, low complexity image scaler suitable for rational factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

2D image resizing is an important issue for pixel oriented displays with variable input formats. With current separable filters including high order polyphase filters, the problem of jagged lines at diagonal edges remains. Another issue is the need of simple but high-quality sealers for a wide range of applications. The novel approach investigated for high-quality resizing by rational factors is

C. Hentschel; S. Schiemenz

2006-01-01

44

Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

Hamazaki, Takashi

1992-01-01

45

Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety.  

PubMed

Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Rivera-Rodriguez, A Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P

2014-01-01

46

Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

47

The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2004-01-01

48

Analysis of air quality data using positive matrix factorization  

SciTech Connect

Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to air quality and temperature data collected as part of the Program for Research on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions, and Transport 1997 summer measurement campaign. Unlike more conventional methods of factor analysis such as principal component analysis, PMF produces non-negative factors, aiding factor interpretation, and utilizes error estimates of the data matrix. This work uses PMF as a means of source identification and apportionment, important steps in the development of air pollution control strategies. Measurements of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, peroxyactyl nitrate (PAN), isoprene, temperature, and ozone were taken from a 31 m tower in rural northern Michigan and analyzed in this study. PMF resulted in three physically interpretable factors: an isoprene-dominated factor, a local source factor, and a long-range transport factor. The isoprene-dominated and local source factors exhibited strong and weak diurnal signals, respectively. Factor strengths for the long-range transport factor were relatively high during periods of south and southwesterly flow. The average contribution of the three factors was determined for each pollutant, enabling the modeled matrix to be compared to the data matrix. Good agreement between the fitted and data matrix was achieved for all parameters with the exception of coarse particulate matter. The PMF model explained at least 75% of variation for all species analyzed.

Paterson, K.G.; Sagady, J.L.; Hooper, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Bertman, S.B. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carroll, M.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences; Shepson, P.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1999-02-15

49

Relative biological effectiveness (RBE), quality factor ( Q), and radiation weighting factor ( w R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ionising radiation is influenced by the dose, the dose rate, and the quality of the radiation. Before 1990, dose-equivalent quantities were defined in terms of a quality factor, Q(L), that was applied to the absorbed dose at a point in order to take into account the differences in the effects of different types of radiation. In its

J. Valentin

2003-01-01

50

Determinations of the quality factor Q of the Chandler wobble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar coordinates series of ILS (H), IPMS and BIH are analyzed for the Chandler wobble using the Okamoto-Kikuchi method (1982) and the Chao-Gilbert (ARH) method (1980). More accordant results for the quality factor Q than those of Wilson and Vicente (1981) are obtained.

Dong, Da-Nan

1986-12-01

51

Factors Affecting Quality of Life In Persons on Hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) in persons with end stage renal disease and explore factors that may affect QOL. Biological function, symptoms, function, general health perception, and characteristics of the individual and environment explained 61% of the variability in overall QOL. Only anxiety, depression, and general health perception significantly contributed

Daria L. Kring; Patricia B. Crane

52

Designing the quality factor of infiltrated photonic wire slot microcavities.  

PubMed

One-dimensional photonic wire (nanobeam) microcavities are becoming preferred tools for the investigation of enhanced light-matter interaction. Here, the Q-factor of a locally infiltrated slot microcavity in a nanobeam is theoretically investigated. The electric field of the cavity mode is concentrated in the slot region leading to a large overlap with the infiltrated material. Tapering the spacing and diameter of the pores of the adjacent Bragg mirrors a maximum Q-factor of 35,000 is predicted. General design rules for the minimization of scattering losses and the enhancement of quality factors are reviewed and discussed. PMID:21164868

Schriever, Clemens; Bohley, Christian; Schilling, Jörg

2010-11-22

53

Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy.  

PubMed

Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients' compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised. PMID:23424015

Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

2013-02-16

54

Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients’ compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised.

Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

2013-01-01

55

Neutron and photon fluence-to-dose conversion factors for active marrow of the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Calculation of the absorbed dose to active marrow is a complex problem because charged particle equilibrium may not exist near a soft tissue-bone interface and it is difficult to model the intricate intermixture of soft tissue and bone in the skeleton. This study provides the first definitive calculations for a variety of bones and a wide range of neutron and photon energies. We avoid the assumption of a special geometry by using measured chord-length distributions to represent the microstructure of trabecular bone which contains the active marrow. Results of our calculations for neutrons and photons with energies up to 20 MeV are presented as dose response factors. The response factors can be applied in radiation transport calculations of absorbed dose in active marrow from photons and neutrons externally incident on the body and photons produced by neutrons interactions within the body. 34 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

Kerr, G.D.; Eckerman, K.F.

1984-01-01

56

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.  

PubMed

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail. PMID:22530712

Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

2012-01-01

57

Journal quality metrics: options to consider other than impact factors.  

PubMed

Journal quality metrics (also referred to as bibliometrics), such as impact factors, are increasingly being used as a measure of researchers' and educators' success and prestige. Occupational therapists who submit articles to peer-reviewed journals may face a professional and research dilemma: Do they submit their articles to journals that largely have a professional audience and potentially do not have an impact factor, or do they opt not to publish their research material in occupational therapy-oriented journals? Occupational therapy authors can consider other journal quality metric alternatives, in addition to the impact factor option, including the Eigenfactor Score, Article Influence Score, h-index, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP), and discipline-specific generated journal quality measures. These other journal quality metrics can be important reference points for occupational therapists who publish and may encourage authors to publish in journals relevant to the discipline. This process, in turn, will build the occupational therapy body of knowledge as well as provide an essential, growing reference source for evidence-based practice. PMID:21675341

Brown, Ted

2011-01-01

58

Preliminary Study for a Tetrahedron Formation: Quality Factors and Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft flying in tetrahedron formations are excellent for electromagnetic and plasma studies. The quality of the science recorded is strongly affected by the tetrahedron evolution. This paper is a preliminary study on the computation of quality factors and visualization for a formation of four or five satellites. Four of the satellites are arranged geometrically in a tetrahedron shape. If a fifth satellite is present, it is arbitrarily initialized at the geometric center of the tetrahedron. The fifth satellite could act as a collector or as a spare spacecraft. Tetrahedron natural coordinates are employed for the initialization. The natural orbit evolution is visualized in geocentric equatorial inertial and in geocentric solar magnetospheric coordinates.

Guzman, Jose J.; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

59

Analysis of quality factors for Rayleigh channel waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate investigation of the effect of imperfect elastic dissipation on the propagation of Rayleigh-type channel waves and use of their quality factors in investigations of the properties of coal seams, a simple method for calculating the quality factor Q R is proposed in this paper. Introduction of complex velocities into the dispersion function allows calculation of the dispersion function of Rayleigh-type channel waves in coal seams. By the control variable method, we analyzed changes in Q R with changes in coal seam thickness and P- and S-wave Q-factors within the coal seam and adjacent rock layers. The numerical results show that the trend of the Q R curve is consistent with the group velocity curve. The minimum Q R value occurs at the Airy phase frequency; the Airy phase frequency decreases as coal seam thickness increases. The value of Q R increases with increasing Q S2 (quality factor for S wave in coal seam). We can compensate for the absorption of Rayleigh-type channel waves using the computed Q R curve. Inversion of the Q R curve can also be used to predict the thicknesses and lithologies of coal seams.

Yang, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Si-Yuan; Li, De-Chun; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Hao-Ran

2014-03-01

60

Artificial neural networks for the measurement of steam quality using thermal neutron attenuation  

SciTech Connect

Steam injection is widely used in the extraction of heavy crude oil; by heating the oil in its geologic reservoir, the viscosity of the oil is reduced and significantly improved production of the oil can be achieved. The mass flow rate and quality of the steam injected are important because they directly affect the amount of oil that can be recovered and the efficiency with which it is produced. In the INSIGHT steam quality monitor, which was developed by AECL Research in partnership with two major oil companies, a beam of thermal neutrons is passed through a pipe carrying wet steam and the reduction in beam intensity due to absorption and scattering reflects the ratio of steam to water plus steam, i.e., the steam quality. Its principal advantage over competing technologies is that it is most sensitive to light nuclei.

Chambers, K.W.; Harris, P.C.; Howe, P.T. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

1992-01-01

61

Sociodemographic factors and the quality of prenatal care.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In this study, maternal sociodemographic factors are examined in relationship to the quality of prenatal health services US women receive. METHODS: Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey and 1980 Fetal Mortality Survey were used for the analysis. Indicator variables for prenatal care quality are the percentages of prenatal visits at which blood pressure and urine were tested, the performance of hemoglobin or hematocrit tests, and the presence or absence of advice regarding salt restriction and diuretics usage during pregnancy. RESULTS: Distribution of the basic examinations in prenatal care vary according to marital status, parity, education, and residence in a metropolitan or nonmetropolitan county. The advice received concerning salt and diuretics usage was also influenced by sociodemographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The analyses reveal that prenatal care is not of even minimally acceptable quality for many women.

Hansell, M J

1991-01-01

62

Optimized Quality Factor of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced PVC Nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite films were prepared by solution blending. The homogeneity of GO dispersion with PVC was confirmed by an optical microscope. Quality factor ( Q-factor) as a function of temperature (40-150 °C) was measured within a broadband frequency range of 50-35 MHz. The controlled GO loading demonstrates a crucial impact on the optimization of the Q-factor, resonance frequency ( f 0) and wide bandwidth. This nanocomposite may be well suited for electronic applications. The further development of GO-reinforced polymer nanocomposites based on an optimized Q-factor may result in a material for electromagnetic frequency radiation shields for radar and communication towers/devices.

Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

2014-04-01

63

Dissipation in ultrahigh quality factor SiN membrane resonators.  

PubMed

We study the mechanical properties of stoichiometric SiN resonators through a combination of spectroscopic and interferometric imaging techniques. At room temperature, we demonstrate ultrahigh quality factors of 5×107 and a f×Q product of 1×1014??Hz. To our knowledge, these correspond to the largest values yet reported for mesoscopic flexural resonators. Through a comprehensive study of the limiting dissipation mechanisms as a function of resonator and substrate geometry, we identify radiation loss through the supporting substrate as the dominant loss process. In addition to pointing the way towards higher quality factors through optimized substrate designs, our work realizes an enabling platform for the observation and control of quantum behavior in a macroscopic mechanical system. PMID:24724675

Chakram, S; Patil, Y S; Chang, L; Vengalattore, M

2014-03-28

64

High quality factor nonpolar GaN photonic crystal nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality factor a-plane nonpolar GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities on r-plane sapphire substrates have been demonstrated. Nonpolar GaN PC nanocavities on a thin membrane structure were realized by using e-beam lithography to define the PC patterns and focused-ion beam milling to fabricate the suspended thin membrane. A dominant resonant mode at 388 nm with a high quality factor of approximately 4300 has been demonstrated at 77 K by the micro-photoluminescence system. Moreover, the degree of polarization of the emission from the non-polar GaN PC nanocavity was measured to be 64% along the m crystalline direction.

Wu, Tzeng-Tsong; Lo, Sheng-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Tsao, Che-Wei; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung

2013-05-01

65

Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes.  

PubMed

Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown. PMID:23480894

Burda, O; Sato, T; Wissmann, F

2013-06-01

66

Integrated high-quality factor optical resonators in diamond.  

PubMed

The realization of an integrated diamond photonic platform, based on a thin single crystal diamond film on top of a silicon dioxide/silicon substrate, is reported. Using this approach, we demonstrate high-quality factor single crystal diamond race-track resonators, operating at near-infrared wavelengths (1550 nm). The devices are integrated with low-loss diamond waveguides terminated with polymer pads (spot size converters) to facilitate in- (out-) coupling of light from (to) an optical fiber. Optical characterization of these resonators reveal quality factors as high as ~250,000 and overall insertion losses as low as 1 dB/facet. Scattering induced mode splitting as well as signatures of nonlinear effects such as optical bistability are observed at an input pump power of ~100 mW in the waveguides. PMID:23427820

Hausmann, B J M; Bulu, I B; Deotare, P B; McCutcheon, M; Venkataraman, V; Markham, M L; Twitchen, D J; Lon?ar, M

2013-05-01

67

Factors Driving Quality Standard Compliance in the Polish Dairy Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a model to identify determinants of the diffusion rate of quality standards in a food chain. We argue that adoption\\u000a decisions in the food chain are determined by farmers’ and processors’ economic considerations. Factors such as pricing behaviour,\\u000a compliance costs and market structure are identified and discussed in the paper. The findings are used to test an econometric

Agata Pieniadz; Heinrich Hockmann

2008-01-01

68

Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the transparent optical crystals. The larger values of F and Q result in the enhancement of various nonlinear processes. Low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations based on these resonators have been recently demonstrated. Theory predicts a possibility of nearly 10(exp 14) room-temperature optical Q-factors of optical crystalline WGM resonators, which correspond to finesse levels higher than 10(exp 9). Experiments have shown numbers a thousand times lower than that. The difference occurs due to media imperfections. To substantially reduce the optical losses caused by the imperfections, a specific, multi-step, asymptotic processing of the resonator is implemented. The technique has been initially developed to reduce microwave absorption in dielectric resonators. One step of the process consists of mechanical polishing performed after high temperature annealing. Several steps repeat one after another to lead to significant reduction in optical attenuation and, as a result, to the increase of Q-factor as well as finesse of the resonator which demonstrates a CaF2 WGM resonator with F greater than 10(exp 7) and Q greater than 10(exp 11).

Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir

2008-01-01

69

Microscopic structure factor of liquid hydrogen by neutron-diffraction measurements  

SciTech Connect

The center-of-mass structure factor of liquid para hydrogen has been measured, using neutron diffraction, in four thermodynamic states close to the triple point. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out at the same temperatures and densities. The present experimental data are in reasonable quantitative agreement with the simulations and closer to these results than previous neutron determinations available in the literature. The thermodynamic derivatives of the structure factor, from both experiment and simulation, have been compared to previous measurements obtaining a quantitative consistency.

Celli, M.; Bafile, U.; Zoppi, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Formisano, F. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Operative Group in Grenoble, c/o Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Guarini, E. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Unita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Magli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica, e Biotecnologie per la Medicina, Universita di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 93, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Unita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Neumann, M. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Wien, Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2005-01-01

70

Model for water factor measurements with fission-neutron logging tools. National Uranium Resource Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

During 1977 and 1978, a Fission Neutron Water Factor Model was designed and constructed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Grand Junction facility. This model features seven water-filled boreholes with different diameters. All of these boreholes penetrate, in order from the top of the model, a 5-foot-thick (1.52 m), uniform, concrete upper ''barren zone''; a 6-foot-thick (1.83 m), uniform, uranium-enriched, concrete ''ore zone''; and a 4-foot-thick (1.22 m), uniform, concrete lower ''barren zone''. The response of a fission neutron logging tool in a water-filled borehole is affected by variations in the borehole diameter. This diameter-dependent effect can be deduced from logs run in several different boreholes of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model. This report describes the construction of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model and also presents values for model parameters which are of interest in fission-neutron logging.

Koizumi, C. J.

1983-05-01

71

Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy.  

PubMed

In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small. PMID:24778349

Hälg, R A; Besserer, J; Boschung, M; Mayer, S; Lomax, A J; Schneider, U

2014-05-21

72

Measurements of the neutron dose equivalent for various radiation qualities, treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In radiation therapy, high energy photon and proton beams cause the production of secondary neutrons. This leads to an unwanted dose contribution, which can be considerable for tissues outside of the target volume regarding the long term health of cancer patients. Due to the high biological effectiveness of neutrons in regards to cancer induction, small neutron doses can be important. This study quantified the neutron doses for different radiation therapy modalities. Most of the reports in the literature used neutron dose measurements free in air or on the surface of phantoms to estimate the amount of neutron dose to the patient. In this study, dose measurements were performed in terms of neutron dose equivalent inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The neutron dose equivalent was determined using track etch detectors as a function of the distance to the isocenter, as well as for radiation sensitive organs. The dose distributions were compared with respect to treatment techniques (3D-conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for photons; spot scanning and passive scattering for protons), therapy machines (Varian, Elekta and Siemens linear accelerators) and radiation quality (photons and protons). The neutron dose equivalent varied between 0.002 and 3 mSv per treatment gray over all measurements. Only small differences were found when comparing treatment techniques, but substantial differences were observed between the linear accelerator models. The neutron dose equivalent for proton therapy was higher than for photons in general and in particular for double-scattered protons. The overall neutron dose equivalent measured in this study was an order of magnitude lower than the stray dose of a treatment using 6 MV photons, suggesting that the contribution of the secondary neutron dose equivalent to the integral dose of a radiotherapy patient is small.

Hälg, R. A.; Besserer, J.; Boschung, M.; Mayer, S.; Lomax, A. J.; Schneider, U.

2014-05-01

73

Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')  

SciTech Connect

A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

Dipangkar Dutta

2000-12-12

74

Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

2014-01-01

75

Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators  

PubMed Central

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality factor or Q. This term describes the photon lifetime (?o) within the resonator, which is directly related to the resonator's optical losses. Therefore, an optical resonator with a high Q factor has low optical losses, long photon lifetimes, and very low photon decay rates (1/?o). As a result of the long photon lifetimes, it is possible to build-up extremely large circulating optical field intensities in these devices. This very unique property has allowed these devices to be used as laser sources and integrated biosensors.10 A unique sub-class of resonators is the whispering gallery mode optical microcavity. In these devices, the light is confined in circular orbits at the periphery. Therefore, the field is not completely confined within the device, but evanesces into the environment. Whispering gallery mode optical cavities have demonstrated some of the highest quality factors of any optical resonant cavity to date.9,11 Therefore, these devices are used throughout science and engineering, including in fundamental physics studies and in telecommunications as well as in biodetection experiments. 3-7,12 Optical microcavities can be fabricated from a wide range of materials and in a wide variety of geometries. A few examples include silica and silicon microtoroids, silicon, silicon nitride, and silica microdisks, micropillars, and silica and polymer microrings.13-17 The range in quality factor (Q) varies as dramatically as the geometry. Although both geometry and high Q are important considerations in any field, in many applications, there is far greater leverage in boosting device performance through Q enhancement. Among the numerous options detailed previously, the silica microsphere and the silica microtoroid resonator have achieved some of the highest Q factors to date.1,9 Additionally, as a result of the extremely low optical loss of silica from the visible through the near-IR, both microspheres and microtoroids are able to maintain their Q factors over a wide range of testing wavelengths.18 Finally, because silica is inherently biocompatible,

Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

76

Magnetic Field Effects on High Quality Factor Superconducting Coplanar Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have proven to be invaluable tools in studying some of the same decoherence mechanisms as those found in superconducting qubits. Prior improvements in fabrication led to resonator internal quality factors (Qi's) in excess of 10 million at high power, enabling us to sensitively probe environmental effects on the resonance frequency and Qi. We have found these resonators to be very susceptible to applied and stray magnetic fields, with measurable changes in the resonator's Qi and resonance frequency from fields as small as a few milligauss. I will present more recent measurements of resonators in magnetic fields.

Megrant, Anthony; Neill, Charles; Barends, Rami; Chen, Yu; Chiaro, Ben; Kelly, Julian; Mariantoni, Matteo; Mutus, Josh; O'Malley, Peter; Sank, Daniel; Vainsencher, Amit; Wenner, James; White, Ted; Low, David; Ohya, Shinobu; Palmstrom, Christopher; Martinis, John; Cleland, Andrew

2013-03-01

77

On the impact of neutron beam divergence and scattering on the quality of transmission acquired tomographic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the divergence of a thermal neutron beam and the scattered neutrons on the quality of tomographic images acquired by transmission have been evaluated by using a third generation tomographic system incorporating neutron collimators under several different arrangements. The system equipped with a gaseous position sensitive detector has been placed at the main channel outlet of the Argonauta Research Reactor in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-Brazil) which furnishes a thermal neutron flux of 2.3 × 10 5 n cm -2 s -1. Experiments have then been conducted using test-objects with well-known inner structure and composition to assess the influence of the collimators arrangement on the quality of the acquired images. Both, beam divergence and scattering - expected to spoil the image quality - have been reduced by using properly positioned collimators between the neutron source and the object, and in the gap between the object and the detector, respectively. The shadow cast by this last collimator on the projections used to reconstruct the tomographic images has been eliminated by a proper software specifically written for this purpose. Improvement of the tomographic images has been observed, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach to improve their quality by using properly positioned collimators.

Silvani, Maria Ines; Lopes, Ricardo T.; de Almeida, Gevaldo L.; Gonçalves, Marcelo José; Furieri, Rosanne C. A. A.

2007-10-01

78

Observation of ultrahigh quality factor in a semiconductor microcavity  

SciTech Connect

Observation of a very high-quality factor (Q) of {approx}30,000 is reported for a planar semiconductor microcavity grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using in situ optical monitoring. The very high Qs are measured in pillars of 5-10 {mu}m diameter, and are approximately a factor of 3 higher than measured in planar structures before etching. The higher values in the pillars are ascribed to the elimination of the effects of in-plane dispersion, diffraction, and lateral inhomogeneities, thus allowing the intrinsic Q of the planar structure to be observed. Spectrally resolved mode mapping is reported, accounting qualitatively for the decrease of Q with increasing mode number in the pillars.

Sanvitto, D.; Daraei, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Hopkinson, M.; Fry, P.W.; Whittaker, D.M.; Skolnick, M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2005-05-09

79

A quality metric for homology modeling: the H-factor  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of protein structures provides fundamental insight into most biochemical functions and consequently into the cause and possible treatment of diseases. As the structures of most known proteins cannot be solved experimentally for technical or sometimes simply for time constraints, in silico protein structure prediction is expected to step in and generate a more complete picture of the protein structure universe. Molecular modeling of protein structures is a fast growing field and tremendous works have been done since the publication of the very first model. The growth of modeling techniques and more specifically of those that rely on the existing experimental knowledge of protein structures is intimately linked to the developments of high resolution, experimental techniques such as NMR, X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. This strong connection between experimental and in silico methods is however not devoid of criticisms and concerns among modelers as well as among experimentalists. Results In this paper, we focus on homology-modeling and more specifically, we review how it is perceived by the structural biology community and what can be done to impress on the experimentalists that it can be a valuable resource to them. We review the common practices and provide a set of guidelines for building better models. For that purpose, we introduce the H-factor, a new indicator for assessing the quality of homology models, mimicking the R-factor in X-ray crystallography. The methods for computing the H-factor is fully described and validated on a series of test cases. Conclusions We have developed a web service for computing the H-factor for models of a protein structure. This service is freely accessible at http://koehllab.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/toolkit/h-factor.

2011-01-01

80

Precise Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor GMn in the Few-GeV2 Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q2=1.0-4.8GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data.

Lachniet, J.; Afanasev, A.; Arenhövel, H.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Higinbotham, D.; Jeschonnek, S.; Quinn, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Adams, G.; Adhikari, K. P.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Baillie, N.; Ball, J. P.; Baltzell, N. A.; Barrow, S.; Batourine, V.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Bonner, B. E.; Bookwalter, C.; Bouchigny, S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Calarco, J. R.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Casey, L.; Cheng, L.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Collins, P.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; Cummings, J. P.; Dale, D.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Masi, R.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Deur, A.; Dhamija, S.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gevorgyan, N.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hardie, J.; Hassall, N.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Huertas, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kageya, T.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Kellie, J. D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klusman, M.; Konczykowski, P.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Lima, A. C. S.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, M.; Malace, S.; Manak, J. J.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; McAleer, S.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mibe, T.; Mikhailov, K.; Mineeva, T.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrow, S. A.; Moteabbed, M.; Mueller, J.; Munevar, E.; Mutchler, G. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Paterson, C.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Philips, S. A.; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Popa, I.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Sandorfi, A.; Santoro, J. P.; Sapunenko, V.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Sharov, D.; Shaw, J.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Starostin, A.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stokes, B. E.; Stoler, P.; Stopani, K. A.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thompson, R.; Tkabladze, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Yurov, M.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

2009-05-01

81

Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G(M)n in the few-GeV2 region.  

PubMed

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q;{2}=1.0-4.8 GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data. PMID:19518944

Lachniet, J; Afanasev, A; Arenhövel, H; Brooks, W K; Gilfoyle, G P; Higinbotham, D; Jeschonnek, S; Quinn, B; Vineyard, M F; Adams, G; Adhikari, K P; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bookwalter, C; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Collins, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; Cummings, J P; Dale, D; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhamija, S; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kageya, T; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Konczykowski, P; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; Maccormick, M; Malace, S; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Mineeva, T; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Mueller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Pereira, S Anefalos; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Sandorfi, A; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Sharov, D; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Starostin, A; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Stopani, K A; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Yurov, M; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

2009-05-15

82

Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV at this location for the first time. The increased air pollution was associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. The glutathione dependent oxidative potential did not increase during the construction period but a significant increase was found when the new widened road was in operation.

Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

2014-05-01

83

Risk factors associated with colostrum quality in Norwegian dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate colostrum quality in Norwegian dairy cows based on IgG content, and to identify associations between possible risk factors and low colostral IgG. A longitudinal cross-sectional survey on calf health in Norway was performed between June 2004 and December 2006. The participating dairy herds were randomly selected among herds registered in the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System as having at least 15 cow years. The participating farmers were requested to sample 10 mL of colostrum from the first milking after calving from 12 cows that had calved during the defined project period of 365 d. Colostrum samples from 1,250 cows from 119 herds were collected. The material consisted of 451, 337, 213, and 249 samples collected from cows in their first, second, third, and fourth parity or more, respectively. Analysis was performed on IgG content by using single radial immunodiffusion. Mixed models with herd as a cluster were fit by using grams of IgG per liter of colostrum as the dependent variable for the statistical analyses. The IgG content in the colostrum sampled ranged from 4 to 235 g/L, with a median of 45.0 g of IgG/L, with the 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles being 23.1, 31.4, 63.6, and 91.6 g of IgG/L, respectively. Altogether, 57.8% of the samples contained less than the desired 50 g of IgG/L of colostrum. Cows in their fourth parity or more were found to have significantly higher levels of IgG per liter of colostrum than cows in their first or second parity. Colostrum from cows in their second parity had the lowest level of IgG. Cows calving during the winter months (December, January, and February) produced colostrum with a significantly lower IgG content compared with cows calving in any other season of the year. Somatic cell count, measured after calving, was significantly higher in cows producing colostrum of inferior quality compared with those producing high-quality colostrum. Of the total variation in colostrum quality, 13.7% could be explained by cluster effects within herd. The variation in IgG content in colostrum produced by Norwegian dairy cows indicates a need for improved colostrum quality control and subsequent adjustment of the colostrum feeding regimen to ensure a protective immunological status for newborn calves. PMID:18218758

Gulliksen, S M; Lie, K I; Sølverød, L; Østerås, O

2008-02-01

84

Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)  

SciTech Connect

Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

Derek Glazier

2007-09-30

85

Multilevel Factors Affecting Quality: Examples From the Cancer Care Continuum  

PubMed Central

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges.

Taplin, Stephen H.; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-01-01

86

Improving the Quality Factor of Microwave Compact Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting microwave resonators are now widely used for coupling to superconducting qubit systems. Compact resonators [1] consisting of an interdigitated capacitance and a meander inductance take up much less space than a typical coplanar waveguide resonator. Since the design of compact resonators and qubits share common features, qubit decoherence mechanisms can be studied through the measurement of resonator loss. We measured of order 100 resonators and have achieved internal quality factors in excess of 300,000. Results indicate loss appears to be due to spurious two level systems. Loss increases when the participation of surfaces in the energy density is increased. Thus a large separation of electrodes is preferred, in agreement with the findings of other groups. Work in progress involves the combination of these resonators with transmon qubits. Work supported by IARPA, ARO and the NSF. [4pt] [1] M.S. Khalil, F.C. Wellstood, and K.D. Osborn, arXiv:1008.2929

Geerlings, K.; Shankar, S.; Edwards, E.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

2011-03-01

87

Factors affecting development of a motion imagery quality metric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion imagery community would benefit from the availability of standard measures for assessing image interpretability. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) has served as a community standard for still imagery, but no comparable scale exists for motion imagery. Several considerations unique to motion imagery indicate that the standard methodology employed in the past for NIIRS development may not be applicable or, at a minimum, require modifications. Traditional methods for NIIRS development rely on a close linkage between perceived image quality, as captured by specific image interpretation tasks, and the sensor parameters associated with image acquisition. The dynamic nature of motion imagery suggests that this type of linkage may not exist or may be modulated by other factors. An initial study was conducted to understand the effects target motion, camera motion, and scene complexity have on perceived image interpretability for motion imagery. This paper summarizes the findings from this evaluation. In addition, several issues emerged that require further investigation: - The effect of frame rate on the perceived interpretability of motion imagery - Interactions between color and target motion which could affect perceived interpretability - The relationships among resolution, viewing geometry, and image interpretability - The ability of an analyst to satisfy specific image exploitation tasks relative to different types of motion imagery clips Plans are being developed to address each of these issues through direct evaluations. This paper discusses each of these concerns, presents the plans for evaluations, and explores the implications for development of a motion imagery quality metric.

Irvine, John M.; Fenimore, Charles; Cannon, David; Roberts, John; Israel, Steven A.; Simon, Larry; Watts, Charles; Miller, James D.; Aviles, Ana I.; Tighe, Paul F.; Behrens, Richard J.; Haverkamp, Donna

2005-05-01

88

Open-access colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated factors and quality  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: A population-based analysis of all adult outpatients undergoing a first-time colonoscopy between 1997 and 2007 in Ontario was performed. Colonoscopy was considered to be OA if there were no visits in the preceding five years with the physician performing the colonoscopy. Using logistic regression, patient, physician and institution factors associated with OA colonoscopy were identified. Using propensity score matching, the relationship between OA colonoscopy and incomplete colonoscopy in 2006 was examined. RESULTS: A total of 1,079,259 colonoscopies were performed. Of these, 14% were OA in 1997 compared with 26% in 2007. Patients 50 to 69 years of age, those from higher-income neighbourhoods and those with less comorbidity were more likely to undergo OA colonoscopy. The odds of receiving OA colonoscopy were six times greater in a nonhospital clinic compared with a community hospital. Colonoscopy was more likely to be complete if the procedure was OA (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.4]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OA colonoscopy have increased substantially since 1997. Institution type was most strongly associated with OA colonoscopy. Colonoscopy completeness, a recognized quality indicator, does not appear to be compromised by OA colonoscopy.

Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

2013-01-01

89

Gamma-ray and neutron dose-equivalent buildup factors for infinite slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper gamma-ray and neutron dose-equivalent buildup factors are calculated for six common shielding materials in a point-source, infinite-slab, point-detector geometry using a decomposition of the solution to the transport problem into single- and multiple-scatter components. A rigorous solution for the single-scatter component is constructed and a Monte Carlo model for the multiple-scatter component is employed. Simplified models are

W. L. Dunn; A. M. Yacout; F. OFoghludha; G. Riel

1992-01-01

90

Survey of Excited State Neutron Spectroscopic Factors for Z=8-28 Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We have extracted 565 neutron spectroscopic factors of sd and fp shell nuclei by systematically analyzing more than 2000 measured (d, p) angular distributions. We are able to compare 125 of the extracted spectroscopic factors to values predicted by large-basis shell-model calculations and evaluate the accuracies of spectroscopic factors predicted by different shell-model interactions in these regions. We find that the spectroscopic factors predicted for most excited states of sd-shell nuclei using the latest USDA or USDB interactions agree with the experimental values. For fp shell nuclei, the inability of the current models to account for the core excitation and fragmentation of the states leads to considerable discrepancies. In particular, the agreement between data and shell-model predictions for Ni isotopes is not better than a factor of 2 using either the GXPF1A or the XT interaction.

Tsang, M. B.; Lee, Jenny; Lynch, W. G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Joint Institute of Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Su, S. C.; Dai, J. Y. [Physics Department, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Horoi, M. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Liu, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Warren, S. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2009-02-13

91

Quality correction factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries: Theoretical considerations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In the scope of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry using ionization chambers, quality correction factors of plan-class-specific reference (PCSR) fields are theoretically investigated. The symmetry of the problem is studied to provide recommendable criteria for composite beam deliveries where correction factors are minimal and also to establish a theoretical limit for PCSR delivery k{sub Q} factors. Methods: The concept of virtual symmetric collapsed (VSC) beam, being associated to a given modulated composite delivery, is defined in the scope of this investigation. Under symmetrical measurement conditions, any composite delivery has the property of having a k{sub Q} factor identical to its associated VSC beam. Using this concept of VSC, a fundamental property of IMRT k{sub Q} factors is demonstrated in the form of a theorem. The sensitivity to the conditions required by the theorem is thoroughly examined. Results: The theorem states that if a composite modulated beam delivery produces a uniform dose distribution in a volume V{sub cyl} which is symmetric with the cylindrical delivery and all beams fulfills two conditions in V{sub cyl}: (1) the dose modulation function is unchanged along the beam axis, and (2) the dose gradient in the beam direction is constant for a given lateral position; then its associated VSC beam produces no lateral dose gradient in V{sub cyl}, no matter what beam modulation or gantry angles are being used. The examination of the conditions required by the theorem lead to the following results. The effect of the depth-dose gradient not being perfectly constant with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found negligible. The effect of the dose modulation function being degraded with depth on the VSC beam lateral dose gradient is found to be only related to scatter and beam hardening, as the theorem holds also for diverging beams. Conclusions: The use of the symmetry of the problem in the present paper leads to a valuable theorem showing that k{sub Q} factors of composite IMRT beam deliveries are close to unity under specific conditions. The theoretical limit k{sub Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}}=1 is determined based on the property of PCSR deliveries to provide a uniform dose in the target volume. The present approach explains recent experimental observations and proposes ideal conditions for IMRT reference dosimetry. The result of this study could potentially serve as a theoretical basis for reference dosimetry of composite IMRT beam deliveries or for routine IMRT quality assurance.

Bouchard, Hugo [Departement de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada)

2012-11-15

92

Benchmarking Potential Factors Leading to Education Quality: A Study of Cambodian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To study the quality in higher education in Cambodia and explore the potential factors leading to quality in Cambodian higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Five main factors that were deemed relevant in providing quality in Cambodian higher education were proposed: academic curriculum and extra-curricular activities, teachers'…

Chen, Ching-Yaw; Sok, Phyra; Sok, Keomony

2007-01-01

93

Fabrication of silica ultra high quality factor microresonators.  

PubMed

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery. The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.(3-7) The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million). However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. PMID:22805153

Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

2012-01-01

94

Patient, Provider, and Treatment Factors Associated with Poor-Quality Care for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interventions are needed to improve the quality of care for schizophrenia. However, in designing these interventions it would be helpful to understand better which patients are at highest risk for poor-quality care and why care for this disorder is often of poor quality. We study the extent to which patient and treatment factors are associated with poor-quality care in 224

Alexander S. Young; Greer Sullivan; Naihua Duan

1999-01-01

95

Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks.

2014-01-01

96

Quality control and performance evaluation of k0-based neutron activation analysis at the Portuguese research reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality control (QC) and performance evaluation for the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA) at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI) has been developed with the intention of using the method to meet the demands of trace element analysis for the applications in environmental, epidemiological and nutritional studies amongst others. The QC and performance evaluation include the following aspects: (1) estimation of the overall/combined standard uncertainty from the primary uncertainty sources; (2) validation of the method using a synthetic multi-element standard (SMELS); and (3) analysis of the certified reference materials from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA): NIST-SRM-1633a and NIST-SRM-1648 and the reference material from the International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA-RM-336, for the purpose of controlling the overall accuracy and precision of the analytical results. The obtained results revealed that the k0-NAA method established at the RPI was fit for the purpose. The overall/combined standard uncertainty was estimated for elements of interest in the intended applications. The laboratory's analytical results as compared to the assigned values with the bias were less than 12% for most elements, except for a few elements which biased within 13-18%. The u-score values for most elements were less than |1.64|, except for Co, La and Ti within |1.64|-|1.96| and Sc, Cr, K and Sb within |1.96|-|2.58|. The NIST-1633a was also analyzed over 14 months for the purpose of evaluating the reproducibility of the method. The quality factors of k0-NAA established at RPI were evaluated, proving that the method meets the requirements of trace element analysis, which is also considering the method's performance for which the k0-NAA affords a specific, rapid and convenient capability for the intended applications.

Dung, H. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Blaauw, M.; Almeida, S. M.; Dionisio, I.; Canha, N. H.

2010-10-01

97

A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

2002-01-01

98

A comparison of quality factors and weighting factors for characterizing astronaut radiation exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation exposures are typically characterized by two quantities. The first is the absorbed dose, or the energy deposited per unit mass for specific types of radiation passing through specified materials. The same amount of energy deposited in material by two different types of radiation, however, can result in two different levels of risk. Because of this, for the purpose of radiation protection operations, absorbed dose is modified by a second factor intended to normalize the risk associated with a given exposure. We present here an inter-comparison of methods for this modification. First is the radiation quality factor (Q), as defined by ICRP publication 60. This quantity is related functionally to the unrestricted linear energy transfer (LET) of a given radiation, and is multiplied by the absorbed dose to derive the dose equivalent (H). The second method for modifying absorbed dose is the radiation weighting factor, also given in ICRP-60, or as modified in NCRP report 115. To implement the weighting factor, the absorbed dose resulting from incidence of a particular radiation is multiplied by a factor assigned to that type of radiation, giving the equivalent dose. We compare calculations done based on identical fields of radiation representative of that encountered by the MIR space station, applying each of these two methods.

Zapp, Neal; Cucinotta, Frank; Atwell, W.

99

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

100

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

101

Identifying software quality factors for telecommunication industry in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rapid growth of software development particularly in telecommunication industry today, companies are competing to produce software which are claimed to be good and fulfill user's expectation. Thus software quality becomes the importance phase in the software development to make sure the high quality of the produced software. To measure the software quality, the most important thing to be identified

Nor Fazlina Iryani Abdul Hamid; Mohamad Khatim Hasan

2011-01-01

102

Effect of bubble formation on microdroplet cavity quality factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical cavity quality factors (Q's) of ethanol microdroplets with internal bubbles were estimated from cavity mode emission efficiencies as a function of the dissolved gas content. Droplets were generated with a vibrating orifice aerosol generator driven by pressurized gas. With helium- or nitrogen-gas pressurization, Q's were \\similar 2 \\times 108 , a value expected to be near a practical upper limit for this size of cavity. Surface capillary waves with a rms amplitude of 1.4 nm are conjectured to limit Q values under these conditions. However, two regimes dominated by bubbles were observed when carbon dioxide-gas pressurization was used. In one regime, nominal 10.25- mu m-radius hollow droplets, consisting of a concentric outer ethanol layer surrounding a 7.75- mu m-radius gaseous central core, were formed when the vibrating orifice frequency was tuned to a particular value. These hollow sphere droplets displayed a higher Q of 4 \\times 108 , a value that is consistent with the increase in outer radius. In the second regime, at higher vibrating orifice frequencies, smaller homogeneous microdroplets were formed. We conjecture that these microdroplets contain a dispersion of submicrometer-sized bubbles, leading to nonnegligible internal elastic scattering losses and reducing the highest observable Q values to as low as 3 \\times 105 . Sound waves associated with the vibrating orifice must also contribute to the bubble formation because these effects were frequency dependent.

Huston, A. L.; Lin, H.-B.; Eversole, J. D.; Campillo, A. J.

1996-03-01

103

Evaluation of gamma-ray exposure buildup factors and neutron shielding for bismuth borosilicate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray exposure buildup factor (EBF) values and neutron shielding effectiveness of bismuth borosilicate (BBS) glass systems in composition (50-x)SiO2:15B2O3:2Al2O3:10CaO:23Na2O:xBi2O3 (where x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%) were calculated. The EBF values were computed for photon energy 0.015-15 MeV up to penetration depths of 40 mfp (mean free path) by the geometrical progression (G-P) method. The EBF values were found dependent upon incident photon energy, penetration and bismuth molar concentration. In low- and high-energy photon regions, the EBF values were minimum whereas maximum in the intermediate-energy region. The fast neutron removal cross sections for energy 2-12 MeV were calculated by the partial density method. The BBS glass with 20 mol% Bi2O3 is found to be superior gamma-ray and neutron transparent shielding. The EBF values of the BBS glasses were compared with steel-magnetite concrete and lead. The investigation was carried out to explore the advantages of the BBS glasses in different radiation shielding applications.

Singh, Vishwanath P.; Badiger, N. M.; Chanthima, N.; Kaewkhao, J.

2014-05-01

104

Home Video Visual Quality Assessment With Spatiotemporal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the video programs taken by professionals, home videos are always with low quality content resulted from non-professional capture skills. In this paper, we present a novel spatiotemporal quality assessment scheme in terms of low-level content features for home videos. In contrast to existing frame-level-based quality assessment approaches, a type of temporal segment of video, subshot, is selected as

Tao Mei; Xian-sheng Hua; Cai-zhi Zhu; He-qin Zhou; Shipeng Li

2007-01-01

105

Determination of canine dose conversion factors in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of mixed-field neutron/gamma radiation dosimetry in canine irradiation experiments conducted at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is to determine the absorbed midline tissue dose (MLT) at the region of interest in the canine. A dose conversion factor (DCF) can be applied to free-in-air (FIA) dose measurements to estimate the MLT doses to canines. This report is a summary of the measured DCFs that were used to determine the MLT doses in canines at AFRRI from 1979 to 1992.

Torres, B.A.; Bhatt, R.C.; Myska, J.C.; Holland, B.K.

1996-07-01

106

Total quality management—the critical success factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the key elements of TQM and the critical factors that influence the TQM implementation process. An extensive literature survey suggests that there are eight critical TQM factors. A survey was carried out to evaluate the experiences of a range of organizations against the identified critical factors. The survey indicated that the eight critical factors can be arranged

Leslie J. Porter; Adrian J. Parker

1993-01-01

107

The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

Grozanick, Sara E.

2010-01-01

108

Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor ga(Q2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure ga(Q2). If ga(Q2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q2 mapping of ga between 0.01 neutron magnetic form factor GMn. The experiment employs the usual techniques of electron-nucleon scattering and presents no special difficulty. Higher energy extensions are possible. They could yield measurements of ga(Q2) up to Q2=3 GeV2 and the possibility to access other form factors, such as the almost unknown pseudoscalar form factor gP. However, the experiments become much more challenging as soon as beam energies pass the pion production threshold.

Deur, A.

2013-11-01

109

Calculations of anisotropy factors for radionuclide neutron sources due to scattering from source encapsulation and support structures.  

PubMed

A model has been developed for calculating the angular neutron fluence distributions for radionuclide neutron sources that are heavily encapsulated or surrounded by source support structures as a source holder and a source movement system. These structures may cause an anisotropic neutron fluence distribution. This should be taken into account in the neutron-measuring instruments calibration procedure. The calculations were made for two types of widely used neutron sources, (241)Am-Be and (252)Cf, by combining an in-house code simulating the (9)Be(alpha,n) reactions and the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4C. As a result, anisotropy factors in the direction perpendicular to the source capsule axis for bare neutron sources were evaluated to be 1.012, 1.030 and 1.039 for (252)Cf in a standard Amersham X1 capsule, (241)Am-Be in a X3 capsule and (241)Am-Be in a X4 capsule, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with the published data. If the support structures are included in the MCNP simulation, the anisotropy factors for these neutron sources increase by approximately 10%. PMID:17575299

Tsujimura, N; Yoshida, T; Momose, T

2007-01-01

110

Power quality factor and line-disturbances measurements in three-phase systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power quality meter (PQM) is presented for measuring, as a first objective, a single indicator, designated power quality factor (PQF), in the range between zero to one, which integrally reflect the power transfer quality of a general three phase network feeding unbalanced nonlinear loads. PQF definition is based on the analysis of functions in the frequency domain, separating the

J. C. Montano; A. Lopez; J. Gutierrez; M. Castilla; D. Borras; J. C. Bravo

2004-01-01

111

Factor Adjustment, Quality Change, and Productivity Growth for U.S. Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper accounts for quality improvements and adjustment costs in all inputs to U.S. manufacturing production. Adjustment processes for non-capital inputs are slower than previously recognized. Annual adjustment percentages are: labor 77, capital 30, energy 20, and materials 21. Factor prices should be adjusted for quality improvements to reflect higher marginal products. The percentage increases in marginal products from quality

Jeffrey I. Bernstein; Theofanis P. Mamuneas; Panos Pashardes

1999-01-01

112

The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments  

SciTech Connect

Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Hill, S.G.

1990-01-01

113

Measurement of resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators: Comparison of methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise microwave measurements of sample conductivity, dielectric, and magnetic properties are routinely performed with cavity perturbation measurements. These methods require the accurate determination of quality factor and resonant frequency of microwave resonators. Seven different methods to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor from complex transmission coefficient data are discussed and compared to find which is most accurate and precise

Paul J. Petersan; Steven M. Anlage

1998-01-01

114

High quality factor resonance at room temperature with nanostrings under high tensile stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality factors as high as 207 000 are demonstrated at room temperature for radio-frequency silicon nitride string resonators with cross sectional dimensions on the scale of 100 nm, made with a nonlithographic technique. A product of quality factor and surface to volume ratio greater than 6000 nm?1 is presented, the highest yet reported. Doubly clamped nanostring resonators are fabricated in

Scott S. Verbridge; Jeevak M. Parpia; Robert B. Reichenbach; Leon M. Bellan; H. G. Craighead

2006-01-01

115

High quality factor resonance at room temperature with nanostrings under high tensile stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality factors as high as 207 000 are demonstrated at room temperature for radio-frequency silicon nitride string resonators with cross sectional dimensions on the scale of 100 nm, made with a nonlithographic technique. A product of quality factor and surface to volume ratio greater than 6000 nm-1 is presented, the highest yet reported. Doubly clamped nanostring resonators are fabricated in

Scott S. Verbridge; Jeevak M. Parpia; Robert B. Reichenbach; Leon M. Bellan; H. G. Craighead

2006-01-01

116

Computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities by FDTD technique and Pade approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation with Baker's algorithm are used to calculate the mode frequencies and quality factors of cavities. Comparing with the fast Fourier transformation\\/Pade method, we find that the Pade approximation and the Baker's algorithm can obtain exact resonant frequencies and quality factors based on a much shorter time record of the FDTD

Wei-Hua Guo; Wei-Jun Li; Yong-Zhen Huang

2001-01-01

117

Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the H-->2(e-->,e'n)H1 Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

E. Geis; M. Kohl; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhövel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. Degrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-01-01

118

Monte Carlo simulations of neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and ambient dose equivalent for a passively scattered proton therapy unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stray neutron exposures pose a potential risk for the development of secondary cancer in patients receiving proton therapy. However, the behavior of the ambient dose equivalent is not fully understood, including dependences on neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and proton treatment beam characteristics. The objective of this work, therefore, was to estimate neutron exposures resulting from the use of

Yuanshui Zheng; Jonas Fontenot; Phil Taddei; Dragan Mirkovic; Wayne Newhauser

2008-01-01

119

Current good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim final rule (IFR) entitled "Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This final rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The final rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR. PMID:24922980

2014-06-10

120

Identifying important factors influencing corn yield and grain quality variability using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil, landscape and hybrid factors are known to influence yield and quality of corn (Zea mays L.). This study employed artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to evaluate the relative importance of selected soil, landscape\\u000a and seed hybrid factors on yield and grain quality in two Illinois, USA fields. About 7 to 13 important factors were identified\\u000a that could explain from

Yuxin Miao; David J. Mulla; Pierre C. Robert

2006-01-01

121

Factors affecting the diagnostic quality of bitewing radiographs: a review.  

PubMed

The bitewing radiograph (BWR) has been used in dental practice for over 90 years and is a widely used technique. This paper outlines the ideal technique for producing reproducible BWR of good diagnostic quality. In particular, it reviews the technical errors that may occur while exposing and processing BWR and the psychological errors that may result when radiographs are viewed. The consequences of these errors, (unnecessary patient exposure to radiation, poor diagnosis and potentially inappropriate treatment) are outlined in detail. Steps to improve the quality of BWR and decrease patient exposure to radiation are given in line with recent recommendations. PMID:9489215

Chadwick, B L; Dummer, P H

1998-01-24

122

Survey of ground state neutron spectroscopic factors from Li to Cr isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Shell Model has prompted many measurements to extract the spectroscopic factors which describe the configuration of single particle orbitals. We have extracted the ground state to ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 79 nuclei ranging in Z from 3 to 24 by analyzing the past measurements of the angular distributions of (d,p) and (p,d) reactions in a systematic and consistent manner [1]. For the Ca isotopes from ^40Ca to ^48Ca, the spectroscopic factors follow the predictions of the single particle model predictions as well as predictions from shell model suggesting Ca isotopes have good spherical cores with well defined valence nucleons. For the 59 nuclei where modern shell model calculations [Oxbash] are available, with the exception of the deformed F and Ne isotopes, the experimental spectroscopic factors for most nuclei agree with predictions from modern day shell model to within 20%. This work is supported by the NSF Grant No. NSF-PHY-01-10253 and SURE. Reference: [1] X.D.Liu, M.A.Famiano,W.G.Lynch,M.B.Tsang,and J.A.Tostevin, Phys. Rev. C69 (2004) 1.

Lee, Hui-Ching; Tsang, Betty

2005-04-01

123

Quality factor of micro cantilevers transduced by piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality factors (Q-factor) of micro cantilevers transduced by piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film under atmospheric pressure conditions\\u000a were investigated and discussed. It was found that Q-factors increased with thicker PZT film. Due to air damping, shorter cantilevers resulted in preferred larger Q-factors. The Q-factor was found to be as high as 450 for a 150-?m long PZT cantilever

Jian Lu; Tsuyoshi Ikehara; Takeshi Kobayashi; Ryutaro Maeda; Takashi Mihara

2007-01-01

124

Analysis of psychological factors for quality assessment of interactive multimodal service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a subjective quality assessment model for interactive multimodal services. First, psychological factors of an audiovisual communication service were extracted by using the semantic differential (SD) technique and factor analysis. Forty subjects participated in subjective tests and performed point-to-point conversational tasks on a PC-based TV phone that exhibits various network qualities. The subjects assessed those qualities on the basis of 25 pairs of adjectives. Two psychological factors, i.e., an aesthetic feeling and a feeling of activity, were extracted from the results. Then, quality impairment factors affecting these two psychological factors were analyzed. We found that the aesthetic feeling is mainly affected by IP packet loss and video coding bit rate, and the feeling of activity depends on delay time and video frame rate. We then proposed an opinion model derived from the relationships among quality impairment factors, psychological factors, and overall quality. The results indicated that the estimation error of the proposed model is almost equivalent to the statistical reliability of the subjective score. Finally, using the proposed model, we discuss guidelines for quality design of interactive audiovisual communication services.

Yamagishi, Kazuhisa; Hayashi, Takanori

2005-03-01

125

Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

2009-01-01

126

STREAM NETWORK EXPANSION: A RIPARIAN WATER QUALITY FACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about how active stream network expansion during rainstorms influences the ability of riparian buffers to improve water quality. We used aerial photographs to quantify stream network expansion during the wet winter season in five agricultural watersheds in western...

127

Confirming the Three-Factor Structure of the Quality of Relationships Inventory within Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study further validates the Quality of Relationships Inventory (QRI; G. R. Pierce, I. G. Sarason, & B. R. Sarason, 1991) by evaluating its factor structure in a sample of 572 partners from 286 couples. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare 3 different models of the QRI and to investigate the invariance of the factor…

Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; Buysse, Ann; Rosseel, Yves; Peene, Olivier J.

2006-01-01

128

Improving the quality factor of cantilevers in viscous fluids by the adaptation of their interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptation of the fluid-microresonator interface enables the operation of cantilevers with high quality factor in viscous fluids. Partial wetting was proposed to implement the adapted interface by meniscus formation. An excellent quality factor of 79 was achieved in water applying the concept of partial wetting to thin film silicon nitride cantilevers. Compared to the quality factor calculated from Sader's theory of the hydrodynamic damping of fully immersed cantilevers, this is an improvement by more than one decade. As a first application the partially wetted cantilevers were employed as mass sensors in water revealing a sensitivity of 2.77 fg/Hz.

Linden, J.; Oesterschulze, E.

2012-03-01

129

g-Factors of Isomeric States in the Neutron-Rich Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We report the results from the first experiment to measure gyromagnetic factors of {micro}s isomers in neutron-rich nuclei produced by intermediate-energy projectile-fragmentation reactions. The Time Dependent Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method was applied in combination with the heavy-ion-gamma correlation technique. The nuclides in the vicinity of {sup 68}Ni were produced and spin-oriented following the fragmentation of a {sup 76}Ge, 61.4 MeV/ u beam at GANIL. The results obtained, |g|({sup 69 m}Cu) = 0.225(25) and |g|({sup 67 m}Ni) = 0.125(6) provide another indication of the importance of proton excitation across the Z = 28 shell gap for the description of these states.

Georgiev, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Neyens, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Hass, M. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel; Balabanski, Dimiter Loukanov [ORNL; Bingham, Carrol R [ORNL; Borcea, C. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Coulier, N. [University of Leuven; Coussenment, R. [University of Leuven; Daugas, J. M. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); De France, Gilles M [ORNL; Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Grawe, Hubert H [ORNL; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Lewitowicz, Marek [ORNL; Mach, Henryk A [ORNL; Matea, I. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); de Oliveira Santos, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Page, R. D. [University of Liverpool; Pfutzner, Marek [ORNL; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Podolyak, Zsolt F [ORNL; Regan, Patrick H [ORNL; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Sawicka, M. [University of Warsaw; Smirnova, N. A. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Sobolev, Yu. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Stanoiu, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Teughels, S. [University of Leuven; Vyvey, K. [University of Leuven

2004-02-01

130

Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

2010-05-01

131

Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, a study was conducted from 2001 to 2011 to shed light on factors that affect the vulnerability of water from public-supply wells* to contamination. The study w...

M. A. Thomas M. L. Jagucki S. M. Eberts

2013-01-01

132

Factors affecting quality of fresh-cut horticultural products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut products, also known as lightly or minimally processed products, are highly perishable because a large proportion of their surface area is without epidermis, the outer protective layer of tissue. Temperature, atmosphere, relative humidity and sanitation must be regulated to maintain quality of fresh-cuts. In the 0–10 °C range, Q10 of respiration rates ranged from 2.0 to 8.6 among various

Alley E. Watada; Nathanee P. Ko; Donna A. Minott

1996-01-01

133

Factors important in determining trainee anaesthetists' quality of life.  

PubMed

A postal survey of all trainee anaesthetists in the North West Region of England was conducted to investigate areas important in determining the trainee's quality of life. The questionnaire enquired about life on-call, hospital facilities available to doctors and trainees' morale. The results suggest that changes are urgently required to improve trainees' lifestyles and therefore help raise morale within the profession. PMID:7802249

Masterson, G R; Ashcroft, G S; Shah, R

1994-11-01

134

79 FR 7933 - Current Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...quality, plumbing and toilet and hand-washing facilities for employees. FDA...towels in employee toilet and hand washing facilities. Thus, it...and arm coverings; and (2) Washing hands thoroughly in a hand washing...

2014-02-10

135

Quality management and safety culture in medicine - Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?  

PubMed Central

In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report “To err is human: building a safer healthcare system” highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety.

Wischet, Werner; Schusterschitz, Claudia

2009-01-01

136

Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women

Nazanin Haseli-Mashhadi; Tony Dadd; An Pan; Zhijie Yu; Xu Lin; Oscar H Franco

2009-01-01

137

Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

2014-03-01

138

Quality-Related Pay Adjustment Factors for Pavements. NCHRP Research Results Digest 371.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This digest summarizes the findings of the research conducted under NCHRP Project 10-79 to develop guidance pertaining to the quality-related pay adjustment factors used for flexible and rigid pavement construction. Highway agencies generally specify cert...

2013-01-01

139

Characteristics of double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator to increase quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have numerically evaluated wavelength characteristics at telecommunication wavelengths by means of a doubleplasmonic-racetrack resonator using the finite-difference time domain method. We investigated the effect of the space between the two plasmonic racetracks of the resonator on the quality factor. The quality factor of the proposed structure is 57 when the space between two racetracks is 600 nm. The quality factor of a double-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of a dielectric-filled trench is 1.5 times greater than that of a single-plasmonic-racetrack resonator of an air-filled trench. The phase mismatch of the trench channel plasmon polaritons contributes to the quality factor of the double-plasmonicracetrack resonator.

Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Sei; Kataoka, Mai; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Haraguchi, Masanobu; Okamoto, Toshihiro

2013-01-01

140

Factors Influencing the Reporting of Adverse Perioperative Outcomes to a Quality Management Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality management programs have used several data reporting sources to identify adverse perioperative out- comes. We compared reporting sources and identified factors that might improve data capture. Adverse periop- erative outcomes between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were reported to the Department of Anesthesiol- ogy Quality Management program by anesthesiologists, hospital chart reviewers, and other hospital personnel us-

Robert I. Katz; Robert S. Lagasse

2000-01-01

141

Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

2009-01-01

142

Determining a Confidence Factor for Automatic Target Recognition Based on Image Sequence Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithm, the quality of the input image sequence can be a majordetermining factor as to the ATR algorithm`s ability to recognize an object. Based on quality, an image can beeasy to recognize, barely recognizable or even mangled beyond recognition. If a determination of the image qualitycan be made prior to entering the ATR algorithm,

Gregory J. Power; Mohammad A. Karim

1998-01-01

143

Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

2012-01-01

144

On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1987-01-01

145

Quality factors in single-defect photonic-crystal lasers with asymmetric cladding layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present quality factors of single-defect photonic-crystal resonant cavities with asymmetric cladding layers. The resonators studied here are dielectric slabs patterned with two-dimensional photonic crystals on a sapphire substrate. Three-dimensional finite-element and finite-difference time-domain routines were used to analyze the electromagnetic properties of these cavities. We observe that high quality factors (approx800) can be obtained in these cavities for reasonable

Cheolwoo Kim; Woo Jun Kim; Andrew Stapleton; Jiang-Rong Cao; John D. O'Brien; P. Daniel Dapkus

2002-01-01

146

Determination and validation of prompt k0-factors with a monochromatic neutron beam at the Dhruva reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) was carried out using a reflected neutron beam of 0.018 eV energy at the Dhruva research reactor, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. The neutron beam characteristics, such as dimension, homogeneity and thermal equivalent flux were evaluated. The prompt k0-factors of about 15 elements were determined versus the 1951.1 keV gamma-ray of the 35Cl(n,?) reaction. These prompt k0-factors are compared with the recommended k0-values for thermal neutrons and were found to be in good agreement, except for Gd, Cd and Hg. The internal mono-standard method was applied to analyze a meteorite and a stainless steel alloy (SS 316 M) using the recommended k0-values from the literature. As to the alloy, the measured concentrations were in good agreement with the nominal composition. For the meteorite sample, the concentrations of the major elements were in good agreement with the values determined using conventional neutron activation analysis.

Nair, A. G. C.; Acharya, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Reddy, A. V. R.; Goswami, A.

2006-08-01

147

Factors influencing coastal marsh water quality in Georgian Bay, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-induced degradation of coastal marshes has been relatively limited in Georgian Bay. This part ofthe Great Lakes is sparsely populated, with human activity in most areas occurring primarily in the form of diffuse recreational and cottage development. Despite this, water chemistry varies considerably within the Bay. The overall objective of this thesis was to gain an understanding of factors currently

Rachel deCatanzaro

2010-01-01

148

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS FOR A QUALITY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) program de- pends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and in- separable from one another. Each program needs to identify its special circumstances, deficiencies, and strong points, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, \\

K. S. Nayak

149

Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

Deur, Alexandre P. [JLAB

2013-11-01

150

Calculation of thermal neutron self-shielding correction factors for aqueous bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis using the MCNP code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work thermal neutron self-shielding in aqueous bulk samples containing neutron absorbing materials is studied using bulk sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (BSPGNAA) with the MCNP code. The code was used to perform three dimensional simulations of a neutron source, neutron detector and sample of various material compositions. The MCNP model was validated against experimental measurements of the

M. N. Nasrabadi; M. Jalali; A. Mohammadi

2007-01-01

151

Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

2010-01-01

152

Key quality factors in Web site design and use: an examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the research described in this paper was to identify the key quality factors in Web site design and use. From the factors identified, a conceptual model has been developed to assess how a Web site can deliver what its users expect. The model is based on: ease of use, customer confidence, on-line resources, and relationship services. These

J. Cox; B. G. Dale

2002-01-01

153

First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.a [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Crivello, Martin [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires(Argentina); Perona, Marina [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto [Department of Instrumentation and Control, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano [Argentina Reactor, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casal, Mariana [Institute of Oncology 'Angel H. Roffo', University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kahl, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario Alberto [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-01-01

154

Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparse aperture designs can increase the effective aperture size of a remote sensing system, thus allowing the satellite to be placed in a higher orbit without compromising the resolution. The fill factor of a sparse aperture is the total area of the telescope apertures divided by the effective aperture size of the combined telescopes. Reducing the fill factor, F, reduces the overall weight, but also reduces both the signal and the MTF (modulation transfer function). Increasing the effective integration time, t, and applying Wiener filters can gain back some of the lost image quality. This study generated image simulations of various sparse aperture designs to assess the image quality as a function of fill factor. This study found that the integration time needs to be increased by a factor of 1/F2 - 1/F3 in order to maintain the image quality as the fill factor decreased. This study also found that the GIQE (Generalized Image Quality Equation) did not accurately predict the change in image quality, in (Delta) NIIRS, as the fill factor is reduced.

Fiete, Robert D.; Mooney, James A.; Tantalo, Theodore A.; Calus, Jason R.

2000-10-01

155

Factors mediating the impact of chronic pruritus on quality of life.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Chronic pruritus is a common problem with a deleterious effect on quality of life. The factors mediating the relationship between chronic pruritus and quality of life are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To determine the factors that mediate the impact of chronic pruritus on quality of life. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional study based on a nationwide telephone survey of US military veterans sampled from the Veterans Hospital Patient Database. Participants were veterans who agreed to participate and were found to have chronic pruritus. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Statistical significance of predictor variables (characteristics of patients and their chronic pruritus) in multivariate analysis using ItchyQoL scores as response variables. RESULTS Of 6000 veterans telephoned, 1075 consented to participate; 405 of these had chronic pruritus. Factors that mediated the impact of chronic pruritus on quality of life were demographic characteristics (age [P?=?.007], race [P?=?.05], marital status [P?=?.04]), personality (extroversion [P?=?.03], neuroticism [P?=?.01]), pruritus characteristics (severity [P?factors not found significant include sex (P?=?.98) and socioeconomic variables (education level [P?>?.99], employment status [P?=?.53], income [P?=?.62]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The multitude of factors that significantly influence the impact of chronic pruritus on quality of life demonstrates the complex nature of this relationship. A better appreciation of these factors will improve the clinical evaluation and treatment of chronic pruritus. PMID:24671747

Carr, Christopher W; Veledar, Emir; Chen, Suephy C

2014-06-01

156

Implementation of high quality-factor on-chip tuned microwave resonators at 7 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the design, analytical modeling, numerical simulation, fabrication, and experimental characterization of chip-scale microwave resonators that exhibit high quality-factors (Q-factors) in the microwave frequency range. We demonstrate high Q-factors by tuning these microwave resonators with the film capacitance of their LC tank circuits rather than the conventional approach of using external capaci- tors for tuning. Our chip-scale resonator

Rohat Melik; Hilmi Volkan Demir

2009-01-01

157

Role of Reabsorption Effect to Quality Factor in Quantum-Dot Photonic-Crystal Nanocavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have systematically evaluated quality (Q) factor in quantum-dot (QD) photonic-crystal nanocavities. The measured Q factor was very sensitive to the detuning energy of the cavity mode to QD inhomogeneous broadening due to the re-absorption effect of the uncoupled QDs within the nanocavity. We achieved a high Q factor of over 10,000 and an ultra-low threshold lasing by the detuning

T. Tawara; H. Kamada; Y.-H. Zhang; T. Tanabe; N. I. Cade; H. Gotoh; D. Ding; S. R. Johnson; E. Kuramochi; M. Notomi; H. Nakano

2007-01-01

158

The biological effectiveness of radon-progeny alpha particles. III. Quality factors.  

PubMed

Domestic radon risk estimates are typically based either on data for uranium miners or on data derived from A-bomb survivors; comparison of domestic radon risk estimates derived from these two disparate sources represents an important test of their reliability. There is currently a significant discrepancy of about a factor of three between domestic radon risk estimates generated with these two independent methods. To base such risk estimates on the data for A-bomb survivors, who were exposed mainly to low-LET radiation, requires a quality factor for alpha particles from random progeny; the final risk estimate is then directly proportional to this quality factor. We have used the most extensive quantitative in vitro data set currently available at high LET for an oncogenic end point, to make the best estimate we can that could be used as a basis for a quality factor. Our best estimates of values appropriate for the quality factor for radom progeny are significantly lower than those currently used (20-25) in estimating lung cancer mortality due to randon. Specifically, our best estimate for home dwellers is around 10. In addition, because of the different geometry in the bronchial epithelia of nonsmokers compared to smokers, our best estimate of an appropriate quality factor for home dwellers is about 18% greater than that for miners; thus our best estimate of the "effective K factor" to convert to effective dose/WLM in home dwellers from effective dose/WLM in miners would be increased by this factor. Based on a quality factor of approximately 10, the dosimetrically based estimate of radon-induced mortality would be approximately 35,000 per year in the U.S. rather than the value of approximately 70,000 obtained using a quality factor of 20. The value of 35,000, while larger than the values based on data for miners (approximately 20,000), is much smaller than previous estimates of approximately 70,000 based on dosimetric methods; thus risk estimates based on the two approaches, dosimetric and epidemiological, may be partially reconciled. Finally, a quality factor of 10 would reduce the proportion of the collective effective dose caused by radon progeny from the currently accepted value of 55% down to about 38%. PMID:7899560

Brenner, D J; Miller, R C; Huang, Y; Hall, E J

1995-04-01

159

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-01-01

160

Quality of life and temperament factors in schizophrenia: Comparative study of patients, their siblings and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine which temperament factors are associated with quality of life (QOL) in schizophrenia based on a triplet design comparing patients with their non-affected siblings and healthy control subjects. Forty-seven DSM-IV clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients, 47 non-affected siblings, and 56 non-patients matched for gender and age were evaluated using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the Quality of

Rena Kurs; Herman Farkas; Michael Ritsner

2005-01-01

161

Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important factor influencing forage quality is herbage maturity. For example, a 1-week delay in harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) will decrease digestibility and crude protein concentration by about 20 g kg?1 and increase cell-wall concentration by approximately 30 g kg?1. Forage quality also is influenced by the environment in which forages are grown and by soil fertility

Dwayne R. Buxton

1996-01-01

162

Psychosocial Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several sociodemographic and clinical variables are known to influence the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with kidney disease, yet the relationship between psychological factors and the HRQOL measured by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short-Form (KDQOL-SF) is incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial status (depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, and

Isabel Vázquez; Fernando Valderrábano; Joan Fort; Rosa Jofré; Juan Manuel López-Gómez; Fuensanta Moreno; Dámaso Sanz-Guajardo

2005-01-01

163

Effects of Socio-Demographic, Personality and Medical Factors on Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.

Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Malgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanislawska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elzbieta

2014-01-01

164

Effects of socio-demographic, personality and medical factors on quality of life of postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman's organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032

Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Ma?gorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanis?awska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, El?bieta

2014-01-01

165

Cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in severely obese children and adolescents in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents is increasing. However, little is known about cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life of children with severe obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the demographic characteristics and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in severely obese children and adolescents undergoing intensive inpatient treatment for obesity. Methods Data were collected between August 2009 and April 2011 on 16 children (8-13y) and 64 adolescents (13-19y) with severe obesity (SDS-BMI >= 3.0 or SDS-BMI >= 2.3 and comorbidity) participating in an RCT evaluating two intensive inpatient treatment programs for obesity. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical characteristics and two components of the EuroQol for the assessment of quality of life are described. Results Eighty percent of participants in this study had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in addition to severe obesity. Low HDL-cholesterol and hypertension were most prevalent (65.0% respectively 31.2%). The highest significant correlations were found between SDS-BMI and SDS-waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR (correlation coefficients respectively 0.80, 0.49, and 0.48). With regard to quality of life, the mean utility score of the participants was 0.79 on a scale of 0.0 to 1.0 on the EuroQol questionnaire and their mean individual valuation was 69.1 on a scale of 0 to100. Conclusion Cardiometabolic risk factors are already highly prevalent in this group of severely obese children and adolescents. The score of 69.1 found for quality of life in this study suggests that participants experience important limitations in their quality of life. However, quality of life is not associated with the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1678, registered 20-Feb-2009)

2013-01-01

166

The Quality of Different Types of Child Care at 10 and 18 Months: A Comparison between Types and Factors Related to Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of care offered in four different types of non-parental child care to 307 infants at 10 months old and 331 infants at 18 months old was compared and factors associated with higher quality were identified. Observed quality was lowest in nurseries at each age point, except that at 18 months they offered more learning activities. There…

Leach, Penelope; Barnes, Jacqueline; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan

2008-01-01

167

Reaching the theoretical resonance quality factor limit in coaxial plasmonic nanoresonators fabricated by helium ion lithography.  

PubMed

Optical antenna structures have revolutionized the field of nano-optics by confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions for spectroscopy and sensing. In this work, we fabricated coaxial optical antennae with sub-10-nanometer critical dimensions using helium ion lithography (HIL). Wavelength dependent transmission measurements were used to determine the wavelength-dependent optical response. The quality factor of 11 achieved with our HIL fabricated structures matched the theoretically predicted quality factor for the idealized flawless gold resonators calculated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD). For comparison, coaxial antennae with 30 nm critical dimensions were fabricated using both HIL and the more common Ga focus ion beam lithography (Ga-FIB). The quality factor of the Ga-FIB resonators was 60% of the ideal HIL results for the same design geometry due to limitations in the Ga-FIB fabrication process. PMID:23617768

Melli, M; Polyakov, A; Gargas, D; Huynh, C; Scipioni, L; Bao, W; Ogletree, D F; Schuck, P J; Cabrini, S; Weber-Bargioni, A

2013-06-12

168

Quantum Limit of Quality Factor in Silicon Micro and Nano Mechanical Resonators  

PubMed Central

Micromechanical resonators are promising replacements for quartz crystals for timing and frequency references owing to potential for compactness, integrability with CMOS fabrication processes, low cost, and low power consumption. To be used in high performance reference application, resonators should obtain a high quality factor. The limit of the quality factor achieved by a resonator is set by the material properties, geometry and operating condition. Some recent resonators properly designed for exploiting bulk-acoustic resonance have been demonstrated to operate close to the quantum mechanical limit for the quality factor and frequency product (Q-f). Here, we describe the physics that gives rise to the quantum limit to the Q-f product, explain design strategies for minimizing other dissipation sources, and present new results from several different resonators that approach the limit.

Ghaffari, Shirin; Chandorkar, Saurabh A.; Wang, Shasha; Ng, Eldwin J.; Ahn, Chae H.; Hong, Vu; Yang, Yushi; Kenny, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

169

High Quality Factor Graphene Resonator Fabrication Using Resist Shrinkage-Induced Strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used SU-8 shrinkage to fabricate strained graphene resonators to produce a high quality factor in a graphene resonator. A-few-layer graphene resonators were fabricated on a trench of an SU-8 resist. These resonators were clamped with diamond-like carbon (DLC), which was deposited by using focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD), and trimmed by using FIB etching. Annealing was used to apply tensile strain to the graphene resonators because SU-8 shrinks drastically. We also observed an increase in resonant frequency and quality factor in these graphene resonators after annealing. At room temperature, the quality factor of the best sample exceeded 7,000 for a resonator length of 10 ?m.

Oshidari, Yuta; Hatakeyama, Taiki; Kometani, Reo; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Ishihara, Sunao

2012-11-01

170

ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.  

PubMed

Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. PMID:21054473

Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

2010-09-01

171

The biological effectiveness of radon-progeny alpha particles. III. Quality factors  

SciTech Connect

Domestic radon risk estimates are typically based either on data for uranium miners or on data derived from A-bomb survivors; comparison of domestic radon risk estimates derived from these two disparate sources represents an important test of their reliability. There is currently a significant discrepancy of about a factor of three between domestic radon risk estimates generated with these two independent methods. To base such risk estimates on the data for A-bomb survivors, who were exposed mainly to low-LET radiation, requires a quality factor for {alpha} particles from radon progeny; the final risk estimate is then directly proportional to this quality factor. We have used the most extensive quantitative in vitro data set currently available at high LET for an oncogenic end point, to make the best estimate we can that could be used as a basis for a quality factor. Our best estimates of values appropriate for the quality factor for radon progeny are significantly lower than those currently used (20-25) in estimating lung cancer mortality due to radon. Specifically, our best estimate for home dwellers is around 10. In addition, because of the different geometry in the bronchial epithelia of nonsmokers compared to smokers, our best estimate of an appropriate quality factor for home dwellers is about 18% greater than that for miners; thus our best estimate of the {open_quotes}effective K factor{close_quotes} to convert to effective dose/WLM in miners would be increased by this factor. Based on a quality factor of {approximately}10, the dosimetrically based estimate of radon-induced mortality would be {approximately}35,000 per year in the U.S. rather than the value of {approximately}70,000 obtained using a quality factor of 20. The value of 35,000, while larger than the values based on data for miners ({approximately}20,000), is much smaller than previous estimates of {approximately}70,000 based on dosimetric methods. 54 refs., 7 figs.

Brenner, D.J.; Miller, R.C.; Huang, Y. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

172

Comparison of mean quality factors proposed by ICRP, ICRU and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts are exposed to primary cosmic-rays and secondary particles produced by them through interaction with the atoms of the spacecraft material and those of the human body. For the radiation risk estimation of astronauts, not only organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated, since radiation weighting factor as defined by ICRP60 is not suitable for use in space dosimetry due to its very simplified concept. Three relationships were proposed for expressing the radiation quality by different organizations; (1) International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined the quality factor based on LET in water, Q(L), in ICRP60, (2) in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, a quality factor Q(y) is defined as a function of lineal energy, y, for spherical liquid water of 1 mm in diameter, Q(y), and (3) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) proposed those for solid cancer and leukemia separately based on charge and energy of particles, QNASA(Z,E), in NASA/TP-2011-216155. The Q(L) relationship is most simple and widely used in space dosimetry, but the latter two relationships consider the difference of the track structure of the various heavy ions in tissue due to the production of d-rays, which is very important in the risk estimation for the HZE-particle exposure. We therefore calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in the ICRP reference voxel phantoms for various particles, using the PHITS code coupled with the ICRP, ICRU and NASA Q-functions. An isotropic irradiation of the phantom was assumed in the calculation. The details of the calculation procedure will be described, together with the comparison of mean quality factors obtained from the 3 relationships.

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Endo, Akira

2012-07-01

173

Precise Measurement of the Transverse Asymmetry in Quasielastic 3He(e,e') and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the transverse asymmetry At' in 3He(e, e') quasielastic scattering with high statistical precision for Q{sup 2}-values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The data are expected to allow extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor GnM with an uncertainty similar to that of recent experiments on deuterium. Data analysis is currently in progress.

Jens-Ole Hansen for the Jefferson Lab E95-001 Collaboration

2000-01-01

174

Transverse Asymmetry AT' from the Quasielastic 3He-->\\(e-->,e'\\) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in 3He-->\\(e-->,e'\\) quasielastic scattering in Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory with high precision for Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6 \\(GeV/c\\)2. The neutron magnetic form factor GnM was extracted based on Faddeev calculations for Q2 = 0.1 and 0.2 \\(GeV/c\\)2 with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

Xu, W.; Dutta, D.; Xiong, F.; Anderson, B.; Auberbach, L.; Averett, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Black, T.; Calarco, J.; Cardman, L.; Cates, G. D.; Chai, Z. W.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Corrado, G. S.; Crawford, C.; Dale, D.; Deur, A.; Djawotho, P.; Filippone, B. W.; Finn, J. M.; Gao, H.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A. V.; Glashausser, C.; Glöckle, W.; Golak, J.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V. G.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hersman, F. W.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Howell, C. R.; Hughes, E.; Humensky, B.; Incerti, S.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C. E.; Jones, M.; Kahl, R.; Kamada, H.; Kievsky, A.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriqi, E.; Liang, M.; Liyanage, N.; Lerose, J.; Malov, S.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Martin, J. W.; McCormick, K.; McKeown, R. D.; McIlhany, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G. W.; Pace, E.; Pavlin, T.; Petratos, G. G.; Pomatsalyuk, R. I.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R. D.; Roblin, Y.; Rvachev, M.; Saha, A.; Salmè, G.; Schnee, M.; Shin, T.; Slifer, K.; Souder, P. A.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Sutter, M.; Tipton, B.; Todor, L.; Viviani, M.; Vlahovic, B.; Watson, J.; Williamson, C. F.; Wita?a, H.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yeh, J.; ?o?nierczuk, P.

2000-10-01

175

Transverse asymmetry AT' from the quasielastic 3He(e,e') process and the neutron magnetic form factor.  

PubMed

We have measured the transverse asymmetry A(T') in 3He(e,e(')) quasielastic scattering in Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory with high precision for Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6 (GeV/c)(2). The neutron magnetic form factor G(n)(M) was extracted based on Faddeev calculations for Q2 = 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c)(2) with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%. PMID:11005963

Xu, W; Dutta, D; Xiong, F; Anderson, B; Auberbach, L; Averett, T; Bertozzi, W; Black, T; Calarco, J; Cardman, L; Cates, G D; Chai, Z W; Chen, J P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Churchwell, S; Corrado, G S; Crawford, C; Dale, D; Deur, A; Djawotho, P; Filippone, B W; Finn, J M; Gao, H; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A V; Glashausser, C; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Gomez, J; Gorbenko, V G; Hansen, J O; Hersman, F W; Higinbotham, D W; Holmes, R; Howell, C R; Hughes, E; Humensky, B; Incerti, S; de Jager, C W; Jensen, J S; Jiang, X; Jones, C E; Jones, M; Kahl, R; Kamada, H; Kievsky, A; Kominis, I; Korsch, W; Kramer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Kuss, M; Lakuriqi, E; Liang, M; Liyanage, N; LeRose, J; Malov, S; Margaziotis, D J; Martin, J W; McCormick, K; McKeown, R D; McIlhany, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Miller, G W; Pace, E; Pavlin, T; Petratos, G G; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Pripstein, D; Prout, D; Ransome, R D; Roblin, Y; Rvachev, M; Saha, A; Salmè, G; Schnee, M; Shin, T; Slifer, K; Souder, P A; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Sutter, M; Tipton, B; Todor, L; Viviani, M; Vlahovic, B; Watson, J; Williamson, C F; Wita?a, H; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yeh, J; Zo?nierczuk, P

2000-10-01

176

Suspended plate microresonators with high quality factor for the operation in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial wetting has been recently proposed to facilitate the operation of microresonators with high quality factor in liquids. By applying this concept to a resonator operated in a shearing eigenmode, a further reduction of viscous damping is expected corresponding to theory. In this study, an excellent quality factor of 490 could be verified for suspended plate-microresonators operated in water combining these two approaches. As a proof of concept, the resonators were employed as mass sensors in water revealing a sensitivity of 80 Hz/pg.

Linden, J.; Thyssen, A.; Oesterschulze, E.

2014-05-01

177

Ultra-high quality factor optical resonators based on semiconductor nanowires.  

PubMed

We propose a platform to achieve ultra-high Quality factor (Q) optical resonators based on semiconductor nanowires. By defining onedimensional photonic crystal at nanowire ends and engineering the microcavity pattern, cavities with Q of 3 x 10(5) and mode volume smaller than 0.2(lambda/n)(3) have been designed. This represents an increase of almost three orders of magnitude over the Quality factor of an as-grown nanowire. Our cavities are well-suited for the realization of nanowire-based low-threshold lasers, single-photon sources and quantum optical devices that operate in the strong-coupling limit. PMID:18958022

Zhang, Yinan; Loncar, Marko

2008-10-27

178

A Pilot's Assessment of Helicopter Handling-Quality Factors Common to Both Agility and Instrument Flying Tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both...

R. M. Gerdes

1980-01-01

179

Factors predicting team climate, and its relationship with quality of care in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of care in general practice may be affected by the team climate perceived by its health and non-health professionals. Better team working is thought to lead to higher effectiveness and quality of care. However, there is limited evidence available on what affects team functioning and its relationship with quality of care in general practice. This study aimed to explore individual and practice factors that were associated with team climate, and to explore the relationship between team climate and quality of care. Methods Cross sectional survey of a convenience sample of 14 general practices and their staff in South Tyneside in the northeast of England. Team climate was measured using the short version of Team Climate Inventory (TCI) questionnaire. Practice characteristics were collected during a structured interview with practice managers. Quality was measured using the practice Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores. Results General Practitioners (GP) had a higher team climate scores compared to other professionals. Individual's gender and tenure, and number of GPs in the practice were significantly predictors of a higher team climate. There was no significant correlation between mean practice team climate scores (or subscales) with QOF scores. Conclusion The absence of a relationship between a measure of team climate and quality of care in this exploratory study may be due to a number of methodological problems. Further research is required to explore how to best measure team functioning and its relationship with quality of care.

2009-01-01

180

Analysis of factors influencing voice quality and therapeutic approaches in vocal polyp patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of the present study was to investigate the relationship between parameters and factors predictive of voice quality\\u000a and to suggest treatment guidelines for patients suffering from vocal polyps. In total, 158 patients diagnosed with vocal\\u000a polyps and who received voice therapy were enrolled. Clinicomorphological factors such as size, location, color, and type\\u000a of the polyp were evaluated. Perceptive

Kwang Jae Cho; Inn Chul Nam; Yeon Shin Hwang; Mi Ran Shim; Jun Ook Park; Jung Hae Cho; Young Hoon Joo; Min Sik Kim; Dong Il Sun

2011-01-01

181

Space radiation quality factor investigations with “NAUSICAA”-device on board the “MIR” space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of radiation quality factor in space flights is a serious problem of space dosimetry. The solution of this problem is based on LET-spectra measurements. The “NAUSICAA”-device installed on the “MIR” station has a detector with a large geometric factor, that gives the possibility of measuring LET-spectra with sufficient statistic in relatively short time interval and hence the corresponding

V. V. Benghin; V. M Petrov; Yu. V. Ivanov; V. A Shurshakov; S. B Kozlova; V. D Nguyen; J. F Bottollier; M. Siegrist

1996-01-01

182

Factors Predicting Dynamic Balance and Quality of Life in Home-Dwelling Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Proper balance seems to be a critical factor in terms of fall prevention among the elderly. Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine factors that are associated with dynamic balance and health-related quality of life in home-dwelling elderly women. Methods: One hundred and fifty-three healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 72 years, height: 159 cm, weight: 72

S. Karinkanta; A. Heinonen; H. Sievänen; K. Uusi-Rasi; P. Kannus

2005-01-01

183

Factors Affecting the Quality of Diabetic Care in Primary Care Settings in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The quality of services delivered to type 2 diabetic patients in primary health care has an important impact on long-term outcomes. The aim of this study is to explore diabetic patients’ views of factors affecting quality of diabetic services delivered in primary care in Oman, a developing country with a high burden of diabetes. Methods: Semi-structured face to face interviews were conducted with 19 type 2 diabetic patients recruited from four selected primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in Muscat region, the capital city of Oman. A framework approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results: Participants identified several factors which could affect the quality of diabetic services provided in PHCs: delays in the follow-up process; lack of continuity of care; diabetes educational materials unavailable in waiting areas; shortage of Omani nurses able to speak the patients’ language; inadequate explanations from the attending primary care physician (PCP); under involvement of dieticians in patient management; delays in provision of laboratory results; inadequate supplies of diabetic medication between appointments, and long waits to see ophthalmologists. Conclusion: Several factors were identified by diabetic patients that may influence the quality of diabetic services provided in the PHC setting in Oman. Health care professionals and decision makers in the Ministry of Health (MOH) and other health care sectors in Oman should consider patients’ views and concerns in order to improve the quality of diabetic care services in primary health care.

Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Azri, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Fatma; Al-Rasbi, Samira; El-Shafie, Kawther; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

2011-01-01

184

Quality of Life and the Associated Psychological Factors in Caregivers of Children with PKU  

PubMed Central

Objectives The main objective of this study was to investigate the association of psychological factors and life stressors with quality of life in caregivers of children with PKU. Methods Participants were caregivers of children with PKU who were referred to a child and adolescent consultation-liaison psychiatry clinic for a clinical follow up. Their demographic characteristics were recorded at first. WHOQOL-BREF and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS) were used to assess quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress in participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-11.5 statistical software. Results A total number of 49 caregivers were enrolled for the study. The mean age of participants and their children were 35.63±8.82, and 9.84±6.62 respectively. Of the participants, 59.2% were mothers and 40.8% were fathers. Of the children, 51% were girls and 49% were boys. According to the results, 57.1, 50.1 and 57.1 percent of the participants had mild to severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress scores respectively. The most associated factors with quality of life were as follows: caregivers’ occupation; anxiety; and depression mean scores. Conclusion Results of the current study showed that caregivers of children with PKU have lower levels of quality of life in comparison with the general population; and the most correlated factors with quality of life were the caregivers’ occupation (especially unemployment), and high levels of depression and anxiety.

Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Mostafavi, Saeedeh

2011-01-01

185

Domains of Life Satisfaction Among Patients Living With HIV: A Factor Analytic Study of the Quality of Life Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to identify multidimensional factors of life satisfaction in individuals with HIV through a factor analysis\\u000a of the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), and to examine the relationship of these factors to health-related quality of life,\\u000a depression, and medication adherence. Four quality of life domains emerged: Achievement, Self-Expression, Environment, and\\u000a Interpersonal Relationships. QOLI means were substantially lower than

Steven A. Safren

2006-01-01

186

Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

2013-01-01

187

Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

2011-01-01

188

Modulation Quality Factor for Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) Communications Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LPI (low probability of intercept) system quality factors were developed in a previous effort in order to provide a quantitative analysis tool for the system engineer to employ in evaluating the effectiveness of LPI techniques in the presence of jammers a...

G. Prescott L. Gutman D. Connolly

1991-01-01

189

Factor analysis as a tool in groundwater quality management: two southern African case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although developed as a tool in the social sciences, R-mode factor analysis, a multivariate statistical tool, has proven highly effective in studies of groundwater quality. The technique examines the relationships between variables (such as chemical parameters in groundwater), which are shown by a number of cases (such as sampling points). In this study, two examples are presented. The first is

David Love; Dieter Hallbauer; Amos Amos; Roumiana Hranova

2004-01-01

190

A Review of Research on Factors that Impact Aspects of Online Discussions Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In support of online discussions research, this review classifies and describes instructional interventions and learner characteristics that affect the quality of discussions. The review will help educators better understand factors such as group structure, mentoring, argumentation, and learner characteristics that play a role in shaping online…

Spatariu, Alexandru; Quinn, Linda F.; Hartley, Kendall

2007-01-01

191

Clinical impact versus factor analysis for quality of life questionnaire construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We have compared two philosophically different methods for selecting items for a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. The impact method selects items that are most frequently perceived as important by patients whereas the psychometric method (factor analysis) selects items primarily according to their relationships with one another. Patients: 150 adults with symptomatic asthma and a wide range of disease

Elizabeth F. Juniper; Gordon H. Guyatt; David L. Streiner; Derek R. King

1997-01-01

192

Quality limiting factors of imaging endoscopes based on optical fiber bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, imaging endoscopes have a key role in medicine, for diagnostic, treatment and surgical applications. Coherent optical fiber bundles used for medical imaging show flexibility and a high active area, but they entail two main quality-limiting factors: leaky modes and crosstalk or interference between the optical fibers of the bundle. The former provokes a worsening of lateral resolution, while the

N. Ortega-Quijano; J. L. Arce-Diego; F. Fanjul-Vélez

2008-01-01

193

Factors affecting quality of care in family planning clinics: A study from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Despite good contraceptive coverage rates, recent studies in Iran have shown an alarmingly high incidence of unplanned pregnancy. Objective. To determine factors affecting quality of family planning services, a cross-sectional study was performed from June to August 2006 on women visiting urban Primary Health Care clinics in a provincial capital in western Iran. The primary focus of the study

ALI SHAHIDZADEH-MAHANI; SEPIDEH OMIDVARI; HAMID-REZA BARADARAN; SEYYED-ALI AZIN

2008-01-01

194

Testing the Factor Structure of the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…

Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.

2012-01-01

195

Factors Influencing Older Worker Quality of Life and Intent to Continue to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High turnover has been a major problem in healthcare organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among job characteristics, social support, and organizational characteristics on quality of the working life. Subsequently, the intent was to examine how those factors collectively influence turnover intention. A…

Spokus, Diane

2008-01-01

196

5E-5 Generated Power Characterization of Piezoelectrics with Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient and Quality Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple equation for generated power of piezoelectric devices was developed for the case in which deflection is fixed. The generated power equation is expressed in terms of stiffness, resonant frequency, deflection and electromechanical coupling coefficient k2. The generated power equation shows that power is not a function of quality factor Q under this condition. The power output produced by

J. H. Cho; R. F. Richards; D. F. Bahr; C. D. Richards; M. J. Anderson

2006-01-01

197

The effect of environmental and structural factors on indoor air quality of apartments in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor air quality (IAQ) was measured in newly built Korean apartments before and after occupancy in a survey of 158 residences in 24-apartment complexes nationwide. Factors that might affect pollutant concentration, such as temperature, humidity, housing size, and duration of occupancy, were analyzed in relation to the measured concentrations. Average pollutant levels were consistent with the Ministry of the

Wan-Je Jo; Jang-Yeul Sohn

2009-01-01

198

Relationship of quality factor and hollow winding structure of Coreless Printed Spiral Winding (CPSW) inductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of using hollow spiral winding is not novel, but the study on this topic is far from complete. In this paper, how hollow the central region of the Coreless Printed Spiral Winding (CPSW) inductor should be in order to achieve the maximal quality factor value Qmax is explored. A new parameter, namely the ratio of the inner hollow

Y. P. Su; Xun Liu; C. K. Lee; S. Y. R. Hui

2010-01-01

199

Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students' college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various…

Richmond, Lori M.

2011-01-01

200

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

2008-01-01

201

Kramers-Kronig based quality factor for shear wave propagation in soft tissue  

PubMed Central

Shear wave propagation techniques have been introduced for measuring the viscoelastic material properties of tissue, but assessing the accuracy of these measurements is difficult for in vivo measurements in tissue. We propose using the Kramers-Kronig relationships to assess the consistency and quality of the measurements of shear wave attenuation and phase velocity. In ex vivo skeletal muscle we measured the wave attenuation at different frequencies, and then applied finite bandwidth Kramers-Kronig equations to predict the phase velocities. We compared these predictions with the measured phase velocities and assessed the mean square error (MSE) as a quality factor. An algorithm was derived for computing a quality factor using the Kramers-Kronig relationships.

Urban, M W; Greenleaf, J F

2009-01-01

202

Design and Measurement of a Digital Phase Locked BWO for Accurately Extracting the Quality Factors in a Biconcave Resonator System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long loop phase locked backward-wave oscillator (BWO) for a high quality factor resonator system operating at D-band frequencies (130-170GHz) was described, the phase noise of the phased locked BWO was analyzed and measured at typical frequencies. When it used with a high quality factor open resonator for measuring the quality factor of simple harmonic resonators based on the magnitude transfer characteristic, this system has proven to be capable of accurate measuring the quality factor as high as 0.8 million with an uncertainty of less than 1.3% (Lorentzian fitting) at typical frequencies in the range of 130GHz-170GHz.

Gao, Yuanci; Charles, Jones R.; Yu, Guofen; Jyotsna, Dutta M.

2012-03-01

203

Hearing the patient's voice? Factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a framework for understanding factors affecting the use of patient survey data in quality improvement. Design: Qualitative interviews with senior health professionals and managers and a review of the literature. Setting: A quality improvement collaborative in Minnesota, USA involving teams from eight medical groups, focusing on how to use patient survey data to improve patient centred care. Participants: Eight team leaders (medical, clinical improvement or service quality directors) and six team members (clinical improvement coordinators and managers). Results: Respondents reported three types of barriers before the collaborative: organisational, professional and data related. Organisational barriers included lack of supporting values for patient centred care, competing priorities, and lack of an effective quality improvement infrastructure. Professional barriers included clinicians and staff not being used to focusing on patient interaction as a quality issue, individuals not necessarily having been selected, trained or supported to provide patient centred care, and scepticism, defensiveness or resistance to change following feedback. Data related barriers included lack of expertise with survey data, lack of timely and specific results, uncertainty over the effective interventions or time frames for improvement, and consequent risk of perceived low cost effectiveness of data collection. Factors that appeared to have promoted data use included board led strategies to change culture and create quality improvement forums, leadership from senior physicians and managers, and the persistence of quality improvement staff over several years in demonstrating change in other areas. Conclusion: Using patient survey data may require a more concerted effort than for other clinical data. Organisations may need to develop cultures that support patient centred care, quality improvement capacity, and to align professional receptiveness and leadership with technical expertise with the data.

Davies, E; Cleary, P

2005-01-01

204

Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.  

PubMed

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-06-01

205

High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials.  

PubMed

With extremely low material absorption and exceptional surface smoothness, silica-based optical resonators can achieve extremely high cavity quality (Q) factors. However, the intrinsic material limitations of silica (e.g., lack of second order nonlinearity) may limit the potential applications of silica-based high Q resonators. Here we report some results in utilizing layer-by-layer self-assembly to functionalize silica microspheres with nonlinear and plasmonic nanomaterials while maintaining Q factors as high as 10(7). We compare experimentally measured Q factors with theoretical estimates, and find good agreement. PMID:24103932

Kandas, Ishac; Zhang, Baigang; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Ashry, Islam; Jao, Chih-Yu; Peng, Bo; Ozdemir, Sahin K; Robinson, Hans D; Heflin, James R; Yang, Lan; Xu, Yong

2013-09-01

206

Polarization-insensitive resonances with high quality-factors in meta-molecule metamaterials.  

PubMed

Achieving narrow resonance is an area of interest within the field of metamaterials. However, only a few studies have investigated the polarization-insensitive resonances. A general principle for improving quality Q-factor of a sharp resonance is still unclear. In this work, we proposed a kind of planar meta-molecule metamaterials, which can exhibit polarization-insensitive resonance with high Q-factor. The proposed structures have a unit cell consisting of four arrayed ring resonant elements with two different sizes. Moreover, the investigation on surface current and two referential simulated structures confirm a principle for improving Q-factor. PMID:24977554

Wu, Lin; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming; Zheng, Yu; Duan, Ji'an; Yuan, Xiuhua

2014-06-16

207

Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

Blanken, Christopher L. (editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (editor)

1993-01-01

208

Sensorless enhancement of an atomic force microscope micro-cantilever quality factor using piezoelectric shunt control.  

PubMed

The image quality and resolution of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is dependent on the quality (Q) factor of the sensing micro-cantilever. Increasing the cantilever Q factor improves image resolution and reduces the risk of sample and cantilever damage. Active piezoelectric shunt control is introduced in this work as a new technique for modifying the Q factor of a piezoelectric self-actuating AFM micro-cantilever. An active impedance is placed in series with the tip oscillation voltage source to modify the mechanical dynamics of the cantilever. The benefit of using this control technique is that it removes the optical displacement sensor from the Q control feedback loop to reduce measurement noise in the loop and allows for a reduction in instrument size. PMID:23742557

Fairbairn, M; Moheimani, S O R

2013-05-01

209

Sensorless enhancement of an atomic force microscope micro-cantilever quality factor using piezoelectric shunt control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image quality and resolution of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in tapping mode is dependent on the quality (Q) factor of the sensing micro-cantilever. Increasing the cantilever Q factor improves image resolution and reduces the risk of sample and cantilever damage. Active piezoelectric shunt control is introduced in this work as a new technique for modifying the Q factor of a piezoelectric self-actuating AFM micro-cantilever. An active impedance is placed in series with the tip oscillation voltage source to modify the mechanical dynamics of the cantilever. The benefit of using this control technique is that it removes the optical displacement sensor from the Q control feedback loop to reduce measurement noise in the loop and allows for a reduction in instrument size.

Fairbairn, M.; Moheimani, S. O. R.

2013-05-01

210

Imaging performance of imaging plate neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new series of experimental imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-NDs) were made, where the composition of the respective IP-NDs, containing a photostimulable BaFBr:Eu2+ phosphor and a neutron converter material, Gd2O3 or 6LiF, were varied systematically. The different conversion processes between natural abundant Gd and 6Li caused distinct imaging properties. The imaging steps and the factors governing the image quality are

Kenji Takahashi; Seiji Tazaki; Junji Miyahara; Yuuko Karasawa; Nobuo Niimura

1996-01-01

211

Factor Analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Context Sleep is a significant problem in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and measured frequently using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Thus, it is important to evaluate its factor structure. The two-process model of sleep regulation was the theoretical framework for this study. Objectives To perform a confirmatory factor analysis of the PSQI in BCS and compare results between African-American and Caucasian BCS. Methods This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data using local and regional health care facilities and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group referrals. The study included 1174 non-depressed BCS (90% Caucasian), with a mean age of 57 years and median PSQI global scores at the cut-off for poor sleep (median = 6.00, interquartile range = 4.00–9.00). Measurements included self-reported demographics, medical history, depression, and sleep. Results Acceptable fit was not reached for the traditional one-factor model that would be consistent with current PSQI scoring or for alternative models in published literature from other populations. A new two-factor model (i.e., sleep efficiency and perceived sleep quality) best fit the data but nested-model comparisons by race showed different relationships by race for 1) sleep quality–sleep latency, and 2) sleep efficiency–sleep quality. Conclusion Results were inconsistent with current PSQI scoring that assumes a single global factor and with previously published literature. Although a new two-factor model best fit the data, further quantitative and qualitative analyses are warranted to validate our results in other populations before revising PSQI scoring recommendations. Additional recommendations for research are described.

Otte, Julie L.; Rand, Kevin L.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Champion, Victoria L.

2012-01-01

212

Understanding critical factors for the quality and shelf-life of MAP fresh meat: a review.  

PubMed

Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The success of MAP-fresh meat depends on many factors including good initial product quality, good hygiene from the source plants, correct packaging material selection, the appropriate gas mix for the product, reliable packaging equipment, and maintenance of controlled temperatures and humidity levels. Advances in plastic materials and equipment have propelled advances in MAP, but other technological and logistical considerations are needed for successful MAP systems for raw chilled meat. Although several parameters critical for the quality of MA packed meat have been studied and each found to be crucial, understanding of the interactions between the parameters is needed. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely available, scattered information about the various integrated critical factors responsible for the quality and shelf life of MA packed meat with an interest to stimulate further research to optimize different quality parameters. PMID:21328110

Singh, Preeti; Wani, Ali Abas; Saengerlaub, Sven; Langowski, Horst-Christian

2011-02-01

213

Quality of life in lung cancer patients: as an important prognostic factor.  

PubMed

Given that lung cancer is one of the common cancers world-wide, the implications of focusing on quality of life as well as survival require to be understood. We have carried out a study of the relationship between survival and quality of life in patients with lung cancer comparing patients those who lived with those who died within 3 months. The design of the study allowed every patient in a defined geographical area with a potential diagnosis of lung cancer to be studied from first outpatient consultation till after a definitive treatment has been given. Quality of life was measured using three standard questionnaires: the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its lung cancer supplementary questionnaire (QLQ-LC13) in addition to a study specific questionnaire collecting data on demographic, social, clinical and performance status. The contribution of quality of life in relation to survival adjusted for known prognostic factors was determined using Cox's proportional hazard model. In all 129 lung cancer patients were interviewed, and 96 patients were alive at 3-months follow-up. Only 90 of 96 patients alive at 3-months follow-up were assessable. Descriptive analyses showed that those who were dead had more perceived health problems, greater level of symptoms and significant lower physical and role functioning and global quality of life at presentation. On the other hand, univariate analyses showed that patients' aggregate scores on the NHP, the functioning scores, and global quality of life scores alone were significant predictors of survival (P<0.03, P<0.04, P<0.04, respectively ). The multivariate analyses showed that pre-diagnosis global quality of life was the most significant predictor of the length of survival even after adjusting for known prognostic factors (age, P<0.04; extent of disease, P<0.03; global quality of life, P<0.02), while performance status, sex and weight loss were not. This study confirmed that pre-diagnosis quality of life was a significant predictor of survival. Indeed, pre-diagnosis quality of life should be considered as a clinical status which has to be established by physicians before treatment starts as it is such an important predictor of survival. PMID:11165402

Montazeri, A; Milroy, R; Hole, D; McEwen, J; Gillis, C R

2001-01-01

214

Symmetrically glass-clad photonic crystal nanocavities with ultrahigh quality factors.  

PubMed

We design and fabricate ultra-high-quality (Q) photonic nanocavities in a symmetrically glass-clad silicon (Si) two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) structure. We theoretically investigate the dependence of the refractive index of the glass on the Q factors for asymmetric and symmetric structures. We show that the index-symmetric distribution of the glass is a critical factor to realize ultrahigh Q factors for glass-clad 2D PhC structures. We fabricate symmetrically glass-clad Si PhC nanocavities and achieve a record Q factor of 1×10(6), comparable with the highest Q factors of nanocavities in air-bridge structures. PMID:21209697

Song, Bong-Shik; Jeon, Seung-Woo; Noda, Susumu

2011-01-01

215

Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health  

SciTech Connect

Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

1984-10-01

216

Risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island dairy herds. Part 1: overall risk factors.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine on-farm risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank raw milk quality was evaluated on all Prince Edward Island dairy herds (n = 235) over a 2-yr period (March 2005 to March 2007). Biweekly total bacterial, preliminary incubation, laboratory pasteurization, and coliform counts were conducted using a Petrifilm culture system. For the assessment of risk factors, a case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to May 2007. Case and control herds were defined based on the last 6 analyses of bulk tank bacterial counts before on-farm evaluation. Cases were herds that had multiple elevated counts for any of the parameters measured. A total of 69 herds (39 cases and 30 control herds) were evaluated. Data collection included 1) observation and questionnaire on basic hygiene and farm management practices; 2) complete wash analysis of the milking equipment, monitoring the presence of bacterial films on equipment and evaluation of cooling system function; and 3) environmental and cow hygiene scoring. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The results of the final model indicated that high alkalinity in the wash water and poor teat-end cleanliness were associated with high bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 12 and 5.3, respectively). It was also observed that high water temperature of detergent wash and the use of a water softener were associated with low bacterial counts in bulk tank milk (odds ratios = 0.87 and 0.11, respectively). A significant association between udder hair clipping and teat-end cleanliness was also observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of udder hygiene and milking system washing factors on hygienic quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:19447996

Elmoslemany, A M; Keefe, G P; Dohoo, I R; Jayarao, B M

2009-06-01

217

Cherokee Reservoir: supplement to factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Several rates and/or measurements were assumed in preparation of the Factors Affecting Water Quality in Cherokee Reservoir report prepared by Iwanski, et al. (1980). The following discussions and data were generated to support future modeling efforts of Cherokee Reservoir water quality. These discussions are not wholly intended to define conclusions or new findings, but rather lend support to assumed parameters in the modeling effort. The data include: (1) long-term BOD analyses; (2) limiting nutrient studies algal assays; (3) phytoplankton biomass; (4) primary productivity; and (5) solids transport. 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

Poppe, W.L.

1981-09-14

218

Clinically relevant quality measures for risk factor control in primary care: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of the proportion of patients with well controlled cardiovascular risk factors underestimates the proportion of patients receiving high quality of care. Evaluating whether physicians respond appropriately to poor risk factor control gives a different picture of quality of care. We assessed physician response to control cardiovascular risk factors, as well as markers of potential overtreatment in Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare coverage but without systematic quality monitoring, annual report cards on quality of care or financial incentives to improve quality. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1002 randomly selected patients aged 50–80 years from four university primary care settings in Switzerland. For hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, we first measured proportions in control, then assessed therapy modifications among those in poor control. “Appropriate clinical action” was defined as a therapy modification or return to control without therapy modification within 12 months among patients with baseline poor control. Potential overtreatment of these conditions was defined as intensive treatment among low-risk patients with optimal target values. Results 20% of patients with hypertension, 41% with dyslipidemia and 36% with diabetes mellitus were in control at baseline. When appropriate clinical action in response to poor control was integrated into measuring quality of care, 52 to 55% had appropriate quality of care. Over 12 months, therapy of 61% of patients with baseline poor control was modified for hypertension, 33% for dyslipidemia, and 85% for diabetes mellitus. Increases in number of drug classes (28-51%) and in drug doses (10-61%) were the most common therapy modifications. Patients with target organ damage and higher baseline values were more likely to have appropriate clinical action. We found low rates of potential overtreatment with 2% for hypertension, 3% for diabetes mellitus and 3-6% for dyslipidemia. Conclusions In primary care, evaluating whether physicians respond appropriately to poor risk factor control, in addition to assessing proportions in control, provide a broader view of the quality of care than relying solely on measures of proportions in control. Such measures could be more clinically relevant and acceptable to physicians than simply reporting levels of control.

2014-01-01

219

Numerical analysis of beam quality factor ? on coherent combination of multiple laser beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

numerical simulation model for coherent combination of multiple rectangular beams, square beams and circular beams has been developed. The beam quality factor ? of wavelet and its combination was obtained by numerical calculation through fast Fourier transform (FFT) when each wavelet has Zernike aberrations with twenty-one polynomials. The influence of piston on coherent beam combination was analyzed too. It's demonstrated that the influence of piston on CBC(coherent beam combination) was small if each wavelet has many other higher order aberrations. The relationship between the averaged beam quality factor ? of all wavelets and beam quality factor ? of CBC based on these wavelets was also obtained by numerical calculation. A fitting formula was used to fit the discrete data. By this way, an expression of the relationship was acquired. Fitting coefficients between numerical calculation and theoretical result were compared and the affecting factor of the difference was analyzed. We concluded that fitting coefficients of numerical calculation result was smaller than theoretical result because of wavelet arrangement and filling ratio.

Tan, Yi; Li, Xinyang

2012-11-01

220

Pressure dependence of the quality factor of piezoelectrically driven AlN/Si-microcantilevers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the fabrication process of piezoelectric AlN cantilevers is presented. The cantilevers were electrically characterized in a vacuum chamber offering the possibility to close-loop control the back pressure from atmospheric conditions down to 5x10-3 mbar. The quality factor (Q factor) is an important figure of merit to evaluate the performance of micro-resonators. In particular, two different modes were detected and analyzed. The first bending mode detected at 19.5 kHz has a quality factor of 470 at atmospheric pressure which increases continuously to 985 at 1x10-1 mbar. The corresponding resonant frequency shifted from 19.500 kHz at atmospheric pressure to 19.573 kHz at 5 mbar. Below this pressure level, the resonance frequency stays unaffected within the measurement accuracy. The second bending mode detected at 117.264 kHz exhibits a quality factor of about 570 at atmospheric pressure increasing continuously to 1275 at 1x10-1 mbar. In agreement with the other resonant frequency under investigation the corresponding resonant frequency decreased from 117.264 kHz at atmospheric pressure to 117.630 kHz at 5 mbar.

Ababneh, A.; Al-Omari, A. N.; Qiu, H. C.; Manzaneque, T.; Hernando, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Seidel, H.

2013-05-01

221

Factors influencing subjective quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders: A pooled analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective quality of life (SQOL) is an important outcome in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. However, there is only limited evidence on factors influencing SQOL, and little is known about whether the same factors influence SQOL in patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with SQOL and test whether these factors

Stefan Priebe; Ulrich Reininghaus; Rosemarie McCabe; Tom Burns; Mona Eklund; Lars Hansson; Ulrich Junghan; Thomas Kallert; Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen; Mirella Ruggeri; Mike Slade; Duolao Wang

2010-01-01

222

Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

1992-01-01

223

Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.  

PubMed

The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause. PMID:24245487

Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

2013-11-27

224

Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

1989-01-01

225

Design and simulation of nanowire-based high Quality factor nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cavity design that combines a "bottom-up" synthesized semiconductor nanowire with a "top-down" fabricated one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) has been proposed. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the characteristics of the nanowire-based Bragg mirror and the resulting nanocavities, using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code. Based on this proposal, we demonstrate ultra-high Quality factor (Q) on the order of one million, an increase of three orders of magnitude over the Quality factor of an as-grown nanowire. We believe that our design will offer a feasible platform to develop various nanowire-based photonic devices, for example, quantum optical devices that operate in the strong-coupling limit.

Zhang, Yinan; Loncar, Marko

2009-02-01

226

A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization  

PubMed Central

We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues.

Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

2014-01-01

227

[Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].  

PubMed

By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-12-01

228

[Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].  

PubMed

A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

Chávez, J F

1980-03-01

229

Factor structure of the Singapore English version of the KINDL® children quality of life questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) outcomes are useful in the assessment of physical, mental and social well-being and for informed healthcare decision making. However, few studies have evaluated QoL issues among Asian children due largely to the lack of culturally valid and reliable QoL questionnaires. Hence, we aimed to report the psychometric properties, in particular factor structure, of KINDL (Singapore)

Hwee-Lin Wee; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer; Michael Erhart; Shu-Chuen Li

2007-01-01

230

Beam Quality Factor of Single-Mode Gain-Guided Fiber Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beam quality factor M^2 for the fundamental LP01 mode of a step-index\\u000afiber is calculated in the presence of gain, in a closed form, as a function of\\u000athe complex generalized V-number. It is shown that the M^2 value of a\\u000asingle-mode gain-guided fiber laser can be arbitrary large. The results are\\u000aimportant for the interpretation of the beam

Krishna Mohan Gundu; Parisa Gandomkar Yarandi; Arash Mafi

2010-01-01

231

Beam Quality Factor of Single-Mode Gain-Guided Fiber Lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beam quality factor M^2 for the fundamental LP01 mode of a step-index fiber is calculated in the presence of gain, in a closed form, as a function of the complex generalized V-number. It is shown that the M^2 value of a single-mode gain-guided fiber laser can be arbitrary large. The results are important for the interpretation of the beam

Krishna Mohan Gundu; Parisa Gandomkar Yarandi; Arash Mafi

2010-01-01

232

Characterization of on-road vehicle emission factors and microenvironmental air quality in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the results and analysis of a recent field campaign in August 2007 investigating the impacts of emissions from transportation on air quality and community concentrations in Beijing, China. We conducted measurements in three different environments, on-road, roadside and ambient. The carbon monoxide, black carbon and ultrafine particle number emission factors for on-road light-duty vehicles are

Dane Westerdahl; Xing Wang; Xiaochuan Pan; K. Max Zhang

2009-01-01

233

Nano-fabrication dependent quality factor in photonic crystal slab biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photonic crystal slabs (PCS) are attractive for label-free optical bio-sensors inside micro-fluidic portable diagnostic systems due to their high sensitivity and easy coupling to external radiation. Obtaining high quality factor (Q) values for the guided resonances in these index-of-refraction PCS biosensors is crucial for high sensitivity. Non-ideal fabrication of the hole array in the PCS due to electron beam writing,

Hooman Akhavan; Mohamed El-Beheiry; Ofer Levi

2010-01-01

234

Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. METHODS: We measured perceived quality of life (QOL) in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions

Beatriz Rodriguez-Salgado; Helen Dolengevich-Segal; Manuel Arrojo-Romero; Paola Castelli-Candia; Mercedes Navio-Acosta; Maria M Perez-Rodriguez; Jeronimo Saiz-Ruiz; Enrique Baca-Garcia

2006-01-01

235

Neutron spectroscopic factors of Nickel-56 via Nickel(p,d)-56 Nickel-55 reaction in inverse kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transfer reactions have been the classic tool for studying the angular distributions, the excitation energies, and the spectroscopic factors of possible single-particles states. With the advent of radioactive beams, there has been a renewed effort to utilize these beams in transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. The exact shell structure of the unstable doubly magic nucleus 56Ni has attracted a lot of interest recently. To test if 56Ni has a closed f7/2 orbital, we have carried out the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni transfer reaction measurement with the radioactive 56Ni beam in inverse kinematics for the first time at the NSCL using the HiRA array and S800 spectrograph. The spectroscopic factor predicted by the independent particle model is 8, shell-model calculations give value of 6.8. We have extracted spectroscopic factors of the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni reaction, for the ground and two excited states of 55Ni. The neutron SF value of 7 for the 56Ni(p,d)55Ni ground state agrees with shell-model calculations supports the view that 56Ni is a closed shell nucleus. This result supports the use of 56Ni as a core in shell-model calculations. Another important goal was to study the structure of 55Ni by determining the spin and parities of excited states. We have assigned an ? value of 1 to first excited state of 55Ni for 2.089 MeV state of 55Ni. We have extracted a spectroscopic factor of 0.14 for this state. This serves as a second test of the shell model, and the results agree with the shell model calculations. We have confirmed the tentative ? = 0 assumption for 3.185 MeV state. A neutron spectroscopic factor of 1.2 was obtained for this state.

Sanetullaev, Alisher

236

Quality factor of Si-based photonic crystal L3 nanocavities probed with an internal source.  

PubMed

We have investigated the quality factors of silicon-based photonic crystal nanocavities using the photoluminescence of a single layer of Ge/Si self-assembled islands as an internal source. We focus on membrane-type L3 elongated cavities with or without their lateral edge air holes shifted in position. The photoluminescence measurements are performed at room temperature. We show that the quality factor of the fundamental mode observed at a normalized frequency u = a/lambda~_ 0.25 is strongly dependent on the incident pump power. This dependence is associated with the free-carrier absorption of the photogenerated carriers. The slope of the quality factor vs. incident pump power gives access to the carrier recombination dynamics in these Si-based nanocavities. The measurements indicate that the carrier dynamics is controlled by nonradiative recombination associated with surface recombinations. A surface recombination velocity of 4.8 x 10(4) cm/s is deduced from the experiments. The spectral red-shift of the cavity modes as a function of incident pump power is correlated to the temperature rise due to thermo-optic effects. The measured temperature rise, which can reach 190 K, is correlated to the value estimated by a thermal analysis. PMID:18545591

El Kurdi, M; Checoury, X; David, S; Ngo, T P; Zerounian, N; Boucaud, P; Kermarrec, O; Campidelli, Y; Bensahel, D

2008-06-01

237

Measurement of the Neutron Electric Form Factor Gen at 0.67 \\(GeV/c\\)2 via 3He-->\\(e-->,e'n\\)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the neutron electric form factor Gen via 3He-->\\(e-->,e'n\\)pp at Q2 = 0.67 \\(GeV/c\\)2 using the 3-spectrometer facility of the A1 Collaboration at the Mainz Microtron and a dedicated neutron detector. High pressure polarized 3He--> gas was used as a target of polarized neutrons. Gen is determined from the ratio of the asymmetries A?/A? measured in quasifree kinematics with the target spin perpendicular and parallel to the momentum transfer. We find Gen = 0.052+/-0.011+/-0.005.

Rohe, D.; Bartsch, P.; Baumann, D.; Becker, J.; Bermuth, J.; Bohinc, K.; Böhm, R.; Buttazzoni, S.; Caprano, T.; Clawiter, N.; Deninger, A.; Derber, S.; Ding, M.; Distler, M.; Ebbes, A.; Ebert, M.; Ewald, I.; Friedrich, J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Geiges, R.; Großmann, T.; Hauger, M.; Heil, W.; Honegger, A.; Jennewein, P.; Jourdan, J.; Kahrau, M.; Klein, A.; Kohl, M.; Krygier, K. W.; Kubon, G.; Liesenfeld, A.; Merkel, H.; Merle, K.; Merle, P.; Mühlbauer, M.; Müller, U.; Neuhausen, R.; Otten, E. W.; Petitjean, Th.; Pospischil, Th.; Potokar, M.; Rosner, G.; Schmieden, H.; Sick, I.; Širca, S.; Surkau, R.; Wagner, A.; Walcher, Th.; Warren, G.; Weis, M.; Wöhrle, H.; Zeier, M.

1999-11-01

238

Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality pollution loads and influencing factors resulted that unsewered population had higher impact on river water quality. For TN, atmospheric N deposition was taking effect. Continuous development of sewerage system and its expansion along with the pace of urbanization could be the pragmatic option to maintain river water quality in Hadano basin. However, influence of agricultural loads and atmospheric N on water quality cannot be denied for the proper water quality management of Hadano basin. It was found that if the proportion of sewered population could be increased from 72% to 86%, corresponding loads of COD and TP could be decreased by about 41% and 45% respectively. As per the development trend of sewerage system in Hadano basin for last 10 years, unsewered population could be reduced to its half by 2014, provided that the expansion of sewerage system continues at same rate. Regarding TN, its proper control is complicated as atmospheric N is propagated to regional and sometimes to global extent. Further study on the relationship between TN and atmospheric N deposition should be conducted for the proper management of TN in the river water.

Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

2011-12-01

239

Project for measuring the neutron electromagnetic form factor in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} nn-bar at the VEPP-2000 collider  

SciTech Connect

A project aimed at measuring the neutron electromagnetic form factor in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} nn-bar with the SND detector at the VEPP-2000 e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is presented. The results obtained for the time resolution of the NaI(Tl) counter using flash-ADC are reported along with estimates of the efficiency of separation of neutron-antineutron events.

Golubev, V. B.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, K. Yu., E-mail: kskovpen@sndxt1.inp.nsk.su; Usov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2009-04-15

240

Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 GeV2\\/c2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from measurements of the d-->(e-->,e'n)p reaction for quasielastic kinematics. Polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND3) target in which the deuteron polarization was perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle detector. We

G. Warren; F. R. Wesselmann; H. Zhu; P. McKee; N. Savvinov; M. Zeier; A. Aghalaryan; A. Ahmidouch; H. Arenhövel; R. Asaturyan; I. Ben-Dayan; F. Bloch; W. Boeglin; B. Boillat; H. Breuer; J. Brower; C. Carasco; M. Carl; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; L. Cole; L. Coman; M. Coman; D. Crabb; S. Danagoulian; D. Day; K. Duek; J. Dunne; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; J. Farrell; R. Fatemi; D. Fawcett; H. Fenker; T. Forest; K. Garrow; A. Gasparian; I. Goussev; P. Gueye; M. Harvey; M. Hauger; R. Herrera; B. Hu; I. Jaegle; M. Jones; J. Jourdan; C. Keith; J. Kelly; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; A. Klein; A. Klimenko; L. Kramer; B. Krusche; S. Kuhn; Y. Liang; J. Lichtenstadt; R. Lindgren; J. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; G. MacLachlan; P. Markowitz; D. McNulty; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Nasseripour; I. Niculescu; K. Normand; B. Norum; A. Opper; E. Piasetzky; J. Pierce; M. Pitt; Y. Prok; B. Raue; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; D. Rohe; O. Rondon; D. Sacker; B. Sawatzky; M. Seely; I. Sick; N. Simicevic; C. Smith; G. Smith; M. Steinacher; S. Stepanyan; J. Stout; V. Tadevosyan; S. Tajima; L. Tang; G. Testa; R. Trojer; B. Vlahovic; B. Vulcan; K. Wang; S. Wells; H. Woehrle; S. Wood; C. Yan; Y. Yanay; L. Yuan; J. Yun; B. Zihlmann

2004-01-01

241

A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale)  

PubMed Central

Objective The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Design Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. Study sample 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. Results We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed “speech understanding”, “spatial perception”, and “clarity, separation, and identification”. Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, “effort and concentration”, representing two more questions. Conclusions These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores.

2014-01-01

242

Sleep quality among U.S. military veterans with PTSD: a factor analysis and structural model of symptoms.  

PubMed

Poor sleep quality among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poorer prognosis and outcomes. The factor structure of the most commonly employed measure of self-reported sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), has yet to be evaluated among individuals with PTSD. The current study sought to fill this gap among a sample of 226 U.S. military veterans with PTSD (90% with co-occurring mood disorders, 73.5% with substance use disorders). We evaluated the factor structure of the PSQI by conducting an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in approximately half of the sample (n = 111). We then conducted a second EFA in the other split half (n = 115). Lastly, we conducted a path analysis to investigate the relations between sleep factors and PTSD symptom severity, after accounting for the relation with depression. Results suggested sleep quality can best be conceptualized, among those with PTSD, as a multidimensional construct consisting of 2 factors, Perceived Sleep Quality and Efficiency/Duration. After accounting for the association between both factors and depression, only the Perceived Sleep Quality factor was associated with PTSD (? = .51). The results provide a recommended structure that improves precision in measuring sleep quality among veterans with PTSD. PMID:23225033

Babson, Kimberly A; Blonigen, Daniel M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Drescher, Kent D; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2012-12-01

243

Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations  

SciTech Connect

Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1985-01-01

244

Were medicine quality and pharmaceutical management contributing factors in diminishing artemisinin efficacy in Guyana and Suriname?  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies in Guyana and Suriname unveiled diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives based on day-3 parasitaemia. The migrant characteristics of the population at risk and the potential development of resistance pose a serious health threat in the region. Assessment of factors that may have contributed to this situation is warranted, and analysis of the data generated in those countries on quality and pharmaceutical managements of anti-malarials may contribute to a better understanding of this occurrence. Methods Data on malaria medicine quality and pharmaceutical management, generated in the context of the Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI), was reviewed and discussed. Results Numerous substandard artemisinin-containing malaria medicines were identified in both countries, particularly in Guyana, where a larger number and variety of anti-malarials were sampled. Poor quality was more frequent in the private and informal sector than in the public sector, posing a greater threat to the populations at risk, which are mostly located in hard to reach areas with scarce public facilities. Stock-outs identified in the public sector in Guyana could enhance the need to access those alternative sectors, exacerbating the risk of utilizing poor quality medicines. The availability of monotherapies and other non-recommended therapies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, could also have contributed to the diminished efficacy. The type of quality deficiencies identified -reduced content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or poor dissolution- and the irrational use of non-recommended treatments could result in non-sustained or lower levels of API in blood, favouring survival of more resistant mutants by exposing parasites to sub-lethal doses of the active ingredient. Conclusions The quality of malaria medicines and the availability and use of non-recommended treatments could have played a role in the diminished efficacy of artemisinin derivatives described in Guyana and Suriname. However, also other factors need to be considered and a more comprehensive and extensive assessment on quality and pharmaceutical management is necessary to establish a tighter cause-effect correlation. Nevertheless, relevant authorities in these and neighbouring countries should take into consideration the reviewed data to properly address the problem when implementing corrective actions.

2014-01-01

245

Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.  

PubMed

Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

2014-02-01

246

Analysis of Ecological Quality of the Environment and Influencing Factors in China during 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005–2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005–2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005–2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small.

Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

2014-01-01

247

Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007.  

PubMed

The rapid development in Beijing, the capital of China, has resulted in serious air pollution problems. Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality, especially since 1998. The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention. We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations. The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends: a decreasing trend, an increasing trend and a flat trend. SO2, dustfall, B[a]P, NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern, while NOx showed an increasing trend, and CO, ozone pollution, total suspended particulate (TSP), as well as Pb fit the flat trend. The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution. Seasonally, the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March. The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality. Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency, the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal, reduction in pollution sources, and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution, particularly since 1998. PMID:22432333

Zhang, Ju; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong; Wang, Xiaoke

2011-01-01

248

Defining quality of care indicators for neonatal intensive care units independent of maternal risk factors.  

PubMed

Observed and birthweight-specific neonatal mortality rates have been used for assessing quality of neonatal care, but these are crude and affected by risk characteristics of the population served. Even when neonatal mortality rate is corrected for four risk factors, race, sex, birthweight, and multiple births, (California Data Research Facility, Santa Barbara, CA) it is possible that the corrected neonatal mortality rate is not comparable among institutions because of population differences not corrected for, eg, prenatal care. To analyze whether our high neonatal mortality rate is primarily dependent on population risk or quality of neonatal care, we used contemporaneous data collection by senior physicians and a microcomputer database system to construct indices of quality of care that are based on diagnoses graded according to disease severity. For the 1987/1988 academic year, we found: neonatal intensive care unit nosocomial infection rate, 20%; severe intraventricular hemorrhage per 100 very low birthweight infants (1500 g), 20%; bronchopulmonary dysplasia per 100 cases of severe respiratory distress syndrome, 27%; necrotizing enterocolitis per 100 neonatal intensive care unit discharges, 5%; air leak per 100 cases of severe respiratory distress syndrome, 21%; and neonatal mortality rate per very low birthweight delivery rate, 0.4. We propose that microcomputer, hospital-based analyses will improve comparisons of neonatal intensive care unit quality of care if appropriate indices can be sufficiently well-defined and shared. PMID:2352285

Ekelem, I; Taeusch, H W

1990-05-01

249

Application of Pade approximation for calculation of epithermal neutron self-shielding factors of some materials dealing with Doppler broadening effects.  

PubMed

The Pade approximation method has been applied to calculate the epithermal neutron self-shielding factors for some materials used as a comparator in k(0)-standardization method. It includes a Doppler broadening effect correction. Based on an assumption of an isotropic neutron field, the epithermal neutron self-shielding factors in foils and wires of Co, Mo, Zr and Au were calculated. The present method has the advantage of accuracy as well as being less time consuming for calculation. The extensions of this method to obtain the factors for different materials with many resonances could be performed with ease. The obtained values are compared with previous values and their experimental values. PMID:20083412

Phuong, H T; Nhon, M V; Trang, V T T; Ishitsuka, E

2010-06-01

250

Physical, biophysical, and cell-biological factors that can contribute to enhanced neoplastic transformation by fission-spectrum neutrons.  

PubMed

In radiobiology, fission-spectrum neutrons frequently have been used as a surrogate for other high-LET radiations, particularly when thick absorbers were involved as in animal studies. However, the spectrum of proton secondaries, plus the gamma rays generated in the absorption processes, suggests that a characterization of such a beam, based upon an average LET alone, may not adequately account for the spectrum of biological properties that it may have. Conflicting results have been reported on the relative effectiveness of reduced dose rates of fission-spectrum neutrons, and other high-LET radiations, for the induction of noeplastic transformation of cells in culture. Enhanced rates of neoplastic transformation were reported for C3H 10T1/2 mouse cells, Syrian hamster embryo cells, and human hybrid cells-all with the same beam of fission-spectrum neutrons generated by the JANUS reactor at the Argonne National Laboratory. No enhancement was observed with C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to the beam from the TRIGA reactor at the Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute, or to maximally effective alpha particles. The recent report that an enhancement was also observed when human hybrid cells were exposed at a low dose rate to the TRIGA beam indicated that physical factors alone were not responsible for the differences observed with C3H 10T1/2 cells exposed to these various beams. To resolve the lack of consistency in the results that had been reported, a biophysical model was developed based, in part, on the existence of a narrow age interval in the growth cycle of a cell during which it is particularly sensitive to radiation neoplastic transformation. Because of the special physical and biological properties of cells in M phase, and/or in late G2 phase or early G1 phase, these cohorts of cells were proposed as those that are hypersensitive to neoplastic transformation by radiation. PMID:1924748

Elkind, M M

1991-10-01

251

Studies on kinetics of water quality factors to establish water transparency model in Neijiang River, China.  

PubMed

The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency. PMID:24813007

Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling

2014-05-01

252

Probability Distribution of the Quality Factor of Spacecraft Structures Modelled as Undermoded Reverberation Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic modelling of a large spacecraft structure excited by relatively low frequencies. The intrinsic complexity of such a scenario allows for invoking an analogy with studies of mode- stirred cavities. We therefore derive a probability distribution of the quality factor of a reverberation chamber, operated at relatively long wavelengths compared to the characteristic dimensions of the cavity. In this regime, the cavity does not operate in overmoded regime, yet a statistical description of fields can be preserved provided a proper (physically based) limit distribution can be assumed. The method developed in our work is based on an instantaneous (sample), rather than an averaged (thermodynamic) value in the definition of the cavity quality factor. This factor is actually a random variable fluctuating over the stirring process, because of the changing geometry (mechanical sturring) and/or excitation frequency (electronic stirring). We find that the probability distribution in undermoded case deviates from the idealized one, as it exhibits stronger positive skewness.

Arnaut, L. R.; Gradoni, G.

2012-05-01

253

Quality of Life and its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Community Health Care Program Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define “higher” and “lower” scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women.

Martinelli, Luiz Mario Baptista; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Mutti, Anibal; Delia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Coltro, Rodrigo Soler; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian

2008-01-01

254

Psychological factors mediating health-related quality of life in COPD  

PubMed Central

COPD is a chronic disease that has not only a high prevalence and social costs, but is tightly connected to a significant decrease of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative impact on HRQoL of two psychological factors (self-efficacy, optimism) vs. classical medical determinants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), functional impairment). 26 women and 28 men, aged 45-64 years old (mean = 58.1; standard deviation = 9.7), diagnosed with COPD and with self-reported dyspnea requiring medication were administered COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, LOT-R (Life Orientation Test - Revised) to evaluate optimism, Quality of Well-Being (QWB) Scale, as an accepted measure of HRQoL and Functional Impairment Scale (FIS), used to assess the deterioration of functionality in respiratory diseases. Their respiratory parameters (FEV1, PEF) were also measured, via spirometry. Results showed that self-efficacy and optimism were positively correlated to HRQoL (r = .34 (p < .05) and r = .29 (p < .05), respectively). A reduced model that eliminated the direct influence of respiratory parameters on HRQoL proved to be equally satisfactory in terms of predictor value, compared to the full model (that contained all studied variables) (?2 = 0.067, ns). The functional impairment (FI) scores were inversely correlated with HRQoL (r = -.46, p < .01). These results have implications in considering self-efficacy and optimism as important factors when aiming HRQoL improvement in COPD, and for the inclusion of psychological interventions in the treatment plan of COPD patients. Abbreviations COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; WHO = World Health Organization; HRQoL = health-related quality of life; PEF = peak expiratory flow; FEV1 = forced expiratory flow in one second; LOT-R = Life Orientation Test – Revised; QWB = Quality of Well-Being; FI = functional impairment; SE = self-efficacy; Opt. = optimism

Popa-Velea, O; Purcarea, VL

2014-01-01

255

Neutron measurements  

SciTech Connect

Methods of neutron detection and measurement are discussed. Topics include sources of neutrons, neutrons in medicine, interactions of neutrons with matter, neutron shielding, neutron measurement units, measurement methods, and neutron spectroscopy. (ACR)

McCall, R.C.

1981-01-01

256

Management of thermal peaking factors in CONFU-B PWR assemblies using neutron poisons and tailored enrichment  

SciTech Connect

CONFU-B assemblies are PWR assemblies containing standard Uranium fuel rods and TRU bearing inert material fuel rods and are designed to achieve net TRU destruction over a 4.5-year irradiation. These highly heterogeneous assemblies tend to exhibit large intra-assembly power peaking factors (IAPPF). Neutronic strategies to reduce IAPPF are developed. The IAPPF are calculated at the assembly level using CASMO4, and these are used to calculate the most restrictive thermal margin (the Minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio, MDNBR) using a whole-core VIPRE-01 model. This paper examines two strategies to manage the thermal margin of a CONFU-B assembly while retaining the TRU destruction performance: use of neutron poisons and tailored enrichment schemes. Burnable poisons can be used to suppress BOL reactivity of fresh CONFU-B assemblies with only minor impact on MDNBR and TRU destruction performance. Tailored enrichment, along with the use of soluble boron, can achieve significant improvements in MDNBR, but at some cost to TRU destruction performance. (authors)

Visosky, M.; Hejzlar, P.; Kazimi, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2006-07-01

257

Factors influencing the quality of life in patients with HIV in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study was to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and psychological factors influencing the quality of\\u000a life (QOL) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV\\/AIDS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was a cross-sectional study on 271 patients with HIV infection attending an HIV clinic in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Participants\\u000a completed the Malay version of the Functional

C. I. Hasanah; A. R. Zaliha; M. Mahiran

2011-01-01

258

Genetically designed L3 photonic crystal nanocavities with measured quality factor exceeding one million  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the experimental realization of ultra-high quality factor (Q) designs of the L3-type photonic crystal nanocavity. Based on genetic optimization of the positions of few nearby holes, our design drastically improves the performance of the conventional L3 as experimentally confirmed by direct measurement of Q ? 2 × 106 in a silicon-based photonic crystal membrane. Our devices rank among the highest Q/V ratios ever reported in photonic crystal cavities, holding great promise for the realization of integrated photonic platforms based on ultra-high-Q resonators.

Lai, Y.; Pirotta, S.; Urbinati, G.; Gerace, D.; Minkov, M.; Savona, V.; Badolato, A.; Galli, M.

2014-06-01

259

Large quality factor in sheet metamaterials made from dark dielectric meta-atoms.  

PubMed

Metamaterials--or artificial electromagnetic materials--can create media with properties unattainable in nature, but mitigating dissipation is a key challenge for their further development. Here, we demonstrate a low-loss metamaterial by exploiting dark bound states in dielectric inclusions coupled to the external waves by small nonresonant metallic antennas. We experimentally demonstrate a dispersion-engineered metamaterial based on a meta-atom made from alumina, and we show that its resonance has a much larger quality factor than metal-based meta-atoms. Finally, we show that our dielectric meta-atom can be used to create sheet metamaterials with negative permittivity or permeability. PMID:24702415

Jain, Aditya; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

2014-03-21

260

Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a diamond photonics platform with integrated suspended waveguide-cavity structures and two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) cavities. PhC cavities with quality factors exceeding 2800 have been fabricated using a top-down approach from thin nanocrystalline diamond films. The developed technological process allows one to access these cavities in a fully planar geometry, including light injection and collection from the outside using lensed-fibers. This diamond platform opens the road to large scale fabrication of photonics devices including optical sensor chips.

Checoury, X.; Néel, D.; Boucaud, P.; Gesset, C.; Girard, H.; Saada, S.; Bergonzo, P.

2012-10-01

261

Shear dependent nonlinear vibration in a high quality factor single crystal silicon micromechanical resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency response of a single crystal silicon resonator under nonlinear vibration is investigated and related to the shear property of the material. The shear stress-strain relation of bulk silicon is studied using a first-principles approach. By incorporating the calculated shear property into a device-level model, our simulation closely predicts the frequency response of the device obtained by experiments and further captures the nonlinear features. These results indicate that the observed nonlinearity stems from the material's mechanical property. Given the high quality factor (Q) of the device reported here (~2 × 106), this makes it highly susceptible to such mechanical nonlinear effects.

Zhu, H.; Shan, G. C.; Shek, C. H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.

2012-07-01

262

Adsorbate migration effects on continuous and discontinuous temperature-dependent transitions in the quality factors of graphene nanoresonators.  

PubMed

We perform classical molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the unresolved, experimentally observed temperature-dependent scaling transition in the quality factors of graphene nanomechanical resonators (GNMRs). Our simulations reveal that the mechanism underlying this temperature scaling phenomenon is the out-of-plane migration of adsorbates on GNMRs. Specifically, the migrating adsorbate undergoes frequent collisions with the GNMR, which strongly influences the resulting mechanical oscillation, and thus the quality factors. We also predict a discontinuous transition in the quality factor at a lower critical temperature, which results from the in-plane migration of the adsorbate. Overall, our work clearly demonstrates the strong effect of adsorbate migration on the quality factors of GNMRs. PMID:24334407

Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Bing-Shen; Park, Harold S; Rabczuk, Timon

2014-01-17

263

Household air quality risk factors associated with childhood pneumonia in urban dhaka, bangladesh.  

PubMed

Abstract. To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009-2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces. PMID:24664785

Ram, Pavani K; Dutt, Dhiman; Silk, Benjamin J; Doshi, Saumil; Rudra, Carole B; Abedin, Jaynal; Goswami, Doli; Fry, Alicia M; Brooks, W Abdullah; Luby, Stephen P; Cohen, Adam L

2014-05-01

264

Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factor analysis is applied to 28 groundwater samples collected from wells in the coastal blackfoot disease area of Yun-Lin, Taiwan. Correlations among 13 hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A two-factor model is suggested and explains over 77.8% of the total groundwater quality variation. Factor 1 (seawater salinization) includes concentrations of EC, TDS, Cl?, SO42?, Na+, K+ and Mg2+, and Factor

Chen-Wuing Liu; Kao-Hung Lin; Yi-Ming Kuo

2003-01-01

265

Monte Carlo simulations of neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and ambient dose equivalent for a passively scattered proton therapy unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stray neutron exposures pose a potential risk for the development of secondary cancer in patients receiving proton therapy. However, the behavior of the ambient dose equivalent is not fully understood, including dependences on neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and proton treatment beam characteristics. The objective of this work, therefore, was to estimate neutron exposures resulting from the use of a passively scattered proton treatment unit. In particular, we studied the characteristics of the neutron spectral fluence, radiation weighting factor and ambient dose equivalent with Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron spectral fluence contained two pronounced peaks, one a low-energy peak with a mode around 1 MeV and one a high-energy peak that ranged from about 10 MeV up to the proton energy. The mean radiation weighting factors varied only slightly, from 8.8 to 10.3, with proton energy and location for a closed-aperture configuration. For unmodulated proton beams stopped in a closed aperture, the ambient dose equivalent from neutrons per therapeutic absorbed dose (H*(10)/D) calculated free-in-air ranged from about 0.3 mSv/Gy for a small scattered field of 100 MeV proton energy to 19 mSv/Gy for a large scattered field of 250 MeV proton energy, revealing strong dependences on proton energy and field size. Comparisons of in-air calculations with in-phantom calculations indicated that the in-air method yielded a conservative estimation of stray neutron radiation exposure for a prostate cancer patient.

Zheng, Yuanshui; Fontenot, Jonas; Taddei, Phil; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne

2008-01-01

266

Mediators of Maternal Depression and Family Structure on Child BMI: Parenting Quality and Risk Factors for Child Overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers

Regina L. McConley; Sylvie Mrug; M. Janice Gilliland; Richard Lowry; Marc N. Elliott; Mark A. Schuster; Laura M. Bogart; Luisa Franzini; Soledad L. Escobar-Chaves; Frank A. Franklin

2011-01-01

267

Neutron electric form factor up to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 GeV/c{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G{sub En}/G{sub Mn} , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic {sup 2}H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q{sup 2} = 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; S. Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; E Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; G. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; J. W. Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-07-15

268

Factors affecting adherence to a quality improvement checklist on an inpatient hepatology service.  

PubMed

Given the increasing emphasis on measuring quality indicators such as adherence to practice guidelines, we sought to determine the factors and address the barriers affecting guideline adherence on an academic inpatient hepatology service. We performed a single-center, prospective observational study. Physicians were given a handheld checklist to complete daily. We first measured the adherence rate and studied factors affecting adherence by performing surveys. We then modified the program to address the factors affecting adherence and reassessed the adherence rate. There was a baseline 46% checklist adherence rate. Reasons given for nonadherence fell into two categories: ease of task and physician commitment from both attending physicians and housestaff. Specific reasons given were that the attending did not prompt (39%), the adherence sheet was not in the chart (35%), the individual forgot (12%), as well as lack of time, unclear protocol, "too difficult," and "didn-t pay attention" (4% each). Each of these factors was addressed with a multimodal approach. Thereafter, the adherence rate rose from 46% to 83% (P < 0.001). Maintaining checklist adherence is time intensive and requires commitment from the whole medical team. PMID:24688186

Tapper, Elliot B; Lai, Michelle

2014-04-01

269

High quality factor polymeric Fabry-Perot resonators utilizing a polymer waveguide.  

PubMed

Optical resonators are used in a variety of applications ranging from sensors to lasers and signal routing in high volume communication networks. Achieving a high quality (Q) factor is necessary for higher sensitivity in sensing applications and for narrow linewidth light emission in most lasing applications. In this work, we propose a new approach to achieve a very high Q-factor in polymeric Fabry-Perot resonators by conquering light diffraction inside the optical cavity. This can be achieved by inducing a refractive index feature inside the optical cavity that simply creates a waveguide between the two mirrors. This approach eliminates diffraction loss from the cavity and therefore the Q-factor is only limited by mirror loss and absorption. To demonstrate this claim, a device has been fabricated consisting of two dielectric Bragg reflectors with a 100 ?m layer of photosensitive polymer between them. The refractive index of this polymer can be modified utilizing standard photo-lithography processes. The measured finesse of the fabricated device was 692 and the Q-factor was 55000. PMID:24663928

Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth; Ashkenazi, Shai

2014-03-10

270

Quality-Shaping Factors and Endodontic Treatment amongst General Dental Practitioners with a Focus on Denmark  

PubMed Central

There is a gap between the endodontic outcome that can be achieved and the outcome observed on the basis of worldwide general dental practitioner data. The quality of root canal treatment (RCT) is shaped by the dentist's knowledge, attitude, and skills, but it may also be influenced by the patient's demands and degree of satisfaction. The topic has only been sparsely investigated. Although dental health has increased over the years in Denmark, the number of performed root fillings has also increased, probably because the number of tooth extractions have declined and more molar teeth have been treated. Caries appears to be the main cause for performing RCT and a preventive approach by employing stepwise excavation may reduce RCT, but this strategy does not remove the gap. Factors influencing RCT quality could be the status on adoption of nickel-titanium rotary technology, more focus on infection control (rubber dam use, knowledge of factors important for prognosis), as dentists often think that they are good at doing RCT, but often perform inadequately, an alteration of clinician's awareness of their performance in the context of dental practices, seems warranted. Finally, the development of new preventive modalities for pulp and apical inflammation are crucial.

Demant, Sune; Markvart, Merete; Bj?rndal, Lars

2012-01-01

271

Using condition factor and blood variable biomarkers in fish to assess water quality.  

PubMed

The condition factor and blood variables, including erythrocyte lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in two ecologically distinct fish species (Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus) were evaluated at five sites in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir (Brazil) to assess water quality. Aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide, and metolachlor were detected at different concentrations in four of the sites. Condition factor was not directly affected by such contaminants. A negative correlation between hematocrit and heptachlor was detected in P. maculatus. Positive correlations between red blood cells and heptachlor as well as an interactive effect of metolachlor and aldrin/dieldrin were detected in A. fasciatus. The erythrocytes of both species collected from the contaminated sites showed high levels of LPO, an increase in SOD and GPx activities and a decrease in CAT activity. Although the leukocyte number and the differential percentage of leukocytes varied among the sites, the hematological variables, the LPO levels, and the antioxidant enzyme activities could be used to assess water quality, regardless of the differences in the responses of the fish species. PMID:21152972

Sadauskas-Henrique, Helen; Sakuragui, Marise M; Paulino, Marcelo G; Fernandes, Marisa N

2011-10-01

272

High quality factor mg-scale silicon mechanical resonators for 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Milligram-scale resonators have been shown to be suitable for the creation of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers, based on a phenomena first predicted for advanced gravitational-wave detectors. To achieve practical optoacoustic parametric devices, high quality factor resonators are required. We present millimetre-scale silicon resonators designed to exhibit a torsional vibration mode with a frequency in the 105-106 Hz range, for observation of 3-mode optoacoustic interactions in a compact table-top system. Our design incorporates an isolation stage and minimizes the acoustic loss from optical coating. We observe a quality factor of 7.5 × 105 for a mode frequency of 401.5 kHz, at room temperature and pressure of 10-3 Pa. We confirmed the mode shape by mapping the amplitude response across the resonator and comparing to finite element modelling. This study contributes to the development of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers for use in novel high-sensitivity signal transducers and quantum measurement experiments.

Torres, F. A.; Meng, P.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.; Liu, K.-Y.; Chao, S.; Martyniuk, M.; Roch-Jeune, I.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.

2013-07-01

273

The quality of life of Brazilian adolescents with asthma: associated clinical and sociodemographic factors.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among adolescents. This study assessed the quality of life (QOL) related to health in adolescents with asthma and its determining factors (demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical). We also separately evaluated each of the parameters that comprised the asthma control classification. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 114 adolescents who had doctor-diagnosed asthma. QOL was assessed using a version of the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) that was adapted and validated for Brazil, and higher scores indicated a better QOL. The level of asthma control was assessed using the rating system proposed by the Global Initiative for Asthma, and sociodemographic factors were evaluated. Results: When the averages of the PAQLQ domains and overall scores were compared to the potentially explanatory variables, significantly lower average PAQLQ scores were obtained for individuals with an inadequate level of asthma control (p?

Amaral, Lígia Menezes do; Moratelli, Lucas; Palma, Pamella Valente; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves

2014-08-01

274

Single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators with quality factors exceeding one million  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond has gained a reputation as a uniquely versatile material, yet one that is intricate to grow and process. Resonating nanostructures made of single-crystal diamond are expected to possess excellent mechanical properties, including high-quality factors and low dissipation. Here we demonstrate batch fabrication and mechanical measurements of single-crystal diamond cantilevers with thickness down to 85?nm, thickness uniformity better than 20?nm and lateral dimensions up to 240??m. Quality factors exceeding one million are found at room temperature, surpassing those of state-of-the-art single-crystal silicon cantilevers of similar dimensions by roughly an order of magnitude. The corresponding thermal force noise for the best cantilevers is ~5·10?19?N?Hz?1/2 at millikelvin temperatures. Single-crystal diamond could thus directly improve existing force and mass sensors by a simple substitution of resonator material. Presented methods are easily adapted for fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems, optomechanical resonators or nanophotonic devices that may lead to new applications in classical and quantum science.

Tao, Y.; Boss, J. M.; Moores, B. A.; Degen, C. L.

2014-04-01

275

Dissection of genetic and environmental factors involved in tomato organoleptic quality  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main tomato breeding objectives is to improve fruit organoleptic quality. However, this task is made somewhat challenging by the complex nature of sensory traits and the lack of efficient selection criteria. Sensory quality depends on numerous factors, including fruit colour, texture, aroma, and composition in primary and secondary metabolites. It is also influenced by genotypic differences, the nutritional regime of plants, stage of ripening at harvest and environmental conditions. In this study, agronomic, biochemical and sensory characterization was performed on six Italian heirlooms grown in different environmental conditions. Result We identified a number of links among traits contributing to fruit organoleptic quality and to the perception of sensory attributes. PCA analysis was used to highlight some biochemical, sensory and agronomic discriminating traits: this statistical test allowed us to identify which sensory attributes are more closely linked to environmental conditions and those, instead, linked to the genetic constitution of tomato. Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and tomato flavour are not only grouped in the same PCA factor, but also result in a clear discrimination of tomato ecotypes in the three different fields. The three different traditional varieties cluster on the basis of attributes like juiciness, granulosity, hardness and equatorial diameter, and are therefore more closely related to the genetic background of the cultivar. Conclusion This finding suggests that a different method should be undertaken to improve sensory traits related to taste perception and texture. Our results might be used to ascertain in what direction to steer breeding in order to improve the flavour characteristics of tomato ecotypes.

2011-01-01

276

Factors Affecting Water Quality in Selected Carbonate Aquifers in the United States,1993-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbonate aquifers are an important source of water in the United States; however, these aquifers can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program collected samples from wells and springs in 12 carbonate aquifers across the country during 1993-2005; water-quality results for 1,042 samples were available to assess the factors affecting ground-water quality. These aquifers represent a wide range of climate, land-use types, degrees of confinement, and other characteristics that were compared and evaluated to assess the effect of those factors on water quality. Differences and similarities among the aquifers were also identified. Samples were analyzed for major ions, radon, nutrients, 47 pesticides, and 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Geochemical analysis helped to identify dominant processes that may contribute to the differences in aquifer susceptibility to anthropogenic contamination. Differences in concentrations of dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon and in ground-water age were directly related to the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Other geochemical indicators, such as mineral saturation indexes and calcium-magnesium molar ratio, were used to infer residence time, an indirect indicator of potential for anthropogenic contamination. Radon exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 300 picocuries per liter in 423 of 735 wells sampled, of which 309 were drinking-water wells. In general, land use, oxidation-reduction (redox) status, and degree of aquifer confinement were the most important factors affecting the occurrence of anthropogenic contaminants. Although none of these factors individually accounts for all the variation in water quality among the aquifers, a combination of these characteristics accounts for the majority of the variation. Unconfined carbonate aquifers that had high percentages of urban or agricultural land, or a combination of both, had higher concentrations and higher frequency of detections for most of the anthropogenic contaminants than areas with other combinations of land use and degree of aquifer confinement. Redox status is an indicator of more recently recharged water and affects the fate of some contaminants. Median concentrations of nitrate were highest in the Valley and Ridge and Piedmont aquifers and lowest in the Biscayne and Silurian-Devonian/Upper carbonate aquifers. Nitrate concentrations were significantly higher in unconfined aquifers than in confined aquifers and semiconfined/mixed confined aquifers (wells in aquifers with breached confining layers or wells open to both a confined and an unconfined aquifer). Water recharged after 1953 had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate than water recharged prior to 1953. Redox status was also a key factor affecting nitrate concentrations; in recently recharged waters, samples in oxic waters had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate than anoxic waters, regardless of land use in the area around the well. Samples from 54 wells (5 percent) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MCL of 10 mg/L for nitrate in drinking water. Most of the samples exceeding the drinking-water standard (52 samples, or 5 percent) were in domestic supply wells in agricultural areas. The Piedmont and Valley and Ridge aquifers had the largest number of samples (45) exceeding the MCL; in the remaining aquifers only 9 samples had concentrations of nitrate that exceeded the MCL (about 1 percent). None of the water recharged prior to 1953 and only a single sample from a confined aquifer had nitrate concentrations that exceeded 10 mg/L as N. Wells were sampled for a minimum of 47 pesticides. Detection frequencies and comparisons varied depending on the assessment level used. At least 1 of the 47 pesticides was detected at 510 (50 percent) of the 1,027 sites where pestic

Lindsey, Bruce D.; Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Ardis, Ann F.; Skach, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

277

Numerical study of the calibration factors for the neutron counters in use at the Joint European Torus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple computer model of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak has been constructed, using the neutron transport code McBEND, to assist in the interpretation of point neutron source data used for empirical calibrations of fission chambers placed near the tokamak to measure the total neutron emission from deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas. A satisfactory simulation of the experimental data using

B. J. Laundy; O. N. Jarvis

1993-01-01

278

Effect of Poor Sleep Quality and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness on Factors Associated with Diabetes Self-Management  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of impaired sleep quality and daytime sleepiness on self-reported diabetes control and psychological and social factors that impact diabetes self-management. Methods Participants were 107 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with self-reported daytime sleepiness. Subjective sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global score and its 3 factors of Perceived Sleep Quality, Sleep Efficiency, and Daily Disturbances. The Diabetes Care Profile (DCP) scales (Control Problems, Social and Personal Factors, Positive Attitude, Negative Attitude, Self-Care Adherence, and Diet Adherence) were used to measure difficulty in maintaining glycemic control and factors important for diabetes control. Results Poor sleep quality was associated with significantly worse scores on the DCP scales, with lower diabetes control, negative attitude, decreased positive attitude, lower self-care adherence, and decreased adherence to dietary adherence. Hierarchal linear regression modeling revealed no significant associations between diabetes control problems and age, education, gender and daytime sleepiness. Being married or partnered significantly decreased glycemic control problems, while poor sleep quality increased diabetes control problems. Further examination of PSQI factors (perceived sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and daily disturbances) found being married or partnered significantly decreased diabetes control problems while of the 3 factors of the PSQI, only the Daily Disturbances factor was significantly associated with increased diabetes control problems. Conclusion Impaired sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are associated with decreased diabetes self-management in adults with T2DM.

Chasens, Eileen R.; Korytkowski, Mary; Sereika, Susan M.; Burke, Lora E.

2013-01-01

279

Beyond air quality--factors that affect prevalence estimates of sick building syndrome.  

PubMed

If the prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) is estimated before intervention begins, then a reduction in the estimate may later be used to measure success of the intervention, and in particular, those efforts toward improving air quality. However, the measure of success will be distorted if factors other than air quality affect the SBS prevalence estimate. In this study the background prevalence of SBS was estimated and study factors identified that alone affected the estimate. Two symptom questionnaires were randomly administered to workers from 39 offices before routine physical examinations; one questionnaire described the SBS study, the other did not. SBS was defined as a symptom in the prior 24-hour or 7-day recall period that was more severe at work and not related to suspected confounders--allergy, cold, flu. Prevalence and prevalence ratios were estimated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Symptoms were reported by 45% of 1088 workers surveyed, but most reported them as more severe outside work or related them to confounders. SBS prevalence was 5%. It was 3.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.8, 5.7) among workers cognizant of the study relative to those blinded, 2.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.2, 4.1) for the 7-day relative to the 24-hour recall period, and 2.5 times higher (95% CI: 1.4, 5.0) for females. SBS prevalence did not differ by workday or age. Since study factors alone affected prevalence estimates, a standardized assessment method seems necessary for SBS. PMID:7502997

Mikatavage, M A; Rose, V E; Funkhouser, E; Oestenstad, R K; Dillon, K; Reynolds, K D

1995-11-01

280

High Quality Factor 80 MHz Microelectromechanical Systems Resonator Utilizing Torsional-to-Transverse Vibration Conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonator utilizing torsional-to-transverse vibration conversion with quarter-wavelength torsional support beams is designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The resonant frequency for torsional modes mostly depends only on beam length, providing a large tolerance in the fabrication process. However, the following have remained critical issues: the increase in the quality factor (Q-factor) and the reduction in the motional resistance. We propose a new beam structure, in which the MEMS resonator utilizing torsional-to-transverse vibration conversion is anchored by four quarter-wavelength torsional support beams. First, the fabricated resonators are measured with a laser-Doppler (LD) vibrometer. The measured resonant frequency of 78.224 MHz has been in good agreement with the simulated one. The Q-factor has also been measured to be as high as 3.0× 104 in vacuum. Then, the electrical characteristic is evaluated with an impedance analyzer. The Q-factor has been electrically measured to be as high as 3.1× 104 in vacuum, which agrees well with the mechanically measured one of 3.0× 104. The Q-factor has also been electrically measured to be as high as 1.3× 104 at atmospheric pressure. In the measurement, a spring softening effect has been clearly observed. By increasing the DC bias voltage from 20 to 40 V, the resonant frequency has decreased by 640 Hz. The extracted motional resistance for a 0.1-?m-gap resonator has been greatly reduced to 0.039 M? at 5 V DC, owing to the narrow-gap effect, from that of a 0.25-?m-gap resonator. The tolerance in the fabrication process has also been evaluated and successfully verified from the measurement of the fabricated MEMS resonators.

Kiso, Masaya; Okada, Mitsuhiro; Fujiura, Hideaki; Miyauchi, Hideo; Niki, Kazuya; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichiro

2012-06-01

281

Multivariate statistical analysis to identify the major factors governing groundwater quality in the coastal area of Kimje, South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this study is to identify the major factors affecting groundwater quality by means of multivariate statistical analysis of the physico-chemical compositions. Cluster analysis results show that the groundwater in the study area is classified into four groups (A, B, C and D), and factor analysis indicates that groundwater composition, 81.9% of the total variance of 17

Ji-Hoon Kim; Rak-Hyeon Kim; Jeongho Lee; Tae-Jin Cheong; Byoung-Woo Yum; Ho-Wan Chang

2005-01-01

282

Predictive Risk Factors for Impaired Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Women with Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI) has substantial and important impacts on quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to identify the associated risk factors of QoL in middle-aged women with UI. Methods The participants were 127 women aged 40-64 years who experienced UI. Data were collected from October to November, 2008 using a self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, and multiple linear regression with SPSS ver. 16.0 program. Results The distribution of UI severity was mild 18.1%, moderate 40.2% and severe 41.7%. In univariate analysis, differences in the score for QoL according to participants' characteristics were statistically significant on the type of delivery, number of births and severity of UI. In multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment of other variables, the most powerful predictor of QoL is severity of UI. Number of births was also significant predictor. These two variables explained 25% of variance in QoL of women with UI. Conclusions UI is highly prevalent and causes suffering and impaired QoL among middle-aged women, but it stands beyond our attention. The results of this study suggest that women with moderate to severe UI should be screened for QoL by health care providers regularly. Further research is needed to determine comprehensive factors including psychosocial factors predicting the QoL for incontinent women.

Son, Youn-Jung

2010-01-01

283

Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 GeV2/c2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from measurements of the d?(e?,e'n)p reaction for quasielastic kinematics. Polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND3) target in which the deuteron polarization was perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle detector. We find GnE=0.0526±0.0033(stat)±0.0026(sys) and 0.0454±0.0054±0.0037 at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)2, respectively.

Warren, G.; Wesselmann, F.; Zhu, H.; McKee, P.; Savvinov, N.; Zeier, M.; Aghalaryan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Arenhövel, H.; Asaturyan, R.; Ben-Dayan, I.; Bloch, F.; Boeglin, W.; Boillat, B.; Breuer, H.; Brower, J.; Carasco, C.; Carl, M.; Carlini, R.; Cha, J.; Chant, N.; Christy, E.; Cole, L.; Coman, L.; Coman, M.; Crabb, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D.; Duek, K.; Dunne, J.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.; Farrell, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fawcett, D.; Fenker, H.; Forest, T.; Garrow, K.; Gasparian, A.; Goussev, I.; Gueye, P.; Harvey, M.; Hauger, M.; Herrera, R.; Hu, B.; Jaegle, I.; Jones, M.; Jourdan, J.; Keith, C.; Kelly, J.; Keppel, C.; Khandaker, M.; Klein, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kramer, L.; Krusche, B.; Kuhn, S.; Liang, Y.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindgren, R.; Liu, J.; Lung, A.; Mack, D.; MacLachlan, G.; Markowitz, P.; McNulty, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Nasseripour, R.; Niculescu, I.; Normand, K.; Norum, B.; Opper, A.; Piasetzky, E.; Pierce, J.; Pitt, M.; Prok, Y.; Raue, B.; Reinhold, J.; Roche, J.; Rohe, D.; Rondon, O.; Sacker, D.; Sawatzky, B.; Seely, M.; Sick, I.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Steinacher, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Stout, J.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tajima, S.; Tang, L.; Testa, G.; Trojer, R.; Vlahovic, B.; Vulcan, B.; Wang, K.; Wells, S.; Woehrle, H.; Wood, S.; Yan, C.; Yanay, Y.; Yuan, L.; Yun, J.; Zihlmann, B.

2004-01-01

284

Measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 GeV2/c2.  

PubMed

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from measurements of the d-->(e-->,e'n)p reaction for quasielastic kinematics. Polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND3) target in which the deuteron polarization was perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle detector. We find G(n)(E)=0.0526+/-0.0033(stat)+/-0.0026(sys) and 0.0454+/-0.0054+/-0.0037 at Q(2)=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)(2), respectively. PMID:14995367

Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Zhu, H; McKee, P; Savvinov, N; Zeier, M; Aghalaryan, A; Ahmidouch, A; Arenhövel, H; Asaturyan, R; Ben-Dayan, I; Bloch, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Breuer, H; Brower, J; Carasco, C; Carl, M; Carlini, R; Cha, J; Chant, N; Christy, E; Cole, L; Coman, L; Coman, M; Crabb, D; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Duek, K; Dunne, J; Elaasar, M; Ent, R; Farrell, J; Fatemi, R; Fawcett, D; Fenker, H; Forest, T; Garrow, K; Gasparian, A; Goussev, I; Gueye, P; Harvey, M; Hauger, M; Herrera, R; Hu, B; Jaegle, I; Jones, M; Jourdan, J; Keith, C; Kelly, J; Keppel, C; Khandaker, M; Klein, A; Klimenko, A; Kramer, L; Krusche, B; Kuhn, S; Liang, Y; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindgren, R; Liu, J; Lung, A; Mack, D; Maclachlan, G; Markowitz, P; McNulty, D; Meekins, D; Mitchell, J; Mkrtchyan, H; Nasseripour, R; Niculescu, I; Normand, K; Norum, B; Opper, A; Piasetzky, E; Pierce, J; Pitt, M; Prok, Y; Raue, B; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rohe, D; Rondon, O; Sacker, D; Sawatzky, B; Seely, M; Sick, I; Simicevic, N; Smith, C; Smith, G; Steinacher, M; Stepanyan, S; Stout, J; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Trojer, R; Vlahovic, B; Vulcan, B; Wang, K; Wells, S; Woehrle, H; Wood, S; Yan, C; Yanay, Y; Yuan, L; Yun, J; Zihlmann, B

2004-01-30

285

Measurement of the neutron's electric form factor G(E)(n) via doubly polarized, quasi-elastic scattering at Jefferson Lab  

SciTech Connect

We determined the electric form factor of the neutron GEn via the reaction d(e,e?n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a frozen, polarized 15ND3 target at Jefferson Lab. The knocked out neutrons were detected in a segmented plastic scintillator in coincidence with the quasi-elastically scattered electrons which were tracked in Hall C's High Momentum Spectrometer. To extract GEn, we compared the experimental beam-target asymmetry with theoretical calculations based on different GEn models. We report the results of the fall 2001 run at Q2=0.5 and 1.0 (GeV/c)2.

Frank Wesselmann

2004-11-01

286

Resonant frequencies and quality factors for optical equilateral triangle resonators calculated by FDTD technique and the Pade approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode wavelength and quality factor (Q-factor) for resonant modes in optical equilateral triangle resonators (ETR's) are calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation. For an ETR with the side length of 3 ?m and the refractive index of 3.2, we get the mode wavelength interval of about 70 nm and the Q-factor of the fundamental

Wei-Hua Guo; Yong-Zhen Huang; Qi-Ming Wang

2000-01-01

287

Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

1975-01-01

288

The quality factor of a superconducting rf resonator in a magnetic field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality factor of a superconducting NbTi resonator at 1.6 MHz in a magnetic field up to 1.2 T as well as its temperature dependence is investigated. A hysteresis effect in the superconducting surface resistance as a function of the magnetic field is observed. An unloaded Q-value of the resonator of 40 500 is achieved at 3.9 K. It is shown that this Q-value is limited by dielectric losses in the FORMVAR insulation of the coils wire. The details of the Q-value optimization are discussed. In the temperature dependence of the Q-value a steep decrease is observed above T~7.5 K. Finally, the implications of these measurements for real trap experiments are discussed in detail.

Ulmer, S.; Kracke, H.; Blaum, K.; Kreim, S.; Mooser, A.; Quint, W.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Walz, J.

2009-12-01

289

Shear wave quality factor Qs profiling using seismic noise data from microarrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the shear wave velocity (Vs) and quality factor (Qs) profiles below a site is necessary to characterize its site response. Recently, methods based on the analysis of seismic noise have proved to be very efficient for providing a sufficiently accurate estimation of the Vs versus depth at reasonable costs for engineering seismology purposes. In this study, it is investigated if the same methods can also provide, with just a few additional and successive calculation steps, realistic Qs versus depth estimations. A data set of seismic noise collected at the Tito test site in southern Italy by a microarray of seismological stations was used, and the obtained Qs results are compared with those estimated by independent geophysical investigations. It is shown that the values are consistent and that the seismic noise analysis has the potential to also provide a more comprehensive (Vs and Qs) description of the geological structure below a site.

Parolai, S.

2014-05-01

290

Shear wave quality factor Qs profiling using seismic noise data from microarrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of the shear wave velocity ( Vs) and quality factor ( Qs) profiles below a site is necessary to characterize its site response. Recently, methods based on the analysis of seismic noise have proved to be very efficient for providing a sufficiently accurate estimation of the Vs versus depth at reasonable costs for engineering seismology purposes. In this study, it is investigated if the same methods can also provide, with just a few additional and successive calculation steps, realistic Qs versus depth estimations. A data set of seismic noise collected at the Tito test site in southern Italy by a microarray of seismological stations was used, and the obtained Qs results are compared with those estimated by independent geophysical investigations. It is shown that the values are consistent and that the seismic noise analysis has the potential to also provide a more comprehensive ( Vs and Qs) description of the geological structure below a site.

Parolai, S.

2014-07-01

291

The quality factor of a superconducting rf resonator in a magnetic field.  

PubMed

The quality factor of a superconducting NbTi resonator at 1.6 MHz in a magnetic field up to 1.2 T as well as its temperature dependence is investigated. A hysteresis effect in the superconducting surface resistance as a function of the magnetic field is observed. An unloaded Q-value of the resonator of 40,500 is achieved at 3.9 K. It is shown that this Q-value is limited by dielectric losses in the FORMVAR insulation of the coils wire. The details of the Q-value optimization are discussed. In the temperature dependence of the Q-value a steep decrease is observed above T approximately = 7.5 K. Finally, the implications of these measurements for real trap experiments are discussed in detail. PMID:20059135

Ulmer, S; Kracke, H; Blaum, K; Kreim, S; Mooser, A; Quint, W; Rodegheri, C C; Walz, J

2009-12-01

292

Varying Cavity Quality Factor in situ for a Transmon in Circuit QED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting transmon qubits have recently been studied within 3D cavities. In addition to increasing the coherence times of the qubits this has enabled a simple scheme for varying the quality factor Q (or decay rate ?) of a cavity in situ. This decay rate plays an important role in our understanding of a number of effects in circuit quantum electrodynamics, many of which have direct bearing on qubit decoherence processes. Here we study how adjusting the cavity Q affects the coherence times of a single qubit within the 3D architecture. We demonstrate that varying the coupling enables us to not only examine the limitations of qubit T1 due to the Purcell Effect, but also probe new decoherence mechanisms such as the dephasing due to photon shot noise. By understanding and minimizing these effects, we obtain record coherences times T2 and T2^Echo of ˜27 ?s and ˜47 ?s respectively.

Petrenko, Andrei; Sears, Adam; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Paik, Hanhee; Sun, Luyan; Catelani, Gianluigi; Glazman, Leonid; Schoelkopf, Robert

2012-02-01

293

Quality factor effect on the wireless range of microstrip patch antenna strain sensors.  

PubMed

Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S T; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H; Ghorbani, Kamran

2014-01-01

294

Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors  

PubMed Central

Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection.

Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

2014-01-01

295

Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.  

PubMed

Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships. PMID:22981577

Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H

2012-11-01

296

Factors associated with impaired quality of life in younger and older adults with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to weigh psychological state, patients' demographics, seizure-related factors, and medical comorbidity in older adults with epilepsy against the same parameters in younger adults in an attempt to identify best quality of life (QoL) predictors. The Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory for Adults (QOLIE-31) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were completed by 146 patients with localization-related epilepsy. There was no statistical difference in the QOLIE-31 total score between younger and older adults. Best QoL predictors were BDI-II and seizure frequency, with BDI-II providing more than 3 times the impact of seizure frequency. BDI-II also substantively predicted most QOLIE-31 domains. Additionally, epilepsy duration positively correlated with overall QoL only among older adults. In summary, in younger as well as older adult epilepsy patients, depressive symptoms emerge as the strongest predictor of QoL. However, older adults appear to adapt better to their chronic health problem. PMID:18976886

Canuet, Leonides; Ishii, Ryouhei; Iwase, Masao; Ikezawa, Koji; Kurimoto, Ryu; Azechi, Michiyo; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Teshima, Yoshio; Takeda, Masatoshi

2009-01-01

297

[Factors associated with dietary quality among adults in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, 2002].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors associated with quality of diet in adults residing in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in the district of Butantã and the municipalities of Itapecerica da Serra, Embu, and Taboão da Serra, based on data from a questionnaire and 24-hour recall from 1,840 adults, both males and females, included in a household health survey (ISA-SP). Dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the local reality. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between HEI and other variables. Most individuals (75%) ate diets that were rated as "need improvement". The mean HEI was low for fruit, vegetables, and dairy products. Number of durable goods, head-of-family's schooling, and age >or= 60 years were associated with HEI in men. For women, age was associated with HEI. Energy intake was considered an adjustment variable for both genders. PMID:18209845

Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Goldbaum, Moises; Fisberg, Regina Mara

2008-01-01

298

Morning-evening type and burnout level as factors influencing sleep quality of shift nurses: a questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess the relationship between sleep quality and demographic variables, morning-evening type, and burnout in nurses who work shifts. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional self-administered study with forced choice and open-ended structured questionnaires – Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The study was carried out at Gazi University Medicine Faculty Hospital of Ankara on 524 invited nurses from July to September 2008, with a response rate of 89.94% (n?=?483). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to determine the risk factors of poor sleep quality. Results Most socio-demographic variables did not affect sleep quality. Participants with poor sleep quality had quite high burnout levels. Most nurses who belonged to a type that is neither morning nor evening had poor sleep quality. Nurses who experienced an incident worsening their sleep patterns (P?quality. The subjective sleep quality and sleep latency points of evening types within created models for the effect of burnout dimensions were high. Conclusions Nurses working consistently either in the morning or at night had better sleep quality than those working rotating shifts. Further studies are still needed to develop interventions that improve sleep quality and decrease burnout in nurses working shifts.

Demir Zencirci, Ayten; Arslan, Sumeyye

2011-01-01

299

Factors influencing trust in doctors: a community segmentation strategy for quality improvement in healthcare  

PubMed Central

Background Trust is a forward-looking covenant between the patient and the doctor where the patient optimistically accepts his/her vulnerability. Trust is known to improve the clinical outcomes. Objectives To explore the factors that determine patients’ trust in doctors and to segment the community based on factors which drive their trust. Setting Resource-poor urban and rural settings in Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 625 adult community-dwelling respondents from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India, chosen by multistage sampling strategy. Outcome measures The outcomes were to understand the main domains of factors influencing trust in doctors and to segment the community based on which of these domains predominantly influenced their trust. Results Factor analysis revealed five main categories, namely, comfort with the doctor, doctor with personal involvement with the patient, behaviourally competent doctor, doctor with a simple appearance and culturally competent doctor, which explained 49.3% of the total variance. Using k-means cluster analysis the respondents were segmented into four groups, namely, those who have ‘comfort-based trust’, ‘emotionally assessed trust’, who were predominantly older and belonging to lower socioeconomic status, those who had ‘personal trust’, who were younger people from higher socioeconomic strata of the community and the group who had ‘objectively assessed trust’, who were younger women. Conclusions Trust in doctors seems to be influenced by the doctor's behaviuor, perceived comfort levels, personal involvement with the patient, and to a lesser extent by cultural competence and doctor's physical appearance. On the basis of these dimensions, the community can be segmented into distinct groups, and trust building can happen in a strategic manner which may lead to improvement in perceived quality of care.

Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

300

Estimating the Seismic Quality Factor (Q) in the Western Izmit Bay, NW Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic Q (quality factor) parameter, the inverse of attenuation, is a petrophysical parameter being more sensitive to lithology and physical properties of the medium (pressure, temperature, saturation to fluid and gas, etc) than the velocity and it can be used as an indicator to determine the physical changes along the fault zones. The multi-channel seismic reflection data of the Western Izmit Bay, collected after 17 August 1999 Izmit Earthquake (Mw=7.6) by Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey is used for the Q estimation to investigate the lateral and vertical variations of the Q parameter along the seismic profiles. The Q value is determined from the reflection seismograms, and is an average of the quality factors of the layers passed by the reflected wavelet. Since it is difficult and less reliable to estimate the interval-Q values from surface seismic reflection data, instead of estimating the interval-Q values for lithological correlation, the variations of the Q parameter along and around the North Anatolian Fault zone is investigated. In this study, the constant-Q wavelet modeling method, based on the comparison of the attenuated synthetic wavelets by the observed wavelets, is used. The measure of agreement of the wavelets are provided by two methods: the correlation coefficient and L2 norm. The prominent, isolated reflected waves are determined from the raw shot data of the seismic reflection profile and used for Q estimation. In a former study it is observed that the correlation coefficient method has a limitation for the estimation of the Q value higher than 100. Therefore the Q parameter is estimated by two different methods along four seismic lines and the results are compared. It is seen that the L2 norm method gives more reliable results when compared to the correlation coefficient method. It is also observed that low Q values are observed in shallow sediments and around the North Anatolian Fault.

Baydar, B.; Kaslilar, A.

2012-12-01

301

Pressure dependence of the quality factor of a micromachined cantilever in rarefied gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the damping behavior of monocrystalline silicon cantilevers in different rarefied gas regimes. Mechanical quality factors Q were analyzed at controlled ambient pressures in the range of 0.01 Pa to 100 Pa. Emphasis was laid on the investigation of the fundamental vibration mode. Hence, the test structures were harmonically excited by the Lorentz force acting on the current carrying lead attached to the top surface of the cantilever. The micromachined clamped-free cantilevers featuring a length of 2 mm, a width of 1.5 mm and a thickness of 20 ?m, were manufactured in SOI technology. The experimental results were compared with existing theories revealing an underestimate of the damping parameter for the Knudsen range Kn = 0.1 to 10. So far, squeeze-film damping by free molecular flow and kinetic damping were taken into account in damping models for the quasi-molecular regime. However, our measurements indicate that also the ongoing molecular flow around the test structures has to be considered. Hence the damping coefficient has to be calculated with methods of the free molecular aerodynamics. Thus, we used an algorithm based on the random walk model that allows the usage of already available knowledge in the field of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo. With this approach the quality factor of a squeezed-film damped cantilever in the quasi-molecular regime was derived. The results were compared with the most recent stochastic model, where the theoretical predictions and the experimental investigations indicate significant squeezing up to a Knudsen number of 10. In a superposition of both damping mechanisms, kinetic and squeeze-film damping, a satisfactory characterization of the damping behavior of an oscillating cantilever in the quasi-molecular regime with Knudsen numbers in the range of 10 down to 0.02 was achieved.

Stifter, Michael; Sachse, Matthias; Sauter, Thilo; Hortschitz, Wilfried; Keplinger, Franz

2012-05-01

302

Fear of Falling in Subacute Hemiplegic Stroke Patients: Associating Factors and Correlations with Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the associating factors of fear of falling (FOF) and the correlations between FOF and quality of life (QOL) on subacute stroke patients in Korea. Method Fifty hemiplegic subacute stroke patients in our clinic were recruited. We directly asked patients with their fear of falling and interviewed them with the Korean version of falls efficacy scale-international (KFES-I). We divided the participants into two groups; with FOF and without FOF. We compared these groups with the strength of hemiplegic hip abductor, knee extensor, ankle plantar flexor, functional ambulation category (FAC) scale, stroke specific quality of life (SSQOL), and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS). Results Thirty-four participants were enrolled, and more than half of the patients with subacute stroke had FOF. We compared the patients with and without FOF. According to the results, FOF was associated with the strength of hemiplegic hip abductor, knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor, FAC, total SSQOL, and domains (energy, mobility, self care, upper extremity function) of SSQOL (p<0.05). FOF was also associated with the anxiety score of HADS (p<0.05). KFES-I had a significant negative correlation with the strength of hemiplegic hip abductor, knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor, FAC, total SSQOL, and domains (energy, mobility, self care, upper extremity function) of SSQOL (p<0.01). Conclusion The FOF was associated with not only QOL but also with the physical and psychological factors, and in particular, anxiety. Therefore, further concerns about FOF in subacute stroke patients might be required.

Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Wan Ho; Lee, Kwang Lae; Yoon, Yong Hoon; Park, Jeong Mi; Shin, Jung In; Kim, Seong Kyu; Kim, Dong Goo

2012-01-01

303

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

Marko Zeier

2000-12-12

304

Risk factors associated with selected indicators of milk quality in semiarid northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to gain information on quality traits, mainly bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk milk, produced by small- and medium-scale producers in a semiarid northeastern region of Brazil and to identify and characterize possible risk factors associated with those quality traits. A cross-sectional study was performed on 50 farms. Bulk milk samples were collected for bacterial and somatic cell counts. Additionally, information about farm demographics, general management practices, hygiene, and milking procedures was also obtained. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was performed with predictors previously identified by univariate analysis using a Fisher's Exact test. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria counts varied from 3.59 log to 6.95 log cfu/mL, with geometric mean of 5.27 log cfu/mL. Mean total coliform count was 3.27 log (1.52 log to 5.89 log) most probable number (MPN)/mL, whereas mean thermotolerant coliforms was 2.38 log (1.48 log to 4.75 log) MPN/mL. A high positive correlation was observed between aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform counts. Although most farms met the standard for the current regulations for total bacteria (88%) and somatic cell counts (94%), nearly half of the producers (46%) would have problems in achieving the 2012 threshold limit for total bacteria count if no improvement in milk quality occurs. Mean value for staphylococci was 3.99 log (2.31 log to 6.24 log) cfu/mL, and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 33 (66%) farms. Premilking teat-end wash procedure (odds ratio=0.191) and postmilking teat dip (odds ratio=0.67) were associated with lower aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus counts in bulk milk, respectively. Considering that the farm characteristics in this study are representative of the semiarid northeastern region, these findings encourage further investigations for supporting intervention measures intended to improve the quality of milk produced by smallholders. PMID:21605786

Oliveira, C J B; Lopes Júnior, W D; Queiroga, R C R E; Givisiez, P E N; Azevedo, P S; Pereira, W E; Gebreyes, W A

2011-06-01

305

An evaluation of the factors determining the effectiveness of water quality buffer zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the relative role of slope length, slope gradient, surface roughness, and soil hydrologic properties on determining the pollution control effectiveness of vegetated buffer zones. Two models describing buffer conveyance capacity are introduced. The first assumes that pollutant transport through the buffer depends on the energy of overland flow and is based on Bagnold's stream power concept. The second assumes that the buffer effectiveness is a function of total contact time of both surface runoff and throughflow and is based on Darcy's law and the Manning equation. The hydraulic and detention models, respectively, are applied to the problem of estuarine shoreline buffer zone delineation in Carteret County, North Carolina. Results show that where solid-phase pollutants transported as suspended or bedload in overland flow are the major concern, slope gradient is the most critical factor, followed by soil hydraulic conductivity. Where dissolved pollutants that are transported by both surface and subsurface flow are of concern, buffer width is by far the most important factor, with soil moisture storage capacity also playing a role. Methods developed here may be applied to any water quality buffer delineation problem to determine the relative influence of soil properties, geomorphology, and surface conditions.

Phillips, Jonathan D.

1989-05-01

306

Identifying Key Factors in Homeowner's Adoption of Water Quality Best Management Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf, 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs.

Brehm, Joan M.; Pasko, Danielle K.; Eisenhauer, Brian W.

2013-07-01

307

Incisional hernia after liver transplantation: risk factors and health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the incidence of incisional hernia after liver transplantation (LT), to determine potential risk factors for their development, and to assess their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients who underwent LT through a J-shaped incision with a minimum follow-up of three months were included. Follow-up was conducted at the outpatient clinic. Short Form 36 (SF-36) and body image questionnaire (BIQ) were used for the assessment of HRQoL. A total of 140 patients was evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 33 (SD 20) months. Sixty patients (43%) were diagnosed with an incisional hernia. Multivariate analysis revealed surgical site infection (OR 5.27, p = 0.001), advanced age (OR 1.05, p = 0.003), and prolonged ICU stay (OR 1.54, p = 0.022) to be independent risk factors for development of incisional hernia after LT. Patients with an incisional hernia experienced significantly diminished HRQoL with respect to physical, social, and mental aspects. In conclusion, patients who undergo LT exhibit a high incidence of incisional hernia, which has a considerable impact on HRQoL. Development of incisional hernia was shown to be related to surgical site infection, advanced age, and prolonged ICU stay. PMID:24806311

de Goede, Barry; Eker, Hasan H; Klitsie, Pieter J; van Kempen, Bob J H; Polak, Wojtek G; Hop, Wim C J; Metselaar, Herold J; Tilanus, Hugo W; Lange, Johan F; Kazemier, Geert

2014-07-01

308

Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools  

SciTech Connect

During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities.

Caldwell, Barrett S. [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)], E-mail: bscaldwell@purdue.edu

2008-05-01

309

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from a series of simulation and flight investigations undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks were analyzed to assess handling-quality factors common to both tasks. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping and rotor-system cross-coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate-command, attitude-command, and control-input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. NOE agility and instrument flying handling-quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

310

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

311

[Structural factors influencing the horn quality and predilection sites for diseases at the bottom surface of the bovine hoof].  

PubMed

The quality of the horn of the cattle hoof varies in the different segments of the ground surface adapted to weight bearing. Horn quality is influenced by the following main factors: the keratin proteins as the most important intracellular factor, the intercellular cementing substance as the intercellular factor, and the architecture of the cluster of horn cells, i.e. the arrangement of horn cells in tubular and intertubular horn. Differences in the structure and composition of these factors and their respective combination determine the different degrees of hardness of hoof horn, which are even palpable. In special places, as i.e. the white zone, the combination of all these above-mentioned factors determines sites of predilection for diseases of the cattle hoof like white line disease. PMID:8153603

Mülling, C; Bragulla, H; Budras, K D; Reese, S

1994-01-01

312

Electron beam quality correction factors for plane-parallel ionization chambers: Monte Carlo calculations using the PENELOPE system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of three plane-parallel ionization chambers have been used to determine directly the chamber- and quality-dependent factors fc,Q, instead of the product (sw,air p)Q, and k_{Q,Q_o} (or k_{Q,Q_int} ) for a broad range of electron beam qualities (4-20 MeV) using divergent monoenergetic beams and phase-space data from two accelerators. An original calculation method has been used which circumvents the weakness

Josep Sempau; Pedro Andreo; Judith Aldana; Jocelyne Mazurier; Francesc Salvat

2004-01-01

313

Mapping quantitative trait loci for quality factors in an inter-class cross of US and Chinese wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat quality factors are critical in determining the suitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for end-use product and economic value, and they are prime targets for marker-assisted selection. Objectives of this\\u000a study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that ultimately influence wheat market class and milling quality. A\\u000a population of 132 F12 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived by

Xiaochun Sun; Felix Marza; Hongxiang Ma; Brett F. Carver; Guihua Bai

2010-01-01

314

Factors Related to Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Independent Brazilian Elderly  

PubMed Central

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the factors associated with the impact of oral health on the quality of life in a sample of 504 Brazilian independent elderly. Data collection included oral examinations and structured interviews. The simplified form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, use of dental services, and subjective measures of health was collected. Poisson regression within a hierarchical model was used to data analyses. The following variables were associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL: female gender (PR?=?1.40; CI 95%: 1.11–1.77); lower class (PR?=?1.58; CI 95%: 1.13–2.20); up to 3 occluding pairs of posterior teeth (PR?=?1.88; CI 95%: 1.13–3.14); at least one untreated caries (PR?=?1.28; CI 95%: 1.06–1.54); curative reasons for the last dental appointment (PR?=?1.52; CI 95%: 1.15–2.00); poor self-perception of oral health (PR?=?2.49; CI 95%: 1.92–3.24); and poor perception of dental care provided (PR?=?1.34; CI 95%: 1.12–1.59). The younger elderly also noticed this negative impact. These findings showed that the clinical, sociodemographic, and subjective factors evaluated exerted a negative impact on OHRQoL in elderly people. Health authorities must address all these factors when planning interventions on oral health for this population.

Ulinski, Karla Giovana Bavaresco; do Nascimento, Mariele Andrade; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Poli-Frederico, Regina Celia; Fernandes, Karen Barros Parron; Fracasso, Marina Lourdes Calvo; Maciel, Sandra Mara

2013-01-01

315

The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\\\vec{\\\\rm H}(\\\\vec{\\\\rm e},{\\\\rm e}'{\\\\rm n}){\\\\rm p}$ Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum\\u000atransfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron.\\u000aLongitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from\\u000aan isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered\\u000aelectrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance\\u000aSpectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form

E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-01-01

316

Design and demonstration of high quality-factor H1-cavity in two-dimensional photonic crystal.  

PubMed

We introduce a method for designing an H1 photonic crystal cavity to enhance its quality factor (Q factor). The highest theoretical Q factor of 120,000 is obtained. The Fourier transformation of field distribution shows that the enhancement arises from the component reduction of a leaky mode. The Q-factor improvement has also been demonstrated experimentally with the highest value of 11,700. Our design could be useful for studying light-matter interaction in an H1 cavity as the mode volume only increases slightly. PMID:24322165

Fu, Ying-Jhe; Lee, Yi-Shan; Lin, Sheng-Di

2013-11-15

317

Numerical study of the calibration factors for the neutron counters in use at the Joint European Torus  

SciTech Connect

A simple computer model of the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak has been constructed, using the neutron transport code McBEND, to assist in the interpretation of point neutron source data used for empirical calibrations of fission chambers placed near the tokamak to measure the total neutron emission from deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas. A satisfactory simulation of the experimental data using a [sup 252]Cf neutron source is obtained. In particular, the preferential moderation and absorption of [sup 252]Cf neutrons, compared with plasma neutrons, resulting from the buildup of equipment around the tokamak in recent years is demonstrated; this differentiation between neutron sources is a consequence of the use of a concrete filler in the spaces between the toroidal field (TF) coils. An unexpected increase in detector response is explained by the substitution of Freon for water as the TF coil coolant. Finally, the McBEND calculations are found to predict correctly the relative responses of both [sup 235]U and [sup 238]U fission chambers to 2.5- and 14-MeV plasma neutrons. 14 refs., 10 refs., 2 tabs.

Laundy, B.J.; Jarvis, O.N. (JET Joint Undertaking Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom))

1993-09-01

318

Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend < 0.05) and ate more cookies, cakes, and meat for dinner (P for trend < 0.05). Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend < 0.05). The percent energy from carbohydrates was lower and fat intake was higher in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend < 0.01). When diets were compared using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Koreans, 59.1% of subjects in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P < 0.005). According to the Estimated Average Requirements for Koreans, intake of selected nutrients was lower in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The risk of elevated serum triglycerides was decreased in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides.

Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O.; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee

2011-01-01

319

Reference dosimetry condition and beam quality correction factor for CyberKnife beam  

SciTech Connect

This article is intended to improve the certainty of the absorbed dose determination for reference dosimetry in CyberKnife beams. The CyberKnife beams do not satisfy some conditions of the standard reference dosimetry protocols because of its unique treatment head structure and beam collimating system. Under the present state of affairs, the reference dosimetry has not been performed under uniform conditions and the beam quality correction factor k{sub Q} for an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator has been temporally substituted for the k{sub Q} of the CyberKnife in many sites. Therefore, the reference conditions and k{sub Q} as a function of the beam quality index in a new way are required. The dose flatness and the error of dosimeter reading caused by radiation fields and detector size were analyzed to determine the reference conditions. Owing to the absence of beam flattening filter, the dose flatness of the CyberKnife beam was inferior to that of an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator. And if the absorbed dose is measured with an ionization chamber which has cavity length of 2.4, 1.0 and 0.7 cm in reference dosimetry, the dose at the beam axis for a field of 6.0 cm collimator was underestimated 1.5%, 0.4%, and 0.2% on a calculation. Therefore, the maximum field shaped with a 6.0 cm collimator and ionization chamber which has a cavity length of 1.0 cm or shorter were recommended as the conditions of reference dosimetry. Furthermore, to determine the k{sub Q} for the CyberKnife, the realistic energy spectrum of photons and electrons in water was simulated with the BEAMnrc. The absence of beam flattening filter also caused softer photon energy spectrum than that of an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator. Consequently, the k{sub Q} for ionization chambers of a suitable size were determined and tabulated as a function of measurable beam quality indexes in the CyberKnife beam.

Kawachi, Toru; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Katayose, Tetsurou; Myojoyama, Atsushi; Hatano, Kazuo [Tokyo Metropolitan University Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan and Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan University Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Yokahama CyberKnife Center, Yokohama (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan University Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Chiba Cancer Center, Chiba (Japan)

2008-10-15

320

Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

1994-01-01

321

Evaluation of image quality and factor for international telepathology through the Internet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the telepathology, rendering devices significantly influence the perceived image quality. If the resolution and color depth are reduced beyond a certain point, however, it is not possible to obtain images which can be used in telepathology even in an ideal situation. With this in mind, we evaluated image quality, compression, size and rates of data exchange with several histological cases on several kinds of systems for our International Consortium for Internet Telepathology (ICIT) project. The ICIT network uses widely available nonpropriety hardware and software with the Internet as a means of communication.In this study, we discuss the effective image acquisition methods for telepathology. To evaluate microscopic images, various resolution size were used. The images were also evaluated at different JPEG compression ratio, including zero compression, and different format. To evaluate an entire glass slide image, a scanner in transparency mode and an NTSC camera were used. Every case showed similar results. For he microscopic image, although the high resolution images, such as 2k X 1.5k or higher, contain more diagnostic information than lower resolution images; sufficient data was retained in the latter that it does not appear to negatively effect diagnosis. The circumstance and condition for image acquisition, such as specimen thickness or dast of glass slide, are most influenced on the highest image resolution. Usually, we use 5-10 images/case for a telepathology conference. To see all images of a case at a glance before detailed observation, or to switch to the other images immediately, a lower resolution,such as 1k X 0.7k is useful. For the entire glass slide, the reviewer could select the desired area by scanner; however, selecting it by the NTSC camera, was not easy to do. On the monitor, the scanned image has almost the same information as the microscopic image captured by the NTSC camera with 2x objective lens. To ge ta high enough quality image, the important factors are correct usage of the microscope and the condition of glass slide, not only high performance equipment.Since we have been using the Internet as the communication medium, we selected 1024 X 774 and 640 X 480 with 1/7-1/15 compressed image for microscopic image and 2700 dpi scanned image for entire glass slide. For the static image telepathology, the most important image is the low power image such as the entire specimen. High resolution images such as 3k X 2k are also useful for different purpose such as publication.

Yagi, Yukako; Azumi, Norio; Elsayed, Al M.; Mun, Seong K.

1997-05-01

322

Extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic 3He?(e?,e') at Q2=0.1-0.6(GeV/c)2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in the quasielastic 3He?(e?,e') process with high precision at Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6(GeV/c)2. The neutron magnetic form factor GMn was extracted at Q2 values of 0.1 and 0.2(GeV/c)2 using a nonrelativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC effects were constrained with a precision measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry in the threshold region of 3He?(e?,e'). We also extracted the neutron magnetic form factor GMn at Q2 values of 0.3 to 0.6(GeV/c)2 based on plane wave impulse approximation calculations.

Anderson, B.; Auberbach, L.; Averett, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Black, T.; Calarco, J.; Cardman, L.; Cates, G. D.; Chai, Z. W.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Corrado, G. S.; Crawford, C.; Dale, D.; Deur, A.; Djawotho, P.; Dutta, D.; Finn, J. M.; Gao, H.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A. V.; Glashausser, C.; Glöckle, W.; Golak, J.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V. G.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hersman, F. W.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmes, R.; Howell, C. R.; Hughes, E.; Humensky, B.; Incerti, S.; Jager, C. W. De; Jensen, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C. E.; Jones, M.; Kahl, R.; Kamada, H.; Kievsky, A.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriqi, E.; Liang, M.; Liyanage, N.; Lerose, J.; Malov, S.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Martin, J. W.; McCormick, K.; McKeown, R. D.; McIlhany, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G. W.; Mitchell, J.; Nanda, S.; Pace, E.; Pavlin, T.; Petratos, G. G.; Pomatsalyuk, R. I.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R. D.; Roblin, Y.; Rvachev, M.; Saha, A.; Salmè, G.; Schnee, M.; Seely, J.; Shin, T.; Slifer, K.; Souder, P. A.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Sutter, M.; Tipton, B.; Todor, L.; Viviani, M.; Vlahovic, B.; Watson, J.; Williamson, C. F.; Wita?a, H.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiong, F.; Xu, W.; Yeh, J.; ?o?nierczuk, P.

2007-03-01

323

Sharp whispering-gallery modes in rolled-up vertical SiO2 microcavities with quality factors exceeding 5000.  

PubMed

Record high quality (Q) factors of 5400 in vertical microtube ring resonators operated in emission mode are demonstrated. This is achieved by rolling-up a differentially strained SiO2 layer. We also present a theoretical model to investigate the limit of the Q factor. This model especially includes the effect of interlayer voids in the rolled-up geometry, which is found to have a larger effect than scattering due to notches in the spiral shape. PMID:23258030

Böttner, Stefan; Li, Shilong; Trommer, Jens; Kiravittaya, Suwit; Schmidt, Oliver G

2012-12-15

324

12 The relationship between psychological factors and impaired health-related quality of life post ST-elevation myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionEvidence suggests that psychological factors, such as depression and anxiety, are independent risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality post ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Since improved treatments have increased survival rates post STEMI the emphasis has turned to more patient related outcome measures such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of the study was to assess the contribution

L McGowan; H Iles-Smith; C Dickens; M Campbell; C Rogers; F Fath-Ordoubadi

2011-01-01

325

The Use of Novel Semen Quality Scores to Predict Pregnancy in Couples With MaleFactor Infertility Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether 2 new semen quality (SQ) scores could predict pregnancy in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) for male-factor infertility and whether an overall score could help in counseling these couples with assisted reproductive technique (ART) options. Ninety-three couples with male-factor infertility were examined for semen analy- sis. Samples were prepared by density

MOHAMED A. BEDAIWY; RAKESH K. SHARMA; TAREK K. ALHUSSAINI; MAHER S. MOHAMED; ALI M. ABDEL ALEEM; DAVID R. NELSON; ANTHONY J. THOMAS JR; ASHOK AGARWAL

2003-01-01

326

Investigation of systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality correction factors.  

PubMed

Modern Monte Carlo codes allow for the calculation of ion chamber specific beam quality correction factors k(Q), which are needed for dosimetry in radiotherapy. While statistical (type A) uncertainties of the calculated data can be minimized sufficiently, the influence of systematic (type B) uncertainties is mostly unknown. This study presents an investigation of systematic uncertainties of Monte Carlo-based k(Q) values for a NE2571 thimble ion chamber, calculated with the EGSnrc system. Starting with some general investigation on transport parameter settings, the influence of geometry and source variations is studied. Furthermore, a systematic examination of uncertainties due to cross section is introduced by determining the sensitivity of k(Q) results to changes in cross section data. For this purpose, single components of the photon cross sections and the mean excitation energy I in the electron stopping powers are varied. The corresponding sensitivities are subsequently applied with information of standard uncertainties for the cross section data found in the literature. It turns out that the calculation of k(Q) factors with EGSnrc is mostly insensitive to transport settings within the statistical uncertainties of approximately 0.1%. Severe changes in the dimensions of the chamber lead to comparatively small, insignificant changes. Further, the inclusion of realistic beam models, delivering a complete phase space instead of simple photon spectra, does not significantly influence the result. However, the uncertainties in electron cross sections have an impact on the final uncertainty of k(Q) to a comparatively large degree. For the NE2571 chamber investigated in this work, this uncertainty amounts to 0.4% at 24 MV, decreasing to 0.2% at 6 MV. PMID:20668340

Wulff, J; Heverhagen, J T; Zink, K; Kawrakow, I

2010-08-21

327

Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron up to Q2 = 3.4 GeV2 using the Reaction He3(e,e'n)pp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric form factor of the neutron was determined from studies of the reaction \\\\rea{} in quasi-elastic kinematics in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered off a polarized target in which the nuclear polarization was oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The scattered electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons that were

Seamus Riordan; Sergey Abrahamyan; Brandon Craver; Aidan Kelleher; Ameya Kolarkar; Jonathan Miller; Gordon Cates; Nilanga Liyanage; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Armando Acha Quimper; Kalyan Allada; Bryon Anderson; Konrad Aniol; John Annand; John Arrington; Todd Averett; Arie Beck; Matthew Bellis; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; John Calarco; Jian-Ping Chen; Eugene Chudakov; Luminita Coman; Benjamin Crowe; Francesco Cusanno; Donal Day; Pavel Degtiarenko; P. A. M. Dolph; Chiranjib Dutta; Catherine Ferdi; Cezar Fernandez-Ramirez; Robert Feuerbach; Luis Fraile Prieto; Gregg Franklin; Salvatore Frullani; Sabine Fuchs; Franco Garibaldi; Nerses Gevorgyan; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Javier Gomez; Klaus Grimm; Jens-Ole Hansen; Joaquin Lopez Herraiz; Douglas Higinbotham; Richard Holmes; Timothy Holmstrom; David Howell; Cornelis De Jager; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Joseph Katich; Lisa Kaufman; Mahbubul Khandaker; James Kelly; Daniela Kiselev; Wolfgang Korsch; John LeRose; Pete Markowitz; Demetrius Margaziotis; Sharon May-Tal Beck; Samvel Mayilyan; Kathy McCormick; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Robert Michaels; Bryan Moffit; Sirish Nanda; Vladimir Nelyubin; Tim Ngo; Dmitri Nikolenko; Blaine Norum; Lubomir Pentchev; Charles Perdrisat; Eliazer Piasetzky; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Dan Protopopescu; Andrew Puckett; Vina Punjabi; Xin Qian; Yi Qiang; Brian Quinn; Igor Rachek; Ronald Ransome; Paul Reimer; Bodo Reitz; Julie Roche; Guy Ron; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Guenther Rosner; Arunava Saha; Misak Sargsian; Bradley Sawatzky; John Segal; Mitra Hashemi Shabestari; Albert Shahinyan; Jaideep Singh; Simon Sirca; Paul Souder; Samuel Stepanyan; Victor Stibunov; Vince Sulkosky; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tobias; Jose Udias Moinelo; Guido Urciuoli; Branislav Vlahovic; Hakob Voskanyan; Kebin Wang; Frank Wesselmann; Javier Rodriguez Vignote; Stephen Wood; Justin Wright; Huan Yao; Xianfang Zhu

2010-01-01

328

Anisotropy factors for the determination of total neutron yield from the D(d,n)He3 and T(d,n)He4 reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables of the anisotropy factor, R, which is useful in determining, by ; the associated particle method, the total neutron yield produced in the reactions ; T(d,n)He⁴ and D(d,n)He³ were computed. The range of incident ; deuteron energy covered is 25 to 500 kev, at associated particle colatitude ; angles of 90 to 180 deg. Thick-and thin-target cases were treated.

L. Ruby; R. B. Crawford

1963-01-01

329

Involvement of young Australian adults in meal preparation: cross-sectional associations with sociodemographic factors and diet quality.  

PubMed

Involvement in meal preparation has the potential to affect diet quality, but has not been thoroughly investigated. The study aims were to describe the involvement of young adult men and women in meal preparation and to investigate whether extent of involvement was associated with diet quality. During 2004 to 2006, a national sample of 2,814 Australian adults aged 26 to 36 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, diet, and lifestyle factors. Participants were asked to report who was usually responsible for preparing the main meal on working days. Responses were categorized as "myself," "shared," or "someone else." Diet quality was assessed by calculating the mean number of daily servings for each food group. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in means of dietary intake data. More women (65%) than men (29%) had sole responsibility for meal preparation. Shared meal preparation was reported by 23% of women and 27% of men. Factors associated with greater involvement in meal preparation included marital status, education, occupation, and physical activity. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, men who prepared the main meal themselves had a higher intake of lean meat and alternatives. Women who shared the meal preparation had higher intakes of vegetables and dairy; however, these differences in diet quality were only small. These results suggest that strategies seeking to motivate greater involvement in meal preparation might not be sufficient to markedly improve diet quality in young Australian adults. PMID:20800130

Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

2010-09-01

330

Defects in RNA quality control factors reveal RNAi-independent nucleation of heterochromatin  

PubMed Central

Heterochromatin assembly at fission yeast centromeres involves a self-reinforcing loop mechanism wherein chromatin-bound RNAi factors facilitate targeting of Clr4–Rik1 methyltransferase. However, the initial nucleation of heterochromatin has remained elusive. We show that cells lacking Mlo3, a protein involved in mRNP biogenesis and RNA quality control, assemble functional heterochromatin capable of promoting chromosome segregation in RNAi deficient cells. Heterochromatin restoration is linked to RNA surveillance because loss of Mlo3-associated TRAMP also rescues heterochromatin defects of RNAi mutants. Remarkably, mlo3?, which causes accumulation of bidirectional repeat-transcripts, restores Rik1 enrichment at repeats, and triggers de novo heterochromatin formation in the absence of RNAi. RNAi-independent heterochromatin nucleation occurs at selected euchromatic loci that show upregulation of antisense RNAs in mlo3? cells. We find that the exosome RNA degradation machinery acts parallel to RNAi to promote heterochromatin formation. These results suggest that RNAi-independent mechanisms exploit transcription and non-coding RNAs to nucleate heterochromatin.

Reyes-Turcu, Francisca E.; Zhang, Ke; Zofall, Martin; Chen, Eesin; Grewal, Shiv I. S.

2011-01-01

331

Factors affecting the quality of shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are now commonplace on many ships and have had a considerable impact on modern oceanography. During a recent cruise on R.R.S. Discovery, however, the presence of a large spurious shear in the direction of the ship's motion was noted on a 150 kHz profiler, particularly when steaming into heavy seas. It is thought that this results from the trapping of bubbles near the ship's hull. Parameters representing the state of the wind and sea, and the ship's motions, are combined in a semi-empirical way to produce a function ( E) that estimates the severity of this effect and so gives insights into the factors affecting the data quality. The results are compared with a further cruise upon which the transducers were extended beyond the bubble layer. The estimating function allows a meaningful intercomparison for the different weather conditions on the second cruise and shows that the spurious shear was effectively eliminated. Similar problems are now being observed on other vessels, and it is recommended that ADCP transducers should be mounted below the bubble layer whenever possible.

New, A. L.

1992-11-01

332

Prognostic factors and health-related quality of life in ocular Myasthenia Gravis (OMG).  

PubMed

We evaluate the factors predictive of prognosis in 91 Caucasian patients affected by ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), followed at our Institution during an observational time, ranging from 12 to 240 months. The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification was used to grade the disease severity. We considered as outcome measures the variation in two subscores, ocular (O-QMG) and nonocular (NO-QMG); the last one reflected bulbar, neck, extremity functions. None of the independent variables evaluated for association with the outcome, as age of onset, type of therapy, length of interval between first and last examinations, and presence of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AChR-Abs) significantly affected the evolution of O-QMG and of NO-QMG. Health-related quality of life (HRQol) was assessed in 63 patients. Variations of diplopia or ptosis did not affect significantly physical (PCS) or mental composite subscores (MCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping was studied to explore whether HLA class I and II allelic distribution differed among MG patients and controls. None of the studied HLA alleles significantly differed between OMG patients and controls. Similarly, none of the alleles with frequencies higher than 15% either in OMG patients or in controls was significantly associated, after Bonferroni correction, with the presence or absence of anti-AChR-Abs in serum. PMID:24228829

Ariatti, Alessandra; Stefani, Marina; Miceli, Pietro; Benuzzi, Francesca; Galassi, Giuliana

2014-06-01

333

Transient cavitation in high-quality-factor resonators at high static pressures.  

PubMed

It is well known that cavitation collapse can generate intense concentrations of mechanical energy, sufficient to erode even the hardest metals and to generate light emissions visible to the naked eye [sonoluminescence (SL)]. Considerable attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of "single bubble sonoluminescence" (SBSL) in which a single stable cavitation bubble radiates light flashes each and every acoustic cycle. Most of these studies involve acoustic resonators in which the ambient pressure is near 0.1 MPa (1 bar), and with acoustic driving pressures on the order of 0.1 MPa. This study describes a high-quality factor, spherical resonator capable of achieving acoustic cavitation at ambient pressures in excess of 30 MPa (300 bars). This system generates bursts of violent inertial cavitation events lasting only a few milliseconds (hundreds of acoustic cycles), in contrast with the repetitive cavitation events (lasting several minutes) observed in SBSL; accordingly, these events are described as "inertial transient cavitation." Cavitation observed in this high pressure resonator is characterized by flashes of light with intensities up to 1000 times brighter than SBSL flashes, as well as spherical shock waves with amplitudes exceeding 30 MPa at the resonator wall. Both SL and shock amplitudes increase with static pressure. PMID:20550245

Gaitan, D Felipe; Tessien, Ross A; Hiller, Robert A; Gutierrez, Joel; Scott, Corey; Tardif, Henry; Callahan, Brant; Matula, Thomas J; Crum, Lawrence A; Holt, R Glynn; Church, Charles C; Raymond, Jason L

2010-06-01

334

Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

2009-01-01

335

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

2013-01-01

336

Liquid damping isolation on quartz crystal microbalance for effective preservation of high quality factor and sensitivity in liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a novel design of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for effective preservation of high quality factor and sensitivity in liquid. Many previous attempts have not achieved effective solutions to improve the QCM's performance in liquid. It is challenging to create a device without serious liquid damping effect. Our new design removes this dependence through an acoustic loss

Christopher R. Kirkendall; Jae W. Kwon

2009-01-01

337

Social Network Factors Associated with Perceived Quality of LifeThe San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic and social network factors associations with perceived quality of life (PQOL) were examined in a sample of rural Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) elderly. A 20-item PQOL scale measured participants' satisfaction with multiple facets of their lives. Age, gender, marital status, and living alone were not associated with this outcome. Hispanic persons with higher incomes had consistently higher ratings

Judith Baxter; Susan M. She Ierly; Cynthia Eby; Lynn Mason; Charles F. Cortese; Richard F. Hamman

1998-01-01

338

Health-related quality of life of patients with HIV: Impact of sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study aims to analyse how a wide group of clinical, social, demographic and psychological factors are related to both physical and mental quality of life in HIV+ patients. Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out of 320 HIV+ patients in antiretroviral treatment who attended infectious diseases units in four hospitals in the region of Andalusia (Spain). Methods: Health-Related

I. Ruiz Perez; J. Rodriguez Baño; M. A. Lopez Ruz; A. del Arco Jimenez; M. Causse Prados; J. Pasquau Liaño; P. Martin Rico; J. de la Torre Lima; J. L. Prada Pardal; M. Lopez Gomez; N. Muñoz; D. Morales; M. Marcos

2005-01-01

339

On the Relationship of Quality Factor and Hollow Winding Structure of Coreless Printed Spiral Winding (CPSW) Inductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of using hollow spiral winding is not novel, but the study on this topic is far from complete. In this paper, how hollow the central region of the coreless printed spiral winding (CPSW) inductor should be for a given footprint area in order to achieve the maximal quality factor Q $_{\\\\rm max}$ and to maintain high inductance value

Yipeng Su; Xun Liu; Chi Kwan Lee

2012-01-01

340

Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

2006-01-01

341

Evaluation of clinical aspects and quality of life as risk factors for depression in patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical aspects and quality of life (QOL) as risk factors for depression in patients with epilepsy. One hundred and forty outpatients with a diagnosis of epilepsy who were attending our epilepsy center participated. Patients anonymously filled out a questionnaire with clinical data related to epilepsy. Depression level was evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17), and quality of life was evaluated by the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31). Thirty-six patients with epilepsy suffered from depression (25.7%). Complex partial seizures (OR=0.112) and number of seizure types (OR=3.773) were found to be clinical risk factors for depression. Low scores for seizure worry (OR=0.947) and social function (OR=0.947) on the QOLIE-31 increased the probability of depression in patients with epilepsy. PMID:22472268

Zhao, Ting; Sun, Ming-Yue; Yu, Pei-Min; Zhu, Guo-Xing; Tang, Xing-Hua; Shi, Yun-Bo; Hong, Zhen

2012-06-01

342

Factors associated with good self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD  

PubMed Central

Background Recent guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) state that COPD is both preventable and treatable. To gain a more positive outlook on the disease it is interesting to investigate factors associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD in the population. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, postal survey questionnaires were sent to a stratified, random population in Sweden in 2004 and 2008. The prevalence of subjects (40–84 years) who reported having COPD was 2.1% in 2004 and 2.7% in 2008. Data were analyzed for 1475 subjects. Regression models were used to analyze the associations between health measures (general health status, the General Health Questionnaire, the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) and influencing factors. Results The most important factor associated with good, self-rated health and quality of life was level of physical activity. Odds ratios for general health varied from 2.4 to 7.7 depending on degree of physical activity, where subjects with the highest physical activity level reported the best health and also highest quality of life. Social support and absence of economic problems almost doubled the odds ratios for better health and quality of life. Conclusions In this population-based public health survey, better self-rated health status and quality of life in subjects with self-reported COPD was associated with higher levels of physical activity, social support, and absence of economic problems. The findings indicated that of possible factors that could be influenced, promoting physical activity and strengthening social support are important in maintaining or improving the health and quality of life in subjects with COPD. Severity of the disease as a possible confounding effect should be investigated in future population studies.

Arne, Mats; Lundin, Fredrik; Boman, Gunnar; Janson, Christer; Janson, Staffan; Emtner, Margareta

2011-01-01

343

Neutron sensitivity of vanadium self powered neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron sensitivity of vanadium self powered neutron detectors (Type 5503-B), manufactured by Studsvik, Sweden, has been measured. Using the calculational model developed by Warren, the neutron sensitivity of these detectors has been computed taking into account additional factors viz. flux depression caused by the detector and the interaction of 52V gamma rays with the emitter, the correction factors due

P. S. Rao; S. C. Misra

1986-01-01

344

Factors affecting the quality of life after total knee arthroplasties: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study is to evaluate the self-reported outcomes in the first year after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine factors influencing the quality of life (QoL) 6?weeks, 3, 6, and 12?months after TKA. Methods A cohort of patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing primary TKA at two hospitals (a regional university hospital and a capital’s metropolitan hospital) was prospectively followed for 12?months. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 4 postoperative time-points, with the use of self-reported measurements for pain, physical function and depression with the following evaluation tools: Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], Knee Society Scoring system [KSS], Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, [CES-D10] and visual analog scale [VAS] for pain). General linear modelling for repeated measures was used to evaluate the effect of each independent variable including clinical and sociodemographic data. Differences between groups at different time points were tested by the independent samples t-test. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 204 (162 females, mean age 69.2) were included in the analysis. Response rate at one year was 90%. At 6?weeks after surgery, despite improvement in pain and alleviation of the depressive mood, the physical function remained less satisfactory. Females presented lower scores in terms of quality of life, both preoperatively and 6?weeks after TKA. Significant improvement was already experienced at 3?months postoperatively. According to WOMAC, KSS, CES-D10 and pain VAS scores the Qol was significantly improved 12?months after TKA (P?

2012-01-01

345

Interactive FORTRAN Program for the Evaluation of Structure Factors and Pair Distribution Functions from Neutron Diffraction Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes an interactive program to evaluate neutron diffraction data using the Graphic System (GS) under MVS (TSO). Different evaluation steps may be directed by a CLIST. The present program is limited to cylindrical sample geometry. From the...

W. Abel

1985-01-01

346

Assessment of health-related quality of life and influencing factors using QOLIE-31 in Japanese patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The aim of epilepsy treatment is not only to eliminate seizures, but also to improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We conducted a postal self-administered survey of HRQOL for Japanese patients using the Quality of Life in Epilepsy inventory (QOLIE-31), Version 1.0, and analyzed factors influencing their quality of life (QOL). Data from 599 analyzable patients were evaluated and a number of factors influencing QOL were identified, including severity and frequency of seizures, seizure control, type of epilepsy, contributing events such as injuries and falls during seizures, number of antiepileptic drugs, employment status, and surgical outcome. These findings suggest that comprehensive management of the patient should be emphasized. Consideration of all the results led to classification of these factors as one of two types: "all or nothing" and "linear." With respect to "all or nothing" factors (e.g. "daytime remarkable seizures"), patients may not be able to improve their QOL unless these factors can be completely controlled. Comparison of each score on the QOLIE-31 subscales with published data revealed that the scores for the subscale Medication Effects were markedly low. PMID:20646964

Kubota, Hidemoto; Awaya, Yutaka

2010-08-01

347

From Social Structural Factors to Perceptions of Relationship Quality and Loneliness: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to test a conceptual model of loneliness in which social structural factors are posited to operate through proximal factors to influence perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness. Methods We used a population-based sample of 225 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 through 68 from the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study to examine the extent to which associations between sociodemographic factors and loneliness were explained by socioeconomic status, physical health, social roles, stress exposure, and, ultimately, by network size and subjective relationship quality. Results Education and income were negatively associated with loneliness and explained racial/ethnic differences in loneliness. Being married largely explained the association between income and loneliness, with positive marital relationships offering the greatest degree of protection against loneliness. Independent risk factors for loneliness included male gender, physical health symptoms, chronic work and/or social stress, small social network, lack of a spousal confidant, and poor-quality social relationships. Discussion Longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the causal role of social structural and proximal factors in explaining changes in loneliness.

Hawkley, Louise C.; Hughes, Mary Elizabeth; Waite, Linda J.; Masi, Christopher M.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

2009-01-01

348

Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man  

SciTech Connect

Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

Straume, T.

1982-11-01

349

Refining quality of life: validating a multidimensional factor measure in the severe mentally ill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life measurement has historically been characterized by a focus on physical functionality, great variability in definitions and insufficient attention to psychometric properties of measures. The present study examined four core subscales of the Quality of Life Enjoyment Scale (Q-LES-Q) designed to assess subjective quality of life (i.e. physical health, subjective feelings, leisure activities and social relationships) administered to

S. L. Bishop; D. P. Walling; S. G. Dott; C. C. Folkes; J. Bucy

1999-01-01

350

Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and lowest in samples collected from sites in undeveloped areas. Volatile organic compounds were detected most frequently and in highest concentrations in samples from sites in urban areas, and least frequently in agricultural and undeveloped areas. No volatile organic compound concentrations and concentrations from only one pesticide, dieldrin, exceeded human-health benchmarks.

Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

2011-01-01

351

A resonant magnetic field microsensor with high quality factor at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resonant magnetic field microsensor with a high quality factor at atmospheric pressure has been designed, fabricated and tested. This microsensor does not require vacuum packaging to operate efficiently and presents a compact and simple geometrical configuration of silicon. This geometry permits us to decrease the size of the structure and facilities its fabrication and operation. It is constructed of a seesaw plate (400 × 150 × 15 µm3), two torsional beams (60 × 40 × 15 µm3), four flexural beams (130 × 12 × 15 µm3) and a Wheatstone bridge with four p-type piezoresistors. The resonant device exploits the Lorentz force principle and operates at its first resonant frequency (136.52 kHz). A sinusoidal excitation current of 22.0 mA with a frequency of 136.52 kHz and magnetic fields from 1 to 400 G are considered. The mechanical response of the microsensor is modeled with the finite element method (FEM). The structure of the microsensor registered a maximum von Mises stress of 53.8 MPa between the flexural and the torsional beams. Additionally, a maximum deflection (372.5 nm) is obtained at the extreme end of the plate. The proposed microsensor has the maximum magnetic sensitivity of 40.3 µV G-1 (magnetic fields <70 G), theoretical root-mean square (rms) noise voltage of 57.48 nV Hz-1/2, theoretical resolution of 1.43 mG Hz-1/2 and power consumption less than 10.0 mW.

Herrera-May, A. L.; García-Ramírez, P. J.; Aguilera-Cortés, L. A.; Martínez-Castillo, J.; Sauceda-Carvajal, A.; García-González, L.; Figueras-Costa, E.

2009-01-01

352

Factors influencing the quality of food extracts for in vitro and in vivo diagnosis.  

PubMed

Food extracts for diagnostic purposes often lack sufficient activity and consistency. Biologically standardized food extracts are not available on the market. Using extracts from plant-derived foods as examples, we investigated factors which may be important for the quality of such extracts. Divergent allergenic activities were found between strains of apples, but not within varieties of celery tuber (celeriac), hazelnut, and peanut, respectively. Heating of the food remarkably reduced the activity of apple, hazelnut, and celeriac, but had little effect on peanut. By contrast, heating of semipurified protein extracts from celery tuber and apple for 30 min at 100 degrees C did not deplete the immunoreactivity of the major allergens, indicating that this is an inappropriate test for identifying labile food allergens. Due to their high endogenous enzyme activities, apples and other fruits require special extraction procedures applying either low temperature or enzyme inhibitors. Variation of extraction conditions had little effect on the composition and activity of extracts from hazelnut. The storage stability of skin test solutions from plant foods can be improved by avoiding phenol as an additive and by including 50% of glycerol. For model studies considering neoallergens, IgE was raised in mice against native and heated celery tuber, respectively. When extracts from nonthermally and thermally processed celeriac were subjected to an RBL-cell mediator release assay with these sera, an inverse ranking was obtained with anti-heated celeriac IgE and anti-native celeriac IgE, respectively. These data indicated that new epitopes had been formed by the heating process. Since all parameters were tested in model experiments with either human or murine IgE, their relevance has to be proven in further clinical investigations. PMID:9826003

Vieths, S; Hoffmann, A; Holzhauser, T; Müller, U; Reindl, J; Haustein, D

1998-01-01

353

Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII.  

PubMed

Acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) is observed after consumption of high-fat meals. This elevation is caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa). In a randomized crossover study, we investigated whether saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat quantity on postprandial responses of plasma triglycerides, FVII, and free fatty acids. The high-fat meals caused, in contrast to the low-fat meals, considerable increases in plasma triglycerides. Plasma levels of FVIIc and FVIIa peaks were 7% and 60% higher after consumption of high-fat meals than after consumption of low-fat meals. The five different fat qualities caused similar postprandial increases in plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, and FVIIa. These findings indicate that high-fat meals may be prothrombotic, irrespective of their fatty acid composition. The postprandial FVII activation was not associated with the plasma triglyceride or free fatty acid responses. PMID:9409274

Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E M; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P

1997-11-01

354

Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to examine the contributions of coping and social constraint to disease activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to examine group differences in disease activity and HRQOL between patients with high versus low anxiety or depression symptoms in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis in which disease activity was measured with either the Harvey-Bradshaw Index or the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index. HRQOL was measured with the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Coping was measured with a modified COPE questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Social constraint was measured with the Social Constraint Questionnaire. Correlational and regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between social constraint, coping, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and HRQOL and disease activity. Results: Data from 80 adults with IBD were reviewed. Social constraint, disengagement coping, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms were inversely correlated with HRQOL. Disengagement coping was positively correlated with disease activity. Regression analyses showed that smokers had significantly worse HRQOL than nonsmokers and that greater use of engagement coping was associated with significantly diminished HRQOL. Regression analyses also showed that patients diagnosed between 17 and 40 years of age were significantly less likely to have active disease than patients diagnosed before 16 years of age and that greater use of disengagement coping was associated with increased odds of having active disease. Conclusions: Medical providers should be aware that coexisting social constraint and symptoms of anxiety and depression are common in patients with IBD. Screening for these factors, as well as patients' coping styles, should be strongly considered, and patients should be referred to mental health providers as appropriate.

Faust, Alejandra H.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

2012-01-01

355

Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific radiation type (Z = 1 to 28). Because the anomalous response has been observed at large event sizes in the experiment due to the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta-rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume cavity, Monte Carlo simulation was also made for the response of a walled-TEPC with wall thickness 2 mm and density 1 g/cm(exp 3). The radius of cavity was set to 6.35 mm and a gas density 7.874 x 10(exp -5) g/cm(exp 3). The response of the walled- and the wall-less counters were compared. The average quality factor Q(sub ave)(y) for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrated the good agreement between the model calculations and flight TEPC data as shown. Using an integrated space radiation model (this includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions of walled-TEPC from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. The Q(sub ave)(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Q(sub ave)(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Q(sub ave)(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis for a proper interpretation of data supports the use of TEPCs for monitoring space radiation environment.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

356

Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

2008-01-01

357

Impact of Environmental Factors on Product Quality of Greenhouse Vegetables for Fresh Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer interest worldwide in the quality of vegetable products has increased in recent years. Product quality is a complex issue. As well as visual characteristics, properties such as texture, the content of minerals and vitamins, flavor and other organoleptic characteristics must be considered. In addition, new knowledge shows that vegetables are appreciated for their beneficial health effects in humans and

N. Gruda

2005-01-01

358

Resident, Nursing Home, and State Factors Affecting the Reliability of Minimum Data Set Quality Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing home quality measures impact policy decisions such as reimbursement or consumer choice. Quality indicators in the United States are collected through the federally mandated Minimum Data Set (MDS). Bias in MDS data collection or coding can thus have a negative impact on policy applications. To understand whether bias was present in coding, the authors studied 5174 pairs of MDS

Ning Wu; Vincent Mor; Jason Roy

2009-01-01

359

Factors affecting the quantity and quality of porcine muscle and fat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued selection pressures have been most successful at creating genetic populations of swine that contain higher percentages of carcass lean. Unfortunately, such genetic populations also tend to produce carcasses of lesser quality. Carcass leanness may be further enhanced by the presence of the halothane (HAL) gene, which is also associated with lower pork quality. The impact of myosin heavy chain

John Michael Eggert

1999-01-01

360

Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-->(e-->,e'n)p at Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor GnE via d-->(e-->,e'n)p. GnE was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ( 15ND3). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle segmented detector. We find GnE = 0.04632+/-0.00616(stat)+/-0.00341(syst) at Q2 = 0.495 (GeV/c)2.

Zhu, H.; Ahmidouch, A.; Anklin, H.; Arenhövel, H.; Armstrong, C.; Bernet, C.; Boeglin, W.; Breuer, H.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D.; Bültmann, S.; Carlini, R.; Chant, N.; Cowley, A.; Crabb, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Day, D. B.; Eden, T.; Ent, R.; Farah, Y.; Fatemi, R.; Garrow, K.; Harris, C.; Hauger, M.; Honegger, A.; Jourdan, J.; Kaufmann, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kubon, G.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindgren, R.; Lourie, R.; Lung, A.; Mack, D.; Malik, S.; Markowitz, P.; McFarlane, K.; McKee, P.; McNulty, D.; Milanovich, G.; Mitchell, J.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Mühlbauer, M.; Petitjean, T.; Prok, Y.; Rohe, D.; Rollinde, E.; Rondon, O. A.; Roos, P.; Sawafta, R.; Sick, I.; Smith, C.; Southern, T.; Steinacher, M.; Stepanyan, S.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tieulent, R.; Tobias, A.; Vulcan, W.; Warren, G.; Wöhrle, H.; Wood, S.; Yan, C.; Zeier, M.; Zhao, J.; Zihlmann, B.

2001-08-01

361

Modelling of the serine-proteinase fold by X-ray and neutron scattering and sedimentation analyses: occurrence of the fold in factor D of the complement system.  

PubMed Central

Solution scattering is a powerful means of determining the overall arrangement of domains in the multidomain proteins of complement. the serine-proteinase domain is central to all proteolytic events during complement activation. As models of this domain, bovine beta-trypsin, trypsinogen, alpha-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen A were studied by neutron and X-ray synchrotron solution scattering. At pH 7, all the X-ray and neutron M(r) values corresponded to monomeric proteins. The X-ray radii of gyration, RG, of beta-trypsin, trypsinogen, alpha-chymotrypsin and chymotrypsinogen A (measured in positive solute-solvent contrasts) were 1.59 nm, 1.78 nm, 1.71 nm and 1.76 nm (+/- 0.05-0.11 nm) in that order. Neutron contrast variation showed that the RG at infinite contrast, RC, for these four proteins were 1.57 nm, 1.70 nm, 1.67 nm and 1.78 nm (+/- 0.03 nm) in that same order. The radial inhomogeneity of neutron-scattering density, alpha, was positive at (5-13) x 10(-5), and corresponds to the preponderance of hydrophilic residues near the protein surface. On trypsinogen activation, a small reduction in the RG value of 0.13 +/- 0.07 nm was just detectable, while the RG of chymotrypsinogen A was unchanged after activation. The RC and alpha values of the four proteins can be calculated by using crystallographic co-ordinates. The reduced RG of beta-trypsin relative to trypsinogen was explained in terms of the removal of the extended N-terminal hexapeptide of trypsinogen. The full X-ray and neutron-scattering curves in positive and negative contrasts agreed well with scattering curves calculated from crystallographic coordinates to a nominal structural resolution of 4.5 nm, provided that the internal structure was considered in neutron modelling, and that the hydration was considered in X-ray modelling. Sedimentation-coefficient data also provide information on the disposition of domains in multidomain proteins. It was found that the hydrated X-ray sphere model could be directly utilized to calculate sedimentation coefficients. X-ray scattering on factor D showed from its RG of 1.78 nm that this is monomeric and very similar in structure to beta-trypsin. The X-ray-scattering curve of factor D was readily modelled using the beta-trypsin crystal structure after allowance for sequence changes. The success of these modellings provides a basis for the constrained modelling of solution scattering data for the multidomain proteins of complement.

Perkins, S J; Smith, K F; Kilpatrick, J M; Volanakis, J E; Sim, R B

1993-01-01

362

Estimating quality factor from surface seismic data: A comparison of current approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of the spectral ratio (SR), frequency centroid shift (FCS), and frequency peak shift (FPS) methods to estimate the effective quality factor Q are compared. These methods do not demand true amplitude data and their implementations were done following an "as simple as possible" approach to highlight their intrinsic potentials and limitations. We use synthetic zero-offset seismic data generated with a simple layer-cake isotropic model. The methods can be ranked from simple to complex in terms of automation as: FPS, FCS and SR. This is a consequence of: (i) peak identification consists basically of a sorting procedure, (ii) centroid estimation involves basically the evaluation of two well-behaved integrals, and (iii) implementation of the SR method involves at least choosing a usable frequency bandwidth and fitting a gradient. The methods can be ranked from robust to sensitive in the presence of noise content in the sequence SR, FCS, and FPS. This is consequence of: (i) the gradient estimate associated to the SR method averages out the noise content in the entire usable frequency bandwidth, (ii) in the presence of moderate-to-high noise level, the centroid estimation is biassed towards overestimating Q due to noise contribution in the tail of the amplitude spectrum, and (iii) peak identification is unstable due to local noise fluctuation in the amplitude spectrum around the peak frequency. Regarding the stability of the estimates relative to the attenuation amount, SR and FCS methods show similar behaviours, whereas FPS method presents an inferior performance. This fact is an indirect consequence of the sensitivity of FPS method to the noise content because the higher is the attenuation the lower is the signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, regarding the robustness of the methods to the presence of dipping layers, only SR and FCS methods provide good estimates, at least to typical dips in non-faulted sedimentary layers, with the estimates obtained with SR method being more accurate that those obtained with FCS method. Except in relation to the automation complexity, which is less important than the performances of the methods, SR method was superior or showed similar performance to FCS method in all scenarios we tried.

de Castro Nunes, Bonnie Ives; Eugênio de Medeiros, Walter; Farias do Nascimento, Aderson; de Morais Moreira, José Antonio

2011-10-01

363

Investigation of the relationships between quality factor Q and complex permittivity to clay and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EU-project iSOIL (Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping) geophysical measurements on different soil types have been conducted. After accomplishing field measurements large soil samples (50 kg each) were taken to be investigated in laboratory. Sampling points were representative for the different soil types of the study sites. The samples were dried at room temperature and larger clusters were crumbled to assure the soil as homogeneous as possible. The measuring cell consists of a plastic cylinder of 75 cm height and 23.5 cm diameter. The cylinder is assembled with two plate electrodes at bottom and top and two ring electrodes around its middle part. Every soil sample is partially saturated with rain water in different steps and filled into the cylinder. Accordingly, the four mentioned electrodes are used to measure the electrical conductivity of the sample. GPR reflection measurements are conducted by placing a 1.6 GHz antenna on top of the sample inside the cylinder and recording the reflections originating from the bottom plate. The resulting parameters are electrical conductivity and GPR velocity (calculated from known travel path and recorded arrival time) that is directly linked to the real part of permittivity. The water content is controlled by oven drying of smaller sub-samples and weighting of added water and the whole soil sample at every step. Additional to electrical conductivity and permittivity we derived the quality factor Q directly from the wavelet shape of the reflection using the spectral ratio method. Q-values range between 4 and 16 and are lower for higher clay and water content. The relationship between these parameters can be described by an empirically derived logarithmic multivariate regression. Together with this independently determined parameter it is possible to calculate the imaginary part of permittivity, which is a measure of relaxation losses. This parameter can be fitted with a linear relationship to the real part of permittivity and includes a logarithmic dependency on clay content. Acknowledgment: iSOIL is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

Wunderlich, T.; Rabbel, W.; Petersen, H.; al Hagrey, S.

2011-12-01

364

Estimation of gas hydrate saturation using isotropic and anisotropic models at the location selected after measurement of seismic quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition (NGHP) 01 discovered gas hydrate in unconsolidated sediments at several drilling sites along the continental margins of Krishna-Godavari Basin, India. Presence of gas hydrate reduces the attenuation of travelling seismic waves which can be measured by estimation of seismic quality factor (Dasgupta and Clark, 1998). Here, we use log spectral ratio method (Sain et al, 2009) to compute quality factor at three locations, among which two have strong and one has no bottom simulating reflector (BSR), along seismic cross-line near one of the drilling site. Interval quality factor for three submarine sedimentary layers bounded by seafloor, BSR, one reflector above and another reflector below the BSR has been measured. To compute quality factor, unprocessed pre-stack seismic data has been used to avoid any influence of processing sequence. We have estimated that interval quality factor lies within 200-220 in the interval having BSR while it varies within 90-100 in other intervals. Thereby, high interval quality factor ascertains that observed BSR is due to presence of gas hydrates. We have performed rock physics modelling by using isotropic and anisotropic models, to quantitatively estimate gas hydrate saturation at one of the location where an interval has high quality factor. Abruptly high measured resistivity and high P-wave velocity in the interval, leads to towering hydrate saturation (Archie,1942 and Helegrud et al, 1999) in comparison to lower gas hydrate saturations estimated by pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Overestimation of saturation is attributed to presence of near vertical fractures that are identified from logging-while-drilling resistivity images. We have carried out anisotropic modeling (Kennedy and Herrick, 2004 and Lee,2009) by incorporating fracture volume and fracture porosity to estimate hydrate saturation and have observed that modeled gas hydrate saturations agree with the lower gas hydrate saturations obtained from pressure core and chlorinity measurements. Therefore, we find that 1) quality factor is significantly higher in the interval bearing gas hydrates and is a useful tool to discover hydrate deposits, 2) anisotropy due to presence of near vertical hydrate filled fractures translates into elevated saturation because of high measured resistivity and velocity and 3) anisotropic model greatly corrects the saturation estimates in fractured medium. References: Archie, G.E., 1942. Petroleum Transactions of AIME, 146, 54-62. Dasgupta, R., Clark, R.A., 1998. Geophysics 63, 2120-2128. Kennedy, W.D., Herrick, D.C., 2004. Petrophysics 45, 38-58. Lee, M.W., 2009. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009-5141, 13. Sain, K., Singh, A.K., Thakur, N.K., Khanna, R.K., 2009.Marine Geophysical Researches 30, 137-145.

Mundhra, A.; Sain, K.; Shankar, U.

2012-12-01

365

Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI).  

PubMed

We present experimental results on photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavity structures that demonstrate further enhancement of the quality-factor (Q-factor)--up to approximately 149,000--in the fibre telecommunications wavelength range. The Q-values and the useful transmission levels achieved are due, in particular, to the combination of both tapering within and outside the micro-cavity, with carefully designed hole diameters and non-periodic hole placement within the tapered section. Our 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation approach shows good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:18679482

Zain, Ahmad R; Johnson, Nigel P; Sorel, Marc; De La Rue, Richard M

2008-08-01

366

Factors affecting quality of life and fatigue in patients with leukemia under chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of treating chronic diseases, including hematologic malignancies, is to increase patients’ life span and to improve their capabilities as much as possible; so that patients could maintain an appropriate level of quality of life (QoL) and continue their lives. Most studies performed to evaluate the treatment of various diseases were mostly focused on the increase of life expectancy regardless of the QoL and treatment issues. Furthermore, fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and treatments related to it, which can affect a patient's QoL, and be followed by many problems. This study was designed and implemented with the aim to determine the factors affecting the QoL and fatigue in patients with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlation descriptive-analytical study. One hundred and fifteen patients with leukemia referred to Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital were enrolled in the study through convenient sampling method. To collect data, a three-part questionnaire was used: The first part was related to demographic characteristics and disease-related data and the second part was the fatigue check list and the third part was the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) related to QoL. The data were analyzed after collection and coding through Software SPSS version 18 and descriptive and analytical statistics (analysis of variance test, independent t test, Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficient) with 95% confidence interval. Results: The results showed that there was a significant correlation between QoL in Physical Component Summary with gender (P = 0.03), educational level (P = 0.09), and marital status (P = 0.004), Also there was a significant correlation between QoL in Mental Component Summary with educational level (P = 0.01) and economic status (P = 0.02). Findings showed that there was a significant correlation between fatigue and marital status (P = 0.005). But statistically there was no significant correlation between demographic variables such as age, educational level, and employment status with patients’ fatigue. Spearman correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant correlation between fatigues with pain (P = 0.005). Also findings revealed the statistically significant correlation between fatigues with economic status (P = 0.003). Conclusion: According to the present results, it seems that some demographic factors affect QoL and significant relationship exists between them. Fatigue in patients with leukemia dramatically affects their QoL. Therefore, it is important for medical staff to pay attention to demographics and fatigue in leukemic patients in order to improve their QoL and help them to organize their activities to promote health and QoL.

Musarezaie, Amir; Khaledi, Firuz; Esfahani, Homayoon Naji; Ghaleghasemi, Tahere Momeni

2014-01-01

367

Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data  

EPA Science Inventory

The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

368

High-Precision Digital-to-Analog Tunable Capacitors With Improved Quality Factor Using a Parallel Digital Actuator Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a micromechanical digital-to-analog (DA) tunable capacitor using a parallel digital actuator array, which is capable of accomplishing high-precision tuning and quality factor improvement. The present DA tunable capacitor uses a parallel interconnection of digital actuators and thus achieves a low-resistive structure for wireless communications. Based on the criteria for the capacitance range (0.348-1.932 pF) and the actuation voltage

Won Han; Young-Ho Cho

2009-01-01

369

A novel metal detector using the quality factor of the secondary coil for wireless power transfer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel foreign-metal detection-system for wireless power transfer (WPT) is described. Foreign metal was heated only when placed between the primary coil and the secondary coil. By having the metal in that position, the quality factor of the secondary coil (Q2) decreased rather than other parameters, so Q2 was a suitable parameter for detecting the metal. We developed s Q2

Shinichi Fukuda; Hiroaki Nakano; Yuji Murayama; Tomomichi Murakami; Osamu Kozakai; Kenichi Fujimaki

2012-01-01

370

Do Geographic and Educational Factors Influence the Quality of Life in Rectal Cancer Patients With a Permanent Colostomy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a PURPOSE  This study was designed to evaluate possible social and geographic factors that could have an impact on quality of life in\\u000a patients after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Although the number of patients with rectal cancer who need to be\\u000a treated with abdominoperineal excision of the rectum and construction of permanent colostomy has greatly decreased in the\\u000a past, there is

Brigitte Holzer; Klaus Matzel; Thomas Schiedeck; Jon Christiansen; Peter Christensen; Josep Rius; Piotr Richter; Paul Antoine Lehur; Alessandra Masin; Mehmet Ayhan Kuzu; Ahmed Hussein; Tom Öresland; Bruno Roche; Harald Rainer Rosen

2005-01-01

371

Sleep quality and acute pain severity among young adults with and without chronic pain: the role of biobehavioral factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate sleep is essential for health across the lifespan and is likely to be influenced by different factors among those\\u000a with chronic pain than among others. Questionnaires were administered to 362 college students, some of whom reported chronic\\u000a pain from varied sources. Among chronic pain sufferers (n = 108), pain severity was uniquely associated with sleep quality after controlling for gender, BMI,

Jennifer E. GrahamKatherine; Katherine L. Streitel

2010-01-01

372

Experimental double-differential cross sections and derived kerma factors for oxygen at incident neutron energies from reaction thresholds to 65 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The double-differential cross sections (energy spectra) for the (n, px), (n, dx), (n, tx) and (n, x) reactions on oxygen have been measured for nine incident neutron energies in the range 25 to 65 MeV at lab angles between and in steps of . From these measurements, the energy differential cross sections have been determined and consequently the partial and total kerma factors. Based on the obtained experimental partial kerma factors in the incident neutron energy range 25-65 MeV, a procedure is proposed for the extrapolation of these values to the reaction threshold energy of each measured reaction channel. Results of the experimental double-differential, energy differential and total cross sections are presented. The deduced partial and total kerma factors of the present work are compared with results of previous measurements and theoretical predictions.

Benck, S.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J. P.; Corcalciuc, V.

1998-12-01

373

The optimum Ga-67-citrate gamma camera imaging quality factors as first calculated and shown by the Taguchi's analysis.  

PubMed

In this work gallium-67 ((67)Ga) gamma camera imaging quality was optimized using the Taguchi's analysis and a planar phantom. The acrylic planar phantom was LASER-cut to form groups of slits 1mm wide and 5mm deep, to determine the spatial resolution and contrast ratio that could be achieved in a (67)Ga citrate nuclear medicine examination. The (67)Ga-citrate solution was injected into the slits to form an active radioactive line source which was placed between regular acrylic plates for optimization. Then, nine combinations of four operating factors: L9 (3((4)), of the gamma camera imaging system were used and followed the Taguchi's analysis. The four operating factors were: a) the type of collimator in front of the NaI(Tl) detector, b) the region of interest of (67)Ga gamma rays spectrum, c) the scanning speed of NaI(Tl) detector head and d) the activity of (67)Ga. The original judged grade of the planar phantom image quality was increased 36% and factors a) and b) were confirmed to dominate. The cross interaction among factors was also discussed. Our results showed that the optimal factor settings of the gamma camera imaging system were verified by performing a routine nuclear medicine examination in ten cases. Nine cases showed the same optimal settings as estimated by three highly trained radio-diagnostic physicians. Additionally, the optimal setting yielded clearer images with greater contrast than did the conventional settings. In conclusion, this work suggests for practical use an optimized process for determining both the spatial resolution and the contrast ratio of a gamma camera imaging system using Taguchi's optimal analysis and a planar phantom. The Taguchi's method is most effective in targeting a single quality characteristic but can also be extended to satisfy multiple requirements under specific conditions by revising the definition of signal to noise ratio. PMID:23529390

Yeh, Da Ming; Chang, Pai Jung; Pan, Lung Kwang

2013-01-01

374

Analysis of the impact of selected socio-demographic factors on quality of life of asthma patients  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on quality of life of patients with different degrees of asthma severity. Material and methods The study was conducted in 2009–2010 in the Clinic of Allergology, Clinical Immunology and Internal Diseases in Dr J. Biziel University Hospital No. 2 in Bydgoszcz. Patients were divided into a tested group (126) and a control group (86). The criterion for the division was the degree of asthma control according to GINA 2006. The following tools were used: the author's questionnaire containing questions about socio-demographic and clinical data, and the WHOQOL-100. Results In the tested group, a statistically significant correlation was observed between quality of life and age (p < 0.002 for the entire population), education (p < 0.05 in the group with controlled asthma, p = 0.0005 for the entire population), professional activity (p < 0.003 in the group with partially controlled asthma, p < 0.05 with uncontrolled asthma and p < 0.0001 in the entire population), marital status (p = 0.025 for the entire population) and financial situation (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0002; p < 0.009 in all groups; p < 0.0001 in the entire population). There was no significant difference between quality of life, and sex and the place of residence of the respondents. Conclusions Age, education, professional activity, marital status and financial situation affect the assessment of quality of life in patients with asthma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex and the place of residence do not influence the assessment of quality of life in patients with asthma.

Filanowicz, Malgorzata; Graczyk, Malgorzata; Cegla, Bernadeta; Jablonska, Renata; Napiorkowska-Baran, Katarzyna; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

375

Health-related quality of life and influencing factors among rural left-behind wives in Liuyang, China  

PubMed Central

Background In China, the number of left-behind wives in rural areas has reached 47 million. Left-behind wives might have more psychological stress and lower life quality. This study was to examine the health-related quality of life and influencing social and cognitive factors in a sample of left-behind wives in rural areas of China. Methods The demographic data questionnaire, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Social Support Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale were completed by a sample of 1,893 left-behind wives and 969 non-left-behind wives. Results Left-behind wives had lower scores on physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS) , and all the eight subscales of the SF-36 than non-left-behind wives (P?factors on the PCS of rural women, whereas the status of being left behind, monthly income, physical health status, sense of marriage security, stress, social support, passive coping styles, and depression were influencing factors on the MCS of rural women. Conclusions Left-behind wives scored lower on health-related quality of life than non-left-behind wives. Low health-related quality of life was associated with left behind status, older age, less education, low monthly income, unemployment, bad physical health status, passive coping styles, low social support, high level of stress, and high depression.

2014-01-01

376

Contextual factors are associated with diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

This study examined differences in diet quality by meal type, location, and time of week in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus. A sample of youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=252; 48% female) age 8 to 18 years (mean±standard deviation=13.2±2.8 years) with diabetes duration ?1 year (mean±standard deviation=6.3±3.4 years) completed 3-day diet records. Multilevel linear regression models tested for differences in diet quality indicators by meal type, location, and time of week (weekdays vs weekends). Participants showed greater energy intake and poorer diet quality on weekends relative to weekdays, with lower intake of fruit and vegetables, and higher intake of total and saturated fat. Differences in diet quality were seen across meal types, with higher nutrient density at breakfast and dinner than at lunch and snacks. Participants reported the highest whole-grain and lowest fat intake at breakfast, but higher added sugar than at lunch or dinner. Dinner was characterized by the highest fruit intake, lowest added sugar, and lowest glycemic load, but also the highest sodium intake. The poorest nutrient density and highest added sugar occurred during snacks. Diet quality was poorer for meals consumed away from home than those consumed at home for breakfast, dinner, and snacks. Findings regarding lunch meal location were mixed, with higher nutrient density, lower glycemic load, and less added sugar at home lunches, and lower total fat, saturated fat, and sodium at lunches away from home. Findings indicate impacts of meal type, location, and time of week on diet quality, suggesting targets for nutrition education and behavioral interventions. PMID:24651028

Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Liu, Aiyi; Laffel, Lori M B; Mehta, Sanjeev N

2014-08-01

377

Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

2014-05-01

378

Is parental rearing an associated factor of quality of life in adulthood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the hypothesis that favorable parental rearing is associated with better quality of life in adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two hundred and ninety seven university students answered questions on quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), parenting style (s-EMBU),\\u000a coping strategies (Coping Strategies Inventory), life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and depressive symptoms (Beck\\u000a Depression Inventory). Data was analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple linear

Jacques J. Zimmermann; Martin R. Eisemann; Marcelo P. Fleck

2008-01-01

379

Influence of natural factors on the quality of midwestern streams and rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams flowing through cropland in the Midwestern Corn Belt differ considerably in their chemical and ecological characteristics, even though agricultural land use is highly intensive throughout the entire region. These differences likely are attributable to differences in riparian vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology. This conclusion is based on results from a study of the upper Midwest region conducted during seasonally low-flow conditions in August 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report summarizes significant results from the study and presents some implications for the design and interpretation of water-quality monitoring and assessment studies based on these results.

Porter, Stephen D.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

380

The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-Earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment.

Pausder, H. J.; Gerdes, R. M.

1982-01-01

381

The effects of pilot stress factors on handling quality assessments during US/German helicopter agility flight tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight tests were conducted with two helicopters to study and evaluate the effects of helicopter characteristics and pilot and task demands on performance in nap-of-the-earth flight. Different, low-level slalom courses were set up and were flown by three pilots with different levels of flight experience. A pilot rating questionnaire was used to obtain redundant information and to gain more insight into factors that influence pilot ratings. The flight test setups and procedures are described, and the pilot ratings are summarized and interpreted in close connection with the analyzed test data. Pilot stress is discussed. The influence of demands on the pilot, of the helicopter characteristics, and of other stress factors are outlined with particular emphasis on how these factors affect handling-qualities assessment. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13114

Pausder, H.-J.; Gerdes, R. M.

1982-01-01

382

The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential (urban) whereas that of Woolper Creek is agricultural and residential (rural). Two testing sites were selected along the Banklick Creek; one site was upstream the confluence with an overflow stream from an adjacent lake; the second site was downstream the confluence. Most of the drainage into the lake is over a near-by industrial park and the urban residential areas of the cities of Elsmere and Erlanger, Kentucky. Four sampling locations were selected within the Woolper Creek watershed to evaluate the effect of channelization and subsequent sedimentation on the health of the creek. Water quality parameters tested for include dissolved oxygen, phosphates, chlorophyll, total suspended sediments (TSS), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), nitrates, and electrical conductivity. Sampling and testing were conducted weekly and also immediately after storm events that occurred before the regular sampling dates. Sampling and testing proceeded over a period of 29 weeks. Biological impact was determined, only in Woolper Creek watershed, by sampling benthic macroinvertebrates once every four weeks. The results showed significant differences in the water quality between the two sites within the Banklick Creek. The water quality may be affected by the stream overflow from the dammed lake. Also, channelization in the Woolper Creek seemed to have adverse effects on the water quality. A retention pond, constructed to prevent sediments from flowing into the Woolper Creek, did not seem to be effective. This is because the water quality downstream of the retention pond was significantly worse than that of the upstream site. The benthic macroinvertebrates sampled indicate worse water quality downstream of the sediment retention pond. Overall, landuse and the channelization have some effect on the water quality in the two creeks.

Boateng, S.

2006-05-01

383

Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively which negatively effect the protein digestibility by nonruminants e.g. pigs. Also the storage protein is not easily

F. H. M. G. Savelkoul

1994-01-01

384

The study of influenced factors affecting to quality of High Chromium Cast Iron Cylindrical Grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propose of this research were to study of Factors Affecting to Cylindrical Grinding of High Chromium Cast Iron grade Cr 2828. The factors studied were consisted of revolution speed of workpiece, depth of cut and feed rates. Dependent variables were by measuring surface roughness and roundness. The material used in the cylindrical grinding experiment was High Chromium Cast Iron

Komson Jirapatarasilp; Sittichai Kaewkuekool; Prayoon Pongpal

2010-01-01

385

Image quality assessment of sparse-aperture designs with decreasing fill factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sparse aperture designs can increase the effective aperture size of a remote sensing system, thus allowing the satellite to be placed in a higher orbit without compromising the resolution. The fill factor of a sparse aperture is the total area of the telescope apertures divided by the effective aperture size of the combined telescopes. Reducing the fill factor, F, reduces

Robert D. Fiete; James A. Mooney; Theodore A. Tantalo; Jason R. Calus

2000-01-01

386

How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

2011-01-01

387

A Kramers–Kronig-based quality factor for shear wave propagation in soft tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear wave propagation techniques have been introduced for measuring the viscoelastic material properties of tissue, but assessing the accuracy of these measurements is difficult for in vivo measurements in tissue. We propose using the Kramers–Kronig relationships to assess the consistency and quality of the measurements of shear wave attenuation and phase velocity. In ex vivo skeletal muscle we measured the

M W Urban; J F Greenleaf

2009-01-01

388

A Kramers-Kronig-based quality factor for shear wave propagation in soft tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear wave propagation techniques have been introduced for measuring the viscoelastic material properties of tissue, but assessing the accuracy of these measurements is difficult for in vivo measurements in tissue. We propose using the Kramers-Kronig relationships to assess the consistency and quality of the measurements of shear wave attenuation and phase velocity. In ex vivo skeletal muscle we measured the

M. W. Urban; J. F. Greenleaf

2009-01-01

389

A Comparative Evaluation of Three-Phase High Power Factor Boost Converters for Power Quality Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of harmonics and reactive power flow in a power system is greatly influenced by the widespread use of Power Electronic converters in addition to other sources of harmonics and reactive power generation. This paper gives a comparative evaluation of some improved power quality three-phase Boost converters based on their performance, specifically from the point of view of improved

A. H. Bhat; P. Agarwal

2006-01-01

390

Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Burnout: Factors Impacting a Professional's Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between three variables, compassion fatigue (CF), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout, and provider and setting characteristics in a sample of 1,121 mental health providers in a rural southern state. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale as part of a larger survey of provider…

Sprang, Ginny; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Clark, James J.

2007-01-01

391

The Quality of Reflection in Student Journals: A Review of Limiting and Enabling Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although reflective journals are widely used across many disciplines in higher education, the research that examines their use presents an unclear picture of the quality of reflection found in them. Some research reveals that student journals contain primarily deeply reflective entries. Yet other research presents a less optimistic perspective,…

Dyment, Janet E.; O'Connell, Timothy S.

2010-01-01

392

Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,…

Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

2007-01-01

393

Psychosocial factors influencing practice of total quality management in some Nigerian organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To identify some psychological and social variables that could enhance employees' adoption of total quality management (TQM) in an organization that chooses to implement the management philosophy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey research was conducted, using 418 middle management staff, randomly drawn from some TQM and non-TQM courier organizations in Nigeria. Respondents received standardized scales measuring perception of their

Benjamin Osayawe Ehigie; Regina Clement Akpan

2005-01-01

394

Management as a Factor Affecting the Quality of Institutional Performance: The Experience of Kaunas College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article deals with the necessity of the development of higher education institutions, improvement of their performance and management in the context of constant changes and reforms. The outcomes of the research carried out at Kaunas College in 2003 while implementing the college performance quality improvement plan are presented. Research…

Spudyte, Irma; Misiunas, Mindaugas

2004-01-01

395

Factors Affecting Differences in Quality and Style of Writing in College Freshman Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction methods and choice of textbooks or teaching materials on the quality and style of writing found in college freshmen English examinations. Eighty male, native English-speaking students (40 taking courses in technical report writing at Oregon Technical Institute, 40 studying…

Underwood, Jean Louise

396

Mineral Mixture Composition - a Factor in Chick Bioassays of the Protein Quality of Fish Meals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evaluation of the quality of the protein in fish meals fed to chicks as a sole source protein is influenced by the composition of the mineral mixture included in the test diet. Antiacids were found to be beneficial supplements for some fish meals. The...

D. Miller

1970-01-01

397

Factors Affecting Professional Job Mastery: Quality of Study or Work Experience?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students and for society a core aspect of higher education is to prepare for future employment. Employability, however, goes beyond getting a job and this paper focuses on the quality of job performance, or job mastery. Employability is understood as a process and a product of learning both in higher education and in work life. The paper…

Aamodt, Per Olaf; Havnes, Anton

2008-01-01

398

A Taxonomy of Factors to Promote Quality Web-Supported Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a case study of the e-learning production unit at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Phase 1 of the study, completed in 2003, was the design and development of a process-based quality management system for web-supported learning (WSL) using a basic ISO 9000 approach (University of Pretoria, 2003). The second phase,…

Fresen, Jill

2007-01-01

399

Number and quality of roles and personality as factors contributing to distress in businesswomen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between the quality and quantity of domestic and work roles and psychological distress in businesswomen. Each role assumed in a multiple role life style entails rewards, concerns, levels of benefit, and levels of involvement. The purpose of this study was to look at the question: As roles increase does distress increase?^ The sample was selected

Leslie Rose Abrams

1994-01-01

400

Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels.

Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

2014-01-01

401

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality.  

PubMed

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy. PMID:20171715

Whitall, David; Hively, W Dean; Leight, Andrew K; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Fisher, Thomas; Rice, Clifford P; Codling, Eton; McCarty, Gregory W; Sadeghi, Ali M; Gustafson, Anne; Bialek, Krystyna

2010-04-01

402