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1

Neutron quality factor  

SciTech Connect

Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting factor for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying factor, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality factor{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).

NONE

1995-06-01

2

Quality factors  

SciTech Connect

The quality factor, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality factor is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality factor. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a factor of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a factor of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a factor of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality factor are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Kerr, G.D.

1986-01-01

3

Characterization of the image quality in neutron radioscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron radioscopy, or dynamic neutron radiography, is a non-destructive testing method, which has made big steps in the last years. Depending on the neutron flux, the object and the detector, for single events a time resolution down to a few milliseconds is possible. In the case of repetitive processes the object can be synchronized with the detector and better statistics in the image can be reached by adding radiographies of the same phase with a time resolution down to 100 ?s. By stepwise delaying the trigger signal a radiography movie can be composed. Radiography images of a combustion engine and an injection nozzle were evaluated quantitatively by different methods trying to characterize the image quality of an imaging system. The main factors which influence the image quality are listed and discussed.

Brunner, J.; Engelhardt, M.; Frei, G.; Gildemeister, A.; Lehmann, E.; Hillenbach, A.; Schillinger, B.

2005-04-01

4

Factors influencing healthcare service quality  

PubMed Central

Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

2014-01-01

5

Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G_En/G_Mn, was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d({pol-e},e'{pol-n)p reaction at three values of Q^2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c)^2] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G_En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q^2 = 1.15 (GeV/c)^2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q^2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)^2.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-05-01

6

Factors influencing quality online learning experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradual uptake of online learning as a delivery medium for higher education necessitates a shift in the metrics used to determine quality and success. While the attributes that have typically been used as benchmarks for quality in learning remain the same, that factors that impact on these factors have changed and it is these factors that form the focus

Ron Oliver; Janice Herrington

2003-01-01

7

Kerma factors for use in 37-group neutron spectrum calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron kerma factors have been regrouped from the format of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 26 (ICRU-26) to supplement those available in the 37-group format of the Oak Ridge Data Library Collection 31 (DLC-31). Lists of regrouped neutron kerma factors are presented for eight elements and for seven compounds and mixtures. For several elements, disagreements in

G. H. Zeman; W. S. Bice Jr.

1983-01-01

8

Factors affecting leachate quality. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes factors affecting leachate quality for dredged material in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). Factors evaluated include desorption kinetics, sediment concentration, and association of PCBs with soluble and colloidal organic matter.

Brannon, J.M.; Pennington, J.C.; Myers, T.E.; Price, C.B.

1989-12-01

9

Quality factor Q in dissipative anisotropic media  

E-print Network

Quality factor Q in dissipative anisotropic media Vlastislav #20; Cerven#19;y 1 and Ivan P#20;sen dissipative media. We present an algorithm for the computation of quality factor Q of a homogeneous be applied to homogeneous or inhomogeneous plane waves propagating in media of unrestricted anisotropy

Cerveny, Vlastislav

10

RIS-M-2579 CAN NEUTRON BEAM COMPONENTS AND RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE QUALITY BE  

E-print Network

RISÃ?-M-2579 CAN NEUTRON BEAM COMPONENTS AND RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGE QUALITY BE DETERMINED BY THE USE and radiographic image quality was assessed by visual examination of the sensitivity indica- tor. Results obtained PINS; HALIDES; IMAGES; NEUTRON BEAMS; NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY; NITROCELLULOSE; PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS

11

Factors that Predict Quality Classroom Technology Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite technological advancements intended to enhance teaching and learning in the 21st century, numerous teacher and school factors continue to impede quality classroom technology use. Determining the effectiveness of educational technology is challenging and requires a detailed understanding of multifaceted, complex, contextual relationships.…

Hastings, Tricia A.

2009-01-01

12

Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

2013-12-01

13

Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

1980-07-01

14

Determining soil quality indicators by factor analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil quality indicators (SQIs) can be used to evaluate sustainability of land use and soil management practices in agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate SQI from factor analysis (FA) of five treatments: no-till corn (Zee mays) without manure (NT), no-till corn with manure (NTM), no-till corn–soybean (Glycine max) rotation (NTR), conventional tillage corn (CT), and meadow

M. K. Shukla; R. Lal; M. Ebinger

2006-01-01

15

High quality factor measured in fused silica  

E-print Network

We have measured the mechanical dissipation in a sample of fused silica drawn into a rod. The sample was hung from a multiple-bob suspension, which isolated it from rubbing against its support, from recoil in the support structure, and from seismic noise. The quality factor, Q, was measured for several modes with a high value of 57 million found for mode number 2 at 726 Hz. This result is about a factor 2 higher than previous room temperature measurements. The measured Q was strongly dependent on handling, with a pristine flame-polished surface yielding a Q 3-4 times higher than a surface which had been knocked several times against a copper tube.

Steven D. Penn; Gregory M. Harry; Andri M. Gretarsson; Scott E. Kittelberger; Peter R. Saulson; John J. Schiller; Joshua R. Smith; Sol O. Swords

2000-09-11

16

Characterization of the image quality in neutron radioscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron radioscopy, or dynamic neutron radiography, is a non-destructive testing method, which has made big steps in the last years. Depending on the neutron flux, the object and the detector, for single events a time resolution down to a few milliseconds is possible. In the case of repetitive processes the object can be synchronized with the detector and better statistics

J. Brunner; M. Engelhardt; G. Frei; A. Gildemeister; E. Lehmann; A. Hillenbach; B. Schillinger

2005-01-01

17

Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron  

SciTech Connect

The 2H(e,e'n)1H quasielastic cross section was measured at Q2 values of 0.109, 0.176, and 0.255 (GeV/c)2. The neutron detection efficiency was determined by the associated particle technique with the 2H( gamma ,pn) reaction for each of the three neutron kinetic energies. These 2H(e,e'n) measurements of the coincidence cross sections are the first at low Q2. The cross sections are sensitive primarily to the neutron magnetic form factor GnM at these kinematics. The extracted GnM values have smaller uncertainties than previous data and are consistent with the dipole parametrization at the two higher momentum transfers; at the lowest momentum transfer, the value of GnM is ~10% higher than t

Baldwin, Alan; Ni, Benwen; Anderson, Brian; Flanders, Bruce; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Hyde, Charles; Manley, D.; Tieger, Daniel; Barkhuff, David; Keane, Declan; Dodson, George; Arenhovel, Hartmuth; Kelly, James; Mougey, Jean; Cameron, John; Dow, Karen; Beard, Kevin; Weinstein, Lawrence; Farkhondeh, Manouchehr; Spraker, Mark; Finn, Michael; Rutt, Paul; Ulmer, Paul; Markowitz, Pete; Pella, Peter; Whitney, R.; Madey, Richard; Lourie, Robert; Van Verst, Scott; Kowalski, Stanley; Eden, Thomas; Payerle, Thomas; Reichelt, Tilmann; Jiang, W.; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Bertozzi, William; Turchinetz, William; Watson, William; Korsch, Wolfgang

1992-01-01

18

Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

19

Factors Analysis on Safety of Indoor Air Quality  

E-print Network

Influence factors on safety of indoor air quality (IAQ) were analyzed in this paper. Some regeneration compositions resulting from potential indoor chemical reactions may be more harmful to habitants. A few building flaws may be key factors...

Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

2006-01-01

20

Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Factor analysis is useful for interpreting commonly collected groundwater quality data and relating those data to specific hydrogeologic process. Twenty two groundwater quality samples collected from wells in the second confined layer of Suzhou City were analyzed for major dissolved constituents by factor analysis. Correlations among 11 hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. Three main factors which explain over 75.01% of the total groundwater quality variation are recognized. Factor 1, composed of concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Fe2+, CO2, Mn2+ and pH, represents the influence of water-rock interaction on groundwater quality. Factor 2, composed of concentrations of NH4+ and COD, reflects the impact of reductive organic rich environment on groundwater chemical compositions. Factor 3 including concentration of Na+ shows the effect of cation exchange on groundwater quality.

Zhou, Xiaohai; Ruan, Xiaohong; Pan, Zarong; Zhu, Xiaoming; Sun, Han

2010-11-01

21

Estimating and Fusing Quality Factors for Iris Biometric Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iris recognition, the ability to recognize and distinguish individuals by their iris pattern, is one of the most reliable biometrics in terms of recognition and identification performance. However, the performance of these systems is affected by poor-quality imaging. In this paper, we extend iris quality assessment research by analyzing the effect of various quality factors such as defocus blur, off-angle,

Nathan D. Kalka; Jinyu Zuo; Natalia A. Schmid; Bojan Cukic

2010-01-01

22

Understanding the Institutional-Level Factors of Urban School Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article addresses which school-level factors contribute to school quality. Previous research has focused on assessing the effects of school-level variables on student-level quality (e.g., achievement). However, the field has been limited in not evaluating the effects of school-level factors directly on measured…

Gottfried, Michael A.

2012-01-01

23

Kerma factors for use in 37-group neutron spectrum calculations. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron kerma factors have been regrouped from the format of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 26 (ICRU-26) to supplement those available in the 37-group format of the Oak Ridge Data Library Collection 31 (DLC-31). Lists of regrouped neutron kerma factors are presented for eight elements and for seven compounds and mixtures. For several elements, disagreements in

G. H. Zeman; W. S. Jr. Bice

1983-01-01

24

High quality factor metallic glass cantilevers with tunable mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resonant properties of bulk metallic glass (BMG) microcantilevers were studied. Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 BMG was used to fabricate the cantilevers, on the wafer scale, using a thermoplastic forming technique. The resonant behaviors of the cantilevers were then measured in air and various vacuum levels and annealing conditions. The quality factors increase predictably after annealing at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg) for different times. The increase of quality factor of annealed cantilevers is attributable to the decrease in internal friction of the BMG due to thermally activated structural relaxation. Annealing above Tg resets the quality factor to values comparable to that of the as-formed cantilever. Therefore, the quality factor and mechanical properties of a cantilever could be tuned by the selection of suitable annealing temperatures and times. The measured quality factors are in excess of 2000 in air and 8100 in vacuum.

Kanik, Michael; Bordeenithikasem, Punnathat; Kumar, Golden; Kinser, Emily; Schroers, Jan

2014-09-01

25

Weighting factors for radiation quality: how to unite the two current concepts.  

PubMed

The quality factor, Q(L), used to be the universal weighting factor to account for radiation quality, until--in its 1991 Recommendations--the ICRP established a dichotomy between 'computable' and 'measurable' quantities. The new concept of the radiation weighting factor, w(R), was introduced for use with the 'computable' quantities, such as the effective dose, E. At the same time, the application of Q(L) was restricted to 'measurable' quantities, such as the operational quantities ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent. The result has been a dual system of incoherent dosimetric quantities. The most conspicuous inconsistency resulted for neutrons, for which the new concept of wR had been primarily designed. While its definition requires an accounting for the gamma rays produced by neutron capture in the human body, this effect is not adequately reflected in the numerical values of wR, which are now suitable for mice, but are--at energies of the incident neutrons below 1 MeV--conspicuously too large for man. A recent Report 92 to ICRP has developed a proposal to correct the current imbalance and to define a linkage between the concepts Q(L) and wR. The proposal is here considered within a broader assessment of the rationale that led to the current dual system of dosimetric quantities. PMID:15353747

Kellerer, Albrecht M

2004-01-01

26

Rice Quality Factors: Implications For Management Decisions.  

E-print Network

of Quality Characteristics A hedonic rough rice price function is a regression of the form: 7 PF = bo + blMILL + b2HEAD + b3BROKENS + b4SEED + bSRED + b6PECK + b7sMUT + baCHALK + b9 HEAT + blOTEST where PF is the observed final settlement rough rice price..., with each market year are presented in Tables 4-6. Even though the statistical tests discussed above indicated the coefficients were not the same across markets in some situations, the hedonic price-quality relationships across all markets are also...

Grant, Warren R.; Rister, Edward, M.; Brorsen, B. Wade

1986-01-01

27

Factors affecting quality of life in postmenopausal women, Isfahan, 2011  

PubMed Central

Context: Various studies have shown that quality of life in women after menopause undergoes radical changes. Several factors such as psycho-social factors are associated with the quality of life during menopausal period. Aims: The present study surveyed the factors associated with quality of life of postmenopausal women in Isfahan, based on Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified random sampling among 200 healthy postmenopausal women in Isfahan in 2011. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected by two valid and reliable questionnaires (one to assess the quality of life and the other to survey the factors associated with the Behavioral Analysis Phase of PRECEDE model). Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 18) and analytical and descriptive statistics. Results: Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the quality of life and attitude toward menopause, perceived self-efficacy, and enabling and reinforcing factors, but there was no significant relationship between the quality of life and knowledge about menopause. Also, the quality of life in postmenopausal women had significant correlation with their age, education level, marital status, and employment status. Conclusion: Based on the present study, attitude, perceived self-efficacy, perceived social support, and enabling factors are associated with the quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, attention to these issues is essential for better health planning of women. PMID:24520556

Norozi, Ensiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hasanzadeh, Akbar; Moodi, Mitra; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

2013-01-01

28

Factors Affecting the Eating Quality of Pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade studies with the specific objective of improving the sensory quality of pork have come to the forefront of meat research, likely a result of consumer complaints of blandness levelled against modern lean meat and the frequent reference to the more strongly flavored meat that was available years ago. Regardless of the lack of scientific evidence to

Tania M. Ngapo; Claude Gariépy

2008-01-01

29

Resource Factors in Education and Quality Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes prevalent methods of comparing schools' performance and recommends alternative measures more helpful toward understanding how schools might be improved. The influence of two factors--resource availability and financial need--on the level of school programming is explained in light of Michigan's system of educational finance.…

Muth, C. Robert

30

Measuring Banks' Automated Service Quality: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated service quality has been recognised as the factor which determines the suc cess or failure of electronic commerce. Those models current ly available to measure automated service quality are limited in their focus, encompassing only one electronic channel - the internet - thereby ignoring attributes of the other automated service channels. In relation to the banking sector, research has

Mohammed Al-Hawari; Nicole Hartley; Tony Ward

2005-01-01

31

Snow shielding factors for cosmogenic nuclide dating inferred from Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional formulations of changes in cosmogenic nuclide production rates with snow cover are based on a mass-shielding approach, which neglects the role of neutron moderation by hydrogen. This approach can produce erroneous correction factors and add to the uncertainty of the calculated cosmogenic exposure ages. We use a Monte Carlo particle transport model to simulate fluxes of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons near the surface of the Earth and vary surface snow depth to show changes in neutron fluxes above rock or soil surface. To correspond with shielding factors for spallation and low-energy neutron capture, neutron fluxes are partitioned into high-energy, epithermal and thermal components. The results suggest that high-energy neutrons are attenuated by snow cover at a significantly higher rate (shorter attenuation length) than indicated by the commonly-used mass-shielding formulation. As thermal and epithermal neutrons derive from the moderation of high-energy neutrons, the presence of a strong moderator such as hydrogen in snow increases the thermal neutron flux both within the snow layer and above it. This means that low-energy production rates are affected by snow cover in a manner inconsistent with the mass-shielding approach and those formulations cannot be used to compute snow correction factors for nuclides produced by thermal neutrons. Additionally, as above-ground low-energy neutron fluxes vary with snow cover as a result of reduced diffusion from the ground, low-energy neutron fluxes are affected by snow even if the snow is at some distance from the site where measurements are made.

Zweck, Christopher; Zreda, Marek; Desilets, Darin

2013-10-01

32

Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors  

E-print Network

Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors are calculated for three types of finger and wrist extremity phantoms: (1) the polymethyl methacrylate models specified by the U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program...

Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

2012-06-07

33

Quality factor concept in piezoceramic transformer performance description.  

PubMed

A new general approach based on the quality factor concept to piezoceramic transformer (PT) performance description is proposed. The system's quality factor, material elastic anisotropy, and coupling factors of the input and output sections of an electrically excited and electrically loaded PT fully characterize its resonance and near-resonance behavior. The PT efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output power were analytically analyzed and simulated as functions of the load and frequency for the simplest classical Langevin-type and Rosen-type PT designs. A new formulation of the electrical input impedance allows one to separate the power consumed by PT from the power transferred into the load. The system's PT quality factor takes into account losses in each PT "input-output-load" functional components. The loading process is changing PT input electrical impedance on the way that under loading the minimum series impedance is increasing and the maximum parallel impedance is decreasing coincidentally. The quality-factors ratio, between the states of fully loaded and nonloaded PT, is one of the best measures of PTs dynamic performance--practically, the lower the ratio is, the better PT efficiency. A simple and effective method for the loaded PT quality factor determination is proposed. As was found, a piezoceramic with low piezoelectric anisotropy is required to provide maximum PT efficiency and higher corresponding voltage gain. Limitations on the PT output voltage and power, caused by nonlinear effects in piezoceramics, were established. PMID:16529118

Mezheritsky, Alex V

2006-02-01

34

SICANE: a Detector Array for the Measurement of Nuclear Recoil Quenching Factors using Monoenergetic Neutron Beam  

E-print Network

SICANE is a neutron scattering multidetector facility for the determination of the quenching factor (ratio of the response to nuclear recoils and to electrons) of cryogenic detectors used in direct WIMP searches. Well collimated monoenergetic neutron beams are obtained with inverse (p,n) reactions. The facility is described, and results obtained for the quenching factors of scintillation in NaI(Tl) and of heat and ionization in Ge are presented.

E. Simon; L. Berge; A. Broniatowski; R. Bouvier; B. Chambon; M. De Jesus; D. Drain; L. Dumoulin; J. Gascon; J. P. Hadjout; A. Juillard; O. Martineau; C. Pastor; M. Stern; L. Vagneron

2002-12-20

35

Neutron dose per fluence and weighting factors for use at high energy accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In June 2007, the United States Department of Energy incorporated revised values of neutron weighting factors into its occupational radiation protection Regulation 10 CFR Part 835 as part of updating its radiation dosimetry system. This has led to a reassessment of neutron radiation fields at high energy proton accelerators such as those at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). Values of dose per fluence factors appropriate for accelerator radiation fields calculated elsewhere are collated and radiation weighting factors compared. The results of this revision to the dosimetric system are applied to americium-beryllium neutron energy spectra commonly used for instrument calibrations. A set of typical accelerator neutron energy spectra previously measured at Fermilab are reassessed in light of the new dosimetry system. The implications of this revision are found to be of moderate significance.

Cossairt, J.Donald; Vaziri, Kamran; /Fermilab

2008-07-01

36

Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.  

PubMed

This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds. PMID:24268675

Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

2014-02-01

37

High quality factor, fully switchable THz superconducting metasurface  

E-print Network

We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q=54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with an high Q and inductive elements with an high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

Scalari, Giacomo; Cibella, Sara; Leoni, Roberto; Faist, Jerome

2014-01-01

38

Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

2014-11-01

39

Factors affecting the porridge quality of sorghum and pearl millet  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE PORRIDGE QUALITY OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by ASSA KANTE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987... Major Subject: Food Science and Technology FACTORS AFFECTING THE PORRIDGE QUALITY OF SORGHUM AND PEARL MILLET A Thesis by ASSA KANTE Approved as to style and content by: oyd . o y (Chairman of Commr ee) Ra p D. Wants a (Member) C ar es W. Drl...

Kante, Assa

2012-06-07

40

Quality of Working Life of Nurses and its Related Factors  

PubMed Central

Background: Nurses as the largest group of health care providers should enjoy a satisfactory quality of working life to be able to provide quality care to their patients. Therefore, attention should be paid to the nurses’ working life. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the quality of nurses' working life in Kashans' hospitals during 2012. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 nurses during 2012. The data-gathering instrument consisted of two parts. The first part consisted of questions on demographic information and the second part was the Walton’s quality of work life questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software. For statistical analysis T test and one way ANOVA were used. Results: The results of the study showed that 60% of nurses reported that they had moderate level of quality of working life while 37.1% and 2% had undesirable and good quality of working life, respectively. Nurses with associate degrees reported a better quality of working life than others. A significant relationship was found between variables such as education level, work experience, and type of hospital with quality of working life score (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between quality of working life score of nurses with employment status (P = 0.061), salary (P = 0.052), age, gender and marital status (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Nurses' quality of work life was at the moderate level. As quality of work life has an important impact on attracting and retaining employees, it is necessary to pay more attention to the nurses’ quality of work life and its affecting factors. PMID:25414904

Moradi, Tayebeh; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Azizi-Fini, Ismail

2014-01-01

41

Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

Hamazaki, Takashi

1992-01-01

42

Factors Affecting Sleep Quality of Patients in Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ? 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307. PMID:22701388

Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

43

High quality factor etchless silicon photonic ring resonators  

E-print Network

intrinsic quality factor of 510,000 in 50 µm-radius ring resonators, corresponding to a ring loss of 0.8 d, "On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: Challenges and critical directions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, "Low-loss submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides and corner mirrors

Lipson, Michal

44

Effects of processing factors on qualities of emulsified meatball  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-factor central composite design was adopted for studying the effects of fat, salt, sugar and cooking temperature on qualities of an emulsified meatball or Chinese meatball. Results indicated that texture is the most important characteristic of this type of meat product. Consumers prefer a harder texture. Panel preferences significantly increased with the amount of salt added and significantly decreased

S. Y. Hsu; H.-Y. Chung

1998-01-01

45

Quality Factor Variation with Transform Order in Fractional Fourier Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional Fourier Transform is a powerful tool, which is a generalization of the classical Fourier Transform. This paper provides a mathematical relation relating the span in Fractional Fourier domain with the amplitude and phase functions of the signal, which is further used to study the variation of quality factor with different values of the transform order. It is seen that

Sukrit Shankar; Chetana Shanta; K. Pardha Saradhi; Jaydev Sharma

2007-01-01

46

Factor analysis, causal indicators and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) remains one of the standard and most widely used methods for demonstrating construct validity of new instruments. However, the model for EFA makes assumptions which may not be applicable to all quality of life (QOL) instruments, and as a consequence the results from EFA may be misleading. In particular, EFA assumes that the underlying construct of

P. M. Fayers; D. J. Hand

1997-01-01

47

Factors affecting the protein quality of pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigeonpea occupies an important place in human nutrition as a source of dietary proteins in several countries. Some of the important factors that affect the protein quality of pigeonpea have been reviewed and summarised in this paper. Among important food legumes, pigeonpea contained the lowest amount of limiting sulphur amino acids, methionine and cystine implicating the importance of these amino

U. SINGtt; B. O. Eggum

1984-01-01

48

Factors influencing quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

Recent technological advances in colonoscopy have led to improvements in both image enhancement and procedural performance. However, the utility of these technological advancements remain dependent on the quality of bowel preparation during colonoscopy. Poor bowel preparation has been shown to be associated with lower quality indicators of colonoscopy performance, such as reduced cecal intubation rates, increased patient discomfort and lower adenoma detection. The most popular bowel preparation regimes currently used are based on either Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte, a non-absorbable solution, or aqueous sodium phosphate, a low-volume hyperosmotic solution. Statements from various international societies and several reviews have suggested that the efficacy of bowel preparation regimes based on both purgatives are similar, although patients’ compliance with these regimes may differ somewhat. Many studies have now shown that factors other than the type of bowel preparation regime used, can influence the quality of bowel preparation among adult patients undergoing colonoscopy. These factors can be broadly categorized as either patient-related or procedure-related. Studies from both Asia and the West have identified patient-related factors such as an increased age, male gender, presence of co-morbidity and socio-economic status of patients to be associated with poor bowel preparation among adults undergoing routine out-patient colonoscopy. Additionally, procedure-related factors such as adherence to bowel preparation instructions, timing of bowel purgative administration and appointment waiting times for colonoscopy are recognized to influence the quality of colon cleansing. Knowledge of these factors should aid clinicians in modifying bowel preparation regimes accordingly, such that the quality of colonoscopy performance and delivery of service to patients can be optimised. PMID:23424015

Romero, Ronald V; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

2013-01-01

49

Quality Factor of Contour-Mode AlN Resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present contour-mode AlN resonator structure and fabrication process for high quality factor (Q-factor). The vibrational energy should be confined to the resonant part of the radial extensional (RE) resonator in order to obtain a high Q-factor and high coupling factor (k2) from devices made using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. In this paper, we discuss how to form a support for the resonant part in a high-precision process. We fabricated simple RE resonators and clarified through experimentation that it is difficult to avoid deterioration of the Q-factor because the RE vibration energy leaks from the resonant part into the silicon substrate through the supporting points. Next, we fabricated tuning-fork RE resonators by using the three-etching-process method and clarified through experimentation that this method is useful for forming the resonant part into the correct circular shape and avoiding energy leakage.

Asai, Kengo; Isobe, Atsushi

2012-07-01

50

Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.  

PubMed

The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality. PMID:22976454

Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

2012-01-01

51

Microscopic structure factor of liquid hydrogen by neutron-diffraction measurements  

SciTech Connect

The center-of-mass structure factor of liquid para hydrogen has been measured, using neutron diffraction, in four thermodynamic states close to the triple point. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out at the same temperatures and densities. The present experimental data are in reasonable quantitative agreement with the simulations and closer to these results than previous neutron determinations available in the literature. The thermodynamic derivatives of the structure factor, from both experiment and simulation, have been compared to previous measurements obtaining a quantitative consistency.

Celli, M.; Bafile, U.; Zoppi, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Formisano, F. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Operative Group in Grenoble, c/o Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Guarini, E. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Unita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Magli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica, e Biotecnologie per la Medicina, Universita di Milano, Via F.lli Cervi 93, I-20090 Segrate (Italy); Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Unita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Neumann, M. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Wien, Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2005-01-01

52

Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 252Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor ( SKN/ mCf) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (?g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for 252Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on SKN/ mCf was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did SKN/ mCf decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of 252Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra results calculated herein using MCNP were compared with results of Colvett et al. and Rivard et al.

Rivard, M. J.; Sganga, J. K.; d'Errico, F.; Tsai, J.-S.; Ulin, K.; Engler, M. J.

2002-01-01

53

High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials  

E-print Network

Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

2014-01-01

54

Optimized Quality Factor of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced PVC Nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composite films were prepared by solution blending. The homogeneity of GO dispersion with PVC was confirmed by an optical microscope. Quality factor ( Q-factor) as a function of temperature (40-150 °C) was measured within a broadband frequency range of 50-35 MHz. The controlled GO loading demonstrates a crucial impact on the optimization of the Q-factor, resonance frequency ( f 0) and wide bandwidth. This nanocomposite may be well suited for electronic applications. The further development of GO-reinforced polymer nanocomposites based on an optimized Q-factor may result in a material for electromagnetic frequency radiation shields for radar and communication towers/devices.

Joshi, Girish M.; Deshmukh, Kalim

2014-04-01

55

Comparison of the mean quality factors for astronauts calculated using the Q-functions proposed by ICRP, ICRU, and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the estimation of the radiation risk for astronauts, not only the organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated. Three functions have been proposed by different organizations for expressing the radiation quality, including the Q(L), Q(y), and QNASA(Z, E) relationships as defined in International Committee of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) TP-2011-216155, respectively. The Q(L) relationship is the most simple and widely used for space dosimetry, but the use of the latter two functions enables consideration of the difference in the track structure of various charged particles during the risk estimation. Therefore, we calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in ICRP/ICRU reference voxel phantoms for the isotropic exposure to various mono-energetic particles using the three Q-functions. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS was employed to simulate the particle motions inside the phantoms. The effective dose equivalents and the phantom-averaged effective quality factors for the astronauts were then estimated from the calculated mean quality factors multiplied by the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes inside a spacecraft. It was found from the calculations that QNASA generally gives the largest values for the phantom-averaged effective quality factors among the three Q-functions for neutron, proton, and lighter-ion irradiation, whereas Q(L) provides the largest values for heavier-ion irradiation. Overall, the introduction of QNASA instead of Q(L) or Q(y) in astronaut dosimetry results in the increase the effective dose equivalents because the majority of the doses are composed of the contributions from protons and neutrons, although this tendency may change by the calculation conditions.

Sato, T.; Endo, A.; Niita, K.

2013-07-01

56

Quality of Life in Cancer Patients and its Related Factors  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite the importance of quality of life (QOL) in outcomes of cancer pa-tients, there have been a few Iranian studies investigating the Iranian patients’ quality of life. The present study aimed to assess the cancer patients’ QOL and its related factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted in Shahid Ghazi Tabatabaei Hospital affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The samples included 150 cancer patients aged more than 18 years who were aware of their own diagnosis. They were selected through convenient sampling method and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Quality of life questionnaire (EORTC–QOL 30) were completed. Results: Our findings showed that 44.1% of the patients had moderate QOL. QOL had a significant correlation with the level of family support (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Many of cancer patients have a moderate QOL. However, confirmation of such finding requires further investigations.

Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Sadat Aghahossini, Shima; Rahmani, Azad; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj

2012-01-01

57

High quality factor nonpolar GaN photonic crystal nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High quality factor a-plane nonpolar GaN two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) nanocavities on r-plane sapphire substrates have been demonstrated. Nonpolar GaN PC nanocavities on a thin membrane structure were realized by using e-beam lithography to define the PC patterns and focused-ion beam milling to fabricate the suspended thin membrane. A dominant resonant mode at 388 nm with a high quality factor of approximately 4300 has been demonstrated at 77 K by the micro-photoluminescence system. Moreover, the degree of polarization of the emission from the non-polar GaN PC nanocavity was measured to be 64% along the m crystalline direction.

Wu, Tzeng-Tsong; Lo, Sheng-Yun; Huang, Huei-Min; Tsao, Che-Wei; Lu, Tien-Chang; Wang, Shing-Chung

2013-05-01

58

Quality factor of secondary cosmic radiation at flight altitudes.  

PubMed

Dosimetry at aviation altitudes requires instruments that are able to measure the dose contributions of all field components. Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) are well suited for this task. From the measured lineal energy distribution, the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent can be obtained. The ratio of both quantities is named the quality factor, which is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation field. The results of this work show that the mean quality factors obtained by using a TEPC are independent of the altitude, at least at altitudes between flight level (FL) 300 and FL 400, but show a significant dependence on the vertical cutoff rigidity. From a numerical simulation of the radiation field inside an aircraft, the influence of the aircraft structure can be shown. PMID:23480894

Burda, O; Sato, T; Wissmann, F

2013-06-01

59

Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators  

E-print Network

Lithium Niobate (LN) is an important nonlinear optical material. Here we demonstrate LN microdisk resonators that feature optical quality factor ~ 100,000, realized using robust and scalable fabrication techniques, that operate over a wide wavelength range spanning visible and near infrared. Using our resonators, and leveraging LN's large second order optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate on-chip second harmonic generation with a conversion efficiency of 0.109 W-1.

Wang, Cheng; Lin, Zin; Atikian, Haig A; Venkataraman, Vivek; Huang, I-Chun; Stark, Peter; Lon?ar, Marko

2014-01-01

60

Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of ultrahigh-quality-factor (Q) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonators based on silicon wire waveguides is presented. An analytical description is derived, illustrating that in addition to low propagation losses the critical coupling condition is essential for optimizing device characteristics. Propagation losses as low as 1.9 +\\/- 0.1 dB\\/cm in a curved waveguide with a bending radius of 20 µm and

Jan Niehusmann; Andreas Vörckel; Peter Haring Bolivar; Thorsten Wahlbrink; Wolfgang Henschel; Heinrich Kurz

2004-01-01

61

Improving the Optical Quality Factor of the WGM Resonator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resonators usually are characterized with two partially dependent values: finesse (F) and quality factor (Q). The finesse of an empty Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator is defined solely by the quality of its mirrors and is calculated as F=piR(exp 1/2)/(1-R). The maximum up-to-date value of reflectivity R approximately equal to 1 - 1.6 x 10(exp -6) is achieved with dielectric mirrors. An FP resonator made with the mirrors has finesse F=1.9 x 10(exp 6). Further practical increase of the finesse of FP resonators is problematic because of the absorption and the scattering of light in the mirror material through fundamental limit on the reflection losses given by the internal material losses and by thermodynamic density fluctuations on the order of parts in 109. The quality factor of a resonator depends on both its finesse and its geometrical size. A one-dimensional FP resonator has Q=2 F L/lambda, where L is the distance between the mirrors and lambda is the wavelength. It is easy to see that the quality factor of the resonator is unlimited because L is unlimited. F and Q are equally important. In some cases, finesse is technically more valuable than the quality factor. For instance, buildup of the optical power inside the resonator, as well as the Purcell factor, is proportional to finesse. Sometimes, however, the quality factor is more valuable. For example, inverse threshold power of intracavity hyperparametric oscillation is proportional to Q(exp 2) and efficiency of parametric frequency mixing is proportional to Q(exp 3). Therefore, it is important to know both the maximally achievable finesse and quality factor values of a resonator. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are capable of achieving larger finesse compared to FP resonators. For instance, fused silica resonators with finesse 2.3 x 10(exp 6) and 2.8 x 10(exp 6) have been demonstrated. Crystalline WGM resonators reveal even larger finesse values, F=6.3 x 10(exp 6), because of low attenuation of light in the transparent optical crystals. The larger values of F and Q result in the enhancement of various nonlinear processes. Low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations based on these resonators have been recently demonstrated. Theory predicts a possibility of nearly 10(exp 14) room-temperature optical Q-factors of optical crystalline WGM resonators, which correspond to finesse levels higher than 10(exp 9). Experiments have shown numbers a thousand times lower than that. The difference occurs due to media imperfections. To substantially reduce the optical losses caused by the imperfections, a specific, multi-step, asymptotic processing of the resonator is implemented. The technique has been initially developed to reduce microwave absorption in dielectric resonators. One step of the process consists of mechanical polishing performed after high temperature annealing. Several steps repeat one after another to lead to significant reduction in optical attenuation and, as a result, to the increase of Q-factor as well as finesse of the resonator which demonstrates a CaF2 WGM resonator with F greater than 10(exp 7) and Q greater than 10(exp 11).

Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir

2008-01-01

62

Organisational factors affecting the quality of hospital clinical coding.  

PubMed

The influence of organisational factors on the quality of hospital coding using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was investigated using a mixed quantitative-qualitative approach. The organisational variables studied were: hospital specialty; geographical locality; structural characteristics of the coding unit; education, training and resource supports for Clinical Coders; and quality control mechanisms. Baseline data on the hospitals' coding quality, measured by the Performance Indicators for Coding Quality tool, were used as an independent index measure. No differences were found in error rates between rural and metropolitan hospitals, or general and specialist hospitals. Clinical Coder allocation to "general" rather than "specialist" unit coding resulted in fewer errors. Coding Managers reported that coding quality can be improved by: Coders engaging in a variety of role behaviours; improved Coder career opportunities; higher staffing levels; reduced throughput; fewer time constraints on coding outputs and associated work; and increased Coder interactions with medical staff. PMID:18245862

Santos, Suong; Murphy, Gregory; Baxter, Kathryn; Robinson, Kerin M

2008-01-01

63

Relationship factors and quality among mixed-orientation couples.  

PubMed

Mixed-orientation couples are defined as a heterosexual couple in which 1 partner experiences same-sex attraction and the other does not. Despite the fact that there is a sizable number of mixed-orientation couples in the U.S. adult population, few researchers have studied this population, and thus, there is limited understanding of these relationships. The authors examined the degree to which relationship commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values were associated with relationship quality, and how these variables predicted relationship quality. The total sample (N = 265) consisted of 2 independent samples-105 sexual minorities (i.e., the spouse who experiences same-sex attraction) and 160 heterosexual spouses. The data were not dyadic. Together, commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values accounted for roughly 43% of the variance in relationship quality. Relationship commitment was found to be the largest single predictor of relationship quality, followed by partner-focused forgivingness. Research and clinical implications are discussed. This study significantly adds to the current research base by quantitatively measuring various variables in these relationships, as well as expanding our understanding of relationship quality in mixed-orientation couples and factors that may play a role. PMID:24328786

Kays, Jill L; Yarhouse, Mark A; Ripley, Jennifer S

2014-01-01

64

Precision measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from {sup 3}He(e, e')  

SciTech Connect

A precision measurement of the inclusive quasielastic transverse asymmetry A{sub T'} from {sup 3}He(e, e') was completed recently at Hall A at Jefferson Lab (E95-001). The preliminary results on the neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} are presented here.

Dipangkar Dutta

2000-12-12

65

Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.  

PubMed

Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 ?g/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

2014-01-15

66

Health Related Quality of Life and Influencing Factors among Welders  

PubMed Central

Background Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. Methods 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis) and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. Results Six dimensions including role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), validity (VT), social function (SF), and mental health (MH) were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. Conclusions Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL. PMID:25048102

Qin, Jingxiang; Liu, Wuzhong; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Wei; Xu, Jiaming; Ai, Zisheng

2014-01-01

67

Fabrication of Silica Ultra High Quality Factor Microresonators  

PubMed Central

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery.1-2 The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date1-2. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.3-7 The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million).1-2,8-9 However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. Introduction An optical resonator efficiently confines light at specific wavelengths, known as the resonant wavelengths of the device. 1-2 The common figure of merit for these optical resonators is the quality factor or Q. This term describes the photon lifetime (?o) within the resonator, which is directly related to the resonator's optical losses. Therefore, an optical resonator with a high Q factor has low optical losses, long photon lifetimes, and very low photon decay rates (1/?o). As a result of the long photon lifetimes, it is possible to build-up extremely large circulating optical field intensities in these devices. This very unique property has allowed these devices to be used as laser sources and integrated biosensors.10 A unique sub-class of resonators is the whispering gallery mode optical microcavity. In these devices, the light is confined in circular orbits at the periphery. Therefore, the field is not completely confined within the device, but evanesces into the environment. Whispering gallery mode optical cavities have demonstrated some of the highest quality factors of any optical resonant cavity to date.9,11 Therefore, these devices are used throughout science and engineering, including in fundamental physics studies and in telecommunications as well as in biodetection experiments. 3-7,12 Optical microcavities can be fabricated from a wide range of materials and in a wide variety of geometries. A few examples include silica and silicon microtoroids, silicon, silicon nitride, and silica microdisks, micropillars, and silica and polymer microrings.13-17 The range in quality factor (Q) varies as dramatically as the geometry. Although both geometry and high Q are important considerations in any field, in many applications, there is far greater leverage in boosting device performance through Q enhancement. Among the numerous options detailed previously, the silica microsphere and the silica microtoroid resonator have achieved some of the highest Q factors to date.1,9 Additionally, as a result of the extremely low optical loss of silica from the visible through the near-IR, both microspheres and microtoroids are able to maintain their Q factors over a wide range of testing wavelengths.18 Finally, because silica is inherently biocompatible,

Maker, Ashley J.; Armani, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

68

Magnetic Field Effects on High Quality Factor Superconducting Coplanar Resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators have proven to be invaluable tools in studying some of the same decoherence mechanisms as those found in superconducting qubits. Prior improvements in fabrication led to resonator internal quality factors (Qi's) in excess of 10 million at high power, enabling us to sensitively probe environmental effects on the resonance frequency and Qi. We have found these resonators to be very susceptible to applied and stray magnetic fields, with measurable changes in the resonator's Qi and resonance frequency from fields as small as a few milligauss. I will present more recent measurements of resonators in magnetic fields.

Megrant, Anthony; Neill, Charles; Barends, Rami; Chen, Yu; Chiaro, Ben; Kelly, Julian; Mariantoni, Matteo; Mutus, Josh; O'Malley, Peter; Sank, Daniel; Vainsencher, Amit; Wenner, James; White, Ted; Low, David; Ohya, Shinobu; Palmstrom, Christopher; Martinis, John; Cleland, Andrew

2013-03-01

69

Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of ultrahigh-quality-factor (Q) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonators based on silicon wire waveguides is presented. An analytical description is derived, illustrating that in addition to low propagation losses the critical coupling condition is essential for optimizing device characteristics. Propagation losses as low as 1.9 +/- 0.1 dB/cm in a curved waveguide with a bending radius of 20 µm and a Q factor as high as 139.000 +/- 6.000 are demonstrated. These are believed to be the highest values reported for a curved SOI waveguide device and for any directly structured semiconductor microring fabricated without additional melting-induced surface smoothing.

Niehusmann, Jan; Vörckel, Andreas; Bolivar, Peter Haring; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Henschel, Wolfgang; Kurz, Heinrich

2004-12-01

70

Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.  

PubMed

The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300?M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20?M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p?=?0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p?=?0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p?=?0.01, p?=?0.05, and p?=?0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p?=?0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p?=?0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p?=?0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p?=?0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle. PMID:24074254

Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Micha?; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Pawe?; Bochenek, Micha?; Hanke, Wojciech

2014-02-01

71

Improving the beam quality of the neutron radiography facility using the SLOWPOKE-2 at the Royal Military College of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at the Royal Military College of Canada, a neutron radiography facility has been designed and installed, and the beam quality has been improved by performing a series of radiographs using American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 545 indicators. Other means of determining the progress such as bubble detectors and activation foils were used. Modifications to the nosepiece of the beam tube including shielding and linings for fast neutron and gamma radiation were made.

Lewis, W. J.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Teshima, P.

1996-02-01

72

Rating educational quality: factors in the erosion of professional standards.  

PubMed

Changes in the health care environment are putting increasing pressure on medical schools to make faculty accountable and to document the quality of the medical education they provide. Faculty's ratings of students' performances and students' ratings of faculty's teaching are important elements in these efforts to document educational quality. This article discusses selected research related to factors affecting raters' judgments, analyzes how changes in the health care environment are influencing such judgments, and links these influences to the system that upholds professional standards. Ratings are known to have a positive bias (generosity error), provide limited discrimination, and often fail to document serious deficits. The potential sources of these problems relate to the mechanics of the rating task, the system used to obtain ratings, and factors affecting rater judgment. As managed care demands reduce the time faculty have for teaching, as system-wide disincentives to provide negative ratings proliferate, and as social engineering challenges, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, impose differential standards for students, the natural tendency to avoid giving negative ratings becomes even harder to resist. Ultimately, these forces compromise the capability of faculty to uphold the standards of the profession. The author calls for a national effort to stem the erosion of those standards. PMID:10386091

Albanese, M

1999-06-01

73

High Quality Factor Metallodielectric Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystals  

SciTech Connect

A 2D polystyrene colloidal crystal self-assembled on a flat gold surface supports multiple photonic and plasmonic propagating resonance modes. For both classes of modes, the quality factors can exceed 100, higher than the quality factor of surface plasmons (SP) at a polymer–gold interface. The spatial energy distribution of those resonance modes are carefully studied by measuring the optical response of the hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal after coating with dielectric materials under different coating profiles. Computer simulations with results closely matching those of experiments provide a clear picture of the field distribution of each resonance mode. For the SP modes, there is strong confinement of electromagnetic energy near the metal surface, while for optical modes, the field is confined inside the spherical particles, far away from the metal. Coating of dielectric material on the crystal results in a large shift in optical features. A surface sensor based on the hybrid plasmonic–photonic crystal is proposed, and it is shown to have atomic layer sensitivity. An example of ethanol vapor sensing based on physisorption of ethanol onto the sensor surface is demonstrated.

Yu, Xindi; Shi, Lei; Han, Dezhuan; Zi, Jian; Braun, Paul V.

2010-01-01

74

Charge and matter distributions and form factors of light, medium, and heavy neutron-rich nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of charge form factors calculations for several unstable neutron-rich isotopes of light, medium, and heavy nuclei (He, Li, Ni, Kr, Sn) are presented and compared to those of stable isotopes in the same isotopic chain. For the lighter isotopes (He and Li) the proton and neutron densities are obtained within a microscopic large-scale shell-model, while for heavier ones Ni, Kr, and Sn the densities are calculated in deformed self-consistent mean-field Skyrme HF+BCS method. We also compare proton densities to matter densities together with their rms radii and diffuseness parameter values. Whenever possible comparison of form factors, densities and rms radii with available experimental data is also performed. Calculations of form factors are carried out both in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) and in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA). These form factors are suggested as predictions for the future experiments on the electron-radioactive beam colliders where the effect of the neutron halo or skin on the proton distributions in exotic nuclei is planned to be studied and thereby the various theoretical models of exotic nuclei will be tested.

Antonov, A. N.; Kadrev, D. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Guerra, E. Moya; Sarriguren, P.; Udias, J. M.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Krumova, G. Z.

2005-10-01

75

Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor G(M)n in the few-GeV2 region.  

PubMed

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q;{2}=1.0-4.8 GeV2 with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. High precision was achieved with a ratio technique and a simultaneous in situ calibration of the neutron detection efficiency. Neutrons were detected with electromagnetic calorimeters and time-of-flight scintillators at two beam energies. The dipole parametrization gives a good description of the data. PMID:19518944

Lachniet, J; Afanasev, A; Arenhövel, H; Brooks, W K; Gilfoyle, G P; Higinbotham, D; Jeschonnek, S; Quinn, B; Vineyard, M F; Adams, G; Adhikari, K P; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Baillie, N; Ball, J P; Baltzell, N A; Barrow, S; Batourine, V; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bedlinskiy, I; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Biselli, A S; Bonner, B E; Bookwalter, C; Bouchigny, S; Boiarinov, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Careccia, S L; Carman, D S; Casey, L; Cheng, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Collins, P; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crede, V; Cummings, J P; Dale, D; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Masi, R; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Deur, A; Dhamija, S; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Dickson, R; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Feuerbach, R J; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Hardie, J; Hassall, N; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, I; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Johnstone, J R; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kageya, T; Kalantarians, N; Keller, D; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Konczykowski, P; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, J; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kuznetsov, V; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; Lukashin, K; Maccormick, M; Malace, S; Manak, J J; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McAleer, S; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mibe, T; Mikhailov, K; Mineeva, T; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Moreno, B; Moriya, K; Morrow, S A; Moteabbed, M; Mueller, J; Munevar, E; Mutchler, G S; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niroula, M R; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Paterson, C; Pereira, S Anefalos; Philips, S A; Pierce, J; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salamanca, J; Salgado, C; Sandorfi, A; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Sharov, D; Shaw, J; Shvedunov, N V; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Starostin, A; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stepanyan, S S; Stokes, B E; Stoler, P; Stopani, K A; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, A; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Yurov, M; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

2009-05-15

76

Measurement of the Neutron electric form factor at Q2=0.8 2(GeV\\\\c)  

SciTech Connect

Nucleon form factors allow a sensitive test for models of the nucleon. Recent experiments utilising polarisation observables have resulted, for the first time, in a model-independent determination of the neutron electric form factor GnE. This method employed an 80% longitudinally polarised, high intensity (10 uA) electon beam (883 MeV) that was quasi-elastically scattered off a liquid deuterium target in the reaction D (e, en)p. A neutron polarimeter was designed and installed to measure the ratio of transverse-to-longitudinal polarisation using neutron scattering asymmetries. This ratio allowed a determination of the neutron elastic form factor, GnE, free of the previous large systematic uncertainties associated with the deuterium wave function. The experiment took place in the A1 experimental hall at MAMI taking advantage of a high resolution magnetic spectrometer. A detailed investigation was carried out into the performance of the neutron polarimeter.

Derek Glazier

2007-09-30

77

Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at High Momentum Transfer  

SciTech Connect

The electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon provide experimental access to the underlying charge and magnetic moment distributions of quarks. We have measured the electric form factor of the neutron at four kinematic points between 1.2 and 3.5 GeV{sup 2} in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. This more than doubles the momentum transfer region for which this quantity has previously been measured, providing new information on the structure of the neutron. Preliminary results for G{sup n}{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 GeV{sup 2} were presented and were compared with QCD-based models and phenomenological approaches.

Riordan, Seamus [University of Virginia, CEBAF Center F206, Jefferson Laboratory, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2009-08-04

78

Road construction: Emissions Factors and Air Quality Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very few studies have investigated the air pollution impacts of road construction. Over a 17 month period a congested main road in south east London was widened from two lanes to four. Emissions factors for road construction were determined and a notable deterioration in residential air quality was found with the final expanded road layout. Air quality monitoring sites measuring PM10, PM2.5, NOX, NO2 and meteorological variables were deployed on both sides of the road construction to quantify ambient air quality before, during and after the completion of the road works, with additional measurements from a nearby background site. PM10 samples were collected for oxidative potential measurements. PM10 was the only pollutant to increase during the construction; mean PM10 from the road increased by 15 µg m-3 during working hours; weekdays between 6 am and 5 pm; and on Saturdays between 6 am and 12 pm, compared to concentrations before the road works. During the construction the number of days with daily mean PM10 concentrations greater than 50 µg m-3 was more than 35 for both sides of the road, breaching the European Union Limit Value (LV). Downwind-upwind differences were used to calculate real-world PM10 emissions associated to the construction activity by means of box modelling. The quantity of PM10 emitted per area and month of construction was 0.0009 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 for the construction period. This emission factor was similar to the one used in the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI). Worst case construction emissions factors were 0.0105 kg PM10 m-2 month-1, compared to 0.0448 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 and 0.1038 kg PM10 m-2 month-1 used in current European and US inventories, respectively. After the completion of the road widening an increase in all pollutants was measured during rush hour peaks: 2-4 µg m-3 for PM10; 1 µg m-3 for PM2.5; 20 and 4 ppbv (40 and 8 µg m-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively, leading to a breach of the NO2 annual mean LV at this location for the first time. The increased air pollution was associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. The glutathione dependent oxidative potential did not increase during the construction period but a significant increase was found when the new widened road was in operation.

Font Font, Anna M.; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian; Fuller, Gary W.

2014-05-01

79

Multilevel factors affecting quality: examples from the cancer care continuum.  

PubMed

The complex environmental context must be considered as we move forward to improve cancer care and, ultimately, patient and population outcomes. The cancer care continuum represents several care types, each of which includes multiple technical and communication steps and interfaces among patients, providers, and organizations. We use two case scenarios to 1) illustrate the variability, diversity, and interaction of factors from multiple levels that affect care quality and 2) discuss research implications and provide hypothetical examples of multilevel interventions. Each scenario includes a targeted literature review to illustrate contextual influences upon care and sets the stage for theory-informed interventions. The screening case highlights access issues in older women, and the survivorship case illustrates the multiple transition challenges faced by patients, families, and organizations. Example interventions show the potential gains of implementing intervention strategies that work synergistically at multiple levels. While research examining multilevel intervention is a priority, it presents numerous study design, measurement, and analytic challenges. PMID:22623591

Zapka, Jane; Taplin, Stephen H; Ganz, Patricia; Grunfeld, Eva; Sterba, Katherine

2012-05-01

80

Raw water quality weight factors: Vaal basin, South Africa.  

PubMed

Weight factors (WFs) were developed for surface raw water pollution indicator variables in Vaal River's Upper and Middle Vaal sub-basins, in South Africa. The overall objective was to formulate a quantifiable ranking system to indicate importance of pollutant variables given their established effects on human and environmental health. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was applied to qualitative data that were obtained from South Africa's target water quality ranges as well as from literature which represented expert opinion. The human and environmental health effect choice sets were ranked from 1 to 5 on nine pollutant variable criteria: NH3/NH4+, Cl-, conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, F-, NO3-/NO2-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). The weighted-sum method (WSM) then assigned highest and lowest normalised weights (NWs) to F- and Cl-, respectively, for human health effects (?hh) alternative. Highest and lowest NWs were assigned to NH3/NH4+ and EC, respectively, for environmental health effects (?eh) alternative. After aggregating the ?hh and ?eh WFs, resultant values ranked the variables from highest to lowest as follows: F->NO3-/NO2->/NH3/NH4+>DO>pH>SO4(2-)>PO4(3-)>EC>Cl-. The results represented the importance of variables given their established effects on human and environmental health. It was concluded that WFs provided a quantifiable barometer which could signal harmful exposure to elucidate negative effects of using polluted surface raw water in the study area. The values could be incorporated into water quality models like water quality indices. The approach could be used to develop WFs for other sites, taking into account issues like the site's pollution variables of concern as well as using a ranking key constructed from established literature. PMID:22797235

Dzwairo, B; Otieno, F A O; Ochieng, G M; Bezuidenhout, J J

2012-01-01

81

Open-access colonoscopy in Ontario: Associated factors and quality  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Open-access (OA) colonoscopy may increase efficiency and decrease wait times; however, because the patient is seen for the first time at the endoscopy appointment, previous processes, such as information about the procedure, preparation and appropriate triage, may be suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with OA colonoscopy and to determine the relationship between OA colonoscopy and an important quality measure, incomplete colonoscopy. METHODS: A population-based analysis of all adult outpatients undergoing a first-time colonoscopy between 1997 and 2007 in Ontario was performed. Colonoscopy was considered to be OA if there were no visits in the preceding five years with the physician performing the colonoscopy. Using logistic regression, patient, physician and institution factors associated with OA colonoscopy were identified. Using propensity score matching, the relationship between OA colonoscopy and incomplete colonoscopy in 2006 was examined. RESULTS: A total of 1,079,259 colonoscopies were performed. Of these, 14% were OA in 1997 compared with 26% in 2007. Patients 50 to 69 years of age, those from higher-income neighbourhoods and those with less comorbidity were more likely to undergo OA colonoscopy. The odds of receiving OA colonoscopy were six times greater in a nonhospital clinic compared with a community hospital. Colonoscopy was more likely to be complete if the procedure was OA (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.2 to 1.4]; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of OA colonoscopy have increased substantially since 1997. Institution type was most strongly associated with OA colonoscopy. Colonoscopy completeness, a recognized quality indicator, does not appear to be compromised by OA colonoscopy. PMID:23781517

Hadlock, Shane; Rabeneck, Linda; Paszat, Lawrence F; Sutradhar, Rinku; Wilton, Andrew S; Tinmouth, Jill

2013-01-01

82

Fabrication of silica ultra high quality factor microresonators.  

PubMed

Whispering gallery resonant cavities confine light in circular orbits at their periphery. The photon storage lifetime in the cavity, quantified by the quality factor (Q) of the cavity, can be in excess of 500ns for cavities with Q factors above 100 million. As a result of their low material losses, silica microcavities have demonstrated some of the longest photon lifetimes to date. Since a portion of the circulating light extends outside the resonator, these devices can also be used to probe the surroundings. This interaction has enabled numerous experiments in biology, such as single molecule biodetection and antibody-antigen kinetics, as well as discoveries in other fields, such as development of ultra-low-threshold microlasers, characterization of thin films, and cavity quantum electrodynamics studies.(3-7) The two primary silica resonant cavity geometries are the microsphere and the microtoroid. Both devices rely on a carbon dioxide laser reflow step to achieve their ultra-high-Q factors (Q>100 million). However, there are several notable differences between the two structures. Silica microspheres are free-standing, supported by a single optical fiber, whereas silica microtoroids can be fabricated on a silicon wafer in large arrays using a combination of lithography and etching steps. These differences influence which device is optimal for a given experiment. Here, we present detailed fabrication protocols for both types of resonant cavities. While the fabrication of microsphere resonant cavities is fairly straightforward, the fabrication of microtoroid resonant cavities requires additional specialized equipment and facilities (cleanroom). Therefore, this additional requirement may also influence which device is selected for a given experiment. PMID:22805153

Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

2012-01-01

83

Indoor Air Quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building John D. Spengler  

E-print Network

1 Indoor Air Quality Factors in Designing a Healthy Building John D. Spengler School of Public. 2000. "Indoor air quality factors in designing a healthy building," Annual Review of Energy indoor air quality (IAQ) is an important determinant of healthy design, it is not the sole determinant

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

84

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, {alpha}) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg {sup 10}B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22

85

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Dose Calculation using Geometrical Factors Spherical Interface for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy by utilizing thermal neutron to produce alpha particles and lithium nuclei. The superiority of BNCT is that the radiation effects could be limited only for the tumor cells. BNCT radiation dose depends on the distribution of boron in the tumor. Absorbed dose to the cells from the reaction 10B (n, ?) 7Li was calculated near interface medium containing boron and boron-free region. The method considers the contribution of the alpha particle and recoiled lithium particle to the absorbed dose and the variation of Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles energy. Geometrical factor data of boron distribution for the spherical surface is used to calculate the energy absorbed in the tumor cells, brain and scalp for case Glioblastoma Multiforme. The result shows that the optimal dose in tumor is obtained for boron concentrations of 22.1 mg 10B/g blood.

Zasneda, Sabriani; Widita, Rena

2010-06-01

86

The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well  

E-print Network

. 1. Water quality--United States. 2. Water--Pollution potential--United States. 3. Well waterThe Quality of Our Nation's Waters Factors Affecting Public-Supply-Well Vulnerability to Contamination: Understanding Observed Water Quality and Anticipating Future Water Quality National Water

87

Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

2014-01-01

88

Factor Structure of Quality of Life: The Lehman Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 67 chronically mentally ill outpatients examined subjective Quality of Life Scores from A. Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Results suggest a model of life satisfaction in which instrumental and affiliative needs comprise significant portions of life satisfaction. Implications for other quality of life and life satisfaction…

Goodman, Marianne; Hull, James W.; Terkelsen, Kenneth G.; Smith, Thomas E.; Anthony, Donna

1997-01-01

89

G Factor Measurements in Neutron-Rich 252CF Fission Fragments, Measured Using the Gammasphere Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several g factors of excited states of moderately neutron-rich 252Cf fission fragments were measured using the IPAC method from data gathered with the GAMMASPHERE array. These results shine new light onto two regions of the nuclear chart very sensitive to the number of valence nucleons. The results for 101Zr and 103,105Mo focus on the single particle properties of nuclei in a region characterised by rapid shape changes and the emergence of triaxiality, and were found consistent with a particle-rotor picture. The g factors of 138,140,142Xe constitute an excellent test of single-particle properties near the N=82 shell closure. The measured g factors are in excellent agreement with recent shell-model and QRPA calculations.

Orlandi, R.; Smith, A. G.; Thallon, A. L. M.; Biswas, D. C.; Wall, R. M.; Patel, D.; Simpson, G. S.; Onakanmi, O. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Durell, J. L.; Freeman, S. J.; Lisle, J. C.; Smith, J. F.; Varley, B.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Barreau, G.; Petit, M.; Theisen, Ch.; Bouchez, E.; Houry, M.; Lucas, R.; Cahan, B.; Le Coguie, A.; Gall, B. J. P.; Dorvaux, O.; Schultz, N.

2008-08-01

90

Influence of neutron activation factors on matrix tablets for site specific delivery to the colon.  

PubMed

The impact of the neutron activation procedure, i.e. incorporation of samarium oxide (Sm(2)O(3)) and neutron irradiation, on the compression properties (including the crushing strength) and in vitro dissolution of potential colonic delivery systems based on matrix tablets of amidated pectin (Am.P) or two types of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was investigated. The neutron activation factors did not influence the compression properties of the tablets. Replacement of magnesium stearate with samarium stearate in directly compressed Am.P tablets to achieve both radiolabelling and lubrication resulted in a greater extent of concentration-dependent reduction of the crushing strength. Dissolution tests demonstrated that irradiation increased the release of the model drug ropivacaine from the tablets. The extent of this increase was unexpectedly low considering the previously observed degradation of the polymer expressed as an irradiation-induced viscosity reduction in solutions prepared from the polymers. Delayed-release coating with Eudragit L 100 protected the HPMC tablets against the release-increasing effect of irradiation until the late phases of release. Sm(2)O(3) retarded the release to a varying extent depending on particle characteristics. Incorporation of Sm(2)O(3) in the coating layer did not influence the release. However, one-third of the radioactivity leached from the coating within 60 min in 0.1 M HCl. PMID:10767600

Ahrabi, S F; Heinämäki, J; Sande, S A; Graffner, C

2000-05-01

91

Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu), one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,d)Ni55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D.; Chan, K. P.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; Peters, W. A.; Barbieri, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Utsuno, Y.

2014-09-01

92

The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

Grozanick, Sara E.

2010-01-01

93

Factors Influencing Perceptions of Service Quality in Cooperative Extension Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the direct and indirect impact of empowerment on service quality as perceived by Extension staff. Using a sample 283 respondents, the results revealed that along with empowerment, constructs such as job satisfaction and organizational identification positively affected service quality. Undoubtedly, each of these variables…

Anaza, Nwamaka A.; Rutherford, Brian N.; Widdows, Richard

2012-01-01

94

The human factors of quality and QA in R D environments  

SciTech Connect

Achieving quality is a human activity. It is therefore important to consider the human in the design, development and evaluation of work processes and environments in an effort to enhance human performance and minimize error. It is also important to allow for individual differences when considering human factors issues. Human Factors is the field of study which can provide information on integrating the human into the system. Human factors and quality are related for the customer of R D work, R D personnel who perform the work, and the quality professional who overviews the process of quality in the work. 18 refs., 1 fig.

Hill, S.G.

1990-01-01

95

Assessment of Beijing surface water quality based on principal factor analysis and cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the field data of surface water quality from Beijing Water Authority, this paper demonstrates a case study on how to utilize principle factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to extract a limited number of principal factors that can best describe the original data and to identify the patterns of surface water quality pollution. 10 auto-monitoring sites dispense in

Chen Gao; Jianzhuo Yan; Suhua Yang; Guohua Tan

2011-01-01

96

Sleep quality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: distribution, associated factors and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background Poor sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and mortality. However, limited information exists on the distribution and determinants of sleep quality and its associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in Chinese populations. We aimed to evaluate this in the current study. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50–70 years from urban and rural areas of Beijing and Shanghai. Using a questionnaire, sleep quality was measured in levels of well, common and poor. Comprehensive measures of socio-demographical and health factors and biomarkers of cardio-metabolic disease were recorded. These were evaluated in association with sleep quality using logistic regression models. Results Half of the population reported good sleep quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, women and Beijing residents had almost half the probability to report good sleep quality. Good physical and mental health (good levels of self-rated health (OR 2.48; 95%CI 2.08 to 2.96) and no depression (OR 4.05; 95%CI 3.12 to 5.26)) related to an increased chance of reporting good sleep quality, whereas short sleep duration (<7 hrs OR 0.10; 95%CI 0.07 to 0.14)) decreased it substantially. There were significant associations between levels of sleep quality and concentrations of plasma insulin, total and LDL cholesterol, and index of insulin resistance. Conclusion Levels of good sleep quality in middle-age and elderly Chinese were low. Gender, geographical location, self-rated health, depression and sleep quantity were major factors associated with sleep quality. Prospective studies are required to distil the factors that determine sleep quality and the effects that sleep patterns exert on cardio-metabolic health. PMID:19426521

Haseli-Mashhadi, Nazanin; Dadd, Tony; Pan, An; Yu, Zhijie; Lin, Xu; Franco, Oscar H

2009-01-01

97

Personnel neutron dosimetry at Department of Energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses the state of personnel neutron dosimetry at DOE facilities. A survey of the personnel dosimetry systems in use at major DOE facilities was conducted, a literature search was made to determine recent advances in neutron dosimetry, and several dosimetry experts were interviewed. It was concluded that personnel neutron dosimeters do not meet current needs and that serious problems exist now and will increase in the future if neutron quality factors are increased and/or dose limits are lowered.

Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

1980-08-01

98

Investigation of factors affecting the quality of americium electroplating.  

PubMed

Four different electrolyte solutions were used in the electrodeposition of americium and their influences on the quality of the thin layer of deposited americium isotopes in combination with three different cathode disc materials were investigated. The relations between alpha spectral resolution and disc surface properties were established. PMID:22424746

Trdin, M; Benedik, L; Samardžija, Z; Pihlar, B

2012-09-01

99

Factors Affecting Quality and Safety of Fresh-Cut Produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However,

G. A. Francis; A. Gallone; G. J. Nychas; J. N. Sofos; G. Colelli; M. L. Amodio; G. Spano

2012-01-01

100

Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

2010-05-01

101

Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture and flavour, as well as nutritional and safety aspects, that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre, and fresh-cut produce satisfy consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut

G. A. Francis; A. Gallone; G. J. Nychas; J. N. Sofos; G. Colelli; M. L. Amodio; G. Spano

2011-01-01

102

Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from Major Evaluated Data Libraries  

E-print Network

We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellianaveraged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented.

Pritychenko, B

2012-01-01

103

Winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system based on remote sensing and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve dynamic winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting in larger scale regions, the objective of this study was to design and develop a winter wheat quality monitoring and forecasting system by using a remote sensing index and environmental factors. The winter wheat quality trend was forecasted before the harvest and quality was monitored after the harvest, respectively. The traditional quality-vegetation index from remote sensing monitoring and forecasting models were improved. Combining with latitude information, the vegetation index was used to estimate agronomy parameters which were related with winter wheat quality in the early stages for forecasting the quality trend. A combination of rainfall in May, temperature in May, illumination at later May, the soil available nitrogen content and other environmental factors established the quality monitoring model. Compared with a simple quality-vegetation index, the remote sensing monitoring and forecasting model used in this system get greatly improved accuracy. Winter wheat quality was monitored and forecasted based on the above models, and this system was completed based on WebGIS technology. Finally, in 2010 the operation process of winter wheat quality monitoring system was presented in Beijing, the monitoring and forecasting results was outputted as thematic maps.

Haiyang, Yu; Yanmei, Liu; Guijun, Yang; Xiaodong, Yang; Dong, Ren; Chenwei, Nie

2014-03-01

104

Clean measurements of the nucleon axial-vector and free-neutron magnetic form factors  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the feasibility of a weak charged current experiment using a low energy electron beam. A first goal is to measure the Q^2 dependence of the axial-vector form factor g_a(Q^2). It can be measured model-independently and as robustly as for electromagnetic form factors from typical electron scattering experiments, in contrast to the methods used so far to measure g_a(Q^2). If g_a(Q^2) follows a dipole form, the axial mass can be extracted with a better accuracy than the world data altogether. The most important detection equipment would be a segmented neutron detector with good momentum and angular resolution that is symmetric about the beam direction, and covers a moderate angular range. A high intensity beam (100 uA) is necessary. Beam polarization is highly desirable as it provides a clean measurement of the backgrounds. Beam energies between 70 and 110 MeV are ideal. This range would provide a Q^2 mapping of g_a between 0.01

Deur, Alexandre P. [JLAB

2013-11-01

105

System theoretic approach for determining causal factors of quality loss in complex system design  

E-print Network

Identifying the factors that could lead to the loss of quality is difficult for large, complex systems. Traditional design methods such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Robust ...

Goerges, Stephanie L

2013-01-01

106

Factors Associated with the Utilization and Quality of Prenatal Care in Western Rural Regions of China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper seeks to identify key features of prenatal care utilization and quality in western regions of China and to determine the factors affecting the quality of prenatal care. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. The instrument for the study was a 10-stem respondent-administered, structured…

Dongxu, Wang; Yuhui, Shi; Stewart, Donald; Chun, Chang; Chaoyang, Li

2012-01-01

107

Visual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research  

E-print Network

Visual Steering and Verification of Mass Spectrometry Data Factorization in Air Quality Research particles in real time, providing unprecedented rich data sets for air quality research. Typical instru Hamann, Member, IEEE and Hans Hagen, Member, IEEE Abstract-- The study of aerosol composition for air

Hamann, Bernd

108

The influence of attitude and psychogenic factors on the quality of semen collected by masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary investigation of male infertility usually depends on semen samples collected by masturbation, yet very little is known about possible psychological influences on their quality. An exploratory assessment of 89 men's attitudes to semen analysis and the influence of psychogenic factors (mood, anxiety and sexual excitement) on the quality of the ejaculate has been performed. Specifically the hypothesis has

M. Dziegielewski; J. P. P. Tyler

1989-01-01

109

Integration of Multiple Readouts into the Z' Factor for Assay Quality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods that monitor the quality of a biological assay (i.e., its ability to discriminate between positive and negative controls) are essential for the development of robust assays. In screening, the most commonly used parameter for monitoring assay quality is the Z' factor, which is based on 1 selected readout. However, biological assays are able to monitor multiple readouts. For example,

Anne Kümmel; Hanspeter Gubler; Patricia Gehin; Martin Beibel; Daniela Gabriel; Christian N. Parker

2010-01-01

110

Preadoptive Factors Predicting Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples' Relationship Quality Across the Transition to Adoptive Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper

Abbie E. Goldberg; JuliAnna Z. Smith; Deborah A. Kashy

2010-01-01

111

Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic {sup 3}{rvec H}e({rvec e},e`)  

SciTech Connect

Polarized {sup 3}He targets have proven to be a useful tool for studying the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron, and the spin structure of the neutron. The neutron magnetic form factor at low Q{sup 2} was determined previously at MIT-Bates from the quasielastic {sup 3}{ital {rvec H}e({rvec e}, e{sup `})} process. New experiment was planned at TJNAF to systematically measure the inclusive {sup 3}He quasielastic transverse asymmetry, A{sub T{sup `}}, at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 - 0.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} with high statistical and systematic accuracy. A 2% statistical uncertainty is aimed at all the pro- posed values of Q{sup 2} , and 3% systematic uncertainty for A{sub T{sup `}} can be achieved for this experiment. The precise data will constrain theoretical calculations of {sup 3}He quasielastic asymmetry. Furthermore, the neutron magnetic form factor at Q{sup 2} = 0.1 - 0.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} will be extracted from the measured asymmetries with an overall uncertainty of 2%. Precise measurements of {ital G{sup n}{sub M}} at low Q{sup 2} will resolve the discrepancy among the existing data in the same Q{sup 2} region.

Gao, H.

1997-02-01

112

Technological aspects of canned rice quality and related factors  

E-print Network

of Department) (Acting) May 1981 ABSTRACT Technolog1cal Aspects of Canned Rice Duality and Related Factors (May 1981) Darrell Lee Gerdes, B. S. , Texas A8M University Cha1rman of Advisory Committee: Dr. E. E. Burns Technological aspects of canned rice... Color. Sensory Evaluation . . . . Statistical Analysis . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Preliminary Investigations . Commercially Canned Rice. Vacuum. Processed Samples . Heat Penetration . 2 2 2 3 3 4 7 11 11 15 15 18 18 18 19 21 21...

Gerdes, Darrell Lee

2012-06-07

113

Specific mixing energy: A key factor for cement slurry quality  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the relationships between cement mixing and cement slurry quality are investigated. Laboratory mixing conditions, using a high shear mixer, are compared to field mixing conditions, including conventional jet mixer, recirculating type mixer and batch mixer. All the mixing conditions can be reduced according to a single parameter, the specific mixing energy, that allows the comparison of laboratory and field mixing with confidence. Typical cement slurry properties, like rheology, free water, fluid loss, thickening time and compressive strength, are measured as a function of the specific mixing energy. All these properties improve when the specific mixing energy increases. The efficiency of cement additives, like dispersants and fluid-loss agents, is also found to vary significantly with the energy. A tentative explanation is proposed through a mechanism of particle deflocculation and dissolution, leading to an increase in the available specific surface area.

Orban, J.A.; Parcevaux, P.A.; Guillot, D.J.

1986-01-01

114

First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.a [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Crivello, Martin [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires(Argentina); Perona, Marina [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto [Department of Instrumentation and Control, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano [Argentina Reactor, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casal, Mariana [Institute of Oncology 'Angel H. Roffo', University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kahl, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario Alberto [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-01-01

115

Cylindrical Detector and Preamplifier Design for Detecting Neutrons  

E-print Network

Tissue equivalent proportional counters are frequently used to measure dose and dose equivalent in mixed radiation fields that include neutrons; however, detectors simulating sites 1?m in diameter underestimate the quality factor, Q, for low energy...

Xia, Zhenghua

2010-01-14

116

Risk factors and monitoring for water quality to determine best management practices for splash parks.  

PubMed

Splash parks have been associated with infectious disease outbreaks as a result of exposure to poor water quality. To be able to protect public health, risk factors were identified that determine poor water quality. Samples were taken at seven splash parks where operators were willing to participate in the study. Higher concentrations of Escherichia coli were measured in water of splash parks filled with rainwater or surface water as compared with sites filled with tap water, independent of routine inspection intervals and employed disinfection. Management practices to prevent fecal contamination and guarantee maintaining good water quality at splash parks should include selection of source water of acceptable quality. PMID:25252342

de Man, H; Leenen, E J T M; van Knapen, F; de Roda Husman, A M

2014-09-01

117

No-reference remote sensing image quality assessment using a comprehensive evaluation factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional image quality assessment algorithm, such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio ?PSNR?? Mean Square Error?MSE? and structural similarity (SSIM), needs the original image as a reference. It's not applicable to the remote sensing image for which the original image cannot be assumed to be available. In this paper, a No-reference Image Quality Assessment (NRIQA) algorithm is presented to evaluate the quality of remote sensing image. Since blur and noise (including the stripe noise) are the common distortion factors affecting remote sensing image quality, a comprehensive evaluation factor is modeled to assess the blur and noise by analyzing the image visual properties for different incentives combined with SSIM based on human visual system (HVS), and also to assess the stripe noise by using Phase Congruency (PC). The experiment results show this algorithm is an accurate and reliable method for Remote Sensing Image Quality Assessment.

Wang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Li, Xiao; Shao, Xiaopeng

2014-05-01

118

AGA compressibility-factor correlation describes rich pipeline-quality natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compressibility-factor correlation for pipeline-quality natural gases in American Gas Association (AGA) Report No. 8 has been shown to be capable of describing rich natural gas. Also, a method for estimating the uncertainties in values of the compressibility factor is established.

K. E. Starling; M. Mannan; J. L. Savidge

1987-01-01

119

The gamma-ray and neutron shielding factors of fly-ash brick materials.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study of gamma-ray exposure build-up factors (EBFs) of fly-ash brick materials has been carried out for photon energies of 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path) by a geometrical progression (GP) fitting method. The EBF values of the fly-ash brick materials were found to be dependent upon the photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition, and were found to be higher than the values for mud bricks and common bricks. Above a photon energy of 3 MeV for large penetration depths (>10 mfp), the EBF becomes directly proportional to Zeq. EBFs of fly-ashes were found to be less than or equal to those of concrete for low penetration depths (<10 mfp) for intermediate photon energies up to 1.5 MeV. The EBF values of fly-ash materials were found to be almost independent of Si concentration. The fast neutron removal cross sections of the fly-ash brick materials, mud bricks and common bricks were also calculated to understand their shielding effectiveness. The shielding effectiveness of the fly-ash materials against gamma-ray radiation was lower than that of common and mud bricks. PMID:24270465

Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

2014-03-01

120

Analysis of factors influencing voice quality and therapeutic approaches in vocal polyp patients.  

PubMed

The task of the present study was to investigate the relationship between parameters and factors predictive of voice quality and to suggest treatment guidelines for patients suffering from vocal polyps. In total, 158 patients diagnosed with vocal polyps and who received voice therapy were enrolled. Clinicomorphological factors such as size, location, color, and type of the polyp were evaluated. Perceptive and acoustic voice evaluation was conducted and the relationship of these voice parameters with clinicomorphological factors was analyzed. Additionally, factors favorable for voice therapy were investigated. GRBAS scale grade was closely related to acoustic parameters, such as jitter and shimmer. Univariate analysis showed the size of the polyp, the color of the vocal fold, a history of voice abuse, associated muscle tension dysphonia (MTD), and opposing reactive scar affected voice quality. In multivariate analysis, only the size of the polyp was associated with voice quality. The patients in whom the voice quality improved with voice therapy initially had smaller polyps and whitish-colored vocal folds. Results of the present study indicate that although the most influential factor on voice quality in vocal polyp patients was the size, several other factors should be considered in evaluating and treating vocal polyps. The size of the polyp and the color of the vocal fold are indicative of success or failure in voice therapy. PMID:21547388

Cho, Kwang Jae; Nam, Inn Chul; Hwang, Yeon Shin; Shim, Mi Ran; Park, Jun Ook; Cho, Jung Hae; Joo, Young Hoon; Kim, Min Sik; Sun, Dong Il

2011-09-01

121

Quality assessment of in-pile guides by energy resolved neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy resolved pinhole-imaging method can be applied for surveying the condition of neutron beam extraction systems without the need to remove them. The only condition is the access to a position where direct view of the source is available. Generally this is possible at some stages of the guide system installation or during replacement of first out of pile guide sections. Some facilities have removable sections downstream of the main shutters where the proposed measurement can be performed. The measurement is based on position sensitive neutron detection in time of flight regime. In case of continuous sources, a chopper is required, while in case of pulsed sources the time frame is provided by the source period. The proposed method can be considered an in situ reflectometry experiment. To each pixel of a reflection region corresponds a pixel of the direct view. The ratio of the neutron counts in the image pixel with respect to the corresponding direct pixel gives the reflectivity of the involved mirror plate at the angle which can be determined from the experiment geometry and at the wavelength which results from the flight length and time. The measurement gives an average reflectivity over the mirror surfaces viewed through the given pinhole position and finally the transfer function of the investigated guide sections. The accuracy of the results is affected by the alignment accuracy of the guide sections because the reflection angles are determined with respect to the theoretical positions of the mirror surfaces. As an example, the results obtained at a 100 mm high and 25 mm wide cold neutron beamline at the Budapest Neutron Centre are presented.

Füzi, János

2008-02-01

122

Measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor at high Q-2 using the ratio method on deuterium  

SciTech Connect

The 12-GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab will create an opportunity to dramatically extend our knowledge of the magnetic form factor of the neutron G^n_M and the other elastic, electromagnetic form factors. We describe here an approved experiment that will cover a Q2 range (3.5 – 14 GeV2) with significant discovery potential. Different theoretical approaches (generalized parton distributions, Dyson-Schwinger equations, etc) diverge is this region and existing data cannot distinguish among them. The proposed measurement will be performed in Hall B with the CLAS12 detector and will have statistical and systematic uncertainties below 3%. It is based on the ratio of electron-neutron to electron-proton scattering that was successfully applied in the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab.

G.P. Gilfoyle, W.K. Brooks, K. Hafidi

2011-05-01

123

Transverse Asymmetry AT' from the Quasielastic 3He>\\\\(e-->,e'\\\\) Process and the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in 3He-->\\\\(e-->,e'\\\\) quasielastic scattering in Hall A at Jefferson Laboratory with high precision for Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6 \\\\(GeV\\/c\\\\)2. The neutron magnetic form factor GnM was extracted based on Faddeev calculations for Q2 = 0.1 and 0.2 \\\\(GeV\\/c\\\\)2 with an experimental uncertainty of less than 2%.

W. Xu; D. Dutta; F. Xiong; B. Anderson; L. Auberbach; T. Averett; W. Bertozzi; T. Black; J. Calarco; L. Cardman; G. D. Cates; Z. W. Chai; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; G. S. Corrado; C. Crawford; D. Dale; A. Deur; P. Djawotho; B. W. Filippone; J. M. Finn; H. Gao; R. Gilman; A. V. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; W. Glöckle; J. Golak; J. Gomez; V. G. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; F. W. Hersman; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; C. R. Howell; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; C. W. de Jager; J. S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C. E. Jones; M. Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; J. Lerose; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; J. W. Martin; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; K. McIlhany; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; E. Pace; T. Pavlin; G. G. Petratos; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R. D. Ransome; Y. Roblin; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; G. Salmè; M. Schnee; T. Shin; K. Slifer; P. A. Souder; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; M. Sutter; B. Tipton; L. Todor; M. Viviani; B. Vlahovic; J. Watson; C. F. Williamson; H. Witala; B. Wojtsekhowski; J. Yeh; P. ZoLnierczuk

2000-01-01

124

Psychosocial factors associated with diet quality in a working adult population.  

PubMed

The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult sample of university and health center employees (N = 640) who were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study. Participants had a mean age of 48 (SD = 11) years and were 67% women and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices-AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high-income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p < .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

Ferranti, Erin Poe; Dunbar, Sandra B; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R; Frediani, Jennifer K; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L

2013-06-01

125

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population  

PubMed Central

The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices - AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p< .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

2014-01-01

126

Overcoming Si?N? film stress limitations for high quality factor ring resonators.  

PubMed

Silicon nitride (Si?N?) ring resonators are critical for a variety of photonic devices. However the intrinsically high film stress of silicon nitride has limited both the optical confinement and quality factor (Q) of ring resonators. We show that stress in Si?N? films can be overcome by introducing mechanical trenches for isolating photonic devices from propagating cracks. We demonstrate a Si?N? ring resonator with an intrinsic quality factor of 7 million, corresponding to a propagation loss of 4.2 dB/m. This is the highest quality factor reported to date for high confinement Si?N? ring resonators in the 1,550 nm wavelength range. PMID:24104169

Luke, Kevin; Dutt, Avik; Poitras, Carl B; Lipson, Michal

2013-09-23

127

Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Quality Factor in a Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the measurements of the temperature dependence of the internal quality factor (Qi) of a microwave resonator, well below the superconducting transition temperature. The device is a quarter-wavelength niobium (Tc = 9.2 K) coplanar waveguide resonator. The measured |S21| parameter shows typically the skewed Lorentzian distributions, from which the fitted quality factor monotonically decreases with the temperature increasing from 30 mK to 900 mK. It is observed that for the lower temperature range (i.e., at T < 700 mK) the temperature dependence of the fitted Qi deviates significantly from the predictions of the usual Mattis—Bardeen theory. The measured 3 dB internal quality factor Q'i also verifies such an anomalous temperature dependence. Physically, this phenomenon could be attributed dominantly to the effects of the two-level systems in the device, rather than the usual temperature-dependent complex conductance.

Zhou, Pin-Jia; Wang, Yi-Wen; Wei, Lian-Fu

2014-06-01

128

Comparison of mean quality factors proposed by ICRP, ICRU and NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts are exposed to primary cosmic-rays and secondary particles produced by them through interaction with the atoms of the spacecraft material and those of the human body. For the radiation risk estimation of astronauts, not only organ absorbed doses but also their mean quality factors must be evaluated, since radiation weighting factor as defined by ICRP60 is not suitable for use in space dosimetry due to its very simplified concept. Three relationships were proposed for expressing the radiation quality by different organizations; (1) International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined the quality factor based on LET in water, Q(L), in ICRP60, (2) in International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) Report 40, a quality factor Q(y) is defined as a function of lineal energy, y, for spherical liquid water of 1 mm in diameter, Q(y), and (3) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) proposed those for solid cancer and leukemia separately based on charge and energy of particles, QNASA(Z,E), in NASA/TP-2011-216155. The Q(L) relationship is most simple and widely used in space dosimetry, but the latter two relationships consider the difference of the track structure of the various heavy ions in tissue due to the production of d-rays, which is very important in the risk estimation for the HZE-particle exposure. We therefore calculated the mean quality factors in organs and tissues in the ICRP reference voxel phantoms for various particles, using the PHITS code coupled with the ICRP, ICRU and NASA Q-functions. An isotropic irradiation of the phantom was assumed in the calculation. The details of the calculation procedure will be described, together with the comparison of mean quality factors obtained from the 3 relationships.

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Endo, Akira

2012-07-01

129

Poor sleep quality as a risk factor for lapse following a cannabis quit attempt.  

PubMed

Treatments for cannabis dependence are associated with high rates of lapse/relapse, underscoring the importance of identifying malleable risk factors that are associated with quit failure. Whereas research has demonstrated that poor sleep quality following cannabis discontinuation is related to subsequent use, there has yet to be an examination of whether poor sleep quality prior to a quit attempt results in a similar pattern of lapse. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of pre-quit sleep quality on early lapse to cannabis use following a self-guided quit attempt, among 55 cannabis dependent military veterans. Results indicated that participants who experienced poor pre-quit sleep quality had greater risk for lapse within the first 2 days (out of 7) following their quit attempt. Findings are discussed in terms of improving treatments for individuals who report poor sleep quality prior to a cannabis quit attempt. PMID:23098380

Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Harris, Alex H; Stickle, Timothy R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

2013-04-01

130

Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.  

PubMed

The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption. PMID:20545395

Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

2010-06-01

131

Psychosocial factors as predictors of quality of life in chronic portuguese patients  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic illnesses are diseases of long duration and generally of slow progression. They cause significant quality of life impairment. The aim of this study was to analyse psychosocial predictors of quality of life and of subjective well-being in chronic Portuguese patients. Methods Chronic disease patients (n?=?774) were recruited from central Portuguese Hospitals. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires assessing socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and outcome variables: quality of life (HRQL) and subjective well-being (SWB). MANCOVA analyses were used to test psychosocial factors as determinants of HRQL and SWB. Results After controlling for socio-demographic and clinical variables, results showed that dispositional optimism, positive affect, spirituality, social support and treatment adherence are significant predictors of HRQL and SWB. Similar predictors of quality of life, such as positive affect, treatment adherence and spirituality, were found for subgroups of disease classified by medical condition. Conclusions The work identifies psychosocial factors associated with quality of life. The predictors for the entire group of different chronic diseases are similar to the ones found in different chronic disease subgroups: positive affect, social support, treatment adherence and spirituality. Patients with more positive affect, additional social support, an adequate treatment adherence and a feel-good spirituality, felt better with the disease conditions and consequently had a better quality of life. This study contributes to understanding and improving the processes associated with quality of life, which is relevant for health care providers and chronic diseases support. PMID:24405802

2014-01-01

132

Aspects of radiation beam quality and their effect on the dose response of polymer gels: Photons, electrons and fast neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer gels are generally assumed to exhibit no significant dependence of the dose response on the energy or type of irradiation for clinically used beam qualities. Based on reports on differences in dose response for low energy photons and particle beams with high linear energy transfer (LET) we here investigate the dose response and energy dependence for a normoxic methacrylic acid polymer gel (MAGAT) for X-rays (100 kV), high energy photon beams (E = 1.2 MeV (60Co), 6 MV and 15 MV) and for three different electron energies (4, 12 and 20 MeV). Due to the possible impact also the sensitivity of the dose response to the dose rate is reported. A reduction in polymer gel relaxation rate has been observed for proton and carbon beams due to the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of these types of radiations. We here report on the dose response of an acryl-amide polymer gel (PAG) in a fast neutron field along with collimation as proposed for Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

Berg, Andreas; Bayreder, Christian; Georg, Dietmar; Bankamp, Achim; Wolber, Gerd

2009-05-01

133

Role of contextual factors in health-related quality of life in ankylosing spondylitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:In the bio-psycho-social model of health, the role of contextual factors, either environmental or personal, is recognised.Objective:To assess the impact of a number of contextual factors on self-reported disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Methods:522 patients with AS from Canada and Australia completed a postal questionnaire including sociodemographic variables, disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis

V S Gordeev; W P Maksymowych; S M A A Evers; A Ament; L Schachna; A Boonen

2010-01-01

134

Quality of life in elderly patients with COPD: measurement and predictive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity in old age. It leads to reduced quality of life (QoL), but the factors that contribute to this are less understood. There is no consensus on measurement of QoL in elderly COPD patients. We assessed (a) factors predicting QoL in elderly COPD out-patients and (b) specificity (SP), sensitivity (SEN),

A. M. Yohannes; J. Roomi; K. Waters; M. J. Connolly

1998-01-01

135

Measurement of coherent Debye-Waller factor in in vivo deuterated C-phycocyanin by inelastic neutron scattering.  

PubMed Central

Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements of dry and 35% D2O hydrated amorphous protein powder of C-phycocyanin were made as a function of temperature ranging from 313K down to 100K. The protein is grown from blue-green algae cultured in D2O and is deuterated up to 99%. The scattering is thus dominated by coherent scattering. Within the best energy resolution of the time-of-flight instrument, which is 28 mueV FWHM, the scattering appears entirely elastic. For this reason we are able to extract a coherent Debye-Waller factor by making an independent measurement of the static structure factor. We observe a considerable difference in the q dependence of the Debye-Waller factor between the dry and hydrated proteins; furthermore, there is an interesting temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor that is quite different from that predicted for dense hard-sphere liquids. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:9083683

Bellissent-Funel, M C; Filabozzi, A; Chen, S H

1997-01-01

136

Quality factor optimization of photonic crystal cavities through multiple multipole expansion technique and power loss integral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Local Density of photonic States (LDOS) and Multiple Multipole Expansion technique (MME) are powerful tools in the study of spontaneous emission and calculation of photon confinement as well as efficient calculation of stationary field in planar photonic crystals. We bridge between optimization of Purcell factor and Q-factor in photonic crystal micro-cavities on one hand, and cavity power loss on the other hand. The quality factor calculated through a pulse response technique based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations are compared with quality factor calculated by other approaches of LDOS and power loss. It turned out that the latter methods are more accurate and computationally less expensive. The cavity power loss is defined as the surface integration of energy density flow projected toward outside of the effective cavity volume. It is shown that size changes and shifting the neighboring rods or holes have a large impact on the mode volume and confinement. The quality factor optimization is performed for a H1- photonic crystal cavity, and mode volume investigations carried out for high Q factor arrangements. These investigations are resulted in effective structural design rules and geometrical freedom contour plots for the neighboring rods in the vicinity of the micro-cavity. These generalized design rules are suitable for further studies in other photonic micro-cavities.

Jannesary, Reihaneh; Zamiri, Saeid; Mazaheri, Azar D.; Hamidipour, Abouzar; Mohtashami, Abbas; Hingerl, Kurt; Zarbakhsh, Javad

2008-04-01

137

Factors affecting the quality of antenatal care provided to remote dwelling Aboriginal women in northern Australia.  

PubMed

Objective: there is a significant gap in pregnancy and birth outcomes for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women compared with other Australian women. The provision of appropriate and high quality antenatal care is one way of reducing these disparities. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to antenatal guidelines by clinicians and identify factors affecting the quality of antenatal care delivery to remote dwelling Aboriginal women. Setting and design: a mixed method study drew data from 27 semi-structured interviews with clinicians and a retrospective cohort study of Aboriginal women from two remote communities in Northern Australia, who gave birth from 2004-2006 (n=412). Medical records from remote health centres and the regional hospital were audited. Measurements and findings: the majority of women attended antenatal care and adherence to some routine antenatal screening guidelines was high. There was poor adherence to local guidelines for follow-up of highly prevalent problems including anaemia, smoking, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. Multiple factors influenced the quality of antenatal care. Key conclusions and implications for practice: the resourcing and organisation of health services and the beliefs, attitudes and practices of clinicians were the major factors affecting the quality of care. There is an urgent need to address the identified issues in order to achieve equity in women's access to high quality antenatal care with the aim of closing the gap in maternal and neonatal health outcomes. PMID:23809580

Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue

2014-03-01

138

Integration of multiple readouts into the z' factor for assay quality assessment.  

PubMed

Methods that monitor the quality of a biological assay (i.e., its ability to discriminate between positive and negative controls) are essential for the development of robust assays. In screening, the most commonly used parameter for monitoring assay quality is the Z' factor, which is based on 1 selected readout. However, biological assays are able to monitor multiple readouts. For example, novel multiparametric screening technologies such as high-content screening provide information-rich data sets with multiple readouts on a compound's effect. Still, assay quality is commonly assessed by the Z' factor based on a single selected readout. This report suggests an extension of the Z' factor, which integrates multiple readouts for assay quality assessment. Using linear projections, multiple readouts are condensed to a single parameter, based on which the assay quality is monitored. The authors illustrate and evaluate this approach using simulated data and real-world data from a high-content screen. The suggested approach is applicable during assay development, to optimize the image analysis, as well as during screening to monitor assay robustness. Furthermore, data sets from high-content imaging assays and other state-of-the-art multiparametric screening technologies, such as flow cytometry or transcript analysis, could be analyzed. PMID:19940084

Kümmel, Anne; Gubler, Hanspeter; Gehin, Patricia; Beibel, Martin; Gabriel, Daniela; Parker, Christian N

2010-01-01

139

[Factors related to the quality of life of the elderly in programs for senior citizens].  

PubMed

Population aging is a social phenomenon that demands the attention of health professionals. This article seeks to analyze the influence of possible intervening factors on the quality of life of the elderly. It was a cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive and exploratory study, in which 182 elderly of both genders participated. They were aged ? 60 years and were enrolled in programs for senior citizens from three universities located in the cities of Sao Paulo, Sao Caetano do Sul and Mogi das Cruzes. To evaluate the subjective perception of quality of life, the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref) was used. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on the dependent and independent variables. A significance level of 5% was adopted. The results showed that the absence of disease positively influenced the quality of life on the four domains evaluated. In the environmental domain, full tertiary education, old age, the absence of disease and being a resident in Sao Caetano do Sul positively influenced the quality of life of the elderly. The factors associated with better quality of life were: full tertiary education, old age, the absence of disease and being a resident in Sao Caetano do Sul, in that order of importance. PMID:25119089

Dawalibi, Nathaly Wehbe; Goulart, Rita Maria Monteiro; Prearo, Leandro Campi

2014-08-01

140

Subjective Indoor Air Quality in Hospitals - The Influence of Building Age, Ventilation Flow, and Personal Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between subjective perception of indoor air quality, building characteristics, indoor exposures, and personal factors were studied in 225 female Swedish hospital workers. The prevalence of weekly complaints to do with dry air was 87% for air dryness, and 36% for static electricity. Such com plaints were more common in new and well ventilated buildings. The sensa tion of air

K. Nordstrom; D. Norbäck; R. Akselsson

1995-01-01

141

Measurement Model Quality, Sample Size, and Solution Propriety in Confirmatory Factor Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sample size recommendations in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) have recently shifted away from observations per variable or per parameter toward consideration of model quality. Extending research by Marsh, Hau, Balla, and Grayson (1998), simulations were conducted to determine the extent to which CFA model convergence and parameter estimation…

Gagne, Phill; Hancock, Gregory R.

2006-01-01

142

Analysis of transformer-based resonator quality factor and bandwidth and the implications to VCOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how the reflected impedance impacts the quality factor and noise performance of transformer-based resonators. The analysis shows that in oscillators employing transformer-based resonators, the improved noise performance does not primarily come from an increase in Q, but instead from a decrease in the bandwidth of the resonator as compared to that of an equivalent inductor- based resonator.

Amany El-Gouhary; Nathan M. Neihart

2011-01-01

143

Factors critical to the success of a Six-Sigma quality program in an Australian hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is substantial evidence from manufacturing industries, there is limited empirical evidence demonstrating the relationship between factors associated with a Six-Sigma quality program and the performance of organisations in the health sector. In this paper we examine this relationship, drawing on data obtained from the Royal Victorian Eye & Ear Hospital. The hospital is an acute tertiary teaching hospital

Roger Hilton; Margaret Balla; Amrik S. Sohal

2008-01-01

144

Sleep quality and quantity and associated factors among high school students from south Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Insufficient and poor quality sleep among adolescents affects not only the cognitive functioning, but overall health of the individual. Existing research suggests that adolescents from varying ethnic groups exhibit differing sleep patterns. However, little research focuses on sleep patterns and associated factors (i.e. tobacco use, mental health indicators) among Hispanic youth. ^ Methods. The study population (n=2,536) included students

John Joseph Byrne

2009-01-01

145

The impact of institutional factors on student academic results: implications for ‘quality’ in universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper situates the topic of student assessment and the moderation of assessment within a broader context of policy debates about the quality of teaching and learning in universities. The focus and discussion grew out of a research project that aimed to investigate factors related to academic success and failure in a Faculty of Arts. The study, initially, identified a

Kerry Wimshurst; Richard Wortley; Merrelyn Bates; Troy Allard

2006-01-01

146

Review of Radition Quality Factors and Corrections to Dosimetry Data on the ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organ dose equivalents are precisely defined in terms of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra and the LET -dependent quality factor (Q). We discuss available methods for the determination of organ doses and Q's in low earth orbit including approaches to correct measurements performed on the International Space Station (ISS). For determining astronaut-specific organ doses all dosimetry data have limitations. Besides

F. Cucinotta; H. Wu; M. Shavers; K. George

2002-01-01

147

Quality factor tuning of high-frequency high-Q filter biquads using adaptive signal processing  

E-print Network

A quality factor (Q) tuning technique for high-frequency and high-Q continuous-time filter biquads is proposed. The method is based on the existing magnitude locked loop Q-tuning technique, but it utilizes the continuous-time adaptive LMS algorithm...

Stevenson, Jan-Michael

2012-06-07

148

Innovation and the Quality of Labour Factor: An empirical investigation in the French food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our paper is to analyse the determinants of the innovation propensity of the firm. Among the numerous works devoted to this subject, the interest of our research is, firstly, to use a direct measurement of innovation, instead of the usual proxies, as R&D expenditures and patents statistics, secondly, to emphasise the role of labour factor quality as

Jean-Pierre Huiban; Zouhair Bouhsina

1998-01-01

149

Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

2011-01-01

150

Assessing the factors influencing continuous quality improvement implementation: experience in Korean hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the extent of continuous quality improvement (CQI) implementation in Korean hospitals and to identify its influencing factors. Design. Cross-sectional study by mailed questionnaire survey. Study participants. One hundred and seventeen staff members with responsibility for CQI at 67 hospitals with (400 beds. Main outcome measures. The degree of CQI implementation was measured using the Malcolm Baldrige National

SUNHEE LEE; KUI-SON CHOI; HYE-YOUNG KANG; WOOHYUN CHO; YOO MI CHAE

2002-01-01

151

The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

2008-01-01

152

Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

2011-01-01

153

Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students' college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various…

Richmond, Lori M.

2011-01-01

154

High quality factor silica microspheres functionalized with self-assembled nanomaterials  

PubMed Central

With extremely low material absorption and exceptional surface smoothness, silica-based optical resonators can achieve extremely high cavity quality (Q) factors. However, the intrinsic material limitations of silica (e.g., lack of second order nonlinearity) may limit the potential applications of silica-based high Q resonators. Here we report some results in utilizing layer-by-layer self-assembly to functionalize silica microspheres with nonlinear and plasmonic nanomaterials while maintaining Q factors as high as 107. We compare experimentally measured Q factors with theoretical estimates, and find good agreement. PMID:24103932

Kandas, Ishac; Zhang, Baigang; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Ashry, Islam; Jao, Chih-Yu; Peng, Bo; Ozdemir, Sahin K.; Robinson, Hans D.; Heflin, James R.; Yang, Lan; Xu, Yong

2013-01-01

155

Polarization-insensitive resonances with high quality-factors in meta-molecule metamaterials.  

PubMed

Achieving narrow resonance is an area of interest within the field of metamaterials. However, only a few studies have investigated the polarization-insensitive resonances. A general principle for improving quality Q-factor of a sharp resonance is still unclear. In this work, we proposed a kind of planar meta-molecule metamaterials, which can exhibit polarization-insensitive resonance with high Q-factor. The proposed structures have a unit cell consisting of four arrayed ring resonant elements with two different sizes. Moreover, the investigation on surface current and two referential simulated structures confirm a principle for improving Q-factor. PMID:24977554

Wu, Lin; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming; Zheng, Yu; Duan, Ji'an; Yuan, Xiuhua

2014-06-16

156

Molecular targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor for neutron capture therapy of gliomas.  

PubMed

Success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is dependent on cellular and molecular targeting of sufficient amounts of boron-10 to sustain a lethal (10)B (n, alpha) (7)Li capture reaction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of boronated epidermal growth factor (EGF) either alone or in combination with boronophenylalanine (BPA) as delivery agents for an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -positive glioma, designated F98(EGFR). A heavily boronated precision macromolecule [boronated starburst dendrimer (BSD)] was chemically linked to EGF by heterobifunctional reagents. Either F98 wild-type (F98(WT)) receptor (-) or EGFR gene-transfected F98(EGFR) cells, which expressed 5 x 10(5) receptor sites/cell, were stereotactically implanted into the brains of Fischer rats, and 2 weeks later biodistribution studies were initiated. For biodistribution studies rats received an intratumoral (i.t.) injection of (125)I-labeled BSD-EGF and were euthanized either 6 or 24 h later. At 6 h, equivalent amounts of BSD-EGF were detected in F98(EGFR) and F98(WT) tumors. Persistence of the bioconjugate in F98(EGFR) tumors was specifically determined by EGFR expression. By 24 h 33.2% of injected dose/g of EGF-BSD was retained by F98(EGFR) gliomas compared with 9.4% % of injected dose/g in F98(WT) gliomas, and the corresponding boron concentrations were 21.1 microg/g and 9.2 microg/g, respectively. Boron concentrations in normal brain, blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen all were at nondetectable levels (<0.5 microg/g). On the basis of these results, BNCT was initiated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Medical Research Reactor. Two weeks after implantation of 10(3) F98(EGFR) or F98(WT) tumor cells, rats received an i.t. injection of BSD-EGF (approximately 60 microg (10)B/approximately 15 microg EGF) either alone or in combination with i.v. BPA (500 mg/kg). Rats were irradiated at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor 24 h after i.t. injection, which was timed to coincide with 2.5 h after i.v. injection of BPA for those animals that received both capture agents. Untreated control rats had a mean survival time (MST) +/- SE of 27 +/- 1 day, and irradiated controls had a MST of 31 +/- 1 day. Animals bearing F98(EGFR) gliomas, which had received i.t. BSD-EGF and BNCT, had a MST of 45 +/- 5 days compared with 33 +/- 2 days for animals bearing F98(WT) tumors (P = 0.0032), and rats that received i.t. BSD-EGF in combination with i.v. BPA had a MST of 57 +/- 8 days compared with 39 +/- 2 days for i.v. BPA alone (P = 0.016). Our data are the first to show in vivo efficacy of BNCT using a high molecular weight boronated bioconjugate to target amplified EGFR expressed on gliomas, and they provide a platform for the future development of combinations of high and low molecular weight agents for BNCT. PMID:12036929

Barth, Rolf F; Yang, Weilian; Adams, Dianne M; Rotaru, Joan H; Shukla, Supriya; Sekido, Masaru; Tjarks, Werner; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Ciesielski, Michael; Nawrocky, Marta M; Coderre, Jeffrey A

2002-06-01

157

Effects of plasma collection systems and processing parameters on the quality of factor IX concentrate.  

PubMed

Using pilot-scale production of our present factor IX (II and X) concentrate, we have studied the effects of starting plasma source and processing parameter on two in-vitro indicators of product quality - yield and thrombogenic potential. Plasma source did not affect factor IX yield but had a marked effect on thrombogenic potential. Factor IX concentrates produced from plasma derived through centrifugation-based technology showed significantly higher thrombogenic potential than products derived from plasma derived through a filtration-based system. Removal of Cohn fraction I prior to ion-exchange chromatography resulted in a drop in factor IX yield and thrombogenic potential, as did heat treatment to 80 degrees C for 72 h. We conclude that a membrane-filtration-based plasmapheresis system may be the preferred method of plasma procurement for factor IX concentrate production. PMID:2800464

Farrugia, A; Spiers, D; Young, I; Oates, A; Herrington, R; Damianos, F

1989-01-01

158

Hamilton study: distribution of factors confounding the relationship between air quality and respiratory health  

SciTech Connect

Hamilton, Ontario is an industrial city with a population of 300,000 which is situated at the western end of Lake Ontario. Canada's two largest iron and steel mills are located here; the city historically has had relatively poor air quality, which has improved markedly in the last 25 years. Concern about the health effects of current air quality recently led us to carry out an epidemiological study of the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of over 3500 school children. Respiratory health was measured by pulmonary function testing of each child, and by an assessment of each child's respiratory symptoms via a questionnaire administered to the parents. Previous studies had shown that other environmental factors (e.g. parental smoking, parental cough, socioeconomic level, housing, and gas cooking) might also affect respiratory health, and thus confound any potential relationships between health and air pollution. The questionnaire also collected information on many of these confounding factors. For the purposes of initial analysis, the city was divided into five areas in which differences in air quality were expected. In general, factors which have been associated with poor respiratory health were observed to be more prevalent in areas of poorer air quality.

Pengelly, L.D.; Kerigan, A.T.; Goldsmith, C.H.; Inman, E.M.

1984-10-01

159

Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement.

Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Atwell, W.

1992-01-01

160

Dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor in SLS-1.  

PubMed

A tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) sensitive to the lineal energy range of 0.26-300 keV micrometer-1 was flown on STS-40 (39 degrees x 278 km x 296 km) inside the Spacelab. This instrument was previously flown on STS-31 but was modified to provide a finer resolution at lower lineal energies to better map the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) protons. The instrument was turned on 6 June 1991, and operated for 7470 min (124.5 h). The flight duration was characterized by a very large number of X-ray solar flares and enhanced magnetic field fluctuations; however, no significant dose from the solar particles was measured at the location of this instrument. The flight data can be separated into trapped and galactic cosmic radiation parts. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate and quality factor for trapped radiation were 4.21 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 7.72 +/- 0.05 mrem day-1, and 1.83 +/- 0.1, respectively. The dose rate, dose-equivalent rate, and quality factor for galactic cosmic radiation were 5.34 +/- 0.03 mrad day-1, 14.63 +/- 0.06 mrem day-1, and 2.74 +/- 0.1, respectively. The overall quality factor for the flight was 2.38. The dose from the GCR is higher than from SAA protons because of the high inclination and low altitude of this flight. The AP8MAX model of the trapped radiation gives a dose rate of 2.43 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 1.77. The CREME solar maximum model of galactic cosmic radiation gives a dose rate of 2.54 mrad day-1 and a quality factor of 2.91. Thus the AP8MAX model underestimates the dose by a factor of 1.8 whereas the CREME model leads to an underestimation of the dose by a factor of 2. A comparison of the LET spectra using the AP8MAX model and galactic cosmic radiation transport codes shows only a qualitative agreement. PMID:11537535

Badhwar, G D; Braby, L A; Cucinotta, F A; Atwell, W

1992-07-01

161

Potential problems with using sphere ratios to determine neutron albedo dosimetry correction factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personnel dosimetry intercomparison studies have been conducted annually at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1974. During these studies, neutron and gamma personnel dosimeters are mailed to ORNL, exposed to known, low-level (less than 15 mSv) dose equivalents in a variety of mixed-radiation fields produced with the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), and then returned to the participants for evaluation.

R. E. Swaja; S. H. Yeh

1987-01-01

162

Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.  

PubMed

The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause. PMID:24245487

Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

2013-11-27

163

Neutron radiography  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography is becoming a well established nondestructive testing (NDT) method. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) has recognized the method through its recommended practice SNT-TCIA which outlines training, knowledge, and experience necessary to obtain levels of competency in the method. Certification of nondestructive testing personnel is also covered in a military standard. Technical publications in the field of NDT and nuclear technology carry articles on neutron radiography and technical meetings include papers or even entire sessions on neutron radiography. There is an on-going series of international conferences on neutron radiography. Many books are available to provide introductory and advanced material on neutron radiographic techniques and applications. Neutron radiography as a service for hire is available, similar to that offered for other NDT services. The method is being adopted to solve NDT problems in specialty areas. The objective of this report is to provide a brief survey of the current state of the art in the use of neutron radiography. The survey will include information on the technique including principles of the method, sources of neutrons, detection methodology, standards and image quality indicators, and representative applications. An extensive reference list provides additional information for those who wish to investigate further and a Glossary is included which provides definitions for terms used in Neutron Radiography.

Berger, H.; Iddings, F.

1998-08-01

164

Optimizing the quality factor of a wideband guided-mode resonance biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work studies the effect of the biochemical molecular layer on the quality factor of guided-mode resonance (GMR) filter of an ultrasensitive label-free biosensor. A GMR biosensor with a narrower bandwidth has a higher sensitivity but requires much higher accuracy in its fabrication process. In this study, we have managed to present a GMR filter with a narrow bandwidth that requires less precision by controlling the thickness of the biochemical molecule layer, which increases the Q factor by up to three times.

Wang, Qi; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Zhenyun; Huang, Yuanshen

2014-08-01

165

A Network and Visual Quality Aware N-Screen Content Recommender System Using Joint Matrix Factorization  

PubMed Central

We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

2014-01-01

166

[Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].  

PubMed

By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity. PMID:23479881

Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

2012-12-01

167

A network and visual quality aware N-screen content recommender system using joint matrix factorization.  

PubMed

We propose a network and visual quality aware N-Screen content recommender system. N-Screen provides more ways than ever before to access multimedia content through multiple devices and heterogeneous access networks. The heterogeneity of devices and access networks present new questions of QoS (quality of service) in the realm of user experience with content. We propose, a recommender system that ensures a better visual quality on user's N-screen devices and the efficient utilization of available access network bandwidth with user preferences. The proposed system estimates the available bandwidth and visual quality on users N-Screen devices and integrates it with users preferences and contents genre information to personalize his N-Screen content. The objective is to recommend content that the user's N-Screen device and access network are capable of displaying and streaming with the user preferences that have not been supported in existing systems. Furthermore, we suggest a joint matrix factorization approach to jointly factorize the users rating matrix with the users N-Screen device similarity and program genres similarity. Finally, the experimental results show that we also enhance the prediction and recommendation accuracy, sparsity, and cold start issues. PMID:24982999

Ullah, Farman; Sarwar, Ghulam; Lee, Sungchang

2014-01-01

168

Factors affecting the quality of sound recording for speech and voice analysis.  

PubMed

The importance and utility of objective evidence-based measurement of the voice is well documented. Therefore, greater consideration needs to be given to the factors that influence the quality of voice and speech recordings. This manuscript aims to bring together the many features that affect acoustically acquired voice and speech. Specifically, the paper considers the practical requirements of individual speech acquisition configurations through examining issues relating to hardware, software and microphone selection, the impact of environmental noise, analogue to digital conversion and file format as well as the acoustic measures resulting from varying levels of signal integrity. The type of recording environment required by a user is often dictated by a variety of clinical and experimental needs, including: the acoustic measures being investigated; portability of equipment; an individual's budget; and the expertise of the user. As the quality of recorded signals is influenced by many factors, awareness of these issues is essential. This paper aims to highlight the importance of these methodological considerations to those previously uninitiated with voice and speech acoustics. With current technology, the highest quality recording would be made using a stand-alone hard disc recorder, an independent mixer to attenuate the incoming signal, and insulated wiring combined with a high quality microphone in an anechoic chamber or sound treated room. PMID:21271920

Vogel, Adam P; Morgan, Angela T

2009-01-01

169

Increased quality factor in superconducting microstrip resonators by selective removal of the gold contact layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of the unloaded quality factor of superconducting microstrip resonators at 77 K and 3.86 GHz. The resonators were made of 0.3 mum thick YBa2Cu3O7 films with a transition temperature of 90 K on both sides of ceria-buffered 3 inch sapphire wafers. In particular, we investigated the effect of a 0.3 mum thick gold contact layer on the

R. Schneider; A. G. Zaitsev; J. Geerk; G. Linker; F. Ratzel; R. Smithey

2002-01-01

170

Visual and non-visual factors associated with patient satisfaction and quality of life in LASIK  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe aim of this study was to determine how laser in situkeratomileusis (LASIK) affects quality of life (QOL) and to identify factors that may affect satisfaction after LASIK.MethodsA total of 104 patients with a mean age of 29±6, treated with LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, were enrolled in a prospective study. High (90%) and low (10%) contrast visual acuity (CVA)

P Lazon de la Jara; D Erickson; P Erickson; F Stapleton

2011-01-01

171

QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors.  

PubMed

Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn's disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32) and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001), patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001) and career fulfillment (P<0.001), patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010) and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002). A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001) and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025) and career fulfillment (P = 0.001). Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients. PMID:25296078

Magalhães, Joana; Castro, Francisca Dias de; Carvalho, Pedro Boal; Moreira, Maria João; Cotter, José

2014-09-01

172

Effects of weak noise on oscillating flows: Linking quality factor, Floquet modes, and Koopman spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many fluid flows, such as bluff body wakes, exhibit stable self-sustained oscillations for a wide range of parameters. Here we study the effect of weak noise on such flows. In the presence of noise, a flow with self-sustained oscillations is characterized not only by its period, but also by the quality factor. This measure gives an estimation of the number of oscillations over which periodicity is maintained. Using a recent theory [P. Gaspard, J. Stat. Phys. 106, 57 (2002)], we report on two observations. First, for weak noise the quality factor can be approximated using a linear Floquet analysis of the deterministic system; its size is inversely proportional to the inner-product between first direct and adjoint Floquet vectors. Second, the quality factor can readily be observed from the spectrum of evolution operators. This has consequences for Koopman/Dynamic mode decomposition analyses, which extract coherent structures associated with different frequencies from numerical or experimental flows. In particular, the presence of noise induces a damping on the eigenvalues, which increases quadratically with the frequency and linearly with the noise amplitude.

Bagheri, Shervin

2014-09-01

173

A factor analysis of the SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale)  

PubMed Central

Objective The speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) is a self-report test of auditory disability. The 49 items ask how well a listener would do in many complex listening situations illustrative of real life. The scores on the items are often combined into the three main sections or into 10 pragmatic subscales. We report here a factor analysis of the SSQ that we conducted to further investigate its statistical properties and to determine its structure. Design Statistical factor analysis of questionnaire data, using parallel analysis to determine the number of factors to retain, oblique rotation of factors, and a bootstrap method to estimate the confidence intervals. Study sample 1220 people who have attended MRC IHR over the last decade. Results We found three clear factors, essentially corresponding to the three main sections of the SSQ. They are termed “speech understanding”, “spatial perception”, and “clarity, separation, and identification”. Thirty-five of the SSQ questions were included in the three factors. There was partial evidence for a fourth factor, “effort and concentration”, representing two more questions. Conclusions These results aid in the interpretation and application of the SSQ and indicate potential methods for generating average scores. PMID:24417459

2014-01-01

174

The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²  

E-print Network

The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with ...

Plaster, Bradley R. (Bradley Robert), 1976-

2004-01-01

175

Factors associated with resilience, quality of life and self-esteem: Adolescents who have experienced multiple neurosurgeries and chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine adolescent factors, illness-related factors, and social support factors associated with resilience (positive perception of self-esteem and quality of life) in adolescents who have experienced multiple neurosurgeries and chronic pain. This study also examined the relationship between an adolescent's perception of coping styles and quality of life and his\\/her mother's perceptions

Hitomi Kobayashi

2007-01-01

176

Factors associated with quality of life among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0-100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m(2)) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1 ± 19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0 ± 8.6 and 39.6 ± 8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life. PMID:24358336

Md Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

2013-01-01

177

The H-factor as a novel quality metric for homology modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Drug discovery typically starts with the identification of a potential target that is then tested and validated either through high-throughput screening against a library of drug compounds or by rational drug design. When the putative target is a protein, the latter approach requires the knowledge of its structure. Finding the structure of a protein is however a difficult task. Significant progress has come from high-resolution techniques such as X-ray crystallography and NMR; there are many proteins however whose structure have not yet been solved. Computational techniques for structure prediction are viable alternatives to experimental techniques for these cases. However, the proper validation of the structural models they generate remains an issue. Findings In this report, we focus on homology modeling techniques and introduce the H-factor, a new indicator for assessing the quality of protein structure models generated with these techniques. The H-factor is meant to mimic the R-factor used in X-ray crystallography. The method for computing the H-factor is fully described with a demonstration of its effectiveness on a test set of target proteins. Conclusions We have developed a web service for computing the H-factor for models of a protein structure. This service is freely accessible at http://koehllab.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/toolkit/h-factor. PMID:23121764

2012-01-01

178

Associated Factors of Sleep Quality and Behavior among Students of Two Tertiary Institutions in Northern Malaysia.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the associated factors of sleep quality and behavior among Malaysian tertiary students. The response rate to the questionnaire study was 41.0%. 1,118 students (M = 486, F = 632; mean age = 20.06 ± 1.53 years) were recruited from Universiti and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman (Perak campuses) who completed a sleep quality and behavior questionnaire based on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale (MES) and craving of high-calorie foods. Results showed that students had the following sleeping habits - bed time = 2.41 a.m. ± 3.35 hr, rise time = 9.00 a.m. ± 1.76 hr, sleep latency = 16.65 ± 14.30 min and sleep duration = 7.31 ± 1.45 hr. 32.9% of the students were defined as poor quality sleepers, 30.6% suffering excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 81.6% were categorized as individuals with 'definitely eveningness', defined as people who are definitely most alert in the late evening hours and prefer to go to bed late. There were no significant gender differences in sleep quality, 'chronotype' and EDS. Although there was no association of sleep quality and EDS with cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and class skipping, EDS was associated with the tendency to fall asleep in class. Body Mass Index (BMI) was not associated with total sleep, PSQI, ESS and MES scores. Meanwhile, high-calorie food craving was associated with sleep duration, PSQI and ESS, but not MES. In conclusion, poor sleep behavior among Malaysian tertiary students in this study was not associated with gender, academic performance and BMI, but was associated with craving of high-calorie foods instead. PMID:23749006

Lai, P P; Say, Y H

2013-06-01

179

Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. Results The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life. PMID:24766910

2014-01-01

180

Management of thermal peaking factors in CONFU-B PWR assemblies using neutron poisons and tailored enrichment  

SciTech Connect

CONFU-B assemblies are PWR assemblies containing standard Uranium fuel rods and TRU bearing inert material fuel rods and are designed to achieve net TRU destruction over a 4.5-year irradiation. These highly heterogeneous assemblies tend to exhibit large intra-assembly power peaking factors (IAPPF). Neutronic strategies to reduce IAPPF are developed. The IAPPF are calculated at the assembly level using CASMO4, and these are used to calculate the most restrictive thermal margin (the Minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio, MDNBR) using a whole-core VIPRE-01 model. This paper examines two strategies to manage the thermal margin of a CONFU-B assembly while retaining the TRU destruction performance: use of neutron poisons and tailored enrichment schemes. Burnable poisons can be used to suppress BOL reactivity of fresh CONFU-B assemblies with only minor impact on MDNBR and TRU destruction performance. Tailored enrichment, along with the use of soluble boron, can achieve significant improvements in MDNBR, but at some cost to TRU destruction performance. (authors)

Visosky, M.; Hejzlar, P.; Kazimi, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2006-07-01

181

Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations  

SciTech Connect

Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

Fry, R.J.M.

1985-01-01

182

Association between Lifestyle Factors and Quality-Adjusted Life Years in the EPIC-NL Cohort  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20–70 years at baseline (1993–7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

Fransen, Heidi P.; May, Anne M.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Struijk, Ellen A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.

2014-01-01

183

Association between Lifestyle Factors and Quality-Adjusted Life Years in the EPIC-NL Cohort.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to relate four modifiable lifestyle factors (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet) to health expectancy, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in a prospective cohort study. Data of the prospective EPIC-NL study were used, including 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-7), followed until 31-12-2007 for occurrence of disease and death. Smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a healthy lifestyle score, ranging from 0 to 4. QALYs were used as summary measure of healthy life expectancy, combining a person's life expectancy with a weight for quality of life when having a chronic disease. For lifestyle factors analyzed separately the number of years living longer in good health varied from 0.12 year to 0.84 year, after adjusting for covariates. A combination of the four lifestyle factors was positively associated with higher QALYs (P-trend <0.0001). A healthy lifestyle score of 4 compared to a score of 0 was associated with almost a 2 years longer life in good health (1.75 QALYs [95% CI 1.37, 2.14]). PMID:25369457

Fransen, Heidi P; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Struijk, Ellen A; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

2014-01-01

184

Studies on kinetics of water quality factors to establish water transparency model in Neijiang River, China.  

PubMed

The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency. PMID:24813007

Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling

2014-05-01

185

Supercool Neutrons (Ultracold Neutrons)  

E-print Network

source of ultracold neutrons #12; What are neutrons? Neutrons are a basic constituent of matter.ill.fr Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, www.sns.gov ReactorAccelerator #12; Temperature to make them useful (I'll show you why in a moment). #12; How we cool neutrons Step One: Cold Neutrons

Martin, Jeff

186

Quality factors for the nano-mechanical tubes with thermoelastic damping and initial stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quality factors (Q-factor) are defined as the ratio of the kinetic and potential energy to dissipation for various damping mechanisms of structures. Therefore, improvement in the Q-factors is an important issue in micro- and nano-resonator applications for the high performance. Also, it is well known that the thermoelastic damping is more crucial than the other damping factors in a device. Thus, the vibration of nano-mechanical circular tube is investigated with thermoelastic damping and initial stress effects in this work. To simplify the shell equations for the transverse displacement-dominated problems, the Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov (DMV) approach is adopted. Applying the stress function, the equations of motion for deflection, compatibility equation and heat conduction equation are derived. Using an iterative scheme, the natural frequencies and the Q-factors under the initial stress are obtained, and the influences of the dimensions of the shell, the mode numbers and initial stress are discussed in detail.

Kim, Sun-Bae; Kim, Ji-Hwan

2011-03-01

187

Neutron electric form factor up to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 GeV/c{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G{sub En}/G{sub Mn} , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic {sup 2}H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q{sup 2} = 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; S. Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; E Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; G. Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; J. W. Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-07-15

188

Review of Radition Quality Factors and Corrections to Dosimetry Data on the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organ dose equivalents are precisely defined in terms of linear energy transfer (LET) spectra and the LET -dependent quality factor (Q). We discuss available methods for the determination of organ doses and Q's in low earth orbit including approaches to correct measurements performed on the International Space Station (ISS). For determining astronaut-specific organ doses all dosimetry data have limitations. Besides the differences due to the absence of the body-self shielding, other important corrections occur for each devise used on the ISS. Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC's) have corrections due to the so - called wall effect and by the use of linear energy (y) as a surrogate for LET. Limitations in silicon detectors include those related to the finite energy - grid of the detector and the differences in nuclear secondaries produced in silicon in comparison to tissue. To understand variation in tissue specific dose, data from the Phantom Torso Experiment on ISS are considered. In contrast the use of biodosimetry includes the self-shielding and exact exposure history of the astronaut; however the LET response for chromosomal aberrations is distinct from the functional dependence of the quality factor on LET. Here we show that each approach can be corrected using theoretical models to reach a most likely value of the average quality factor for each mission. Values of Q are found to be dependent on tissue type and range from 1.4-1.6 and 3.0-4.0 for the trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays, respectively with the overall average dependent on the ISS altitude and the position in the solar cycle. Results for ISS Increments 1-4 are discussed.

Cucinotta, F.; Wu, H.; Shavers, M.; George, K.

189

Micromachined Fabry-Perot resonator combining submillimeter cavity length and high quality factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate experimentally optical quality factor of nearly 9000 in a micromachined Fabry-Pérot resonator based on free space propagation of light and direct coupling to optical fibers. This result is obtained on long cavity resonators (L >250 ?m), a usually difficult case in terms of power loss, but very useful configuration for experiments requiring either long optical path or enough space for manipulation. The resonator architecture includes two multilayered silicon-air Bragg mirrors of cylindrical shape, combined with a fiber rod lens. The specific stability criteria are derived for the proposed resonator architecture. Dimensions of the fabricated devices are chosen accordingly.

Malak, M.; Pavy, N.; Marty, F.; Peter, Y.-A.; Liu, A. Q.; Bourouina, T.

2011-05-01

190

Health-related quality of life in young cocaine users and associated factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  To analyse drug consumption patterns and demographic and medical factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL)\\u000a in a nonclinical sample of regular cocaine consumers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Face-to-face interviews with 687 young regular cocaine users (aged 18–30 years) in three Spanish cities: Barcelona, Madrid\\u000a and Seville. HRQL was measured using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and degree of dependence through the Severity of

O. M. Lozano; A. Domingo-Salvany; M. Martinez-Alonso; M. T. Brugal; J. Alonso; L. de la Fuente

2008-01-01

191

Large quality factor in sheet metamaterials made from dark dielectric meta-atoms  

E-print Network

Metamaterials-or artificial electromagnetic materials-can create media with properties unattainable in nature, but mitigating dissipation is a key challenge for their further development. Here, we demonstrate a low-loss metamaterial by exploiting dark bound states in dielectric inclusions coupled to the external waves by small nonresonant metallic antennas. We experimentally demonstrate a dispersion-engineered metamaterial based on a meta-atom made from alumina, and we show that its resonance has a much larger quality factor than metal-based meta-atoms. Finally, we show that our dielectric meta-atom can be used to create sheet metamaterials with negative permittivity or permeability.

Jain, Aditya; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

2014-01-01

192

Factors influencing the quality of life of Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to investigate the factors influencing the quality of life, assessed by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL4) Generic Score Scales, in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and June 2012, covering children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) seen at the consultations of El Ayachi Hospital and Children's Hospital of the University Hospital of Rabat. Quality of life is assessed by the PedsQL4 which is a questionnaire composed of 23 items, completed by the child and the parent; the response to each item ranges from 0 to 100, so that higher scores indicate a better quality of life. The functional impact is assessed by the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), and the disease activity by the number of tender and swollen joints, visual analogue scale (VAS) activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein. Forty-seven patients are included; the average age of the patients is 11?±?3.35 years, and 40.4 % are females, with a median disease duration of 4 (2; 6) years. The oligoarticular form presents 26.7 %, the systemic form 24.4 %, and the enthesic form 22.2 %. The median of PedsQL4 is 80.43 (63.19; 92.93), and the median of the CHAQ is 0 (0; 1). Our study shows that some clinical and biological characteristics have significant effects on PedsQL by both parent and child reports. This study suggests that the achievement of the quality of life of our patients with JIA depends on the disease activity measured by swollen joints, the number of awakenings, parent VAS, physician VAS, patient VAS, and the ESR. PMID:24445385

Ezzahri, M; Amine, B; Rostom, S; Badri, D; Mawani, N; Gueddari, S; Shyen, S; Wabi, M; Moussa, F; Abouqal, R; Chkirate, B; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

2014-11-01

193

An optical nanocavity incorporating a fluorescent organic dye having a high quality factor.  

PubMed

We have fabricated an L3 optical nanocavity operating at visible wavelengths that is coated with a thin-film of a fluorescent molecular-dye. The cavity was directly fabricated into a pre-etched, free-standing silicon-nitride (SiN) membrane and had a quality factor of Q = 2650. This relatively high Q-factor approaches the theoretical limit that can be expected from an L3 nanocavity using silicon nitride as a dielectric material and is achieved as a result of the solvent-free cavity-fabrication protocol that we have developed. We show that the fluorescence from a red-emitting fluorescent dye coated onto the cavity surface undergoes strong emission intensity enhancement at a series of discrete wavelengths corresponding to the cavity modes. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations are used to predict the mode structure of the cavities with excellent agreement demonstrated between theory and experiment. PMID:20499907

Adawi, Ali M; Murshidy, Mohamed M; Fry, Paul W; Lidzey, David G

2010-06-22

194

The Effect of Landuse and Other External Factors on Water Quality Within two Creeks in Northern Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to monitor the water quality in two creeks in Northern Kentucky. These are the Banklick Creek in Kenton County and the Woolper Creek in Boone County, Kentucky. The objective was to evaluate the effect of landuse and other external factors on surface water quality. Landuse within the Banklick watershed is industrial, forest and residential

S. Boateng

2006-01-01

195

A Friend in Need: The Role of Friendship Quality as a Protective Factor in Peer Victimization and Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined friendship quality as a possible moderator of risk factors in predicting peer victimization and bullying. Children (50 boys and 49 girls, ages 10 to 13 years) reported on the quality of their best friendship, as well as their bullying and victimization tendencies. Parents reported on their childs internalizing and externalizing…

Bollmer, Julie M.; Milich, Richard; Harris, Monica J.; Maras, Melissa A.

2005-01-01

196

Factors affecting adherence to a quality improvement checklist on an inpatient hepatology service  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing emphasis on measuring quality indicators such as adherence to practice guidelines, we sought to determine the factors and address the barriers affecting guideline adherence on an academic inpatient hepatology service. We performed a single-center, prospective observational study. Physicians were given a handheld checklist to complete daily. We first measured the adherence rate and studied factors affecting adherence by performing surveys. We then modified the program to address the factors affecting adherence and reassessed the adherence rate. There was a baseline 46% checklist adherence rate. Reasons given for nonadherence fell into two categories: ease of task and physician commitment from both attending physicians and housestaff. Specific reasons given were that the attending did not prompt (39%), the adherence sheet was not in the chart (35%), the individual forgot (12%), as well as lack of time, unclear protocol, “too difficult,” and “didn—t pay attention” (4% each). Each of these factors was addressed with a multimodal approach. Thereafter, the adherence rate rose from 46% to 83% (P < 0.001). Maintaining checklist adherence is time intensive and requires commitment from the whole medical team. PMID:24688186

Lai, Michelle

2014-01-01

197

Single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators with quality factors exceeding one million  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond has gained a reputation as a uniquely versatile material, yet one that is intricate to grow and process. Resonating nanostructures made of single-crystal diamond are expected to possess excellent mechanical properties, including high-quality factors and low dissipation. Here we demonstrate batch fabrication and mechanical measurements of single-crystal diamond cantilevers with thickness down to 85?nm, thickness uniformity better than 20?nm and lateral dimensions up to 240??m. Quality factors exceeding one million are found at room temperature, surpassing those of state-of-the-art single-crystal silicon cantilevers of similar dimensions by roughly an order of magnitude. The corresponding thermal force noise for the best cantilevers is ~5·10-19?N?Hz-1/2 at millikelvin temperatures. Single-crystal diamond could thus directly improve existing force and mass sensors by a simple substitution of resonator material. Presented methods are easily adapted for fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems, optomechanical resonators or nanophotonic devices that may lead to new applications in classical and quantum science.

Tao, Y.; Boss, J. M.; Moores, B. A.; Degen, C. L.

2014-04-01

198

Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor GMn [G superscript n subscript M] in the Few-GeV2 [V superscript 2] region  

E-print Network

The neutron elastic magnetic form factor was extracted from quasielastic electron scattering on deuterium over the range Q2=1.0–4.8 [Q superscript 2 = 1.0-4.8] ??GeV2 [Ge V superscript 2] with the CLAS detector at Jefferson ...

Rowntree, D.

199

A measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor Gn?M? form quasi-elastic ²[right arrow]H ([right arrow]e, e') at low Q²  

E-print Network

The neutron magnetic form factor GnM has been measured using the inclusive electro-disintegration 2H(e, e') of the deuteron for the first time. The longitudinally polarized electron beam of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator ...

Meitanis, Nikolas (Nikolas C.)

2006-01-01

200

Health-Related Quality of Life and its Predictive Factors among Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its predictive factors among infertile women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on infertile women referring to Majidi Infertility Center (Tabriz, Iran). The data was collected through self-administered questionnaires including clinical and demographic characteristics and the Persian version of 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). One-sample t-test, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Overall, 1012 infertile women were studied. The quality of life scores of infertile women in all eight subscales were significantly lower than normative data for Iranian women. Low physical component summary was more frequent in younger [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.45; 95% CI: 1.07-1.96], less educated (AOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.27-2.41), and low income (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.06-2.16) participants. It was less frequent in individuals whose infertility duration was 3-9 years (AOR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86), had male (AOR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43-0.78) or female and male factors infertility (AOR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30-0.78), or had a history of 1-2 in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Low mental component summary was associated with low income (AOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.11-2.18) and unexplained cause of infertility (AOR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32-0.56). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated low quality of life among infertile women. The findings suggested the need for providing this group, especially those at higher risk such as low educated or low income females, with necessary support.

Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Sekineh; Kamalifard, Mahin; Mahzad Sedaghiani, Mehrzad; Montazeri, Ali; Dehghanpour Mohammadian, Elham

2012-01-01

201

An Epidemiological Study on Trigger Factors and Quality of Life in Psoriatic Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: to evaluate the role of stress, tobacco, drugs, infections, allergies, heredity, alcohol, hormones and skin aggressions as trigger factors and the impact on quality of life in a sample of psoriasis patients. Methods: a transversal study performed in 90 patients affected by psoriasis between January and November 2012 at the “Nene Tereza” University Hospital, Tirane, Albania, based on two scored questionnaires. Results: more than 70 % of patients reported that stressful events caused a flare- up of their psoriasis (p< 0.05). More than 60% of males and 20% of females were smokers (p< 0.05). About 20% of our patients were taking one or more of the medications listed in the questionnaire (p> 0.05). About 20% of patients reported having had recurrent infections (p<0,05). About 80% of males patients consumed alcohol (p<0,05). More than 40% reported a relative with psoriasis. Statistical comparison of the group that reported skin aggressions with the group that did not revealed a significant difference (p<0,05). Only a few of them reported to have allergies (p>0,05). About 36% of females reported that hormonal changes (puberty and menopause) exacerbated their psoriasis (p<0,05). More than 40% of patients reported that psoriasis seriously affects their quality of life. Conclusion: stress, tobacco, infections, heredity, alcohol, hormonal changes and skin aggressions were confirmed as trigger factors for psoriasis in the present sample. Allergies and the investigated drugs seemed not to have any influence in flare-ups. We found that psoriasis had a serious impact in the quality of life in over of 40% of the patients interviewed. PMID:25126009

Xhaja, Alert; Shkodrani, Entela; Frangaj, Silvan; Kuneshka, Loreta; Vasili, Ermira

2014-01-01

202

Perceived quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder: related factors  

PubMed Central

Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects young adults and has great impact on the social, emotional and work spheres. Methods We measured perceived quality of life (QOL) in OCD patients, in order to analyse socio-demographic and clinical factors that may be associated with QOL perception. 64 OCD outpatients were assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV, the Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton's depression scale and the SF-36 self-administered global QOL perception scale. Results We found a correlation among Hamilton's scale scores and all SF-36 subscales. The severity of the obsessive-compulsive disorder was correlated with all SF-36 subscales and with the highest scores in Hamilton's scale. The obsessions subscale was correlated to all SF-36 subscales, while the compulsions subscale was correlated only to social functioning, emotional role, mental health and vitality. Compulsions were not related to general health perception. There were significant differences between OCD patients and the Spanish general population in all SF-36 subscales except those related to physical health and pain. Gender, age, age of onset of the disorder, years of evolution and marital status of the patients did not significantly affect quality of life perception. Being employed was related to better scores in the subscale of physical role. Patients with medical comorbidity scored lower in the subscales of general health, social functioning and mental health. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders had worse scores in the subscales of pain, general health, social functioning and mental health. Conclusion Quality of life perception was different in OCD patients and the general population. Quality of life perception was related to severity of the disorder, physical and psychiatric comorbidity and employment status. PMID:16684346

Rodriguez-Salgado, Beatriz; Dolengevich-Segal, Helen; Arrojo-Romero, Manuel; Castelli-Candia, Paola; Navio-Acosta, Mercedes; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria M; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

2006-01-01

203

Neutron multipilication factors as a function of temperature: a comparison of calculated and measured values for lattices using ²³³UOâ-ThOâ fuel in graphite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron multiplication factors calculated as a function of temperature for three graphite-moderated ²³³UOâ-ThOâ-fueled lattices are correlated with the values measured for these lattices in the high-temperature lattice test reactor (HTLTR). The correlation analysis is accomplished by fitting calculated values of k\\/sub infinity\\/(T) to the measured values using two least-squares-fitted correlation coefficients: (a) a normalization factor and (b) a temperature coefficient

D. F. Newman; B. F. Gore

1978-01-01

204

Effect of Poor Sleep Quality and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness on Factors Associated with Diabetes Self-Management  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of impaired sleep quality and daytime sleepiness on self-reported diabetes control and psychological and social factors that impact diabetes self-management. Methods Participants were 107 adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with self-reported daytime sleepiness. Subjective sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global score and its 3 factors of Perceived Sleep Quality, Sleep Efficiency, and Daily Disturbances. The Diabetes Care Profile (DCP) scales (Control Problems, Social and Personal Factors, Positive Attitude, Negative Attitude, Self-Care Adherence, and Diet Adherence) were used to measure difficulty in maintaining glycemic control and factors important for diabetes control. Results Poor sleep quality was associated with significantly worse scores on the DCP scales, with lower diabetes control, negative attitude, decreased positive attitude, lower self-care adherence, and decreased adherence to dietary adherence. Hierarchal linear regression modeling revealed no significant associations between diabetes control problems and age, education, gender and daytime sleepiness. Being married or partnered significantly decreased glycemic control problems, while poor sleep quality increased diabetes control problems. Further examination of PSQI factors (perceived sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and daily disturbances) found being married or partnered significantly decreased diabetes control problems while of the 3 factors of the PSQI, only the Daily Disturbances factor was significantly associated with increased diabetes control problems. Conclusion Impaired sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are associated with decreased diabetes self-management in adults with T2DM. PMID:23192600

Chasens, Eileen R.; Korytkowski, Mary; Sereika, Susan M.; Burke, Lora E.

2013-01-01

205

The influence of different technique factors on image quality of chest radiographs as evaluated by modified CEC image quality criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) research project ''Predictivity and optimisation in medical radiation protection'' addressed fundamental operational limitations in existing radiation protection mechanisms. The first part of the project aimed at investigating (1) whether the CEC image quality criteria could be used for optimization of a radiographic process and (2) whether significant differences in image quality based on

B LANHEDE; MB ATH; S KHEDDACHE; P SUND; L BJORNELD; M WIDELL; A ALMEN; J BESJAKOV; S MATTSSON; A TINGBERG; W PANZER; M ZANKL

206

Factors Associated With Quality Of Life In Women Undergoing Surgery For Stress Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the association of clinicodemographic factors with urinary incontinence (UI) related quality of life (QoL) in women having surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to compare the incontinence-specific IIQ (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire) and the ICIQ (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire). Secondary objectives evaluated the contributions of incontinence severity and sexual function to QoL. Materials and Methods Baseline data from 597 women in the Trial of Mid Urethral Slings (TOMUS). Correlates of QoL tested included health status and history, type, severity and bother of UI, and sexual function. Results Lower QoL by both the IIQ and ICIQ included younger age, higher BMI, more SUI symptoms, and more severe and bothersome UI symptoms. Each measure identified factors associated with lower QoL not identified by the other (IIQ; Hispanic ethnicity, poor health status and more urge UI symptoms, and ICIQ; prior UI treatment and more UI episodes per day). Sexually active women had similar QoL but also increased incontinence episodes (IIQ and ICIQ) and more sexual dysfunction (IIQ only). Conclusion In women planning SUI surgery, QoL is associated with non-UI factors as well as with the type, severity and degree of bother from UI symptoms. Many factors are associated with QoL as measured by both IIQ and ICIQ. However more non-UI factors were associated with QoL when measured by the IIQ than by the ICIQ. More than one scale may be needed to evaluate QoL after SUI treatment. PMID:20952014

Sirls, Larry T.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Albo, Mike; Chai, Toby; Kenton, Kim; Huang, Liyuan; Stoddard, Anne M; Arisco, Amy; Gormley, E. Ann

2014-01-01

207

Spin Assignments, Mixing Ratios, and g-FACTORS in Neutron Rich 252Cf Fission Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new technique for measuring angular correlations between ?-rays emitted by the fragments from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and measured with Gammasphere. For states with short lifetimes (?10ps), these correlations can be used to determine the spin and parity of unknown levels. For states with long lifetimes, the technique can be used to determine the g-factor of the level in question by measuring the attenuation of the correlation caused by rotation of the nucleus about the randomly oriented domains in an un-magnetized iron foil. Applying our new method to our set of triple coincidence data, we have been able to assign spins to new levels in 108,110,112Ru. Mixing ratio and g-factor measurements are also discussed.

Goodin, C.; Daniel, A. V.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stone, N. J.; Stone, J. R.; Rasmussen, J. O.

2008-08-01

208

[Analysis on the key water quality factors to phytoplankton community in Wujingang Region of Taihu Lake].  

PubMed

Field investigations on the phytoplankton community were carried out in July 2009 and January 2010 in Wujingang Region of Taihu Lake (WRTL). Results show that there are 46 genus, 24 families and 6 phylum phytoplankton were identified in wet season, which is mainly composed of the Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta, the average phytoplankton abundance of this season is 14. 8 x 10(6) cell/L. There are 29 genus, 18 families and 5 phylum phytoplankton were found in level season, and Diatoms were the dominant category, the average phytoplankton abundance of the season is 3 113 cell/L. It shows that a remarkable discrepancy in community and density between the two seasons. The principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to assess the phytoplankton community structure with regard to 8 aquatic environmental factors and their spatial distribution, which result on the key aquatic environmental quality factors show that NH4(+) -N and TN were the most extraordinary pollution factors which affect the phytoplankton community and WRTL was in extrophication level. PMID:21922813

Su, Yu; Wen, Hang; Wang, Dong-Wei; Sun, Jin-Hua; Huang, Yi

2011-07-01

209

Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 2, Field neutron spectrometer for health physics applications  

SciTech Connect

Both the (ICRP) and the (NCPR) have recommended an increase in neutron quality factors and the adoption of effective dose equivalent methods. The series of reports entitled Personnel Neutron Dose Assessment Upgrade (PNL-6620) addresses these changes. Volume 1 in this series of reports (Personnel Neutron Dosimetry Assessment) provided guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration of personnel neutron dosimeters in order to meet the new recommendations. This report, Volume 2: Field Neutron Spectrometer for Health Physics Applications describes the development of a portable field spectrometer which can be set up for use in a few minutes by a single person. The field spectrometer described herein represents a significant advance in improving the accuracy of neutron dose assessment. It permits an immediate analysis of the energy spectral distribution associated with the radiation from which neutron quality factor can be determined. It is now possible to depart from the use of maximum Q by determining and realistically applying a lower Q based on spectral data. The field spectrometer is made up of two modules: a detector module with built-in electronics and an analysis module with a IBM PC/reg sign/-compatible computer to control the data acquisition and analysis of data in the field. The unit is simple enough to allow the operator to perform spectral measurements with minimal training. The instrument is intended for use in steady-state radiation fields with neutrons energies covering the fission spectrum range. The prototype field spectrometer has been field tested in plutonium processing facilities, and has been proven to operate satisfactorily. The prototype field spectrometer uses a /sup 3/He proportional counter to measure the neutron energy spectrum between 50 keV and 5 MeV and a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) to measure absorbed neutron dose.

Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; Durham, J.S.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Tomeraasen, P.L.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

1988-07-01

210

Measurement of the neutron electric form factor G[sub E][sup n] in D-vector(e-vector,e[sup [prime  

SciTech Connect

We have determined the electric form factor of the neutron G{sup n}/{sub E} from the reaction D(e, e'n)p using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a polarized deuterium target at Jefferson Lab's Hall C. The knocked out neutron was detected in coincidence with the electron in a shielded neutron detector. The beam-target asymmetry of quasi-elastically scattered electrons was measured for opposite orientations of the beam helicity which allowed the extraction of G{sup n}/{sub E}. This method is insensitive to the deuteron structure and avoids longitudinal/transverse Rosenbluth separation, both potential sources of large systematic errors. We present the results of a preliminary analysis for G{sup n}/{sub E} at Q{sup 2} = 0.5(GeV/c){sup 2}.

Marko Zeier

2000-12-12

211

SWET for secure water suppression on probes with high quality factor.  

PubMed

Water suppression by selective preirradiation is increasingly difficult to achieve on probeheads with high quality factor because of the opposing forces of radiation damping. Here we show that a simple modification to the WET scheme provides reliable water suppression in aqueous solutions of proteins and peptides with minimal saturation of the H(alpha) protons. The scheme is shown to work also with dilute peptide solutions. It is recommended to maintain the water suppression during the evolution time of COSY experiments by weak selective irradiation that causes only minimal Bloch-Siegert shifts. The new water-suppression scheme suppresses the water magnetization by spatial scrambling. Traditional water suppression by preirradiation is similarly based more on water scrambling due to the radiofrequency inhomogeneity than on relaxation effects. PMID:16132824

Wu, Peter S C; Otting, Gottfried

2005-07-01

212

Free-standing high quality factor thin-film lithium niobate micro-photonic disk resonators  

E-print Network

Lithium Niobate (LN or just niobate) thin-film micro-photonic resonators have promising prospects in many applications including high efficiency electro-optic modulators, optomechanics and nonlinear optics. This paper presents free-standing thin-film lithium niobate photonic resonators on a silicon platform using MEMS fabrication technology. We fabricated a 35um radius niobate disk resonator that exhibits high intrinsic optical quality factor (Q) of 484,000. Exploiting the optomechanical interaction from the released free-standing structure and high optical Q, we were able to demonstrate acousto-optic modulation from these devices by exciting a 56MHz radial breathing mechanical mode (mechanical Q of 2700) using a probe.

Wang, Renyuan

2014-01-01

213

Factors affecting handling qualities of a lift-fan aircraft during steep terminal area approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-5B lift-fan aircraft was used to explore the factors affecting handling qualities in the terminal area. A 10 deg ILS approach task was selected to explore these problems. Interception of the glide slope at 457.2 m, glide slope tracking, deceleration along the glide slope to a spot hover were considered. Variations in airplane deck angle, deceleration schedule, and powered-lift management were studied. The overall descent performance envelope was identified on the basis of fan stall, maximum comfortable descent rate, and controllability restrictions. The collective-lift stick provided precise glide slope tracking capability. The pilot preferred a deck-parallel attitude for which he used powered lift to control glide slope and pitch attitude to keep the angle of attack near zero. Workload was reduced when the deceleration schedule was delayed until the aircraft was well established on the glide slope, since thrust vector changes induced flight path disturbances.

Gerdes, R. M.; Hynes, C. S.

1975-01-01

214

Quality Factor Effect on the Wireless Range of Microstrip Patch Antenna Strain Sensors  

PubMed Central

Recently introduced passive wireless strain sensors based on microstrip patch antennas have shown great potential for reliable health and usage monitoring in aerospace and civil industries. However, the wireless interrogation range of these sensors is limited to few centimeters, which restricts their practical application. This paper presents an investigation on the effect of circular microstrip patch antenna (CMPA) design on the quality factor and the maximum practical wireless reading range of the sensor. The results reveal that by using appropriate substrate materials the interrogation distance of the CMPA sensor can be increased four-fold, from the previously reported 5 to 20 cm, thus improving considerably the viability of this type of wireless sensors for strain measurement and damage detection. PMID:24451457

Daliri, Ali; Galehdar, Amir; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; John, Sabu; Wang, Chun H.; Ghorbani, Kamran

2014-01-01

215

Economic Factors and Relationship Quality Among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage  

PubMed Central

Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 (NLSY97, N = 2,841) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health, N = 1,702). We found that economic factors are an important predictor of conflict for both married and cohabiting couples. Affection was particularly responsive to human capital rather than short-term economic indicators. Economic hardship was associated with more conflict among married and cohabiting couples. PMID:21691414

Hardie, Jessica Halliday

2011-01-01

216

Factors influencing quality of life in Chinese patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional survey aimed to explore quality of life (QoL) and its correlated factors in Chinese patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder (PSPD) and their related correlation factors in Shanghai, China. A total of 60 patients were assessed with Short Form (36) health survey (SF-36) for QoL, medical outcomes study pain measurement (MOSPM) for pain symptoms, Hamilton depression scale - 17 items (HAMD) for depression and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) for anxiety. Results were as follows: (1) Patients scored significantly lower on all SF-36 subscales' scores (?p?factor scores of MOSPM, and total scores of HAMD and HAMA; (3) PSPD patients with severe depression had significantly lower scores (p?factors influencing PCS and MCS. PMID:24428222

Luo, Yan-Li; Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Anisha; Huang, Xiao; Ye, Gang; Wu, Heng; Sun, Lin; Liu, Liang; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Lu, Zheng; Li, Chun-Bo; Zhang, Ming-Yuan

2014-12-01

217

Factors influencing trust in doctors: a community segmentation strategy for quality improvement in healthcare  

PubMed Central

Background Trust is a forward-looking covenant between the patient and the doctor where the patient optimistically accepts his/her vulnerability. Trust is known to improve the clinical outcomes. Objectives To explore the factors that determine patients’ trust in doctors and to segment the community based on factors which drive their trust. Setting Resource-poor urban and rural settings in Tamil Nadu, a state in southern India. Participants A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 625 adult community-dwelling respondents from four districts of Tamil Nadu, India, chosen by multistage sampling strategy. Outcome measures The outcomes were to understand the main domains of factors influencing trust in doctors and to segment the community based on which of these domains predominantly influenced their trust. Results Factor analysis revealed five main categories, namely, comfort with the doctor, doctor with personal involvement with the patient, behaviourally competent doctor, doctor with a simple appearance and culturally competent doctor, which explained 49.3% of the total variance. Using k-means cluster analysis the respondents were segmented into four groups, namely, those who have ‘comfort-based trust’, ‘emotionally assessed trust’, who were predominantly older and belonging to lower socioeconomic status, those who had ‘personal trust’, who were younger people from higher socioeconomic strata of the community and the group who had ‘objectively assessed trust’, who were younger women. Conclusions Trust in doctors seems to be influenced by the doctor's behaviuor, perceived comfort levels, personal involvement with the patient, and to a lesser extent by cultural competence and doctor's physical appearance. On the basis of these dimensions, the community can be segmented into distinct groups, and trust building can happen in a strategic manner which may lead to improvement in perceived quality of care. PMID:24302512

Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Chetlapalli, Satish Kumar

2013-01-01

218

Factor structure of the Singapore English version of the KINDL® children quality of life questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QoL) outcomes are useful in the assessment of physical, mental and social well-being and for informed healthcare decision making. However, few studies have evaluated QoL issues among Asian children due largely to the lack of culturally valid and reliable QoL questionnaires. Hence, we aimed to report the psychometric properties, in particular factor structure, of KINDL (Singapore) questionnaires among school-going children. Methods Students aged 8–16 years from participating schools were selected by convenience sampling. Subjects self-completed KINDL-Kid (Singapore) and KINDL-Kiddo (Singapore) questionnaires, which were cross-culturally adapted from KINDL (Germany English) for use in Singapore. We evaluated floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and performed factor analysis. Results A total of 328 respondents (mean (SD) age: 9.6 (1.31) years; 67% female; 75% Chinese, 16% Malays, 9% Indians and others) completed KINDL-Kid while 1,026 respondents (mean (SD) age: 14.0 (1.00) years; 82% female; 82% Chinese, 12% Malays; 6% Indians and others) completed KINDL-Kiddo. Mean (SD) TOTAL QoL score was 65.5 (12.76) and 56.6 (11.92) for KINDL-Kid and KINDL-Kiddo, respectively. Floor and ceiling effects were important in five of six KINDL-Kid and two of six KINDL-Kiddo subscales. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.40 to 0.71 (KINDL-Kid) and 0.44 to 0.84 (KINDL-Kiddo). Factor analysis generated eight and seven factors in KINDL-Kid and KINDL-Kiddo, respectively. Conclusion KINDL-Kiddo exhibited good psychometric properties and may be used to assess QoL in this multi-ethnic English-speaking Asian population. However, psychometric properties of KINDL-Kid may need to be improved either by developing new items or modifying existing items. PMID:17239229

Wee, Hwee-Lin; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Erhart, Michael; Li, Shu-Chuen

2007-01-01

219

Factors determining milk quality and implications for production structure under somatic cell count standard modification.  

PubMed

Consumer and processor demand for high-quality milk has placed increasing pressure on US milk producers to achieve higher product standards. International standards for somatic cell count (SCC) are becoming more stringent, but in May 2011, the United States National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments chose to retain the 750,000 cells/mL standard. Using ordinary least squares and quantile regressions on US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Resource Management Survey Dairy Costs and Returns Report data for 2005, we model producer and farm-level characteristics associated with SCC. Quantile regression analysis allows for a more parsed inquiry into statistical associations. Dairy Costs and Returns Report data provide cross-sectional information on the physical structure, input expenses, demographics, and outputs for farms in selected states. Location outside the Southeast, lower herd age, full-time farming status, use of biosecurity guidelines, good milking facilities and operations management, and application of related quality tests are all associated with lower SCC levels. Size of operation had little effect on SCC levels after controlling for other factors. Many of the operations that did not attain a more demanding SCC standard of 400,000 cells/mL had older operators, operators who expressed intention to exit within 10 yr, smaller size, and location in the Southeast when compared with those meeting the tighter standard. The results suggest that the stricter scheme favors larger farms that are more committed to production and are less likely to be sole or family proprietorships. PMID:22981577

Dong, F; Hennessy, D A; Jensen, H H

2012-11-01

220

Epithermal Neutrons, Illumination, Spatial Scale and Topography: A Correlative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Detection of Slope Hydration Using LRO's Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research correlates the Moon’s south polar epithermal neutron flux, topography and a visible illumination model and shows that there is a widespread hydration of polward-facing (PF) slopes that is occurring at a continuum of spatial scales.

McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Livengood, T.; Sagdeev, R.; Parsons, A. M.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Harshman, K.; Hamara, D.; Bodnarik, J.

2014-10-01

221

Factors influencing health-related quality of life of overweight and obese children in South Korea.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body fat, and waist-hip ratio. The instruments included lifestyle patterns, psychosocial characteristics (stress, self-esteem, and depression), and HRQoL. The study found that significant predictors of HRQoL included self-esteem, depression, and physical stress; these variables accounted for 58.7% of the variance (p < .05), while children with low monthly household income had significantly lower HRQoL, compared with that of their counterparts (p < .05). HRQoL has multiple dimensions, thus, in addition to lifestyle change, health programs for overweight and obese children should focus on psychological health, and consider social and environmental factors as well. PMID:23401020

Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

2013-10-01

222

Incisional hernia after liver transplantation: risk factors and health-related quality of life.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the incidence of incisional hernia after liver transplantation (LT), to determine potential risk factors for their development, and to assess their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients who underwent LT through a J-shaped incision with a minimum follow-up of three months were included. Follow-up was conducted at the outpatient clinic. Short Form 36 (SF-36) and body image questionnaire (BIQ) were used for the assessment of HRQoL. A total of 140 patients was evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 33 (SD 20) months. Sixty patients (43%) were diagnosed with an incisional hernia. Multivariate analysis revealed surgical site infection (OR 5.27, p = 0.001), advanced age (OR 1.05, p = 0.003), and prolonged ICU stay (OR 1.54, p = 0.022) to be independent risk factors for development of incisional hernia after LT. Patients with an incisional hernia experienced significantly diminished HRQoL with respect to physical, social, and mental aspects. In conclusion, patients who undergo LT exhibit a high incidence of incisional hernia, which has a considerable impact on HRQoL. Development of incisional hernia was shown to be related to surgical site infection, advanced age, and prolonged ICU stay. PMID:24806311

de Goede, Barry; Eker, Hasan H; Klitsie, Pieter J; van Kempen, Bob J H; Polak, Wojtek G; Hop, Wim C J; Metselaar, Herold J; Tilanus, Hugo W; Lange, Johan F; Kazemier, Geert

2014-07-01

223

Original Articles Factors Affecting the Quality of Life After Ischemic Stroke: Young Versus Old Patients  

E-print Network

Background: Factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) may be different between young and old stroke patients. However, these issues have not yet been properly investigated. Methods: We identified 170 young-onset stroke patients (onset between 15 and 45 years of age) who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center. Three hundred and forty follow-up period matched, old-onset stroke patients (onset>45 years of age) were chosen as a control group. A follow-up interview was performed 1~5 years after the onset of stroke in 96 young patients and 160 old patients. With the use of standardized questionnaire, we assessed physical disabilities, activity of daily living (Barthel Index Score, modified Rankin scale), the presence of depression (using DSM IV criteria and Beck Depression Inventory) and socio-economic/job status. The QOL was assessed using the Stroke Specific QOL developed by Williams et al. Results: The QOL scores were significantly higher in young patients than in old ones. Univariate analysis showed that factors related to low QOL included unemployment, motor impairment, aphasia, dysarthria, dysaphagia and severe modified Rankin score in young patients while poor economic status, unemployment, supratentorial (vs. infratentorial) stroke, anterior (vs. posterior) circulation stroke, the presence of diabetes mellitus, motor impairment, aphasia, dysarthria, dysphagia, visual field defect, severe modified Rankin score, the presence of post-stroke seizures and depression were related to the low QOL in old patients. Cigarette smoking (in old patients) and alcohol

Jong S. Kim; Hee J. Lee

224

Identifying key factors in homeowner's adoption of water quality best management practices.  

PubMed

The recognition of the significance of the residential environment in contributing to non-point source (NPS) pollution and the inherently dispersed nature of NPS pollution itself that presents significant challenges to effective regulation has led to the creation and dissemination of best management practices (BMPs) that can reduce the impacts of NPS pollution (Environmental Protection Agency US, Protecting water quality from urban runoff, http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_urban-facts_final.pdf , 2003). However, very few studies have examined the factors that influence the adoption of BMPs by residential homeowners, despite the fact that residential environments have been identified as one of the most significant contributors to NPS pollution. Given this need, the purpose of this project was to explore how demographic and knowledge-based factors predict adoption of residential BMPs in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Illinois using statistical analyses of survey data collected as part of a watershed planning process. The findings indicate that broad knowledge of BMPs is the strongest predictor of use for a specific BMP. Knowledge of BMPs is strongly correlated with their use, which reinforces the need for educational programs, even among those assumed to be knowledgeable about BMPs. PMID:23609309

Brehm, Joan M; Pasko, Danielle K; Eisenhauer, Brian W

2013-07-01

225

A pilot's assessment of helicopter handling-quality factors common to both agility and instrument flying tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.

Gerdes, R. M.

1980-01-01

226

Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Pickup ^64Zn(d,t)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of attention has recently been paid towards high-precision superallowed ?-decay Ft values. With the availability of extremely high-precision (<0.1%) experimental data, precision on the individual Ft values are now dominated by the ˜1% theoretical corrections. This limitation is most evident in heavier superallowed nuclei (e.g. ^62Ga) where the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) correction calculations become more difficult due to the truncated model space. Experimental spectroscopic factors for these nuclei are important for the identification of the relevant orbitals that should be included in the model space of the calculations. Motivated by this need, the single-nucleon transfer reaction ^64Zn(d,t)^63Zn was conducted at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) of TUM/LMU in Munich, Germany, using a 22 MeV polarized deuteron beam from the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the TUM/LMU Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with angular distributions from 10^o to 60^o. Results from this experiment will be presented and implications for calculations of ISB corrections in the superallowed ° decay of ^62Ga will be discussed.

Leach, Kyle; Garrett, P. E.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Towner, I. S.; Ball, G. C.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

2010-11-01

227

Spectroscopic Factors from the Single Neutron Pickup Reaction ^64Zn(d,t)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of attention has recently been paid towards high-precision superallowed ?-decay Ft values. With the availability of extremely high-precision (<0.1%) experimental data, precision on the individual Ft values are now dominated by the ˜1% theoretical corrections^[1]. This limitation is most evident in heavier superallowed nuclei (e.g. ^62Ga) where the isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) correction calculations become more difficult due to the truncated model space. Experimental spectroscopic factors for these nuclei are important for the identification of the relevant orbitals that should be included in the model space of the calculations. Motivated by this need, the single-nucleon transfer reaction ^64Zn(d,t)^63Zn was conducted at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory (MLL) of TUM/LMU in Munich, Germany, using a 22 MeV polarized deuteron beam from the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and the TUM/LMU Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with angular distributions from 10^o to 60^o. Results from this experiment will be presented and implications for calculations of ISB corrections in the superallowed &+circ; decay of ^62Ga will be discussed.^[1] I.S. Towner and J.C. Hardy, Phys. Rev. C 77, 025501 (2008).

Leach, Kyle; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Krücken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

2009-10-01

228

Ultra-high quality factors in superconducting niobium cavities in ambient magnetic fields up to 190 mG  

E-print Network

Ambient magnetic field, if trapped in the penetration depth, leads to the residual resistance and therefore sets the limit for the achievable quality factors in superconducting niobium resonators for particle accelerators. Here we show that a complete expulsion of the magnetic flux can be performed and leads to: 1) record quality factors $Q > 2\\times10^{11}$ up to accelerating gradient of 22 MV/m; 2) $Q\\sim3\\times10^{10}$ at 2 K and 16 MV/m in up to 190 mG magnetic fields. This is achieved by large thermal gradients at the normal/superconducting phase front during the cooldown. Our findings open up a way to ultra-high quality factors at low temperatures and show an alternative to the sophisticated magnetic shielding implemented in modern superconducting accelerators.

Romanenko, A; Crawford, A C; Sergatskov, D A; Melnychuk, O

2014-01-01

229

Perturbation approach for the control of the quality factor in photonic crystal membranes: Application to selective absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Above the light line, guided modes cannot be perpetually sustained into a photonic crystal membrane owing to its periodic modulation. The resulting leaky waves are nowadays largely exploited in the context of integrated optics. We develop here a model affording insight into the mechanism that allows the obtention of resonances endowed with extremely high quality factors. As a matter of fact, the model indicates that the quality factor can take arbitrarily high values and that this phenomenon results from the coupling between guided and radiated modes. The obtained tight control over the emission spectrum of a photonic crystal membrane is employed to design a spectrally and spatially selective absorber.

Blanchard, Cédric; Viktorovitch, Pierre; Letartre, Xavier

2014-09-01

230

Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of ?-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization. PMID:23514260

Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

2013-04-01

231

Quality assurance and risk management: Perspectives on Human Factors Certification of Advanced Aviation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is based on the experience of engineering psychologists advising the U.K. Ministry of Defense (MoD) on the procurement of advanced aviation systems that conform to good human engineering (HE) practice. Traditional approaches to HE in systems procurement focus on the physical nature of the human-machine interface. Advanced aviation systems present increasingly complex design requirements for human functional integration, information processing, and cognitive task performance effectiveness. These developing requirements present new challenges for HE quality assurance (QA) and risk management, requiring focus on design processes as well as on design content or product. A new approach to the application of HE, recently adopted by NATO, provides more systematic ordering and control of HE processes and activities to meet the challenges of advanced aircrew systems design. This systematic approach to HE has been applied by MoD to the procurement of mission systems for the Royal Navy Merlin helicopter. In MoD procurement, certification is a judicial function, essentially independent of the service customer and industry contractor. Certification decisions are based on advice from MoD's appointed Acceptance Agency. Test and evaluation (T&E) conducted by the contractor and by the Acceptance Agency provide evidence for certification. Certification identifies limitations of systems upon release to the service. Evidence of compliance with HE standards traditionally forms the main basis of HE certification and significant non-compliance could restrict release. The systems HE approach shows concern for the quality of processes as well as for the content of the product. Human factors certification should be concerned with the quality of HE processes as well as products. Certification should require proof of process as well as proof of content and performance. QA criteria such as completeness, consistency, timeliness, and compatibility provide generic guidelines for progressive acceptance and certification of HE processes. Threats to the validity of certification arise from problems and assumptions in T&E methods. T&E should seek to reduce the risk of specification non-compliance and certification failure.

Taylor, Robert M.; Macleod, Iain S.

1994-01-01

232

Reference dosimetry condition and beam quality correction factor for CyberKnife beam.  

PubMed

This article is intended to improve the certainty of the absorbed dose determination for reference dosimetry in CyberKnife beams. The CyberKnife beams do not satisfy some conditions of the standard reference dosimetry protocols because of its unique treatment head structure and beam collimating system. Under the present state of affairs, the reference dosimetry has not been performed under uniform conditions and the beam quality correction factor kQ for an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator has been temporally substituted for the kQ of the CyberKnife in many sites. Therefore, the reference conditions and kQ as a function of the beam quality index in a new way are required. The dose flatness and the error of dosimeter reading caused by radiation fields and detector size were analyzed to determine the reference conditions. Owing to the absence of beam flattening filter, the dose flatness of the CyberKnife beam was inferior to that of an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator. And if the absorbed dose is measured with an ionization chamber which has cavity length of 2.4, 1.0 and 0.7 cm in reference dosimetry, the dose at the beam axis for a field of 6.0 cm collimator was underestimated 1.5%, 0.4%, and 0.2% on a calculation. Therefore, the maximum field shaped with a 6.0 cm collimator and ionization chamber which has a cavity length of 1.0 cm or shorter were recommended as the conditions of reference dosimetry. Furthermore, to determine the kQ for the CyberKnife, the realistic energy spectrum of photons and electrons in water was simulated with the BEAMnrc. The absence of beam flattening filter also caused softer photon energy spectrum than that of an ordinary 6 MV linear accelerator. Consequently, the kQ for ionization chambers of a suitable size were determined and tabulated as a function of measurable beam quality indexes in the CyberKnife beam. PMID:18975705

Kawachi, Toru; Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Katayose, Tetsurou; Myojoyama, Atsushi; Hatano, Kazuo

2008-10-01

233

Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.  

PubMed

The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land use patterns in the watershed. The results indicate that peak concentrations of agrochemicals in groundwater could be reduced by improving fertilization practices (by splitting and modifying timing of applications) and by operating the regional canal system to maintain the water table low, especially during the rainy periods. PMID:16102872

Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

2005-11-01

234

Neutron multiplication factor and calculational bias from ²⁵²Cf source-driven frequency analysis measurements with subcritical arrays of PWR fuel pins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the ²⁵²Cf-source-driven noise analysis method to measure the subcritical neutron multiplication factor has been demonstrated for a variety of experimental configurations of fissile materials. In 1983 a measurement was performed at the critical experiments facility of the Babcox and Wilcox Company, Lynchburg, Virginia, with an array of 2.46 wt% ²³⁵U enriched pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel pins

T. E. Valentine; J. T. Mihalczo; W. T. King; E. D. Blakeman

1996-01-01

235

Risk factors affecting quality of life in a group of Italian children with asthma.  

PubMed

The measure of Quality of Life (QoL) has become one of the most important criteria used to assess the impact of chronic illness, such as asthma, on the patient?s daily life, in adults and children alike. The objective of our open observational study was to measure the QoL and analyze several factors that potentially affect QoL, such as symptoms and functional respiratory parameters, in a cohort of children with asthma. One hundred and twenty-seven children with asthma, 6 to 14 years of age, living in the city of Rome, were enrolled as outpatients. They were subjected to Skin Prick Tests (SPT), underwent spirometry and filled out the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). One hundred and eleven children were diagnosed with intermittent asthma, 12 (10%) with mild asthma, and four with moderate persistent asthma. Ninety-six children had a positive SPT. The mean total score of QoL, obtained from the questionnaire, was 5.4 (?1.2 SD). Two QoL groups were created. Children with total QoL score <5.5 were included in the ?Lower QoL? score group while children with total QoL score ? 5.5 were included in the ?Higher QoL? score group. Children in the Higher group and their mothers had a higher mean age, suffered from fewer asthma exacerbations during the year preceding the study, and showed a higher mean value of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) compared to the children in the Lower category. Using Logistic regression we identified the main factors that may affect QoL as FEV1, symptoms in the previous year and mother?s age. QoL is correlated with the frequency of asthma exacerbations and FEV1 values. Furthermore, our research shows that a significant impairment of QoL may also occur in patients with normal lung function, pointing out the importance of evaluating QoL in all children with asthma. PMID:25004835

Indinnimeo, L; Chiarotti, F; De Vittori, V; Baldini, L; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Tancredi, G; Leonardi, L; Duse, M

2014-01-01

236

Drip loss in pork: influencing factors and relation to further meat quality traits.  

PubMed

The paper deals with some general features of drip loss and the most important factors influencing it. Moreover, it shows some exemplary results of an own investigation. Up to now there is no generally valid definition of drip loss available. Therefore measurement procedures have to be strongly standardized, otherwise they provide no comparable results. Drip loss depends on the shortening of sarcomeres which is regulated by the interaction of muscle temperature and rigour development. Hence, the chilling conditions are highly important. However, the main point is the velocity and the extent of the pH fall after slaughter. All factors influencing the occurrence of quality deviations like PSE, DFD, Acid meat, RSE, PFN will inevitably affect the degree of drip loss too. Under the conditions of an own study, investigating material of a progeny testing station, untypically, one third of the loins with higher-than-average wateriness were red rather than pale, and one third of the loins with higher-than-average brightness were only slightly exudative, which is untypical too. Pork with higher-than-average brightness and low wateriness exhibited, apart from the colour deviation, no crucial disadvantages. It showed only a marginally higher loss during storage, thawing and heating. Pork with higher-than-average drip loss - regardless of dark or pale colour - was predominantly combined with a pH(1) less than 6.2, an electrical conductivity 24 h p.m. higher than 5.0 and a loin area higher than 56 cm(2). PMID:17988246

Fischer, K

2007-11-01

237

Micromachined piezoelectric membranes with high nominal quality factors in newtonian liquid media: A Lamb's model validation at the microscale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although extensively presented as one of the most promising silicon-based micromachined sensor adapted to real-time measurements in liquid media, the cantilevered structure still suffers from its quality factor (Q) dramatic dependence on the liquid viscosity thus lowering the measurement resolution. In this paper, micromachined piezoelectric membranes are introduced as a potential alternative to the cantilevers for biological applications. High Q-factors

Cédric Ayela; Liviu Nicu

2007-01-01

238

Impact of medical and demographic factors on long-term quality of life and body image of breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of various medical and demographic factors on the quality of life (QoL) of breast cancer patients has been discussed controversially. We investigated the influence of six different factors on long-term QoL and body image of women with primary breast cancer. Patients and methods: Two-hundred and seventy-four breast cancer patients were administered the QoL questionnaire following a mean

K. Härtl; W. Janni; R. Kästner; H. Sommer; B. Strobl; B. Rack; M. Stauber

239

A Quantitative Study of Factors Influencing Quality of Life in Rural Mexican Women Diagnosed With HIV.  

PubMed

This quantitative study explored the level of Quality of Life (QoL) in indigenous Mexican women and identified psychosocial factors that significantly influenced their QoL, using face-to-face interviews with 101 women accessing care in an HIV clinic in Oaxaca, Mexico. Variables included demographic characteristics, levels of depression, coping style, family functioning, HIV-related beliefs, and QoL. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze participant characteristics, and women's scores on data collection instruments. Pearson's R correlational statistics were used to determine the level of significance between study variables. Multiple regression analysis examined all variables that were significantly related to QoL. Pearson's correlational analysis of relationships between Spirituality, Educating Self about HIV, Family Functioning, Emotional Support, Physical Care, and Staying Positive demonstrated positive correlation to QoL. Stigma, depression, and avoidance coping were significantly and negatively associated with QoL. The final regression model indicated that depression and avoidance coping were the best predictor variables for QoL. PMID:24759058

Holtz, Carol; Sowell, Richard; VanBrackle, Lewis; Velasquez, Gabriela; Hernandez-Alonso, Virginia

2014-01-01

240

Factors associated with quality of life among rural women with HIV disease.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined physical, psychological, and social factors associated with quality of life (QOL) among a sample of 399 rural women with HIV disease living in the Southeastern United States. Of the socio-demographic variables, age (p = .003), race (p < .0001), and time of HIV diagnosis (p = .03) were significantly associated with QOL. In bi-variate analysis, HIV symptoms (frequency and extent symptoms were bothersome), perceived stigma, internalized stigma, and depression were significantly and negatively associated with QOL whereas social support, problem-focused coping, perceived situational control, and healthy lifestyles were significantly and positively associated with QOL (all p < .0001). In adjusted analysis, HIV symptom frequency, depression, problem-focused coping, perceived situational control, perceived stigma, healthy lifestyles, and race remained significant predictors of QOL and explained 55% of the variance in QOL among the study participants (model F (7, 390) = 66.7; p < .0001). The study findings identify potential points of interventions to improve QOL among rural women with HIV disease. PMID:21380494

Vyavaharkar, Medha; Moneyham, Linda; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Tavakoli, Abbas

2012-02-01

241

The Influence of Supports Strategies, Environmental Factors, and Client Characteristics on Quality of Life-Related Personal Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of quality of life (QOL) is increasingly being used as a support provision and outcomes evaluation framework in the field of intellectual disability (ID). The present study used a hierarchical multiple regression research design to determine the role that available supports strategies, environmental factors, and client characteristics…

Claes, Claudia; Van Hove, Geert; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Schalock, Robert

2012-01-01

242

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life in the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience irreversible airflow obstruction, dyspnea, coughing, and fatigue. One of the goals of treating individuals with COPD is to improve their quality of life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the 2009 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)…

Jackson, Bradford E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Coultas, David; Singh, Karan P.; Bae, Sejong

2013-01-01

243

Ability to perform activities of daily living is the main factor affecting quality of life in patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic illness associated with a progressive loss of cognitive and intellectual abilities, such as memory, judgment and abstract thinking. The objective of this study was to assess the health utilities of patients with dementia in Europe and identify the key factors influencing their Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQol). METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from the

Christian K Andersen; Kim U Wittrup-Jensen; Anette Lolk; Kjeld Andersen; Per Kragh-Sørensen

2004-01-01

244

Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

2009-01-01

245

Mild and Severe Anal Incontinence after Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy: Risk Factors, Postoperative Anatomical Findings and Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the risk factors for incontinence after lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) and assess quality of life in different levels of incontinence. Methods: All consecutive patients (n = 253) with chronic anal fissure who underwent LIS between 2003 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were questioned for possible anal incontinence according to the Wexner Incontinence

M. Kement; M. Karabulut; F. C. Gezen; S. Demirbas; S. Vural; M. Oncel

2011-01-01

246

A new method to determine the mechanical resonance frequency, quality factor and charging in electrostatically actuated MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel technique to characterize MEMS is described. The technique is based on electric admittance measurements of electrostatically actuated MEMS. Characteristic parameters such as the unbiased (or true mechanical) resonance frequency, quality factor and charge dependent built-in voltage, are extracted from the measured admittance in a two-step computation procedure. The obtained parameters may serve as monitors of

S. Kalicinski; H. A. C. Tilmans; M. Wevers; I. De Wolf

2008-01-01

247

Effect of Intense Lifestyle Modification and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Psychosocial Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of the Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease and cardiac rehabilitation(CR) on psychosocial risk factors and quality of life in patients with confirmed coronary artery disease. Participants had previously undergone a revascularization procedure. The 84 patients self-selected to participate in the Ornish Program…

Aldana, Steven G.; Whitmer, William R.; Greenlaw, Roger; Avins, Andrew L.; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; Greenwell, Andrea; Lipsenthal, Lee; Fellingham, Gill W.

2006-01-01

248

Classification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification of indoor air pollution determinant factors  

E-print Network

of indoor air pollution determinant factors Jean-Baptiste Masson1,2 * , Gérard Govaert2 , Corinne Mandin1 representing different types of indoor air pollution. We restrain to the 20 variables corresponding to indoorClassification of dwellings into profiles regarding indoor air quality, and identification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

The Charge Form Factor of the Neutron at Low Momentum Transfer from the $^{2}\\vec{\\rm H}(\\vec{\\rm e},{\\rm e}'{\\rm n}){\\rm p}$ Reaction  

E-print Network

We report new measurements of the neutron charge form factor at low momentum transfer using quasielastic electrodisintegration of the deuteron. Longitudinally polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV were scattered from an isotopically pure, highly polarized deuterium gas target. The scattered electrons and coincident neutrons were measured by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The neutron form factor ratio $G^{n}_{E}/G^{n}_{M}$ was extracted from the beam-target vector asymmetry $A_{ed}^{V}$ at four-momentum transfers $Q^{2}=0.14$, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.42 (GeV/c)$^{2}$.

E. Geis; V. Ziskin; T. Akdogan; H. Arenhoevel; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. B. Crawford; A. DeGrush; T. W. Donnelly; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; S. Gilad; D. Hasell; P. Karpius; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. G. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. P. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Shinozaki; S. Sirca; A. Sindile; E. Six; T. Smith; M. Steadman; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; T. Zwart

2008-03-26

250

Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and lowest in samples collected from sites in undeveloped areas. Volatile organic compounds were detected most frequently and in highest concentrations in samples from sites in urban areas, and least frequently in agricultural and undeveloped areas. No volatile organic compound concentrations and concentrations from only one pesticide, dieldrin, exceeded human-health benchmarks.

Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

2011-01-01

251

Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

2011-01-01

252

Measurement of the electric form factor of the neutron through d-->(e-->,e(')n)p at Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)(2).  

PubMed

We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor G(n)(E) via d-->(e-->,e(')n)p. G(n)(E) was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ( 15ND3). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle segmented detector. We find G(n)(E) = 0.04632+/-0.00616(stat)+/-0.00341(syst) at Q2 = 0.495 (GeV/c)(2). PMID:11497934

Zhu, H; Ahmidouch, A; Anklin, H; Arenhövel, H; Armstrong, C; Bernet, C; Boeglin, W; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Brown, D; Bültmann, S; Carlini, R; Chant, N; Cowley, A; Crabb, D; Danagoulian, S; Day, D B; Eden, T; Ent, R; Farah, Y; Fatemi, R; Garrow, K; Harris, C; Hauger, M; Honegger, A; Jourdan, J; Kaufmann, M; Khandaker, M; Kubon, G; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindgren, R; Lourie, R; Lung, A; Mack, D; Malik, S; Markowitz, P; McFarlane, K; McKee, P; McNulty, D; Milanovich, G; Mitchell, J; Mkrtchyan, H; Mühlbauer, M; Petitjean, T; Prok, Y; Rohe, D; Rollinde, E; Rondon, O A; Roos, P; Sawafta, R; Sick, I; Smith, C; Southern, T; Steinacher, M; Stepanyan, S; Tadevosyan, V; Tieulent, R; Tobias, A; Vulcan, W; Warren, G; Wöhrle, H; Wood, S; Yan, C; Zeier, M; Zhao, J; Zihlmann, B

2001-08-20

253

Comparison of Integrated Radiation Transport Models with TEPC Measurements for the Average Quality Factors in Spaceflights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work is to test our theoretical model for the interpretation of radiation data measured in space. During the space missions astronauts are exposed to the complex field of radiation type and kinetic energies from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped protons, and sometimes solar particle events (SPEs). The tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) is a simple time-dependent approach for radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to Microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Q(sub ave)(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Q(sub ave)(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. Lineal energy, y, deviates from LET due to energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. Monte Carlo track structure simulation was employed to obtain the response of a TEPC irradiated with charged particle for an equivalent site diameter of 1 micron of wall-less counter. The calculated data of the energy absorption in the wall-less counter were compiled for various y values for several ion types at various discrete projectile energy levels. For the simulation of TEPC response from the mixed radiation environments inside a spacecraft, such as, Space Shuttle and International Space Station, the complete microdosimetric TEPC response, f( y, E, Z), were calculated with the Monte Carlo theoretical results by using the first order Lagrangian interpolation for a monovariate function at a given y value (y = 0.1 keV/micron 5000 keV/micron) at any projectile energy level (E = 0.01 MeV/u to 50,000 MeV/u) of each specific radiation type (Z = 1 to 28). Because the anomalous response has been observed at large event sizes in the experiment due to the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta-rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume cavity, Monte Carlo simulation was also made for the response of a walled-TEPC with wall thickness 2 mm and density 1 g/cm(exp 3). The radius of cavity was set to 6.35 mm and a gas density 7.874 x 10(exp -5) g/cm(exp 3). The response of the walled- and the wall-less counters were compared. The average quality factor Q(sub ave)(y) for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrated the good agreement between the model calculations and flight TEPC data as shown. Using an integrated space radiation model (this includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions of walled-TEPC from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. The Q(sub ave)(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Q(sub ave)(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Q(sub ave)(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis for a proper interpretation of data supports the use of TEPCs for monitoring space radiation environment.

Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

254

Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man  

SciTech Connect

Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

Straume, T.

1982-11-01

255

Determining the Factors Contributing to Quality of Life of Patients at the Last Stage of Life: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Quality- of- life of patients at their last stage of their life are different from that of other people. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the factors contributing to the quality- of- life of patients at their last stage of their life and provide good cares for these patients. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was performed by the thematic- framework method of analysis. Twenty three participants including patients, their families, nurses, physicians, psychologists and clergymen were selected sampling. Data were collected by semi – structured interview. We used the thematic framework method to analyze qualitative data. Results: Seven factors which needed to be considered in the patients’ at last stage quality of life included stress reduction, participation, homecare, education, independency, support, recourses and facilities. According to the findings, the number of these factors may be more than what was mentioned above. Conclusions: Paying attention to the quality of life at the last stage can be helpful for patients and their families and the special care can be taken for them. PMID:24693392

Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Latifi, Marzieh

2013-01-01

256

Work environment factors affecting quality work in Swedish oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate how work environment influenced attitudes to and knowledge of quality among employees of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) clinics in Sweden. Data were collected with a questionnaire of 67 questions, related to quality management at the clinic, working situation, content of "good work", physical environment and health. 22 clinics with 297 employees responded, 65% of the clinics and 86% of the employees. A multiple regression analysis with the dependent variable "Attitude towards quality work" showed that only "work environment" (p = 0.010) revealed a significant association (p < 0.05). The personnel will have a more favourable attitude to quality work if they regard work environment to be important. Dental nurses and assistant nurses had more than four times more knowledge of the used quality management system than had the maxillo-facial surgeons. Women had nearly four times more knowledge of quality management than men. Clinic size was important, with better knowledge of quality management in bigger clinics. Soft demands were defined as demands for "flexibility, creativity, quality, service, engagement/commitment and ability to work together, and competence". Hard demands included economy as important, and emphasis on efficiency and productivity. There was a weak association with knowledge of quality management systems if soft demands increased, but negative if hard demands increased. In conclusion, mainly work environment was of significance for the attitude towards quality work among the employees of OMFS clinics in Sweden. Profession, gender, clinic size, and the hard demands were significantly associated with knowledge of the quality management system used. PMID:18973085

Pilgård, Göran; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Rosenquist, Jan

2008-01-01

257

The influence of continuous improvement and performance factors in total quality organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines performance measurement techniques as the basis for the development of reward and recognition mechanisms in Total Quality Management. Two phases of fieldwork were undertaken, an in-depth case study of the effectiveness of performance measurement in promoting continuous improvement, followed by the development of a model of optimal total quality based performance measurement. Successful performance measurement systems tend

Hsin Hsin Chang

2005-01-01

258

Factors Affecting University Music Students' Perceptions of Lesson Quality and Teacher Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of music teacher delivery skills, lesson content, and student academic standing on 511 university music students' perceptions of lesson quality or teacher appeal. Indicates that student interest and preference varied by academic standing, teacher delivery, and lesson quality. Includes references. (CMK)

Hamann, Donald L.; Baker, Dawn S.; McAllister, Peter A.; Bauer, William I.

2000-01-01

259

Impact of Environmental Factors on Product Quality of Greenhouse Vegetables for Fresh Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer interest worldwide in the quality of vegetable products has increased in recent years. Product quality is a complex issue. As well as visual characteristics, properties such as texture, the content of minerals and vitamins, flavor and other organoleptic characteristics must be considered. In addition, new knowledge shows that vegetables are appreciated for their beneficial health effects in humans and

N. Gruda

2005-01-01

260

Electron beam quality kQ,Q0 factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with penelope.  

PubMed

In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor [Formula: see text] for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code penelope/penEasy have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor fc,Q for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a (60)Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm(2) and 20 × 20 cm(2) have been considered. The [Formula: see text] factors have been calculated as the ratio between fc,Q and [Formula: see text]. Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The [Formula: see text] values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427-44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors. PMID:25325343

Erazo, F; Brualla, L; Lallena, A M

2014-11-01

261

Microbiological quality and risk factors related to sandwiches served in bakeries, cafés, and sandwich bars in South Korea.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality of sandwiches produced on site and served in bakeries, cafés, and sandwich bars in South Korea and to determine the major risk factors affecting the sanitation level in each store (n = 1,120). The microbiological quality of the sandwiches was analyzed, and the sanitation level of each store was evaluated as satisfactory or unsatisfactory based on sanitation guidelines. Total coliforms were detected in 906 samples (80.9%), but only 3 samples (0.3%) contained confirmed Escherichia coli contamination. The detection rate was highest for Bacillus cereus (10.0%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (1.3%) and Salmonella (0.2%). Vibrio parahaemolyticus was not detected in any samples. The microbial contamination level was significantly lower in winter (P < 0.05) and in stores with a higher sanitation grade. Factors related to the microbiological quality of sandwiches were evaluated as the relative risk (RR) of coliform contamination, and the higher risk factors for sandwich contamination were improper holding temperature (RR = 8.75), cross-contamination (RR = 6.30), lack of proper ventilation systems (RR = 6.16), and the absence of clean and/or suitable outer garments (RR = 5.73). Most factors were related to the failure of food handlers to adhere to sanitation guidelines rather than to unsanitary environments. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the microbiological quality of sandwiches served on-site and various risk factors. These results will help researchers establish guidelines for the sanitary management of sandwich shops. PMID:23433370

Jang, Hong Geun; Kim, Nam Hee; Choi, Young Min; Rhee, Min Suk

2013-02-01

262

Investigation of the relationships between quality factor Q and complex permittivity to clay and water content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EU-project iSOIL (Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping) geophysical measurements on different soil types have been conducted. After accomplishing field measurements large soil samples (50 kg each) were taken to be investigated in laboratory. Sampling points were representative for the different soil types of the study sites. The samples were dried at room temperature and larger clusters were crumbled to assure the soil as homogeneous as possible. The measuring cell consists of a plastic cylinder of 75 cm height and 23.5 cm diameter. The cylinder is assembled with two plate electrodes at bottom and top and two ring electrodes around its middle part. Every soil sample is partially saturated with rain water in different steps and filled into the cylinder. Accordingly, the four mentioned electrodes are used to measure the electrical conductivity of the sample. GPR reflection measurements are conducted by placing a 1.6 GHz antenna on top of the sample inside the cylinder and recording the reflections originating from the bottom plate. The resulting parameters are electrical conductivity and GPR velocity (calculated from known travel path and recorded arrival time) that is directly linked to the real part of permittivity. The water content is controlled by oven drying of smaller sub-samples and weighting of added water and the whole soil sample at every step. Additional to electrical conductivity and permittivity we derived the quality factor Q directly from the wavelet shape of the reflection using the spectral ratio method. Q-values range between 4 and 16 and are lower for higher clay and water content. The relationship between these parameters can be described by an empirically derived logarithmic multivariate regression. Together with this independently determined parameter it is possible to calculate the imaginary part of permittivity, which is a measure of relaxation losses. This parameter can be fitted with a linear relationship to the real part of permittivity and includes a logarithmic dependency on clay content. Acknowledgment: iSOIL is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

Wunderlich, T.; Rabbel, W.; Petersen, H.; al Hagrey, S.

2011-12-01

263

Relationship among religious coping, psychosocial factors, and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among religious coping, acceptance of diabetes, social support, diabetes management, and quality of life among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Religious coping, acceptance...

Lager, Julia M.

2009-06-02

264

Evaluating Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as Modifying Factor in Designing Public School Buildings in Jordan  

E-print Network

The most fundamental goal in the design of educational facilities is to provide an environment that encourages learning achievement for students and teachers. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can negatively affect student health, comfort...

Ali, H. H.; Al-Momani, H.

2004-01-01

265

Inheritance of Oil Production and Quality Factors in Peant (Arachis hypogaea L.)  

E-print Network

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has the potential to become a major source of biodiesel but for market viability, peanut oil yields must increase and specific quality requirements must be met. Oil yield in peanut is influenced by many components...

Wilson, Jeffrey Norman

2013-08-02

266

CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, JANUARYFEBRUARY 2011 323 Turfgrass quality is evaluated by integrating factors of can-  

E-print Network

pratensis L., `Apollo') and in a KBG � Texas bluegrass (Poa arachnifera Torr.) hybrid (HBG; `Thermal Blue normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and visual quality ratings in Kentucky blue- grass (KBG; Poa

267

Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data  

EPA Science Inventory

The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

268

Extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic 3He>(e-->,e') at Q2=0.1-0.6(GeV\\/c)2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the transverse asymmetry AT' in the quasielastic 3He-->(e-->,e') process with high precision at Q2 values from 0.1 to 0.6(GeV\\/c)2. The neutron magnetic form factor GMn was extracted at Q2 values of 0.1 and 0.2(GeV\\/c)2 using a nonrelativistic Faddeev calculation which includes both final-state interactions (FSI) and meson-exchange currents (MEC). Theoretical uncertainties due to the FSI and MEC

B. Anderson; L. Auberbach; T. Averett; W. Bertozzi; T. Black; J. Calarco; L. Cardman; G. D. Cates; Z. W. Chai; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; G. S. Corrado; C. Crawford; D. Dale; A. Deur; P. Djawotho; D. Dutta; J. M. Finn; H. Gao; R. Gilman; A. V. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; W. Glöckle; J. Golak; J. Gomez; V. G. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; F. W. Hersman; D. W. Higinbotham; R. Holmes; C. R. Howell; E. Hughes; B. Humensky; S. Incerti; C. W. De Jager; J. S. Jensen; X. Jiang; C. E. Jones; M. Jones; R. Kahl; H. Kamada; A. Kievsky; I. Kominis; W. Korsch; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriqi; M. Liang; N. Liyanage; J. Lerose; S. Malov; D. J. Margaziotis; J. W. Martin; K. McCormick; R. D. McKeown; K. McIlhany; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Mitchell; S. Nanda; E. Pace; T. Pavlin; G. G. Petratos; R. I. Pomatsalyuk; D. Pripstein; D. Prout; R. D. Ransome; Y. Roblin; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; G. Salmè; M. Schnee; J. Seely; T. Shin; K. Slifer; P. A. Souder; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; M. Sutter; B. Tipton; L. Todor; M. Viviani; B. Vlahovic; J. Watson; C. F. Williamson; H. Witala; B. Wojtsekhowski; F. Xiong; W. Xu; J. Yeh; P. Zolnierczuk

2007-01-01

269

Effects of design factors on store image and expectation of merchandise quality in web-based stores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates two design factors of store atmosphere in relation to store image and consumers' expectations of merchandise quality for web-based stores. We address this purpose through the use of the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model on which five hypotheses were drawn based on research conducted with brick-and-mortar and web-based stores. In order to test the hypotheses, four treatment combination stimuli

Jungmi Oh; Susan S. Fiorito; Hira Choc; Charles F. Hofacker

270

Experimental factors affecting the quality and reproducibility of MALDI TOF mass spectra obtained from whole bacteria cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous experimental factors are shown to significantly influence the spectra obtained when bacteria are analyzed by MALDI\\u000a TOF\\/MS. Detailed investigation of the instrument parameters and sample preparation are all shown to influence the spectra.\\u000a Of these, the preanalysis sample preparation steps incorporate the most important elements influencing the quality and reproducibility\\u000a of the spectra. Some of the most important sample

Tracie L. Williams; Denis Andrzejewski; Jackson O. Lay; Steven M. Musser

2003-01-01

271

Psychosocial factors and quality of life in children and adolescents with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data exist on the quality of life in children and adolescents with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). The objective of this study was to determine whether anxiety, depression, family functioning, and quality of life are related to cardiac illness severity in pediatric patients with ICDs. The subjects were 20 patients (mean age 14.8 years; median 15.1, range 9 to 19) who

David Ray DeMaso; Allison Lauretti; Leslie Spieth; Julie R. Van Der Feen; Kathleen S. Jay; Kimberlee Gauvreau; Edward P. Walsh; Charles I. Berul

2004-01-01

272

Effects of Natural and Human Factors on Stream Water Quality in Central Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program conducts research to provide an understanding of the water-quality conditions in more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems across the country that constitute a significant part of the Nation's water supply and are representative of the Na- tion's major hydrologic landscapes, priority ecoregions, and agricultural, urban, and natural sources

David W. Anning

273

Health related quality of life in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and factors with impact: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background The assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) has been applied as a significant outcome indicator for patients with chronic diseases. No HRQOL study, however, has looked at HRQOL in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. This paper focuses on comparing HRQOL in patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers and examining the factors that influence the HRQOL of such patients. Results can be used for making decisions in clinical trials as well as aiding individual management and preventive care of these diseases. Methods The Chinese version of the SF-36 (CSF-36) was administered twice to 244 patients with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers. Mean scores across the two disease groups were compared using t-tests, change over time was analyzed with paired samples t-tests, and factors predicting HRQOL were investigated using the univariate general linear model. Results The mean domain scores of patients with chronic gastritis were lower than those for patients with peptic ulcers, with the exception of physical functioning. Both groups had lower HRQOL compared with population norms. Mean domain scores increased after treatment in both groups. HRQOL in patients with these two chronic diseases differed by age, education level, marriage, income, and gender, but their explanatory power was relatively low. Conclusion Quality of life of patients with chronic gastritis was lower than that of patients with peptic ulcers, which was lower than population norms. Quality of life in both patients groups was associated with socio-demographic risk factors. PMID:25141760

2014-01-01

274

Factors Associated With Visually Assessed Quality of Movement During a Lateral Step-down Test Among Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain.  

PubMed

Study Design Cross-sectional. Objective To determine what physical measures are associated with visually assessed quality of movement among patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Background An altered movement pattern has been implicated as a risk factor for PFP. An understanding of physical measures associated with an altered movement pattern could potentially help guide prevention and management efforts in patients with PFP. Methods Seventy-nine (40 women) Israel Defense Forces soldiers referred to physical therapy with a diagnosis of PFP were included. Movement pattern was assessed visually during a lateral step-down test and rated as "good" or "moderate," based on previously established criteria. Weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM); hip internal and external rotation ROM; and hip abduction, hip external rotation, and knee extension strength were also assessed. Differences in physical measures between those with good versus moderate quality of movement were assessed. Results Weight-bearing DF ROM was more limited among participants with a moderate quality of movement compared to those with a good quality of movement (P<.01). Among men, non-weight-bearing DF ROM was more limited in those with a moderate quality of movement as well (P<.01). In addition, quality of movement was associated with weight-bearing DF ROM for both women (r = -0.39, P = .01) and men (r = -0.46, P<.01), and with non-weight-bearing DF ROM for men (r = -0.66, P<.01). When the subgroup of participants who exhibited more than 25° of non-weight-bearing DF ROM was assessed, those with a good quality of movement displayed greater hip external rotator and knee extensor muscle strength compared with those with a moderate quality of movement (P<.01). Conclusion Ankle DF ROM should be assessed when patients with PFP demonstrate a lower quality of movement during a lateral step-down test. Lower hip muscle strength may be associated with lower quality of movement among patients with relatively greater ankle DF ROM. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(12):937-946. Epub 27 October 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.5507. PMID:25347229

Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Moran, Uria; Efergan, Arye; Geffen, Yehuda; Finestone, Aharon S

2014-12-01

275

Multivariate statistical analysis to identify the major factors governing groundwater quality in the coastal area of Kimje, South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study is to identify the major factors affecting groundwater quality by means of multivariate statistical analysis of the physico-chemical compositions. Cluster analysis results show that the groundwater in the study area is classified into four groups (A, B, C and D), and factor analysis indicates that groundwater composition, 81.9% of the total variance of 17 variables, is mainly affected by three factors: seawater intrusion, microbial activity and chemical fertilizers. These results might be related to the geographical characteristics of the study area. The main influence on groundwater in groups B, C and D, which are close to the Yellow Sea and contain reclaimed areas, is the seawater intrusion by the present seawater, the trapped seawater, and microbial activity. Group A, however, has been used for agriculture for a long time, and thus groundwater in this group has been largely affected by chemical fertilizers. As groundwater flows from group A to group D according to its path, the governing factor of the groundwater quality gradually changes from chemical fertilizers to microbial activity and seawater intrusion.

Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Rak-Hyeon; Lee, Jeongho; Cheong, Tae-Jin; Yum, Byoung-Woo; Chang, Ho-Wan

2005-04-01

276

Physical-Chemical Factors Affecting the Low Quality of Natural Water in the Khibiny Massif  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One peculiarity of the Khibiny Massif is its spatial location. Rising over 1000 m above the surrounding hilly land and thus obstructing the passage of air masses, it promotes condensation and accumulation of surface and underground water. Annual precipitation here amounts to 600-700 mm in the valleys and up to 1600 mm on mountainous plateaus. Using this water for drinking and household purposes is problematic due to excess Al and F concentrations and high pH values. Now it is known that in its profile, the Massif is represented by three hydrogeological subzones: the upper (aerated), medium and lower ones. The upper subzone spreads throughout the Massif and is affected by the local drainage network and climatic conditions. The medium subzone is permanently saturated with underground water flowing horizontally to sites of discharge at the level of local river valleys and lakes. The fissure-vein water in the lower subzone is confined to tectonic fractures and faults in the so far underexplored, deeper parts of the Massif. Being abundant, this water ascends under high pressure. At places, water has been observed spurting from as deep as 700 m, and even 960 m. In the latter case, the temperature of ascending water was higher than 18 centigrade (Hydrogeology of the USSR, V. 27, 1971). This work was undertaken to reveal the nature of the low quality of water in the Khibiny by using physical-chemical modeling (software package Selector, Chudnenko, 2010). Processes of surface and underground water formation in the Khibiny were examined within a physical-chemical model (PCM) of the "water-rock-atmosphere-hydrogen" system. In a multi-vessel model used, each vessel represented a geochemical level of the process interpreted as spatiotemporal data - ? (Karpov, 1981). The flow reactor consisted of 4 tanks. In the first tank, water of the Kuniok River (1000 L) interacted with atmosphere and an organic substance. The resulting solution proceeded to tanks 2-4 containing with underlying rocks (100g of each) to interact with them following the preset process level, the water-rock ratio being ? = 1.0; 0.8; 0.6; 0.2 at temperatures (5, 5, 3, 3 centigrade) and pressures (1, 2, 2, 3 bar), respectively. The model had been reliably verified in the aeration zone monitored in the course of the years 2001 and 2010. Analysis of the chemical composition of deeper water-bearing strata has required to increase the intensity of the water-rock interactions in tank 3 (from 0.2 to 0) and tank 4 (from 0 to -0.2) and simultaneously increase the temperature: (5, 10, 10 centigrade) in the third and (10, 18, 25 centigrade) in the fourth. At the value of ?= -0.2 in the temperature range of 18-25 centigrade, the component contents in tank 4 were observed to change (mg/l): Al (8.10-4 -1.10-3), HCO3- (67-69), Na (25-26,9), Cl (6-6,38), F(0.522-0.882) giving rise to new mineral phases, which agreed with the monitoring data of 1996-1997. The pH values in this case were close to 9. Our findings suggest that factors contributing to changing redox conditions, responsible for the formation of soda and abrupt increment of HCO3-, fluorine and aluminum concentrations, are time and temperature.

Mazukhina, Svetlana; Masloboev, Vladimir; Chudnenko, Konstantin; Maksimova, Viktoriia; Belkina, Natalia

2014-05-01

277

Impacts of preharvest factors during kernel development on rice quality and functionality.  

PubMed

Rice quality and functionality are characterized in many ways, depending largely on the industry segment using the rice. These characteristics include appearance, milling, and cooking parameters. Recently, variable quality of rice grown in the United States has been reported, but the cause was not well documented. Agronomic impacts include planting time, irrigation and fertility, cultivar selection, and harvest conditions. However, recent research suggests that ambient air temperature, specifically elevated nighttime air temperature (NTAT) during grain filling, dramatically affects the variability of rice milling quality, in terms of milled- and head-rice yields; appearance, in terms of chalkiness; and functional characteristics, including viscosity profiles, gelatinization temperatures, and proximate concentrations. Future research is needed to develop cultivars that are resistant to stress resulting from elevated NTAT during the critical period of grain filling, and, for the near term, to develop altered production management practices that mitigate elevated-temperature stress. PMID:23464570

Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Grigg, Brandon C; Lanning, Sarah B

2013-01-01

278

Factors Related to Quality of Life in Treatment-Adherent, Successfully Treated HIV Patients in France  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to document the psychosocial characteristics of treatment-adherent, successfully treated HIV patients and to examine the relationships between psychosocial variables. The sample was composed of 133 persons living with HIV, with optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy and with no detectable viral load. The psychosocial profile of the cohort showed that participants had moderate levels of stress, used a wide range of strategies to adjust to their situation and perceived their social support to be good. As well, they evaluated their quality of life (Medical Outcome Study-HIV) as moderate. Quality of life in psychological domain is largely explained by perceived stress (53%). Quality of life in physical domain is largely dependent on discomfort reported arising from HIV-associated symptoms and treatment (39%). Findings suggest that treatment-adherent, successfully treated patients with HIV are still a fragile population, and that it is essential to provide interventions that reinforce their ways of coping. PMID:19543547

Cote, Jose; Delmas, Philippe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Sylvain, Helene; Delon, Simone; Rouleau, Genevieve

2009-01-01

279

Is parental rearing an associated factor of quality of life in adulthood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine the hypothesis that favorable parental rearing is associated with better quality of life in adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two hundred and ninety seven university students answered questions on quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), parenting style (s-EMBU),\\u000a coping strategies (Coping Strategies Inventory), life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and depressive symptoms (Beck\\u000a Depression Inventory). Data was analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple linear

Jacques J. Zimmermann; Martin R. Eisemann; Marcelo P. Fleck

2008-01-01

280

Factors Affecting the Quality of Texas Butter as Revealed by a Statewide Survey.  

E-print Network

VALLEY x CREAMERIES CONTR~BUTEO SIMPLES DURlNO ENTIRE I?-MONTH PERIOD. Locntion of Creameries in Sections of Texas Which Were Represented in the Butter Quality Survey. ULLETIN I NO. 670, T EXAS AGR ,m " . LL EXPERI hods :MENT ST: ION A... VALLEY x CREAMERIES CONTR~BUTEO SIMPLES DURlNO ENTIRE I?-MONTH PERIOD. Locntion of Creameries in Sections of Texas Which Were Represented in the Butter Quality Survey. ULLETIN I NO. 670, T EXAS AGR ,m " . LL EXPERI hods :MENT ST: ION A...

Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah); Arbuckle, W. S. (Wendell Sherwood); Hanson, F. E. (Frank Edwin)

1945-01-01

281

Influence of natural factors on the quality of midwestern streams and rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams flowing through cropland in the Midwestern Corn Belt differ considerably in their chemical and ecological characteristics, even though agricultural land use is highly intensive throughout the entire region. These differences likely are attributable to differences in riparian vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology. This conclusion is based on results from a study of the upper Midwest region conducted during seasonally low-flow conditions in August 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report summarizes significant results from the study and presents some implications for the design and interpretation of water-quality monitoring and assessment studies based on these results.

Porter, Stephen D.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

282

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Clark, Mr

2012-10-31

283

The study of influenced factors affecting to quality of cylindrical grinding harden AISI 4140 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study factors, which were affected on surface roughness and roundness in cylindrical grinding of harden AISI 4140 steel. Specimen used in the experiment was AISI 4140 steel that hardening at 51±3 HRC. Studied factors were consisted of revolution speed of workpiece, feed rate, and depth of cut. Full factorial experimental design was conducted

Komson Jirapatarasilp; Sittichai Kaewkuekool; P. Klahan

2010-01-01

284

Improving the Quality and Scientific Understanding of Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)  

EPA Science Inventory

This short 1000 word report presents a series of research needs for improving the measurement and understanding of trophic magnification factors (TMFs). TMFs are useful measures of trophic magnification and represent the diet-weighted average biomagnification factor (BMF) of che...

285

Evaluated cross section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N  

SciTech Connect

We present evaluations of the interaction of 20 to 100 MeV neutrons with oxygen and nitrogen nuclei, which follows on from our previous work on carbon. Our aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. We apply the FKK-GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. We determine total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra, for light ejectiles with A{<=}4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions. Our results for charged-particle emission spectra agree well with the measurements of Subramanian et al.. We compare kerma factors derived from our evaluated cross sections with experimental data, providing an integral benchmarking of our work. The evaluated data libraries are available as electronic files.

Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

1995-07-01

286

Evaluated cross section libraries and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 31}P  

SciTech Connect

The authors present evaluations of the interaction of 20 to 100 MeV neutrons with calcium and phosphorus, which follows on from the previous work on carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. They apply the GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. Total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra for light ejectiles with A {le} 4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions, are determined. The expected accuracy of the calculated cross sections and kerma factors is discussed.

Chadwick, M.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Data Group

1995-11-01

287

The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G{sup n}E/G{sup n}M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic {sup 2}H({rvec e},e/{rvec n}){sup 1}H reaction at three values of Q{sup 2} [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2}] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c){sup 2} are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G{sup n}E at Q{sup 2} = 1.47 (GeV/c){sup 2} lies slightly above the Galster parameterization.

Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

2003-07-30

288

Psychological factors and asthma quality of life: a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reports of psychological conditions in asthmatic subjects have been limited to certain population groups or convenience samples. A study was undertaken of the prevalence of psychological distress in asthma in the general population and its associations with quality of life.Methods: The WANTS Health and Well-being Survey is a population household interview survey of adults (age ?18) in Western Australia,

R J Adams; D H Wilson; A W Taylor; A Daly; E Tursan d’Espaignet; E Dal Grande; R E Ruffin

2004-01-01

289

Study of factors affecting syngas quality and their interactions in fluidized bed gasification of lignite coal  

E-print Network

of lignite coal Shayan Karimipour a , Regan Gerspacher b , Rajender Gupta a , Raymond J. Spiteri c. " The syngas quality was defined based on conversion, H2/CO, CH4/H2, yield, and gasifier efficiency. " Low coal 2012 Keywords: Lignite coal Gasification Fluidized bed Design of experiments a b s t r a c t A series

Spiteri, Raymond J.

290

Quality of offspring? Sociocultural factors, pre-natal testing and reproductive decision-making in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is one of the few countries to have enacted legislation on eugenics. Consequently, there has been active public debate about the practice of selective abortion for over 35 years. Furthermore, discrimination against disabilities is deep-rooted in Japanese society and the quality of offspring is a common concern. Given this background, the obvious conclusion might be that couples in Japan

Masae Kato

2010-01-01

291

Effects of Paper Manufacturing Factors on Inkjet Print Quality and Lightfastness  

E-print Network

. The inkjet print quality is highly dependent on the print head, media and ink properties and software [3, Kalamazoo MI, USA (* Present Address Hewlett Packard Corporation, San Diego, CA) Abstract Digital Imaging is generally supported by color digital printing method. Color Inkjet Printing is one of the digital color

Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

292

Factors Affecting Sperm Quality Before and After Mating of Calopterygid Damselflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera) have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm

Kaori Tsuchiya; Fumio Hayashi

2010-01-01

293

Evaluation of the Factors That Determine Quality in Higher Education: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the quality determinants for education services provided by higher education institutions (HEIs) in Greece and to measure their relative importance from the students' points of view. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-criteria decision-making methodology was used for assessing the relative importance…

Tsinidou, Maria; Gerogiannis, Vassilis; Fitsilis, Panos

2010-01-01

294

Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

2011-01-01

295

A Taxonomy of Factors to Promote Quality Web-Supported Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a case study of the e-learning production unit at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Phase 1 of the study, completed in 2003, was the design and development of a process-based quality management system for web-supported learning (WSL) using a basic ISO 9000 approach (University of Pretoria, 2003). The second phase,…

Fresen, Jill

2007-01-01

296

Some factors affecting EBSD pattern quality of Ga + ion-milled face centred cubic metal surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a DualBeam™ platform, it is possible to generate crystallographic volumes of microstructure by sequentially milling submicron slices of a material using the focused ion beam (FIB) and mapping each newly created surface using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The present work describes the influence of some FIB milling parameters on the quality of EBSD patterns obtained on ion-milled surfaces of

N. Mateescu; M. Ferry; W. Xu; J. M. Cairney

2007-01-01

297

Linking Public Attitudes with Perceptions of Factors Impacting Water Quality and Attending Learning Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, people are being asked to make decisions about water use in the semi-arid regions of the United States. "Good decisions" depend on an understanding of the linkages between sustainability of the resource, management, and economic development. This article reports on findings from a water quality survey conducted in Colorado, Montana,…

Clay, D. E.; Ren, C.; Reese, C.; Waskom, R.; Bauder, J.; Mesner, N.; Paige, G.; Reddy, K.; Neibauer, M.; Mahler, R.

2007-01-01

298

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: Factors influencing water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple

David Whitall; W. Dean Hively; Andrew K. Leight; Cathleen J. Hapeman; Laura L. McConnell; Thomas Fisher; Clifford P. Rice; Eton Codling; Gregory W. McCarty; Ali M. Sadeghi; Anne Gustafson; Krystyna Bialek

2010-01-01

299

Quality of life in relation to social and disease factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic patients are more than twice as costly to manage as non-diabetic patients, due mainly to the high costs associated with management of diabetic complications. As in most nations of the world, the number of patients with DM is increasing every year in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to determine relation between quality of the life and disease and social factors of patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania. Material/Methods Independently prepared questions about the subjects of the survey were: gender; age; weight; education; social and marital status; duration of the disease (in years); treatment method; complications; morbidity with arterial hypertension; change in dietary habits after diagnosis of diabetes (started to eat accordingly to recommendations of the therapist); how often nourishment is taken accordingly to recommendations of the therapist; if beginning to exercise after diagnosis of the diabetes; and if exercising, exercises at least 2–3 times per week. Body mass index was calculated as the relation between body mass in kg and height m square (BMI=kg/m2). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale was used for the evaluation of depression and anxiety. Quality of life of patients was evaluated with the SF-36 questionnaire. We surveyed 1022 patients with type 2 diabetes (372 men and 650 women). Association between quality of the life and explanatory parameters (disease and social factors) were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results We found that women had lower scores than men in all fields of quality of life (p<0.001). Peroral treatment had a positive impact on the quality of life (QL) fields of the role limitations due to emotional problems (ORa 0.16. 95% CI 0.07–0.34; p<0.001). Treatment with insulin had a positive effect on restriction of activity because of emotional problems (ORa ? 0.23. 95% CI 0.11–0.49; p<0.001) and mental health (ORa ? 0.38. 95% CI 0.19–0.78; p=0.008), but had a negative impact on bodily pain (ORa ? 3.95. 95% CI 1.41–11.09; p=0.009) and physical health (ORa ? 4.14. 95% CI 2.03–8.47; p<0.001). Conclusions Age and BMI are less important factors that can influence quality of life. Peroral treatment positively acted on the role limitations due to emotional problems, bodily pain, and mental health, but had a strong negative effect on emotional state. PMID:23462804

Mikailiukstiene, Aldona; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Narkauskaite, Laura; Zagminas, Kestutis; Salyga, Jonas; Stukas, Rimantas

2013-01-01

300

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: factors influencing water quality.  

PubMed

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy. PMID:20171715

Whitall, David; Hively, W Dean; Leight, Andrew K; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Fisher, Thomas; Rice, Clifford P; Codling, Eton; McCarty, Gregory W; Sadeghi, Ali M; Gustafson, Anne; Bialek, Krystyna

2010-04-01

301

Pollutant fate and spatio-temporal variability in the choptank river estuary: Factors influencing water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration of the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States, is a national priority. Documentation of progress of this restoration effort is needed. A study was conducted to examine water quality in the Choptank River estuary, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay that since 1998 has been classified as impaired waters under the Federal Clean Water Act. Multiple water quality parameters (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) and analyte concentrations (nutrients, herbicide and herbicide degradation products, arsenic, and copper) were measured at seven sampling stations in the Choptank River estuary. Samples were collected under base flow conditions in the basin on thirteen dates between March 2005 and April 2008. As commonly observed, results indicate that agriculture is a primary source of nitrate in the estuary and that both agriculture and wastewater treatment plants are important sources of phosphorus. Concentrations of copper in the lower estuary consistently exceeded both chronic and acute water quality criteria, possibly due to use of copper in antifouling boat paint. Concentrations of copper in the upstream watersheds were low, indicating that agriculture is not a significant source of copper loading to the estuary. Concentrations of herbicides (atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor) peaked during early-summer, indicating a rapid surface-transport delivery pathway from agricultural areas, while their degradation products (CIAT, CEAT, MESA, and MOA) appeared to be delivered via groundwater transport. Some in-river processing of CEAT occurred, whereas MESA was conservative. Observed concentrations of herbicide residues did not approach established levels of concern for aquatic organisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of continued implementation of best management practices to improve water quality in the estuary. This work provides a baseline against which to compare future changes in water quality and may be used to design future monitoring programs needed to assess restoration strategy efficacy.

Whitall, D.; Hively, W. D.; Leight, A. K.; Hapeman, C. J.; McConnell, L. L.; Fisher, T.; Rice, C. P.; Codling, E.; McCarty, G. W.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Gustafson, A.; Bialek, K.

2010-01-01

302

Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

2014-01-01

303

Knee Pain and Its Severity in Elderly Koreans: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the epidemiology (prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life) of knee pain and its severity in elderly Koreans. The subjects (n=3,054) were participants aged ?50 yr from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010. Knee pain was defined as pain in the knee lasting ?30 days during the most recent 3 months; severity was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. EQ-5D was used to measure quality of life. The prevalence of knee pain was 23.1% (11.7% in men, 31.9% in women). The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe knee pain were 4.3%, 9.1%, and 9.7%, respectively (2.8%, 5.4%, and 3.5% in men and 5.4%, 12.0%, and 14.4% in women). Old age, female gender, a low level of education, a manual occupation, obesity, and radiographic osteoarthritis were risk factors for knee pain, and were associated with increased severity of knee pain. Excluding men with mild knee pain, people with knee pain had significantly lower quality of life than those without knee pain. Early interventional approaches are needed to reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of knee pain in elderly Koreans. PMID:24339713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Sung, Nak-Jeong

2013-01-01

304

Electron beam quality kQ,Q0 factors for various ionization chambers: a Monte Carlo investigation with penelope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we calculate the beam quality correction factor {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} for various plane-parallel ionization chambers. A set of Monte Carlo calculations using the code penelope/penEasy have been carried out to calculate the overall correction factor fc,Q for eight electron beams corresponding to a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D, with nominal energies ranging between 6 MeV and 22 MeV, for a 60Co beam, that has been used as the reference quality Q0 and also for eight monoenergetic electron beams reproducing the quality index R50 of the Clinac beams. Two field sizes, 10 × 10 cm2 and 20 × 20 cm2 have been considered. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} factors have been calculated as the ratio between fc,Q and {{f}\\text{c,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} . Values for the Exradin A10, A11, A11TW, P11, P11TW, T11 and T11TW ionization chambers, manufactured by Standard Imaging, as well as for the NACP-02 have been obtained. The results found with the Clinac beams for the two field sizes analyzed show differences below 0.6%, even in the case of the higher energy electron beams. The {{k}\\text{Q,{{\\text{Q}}0}}} values obtained with the Clinac beams are 1% larger than those found with the monoenergetic beams for the higher energies, above 12 MeV. This difference can be ascribed to secondary photons produced in the linac head and the air path towards the phantom. Contrary to what was quoted in a previous work (Sempau et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4427–44), the beam quality correction factors obtained with the complete Clinac geometries and with the monoenergetic beams differ significantly for energies above 12 MeV. Material differences existing between chambers that have the same geometry produce non-negligible modifications in the value of these correction factors.

Erazo, F.; Brualla, L.; Lallena, A. M.

2014-11-01

305

Sleep quality and acute pain severity among young adults with and without chronic pain: the role of biobehavioral factors.  

PubMed

Adequate sleep is essential for health across the lifespan and is likely to be influenced by different factors among those with chronic pain than among others. Questionnaires were administered to 362 college students, some of whom reported chronic pain from varied sources. Among chronic pain sufferers (n = 108), pain severity was uniquely associated with sleep quality after controlling for gender, BMI, perceived health, health behaviors, depressed mood, perceived stress, and scholastic/interpersonal self-esteem. For these participants, perceived health, alcohol use, pain medication use, and depressed mood were also associated with sleep quality, whereas for participants with non-chronic recent pain (n = 129) only perceived health and depressed mood predicted sleep. Individuals with both chronic pain and high stress had the worst sleep. Stress, alcohol use, pain, and mood may contribute to poor sleep among young adults with pain, which could lead to a cycle of long-term health problems. PMID:20464629

Graham, Jennifer E; Streitel, Katherine L

2010-10-01

306

A Prescribed Fire Emission Factors Database for Land Management and Air Quality Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act, its amendments, and air quality regulations require that prescribed fire managers estimate the quantity of emissions that a prescribed fire will produce. Information on emissions is available for these calculations; however, it is often incomplete or difficult to find. Tables and computer models can also provide some of this information, but the quality and applicability of the data to a specific site are unknown. In conjunction with three research projects developing new emissions data and meteorological tools to assist prescribed fire managers, the Resource Conservation and Climate Change Program Area of the Department of Defense's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program is supporting development of a database that contains emissions information related to prescribed burning. Ultimately the vetted database will be available on the Internet and will contain emissions information that has been developed from laboratory and field-scale measurements and has been published.

Lincoln, Emily; Hao, WeiMin; Baker, S.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Urbanski, Shawn; Miller, J. Wayne; Weise, David; Johnson, Timothy J.

2010-12-20

307

Understanding Critical Factors for the Quality and Shelflife of MAP Fresh Meat: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to increased demands for greater stringency in relation to hygiene and safety issues associated with fresh food products, coupled with ever-increasing demands by retailers for cost-effective extensions to product shelf-lives and the requirement to meet consumer expectations in relation to convenience and quality, the food packaging industry has rapidly developed to meet and satisfy expectations. One of the areas

Preeti Singh; Ali Abas Wani; Sven Saengerlaub; Horst-Christian Langowski

2011-01-01

308

Early childhood factors influencing health-related quality of life in adolescents at 13 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To understand the relationship of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) to early life experience. Methodology: Eight thousand five hundred and fifty-six women enrolled in a prospective study at their first antenatal clinic visit. At 13 years, of 5345 women remaining, a consecutive sample of 901 mother\\/child pairs provided data on adolescent HR-QOL using the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Report form

AJ Wilkins; MJ O'Callaghan; JM Najman; W Bor; GM Williams; G Shuttlewood

2004-01-01

309

Efficiency Effects of Quality of Service and Environmental Factors: Experience from Norwegian Electricity Distribution  

E-print Network

. Introduction Since the 1990s, the use of incentive-based regulation in network industries has been on the rise in tandem with the liberalisation trend in infrastructure sectors. While market mechanisms have been introduced in the potentially competitive... of Quality of Service: An Application to the UK Electricity Distribution Networks, Energy Policy 33 (17), 2256-2271. Greene, W. (2004), Distinguishing between Heterogeneity and Inefficiency: Stochastic Frontier Analysis of the World Health Organization...

Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Wetzel, Heike

310

Quality of life in head and neck cancers patients: predictive factors, functional and psychosocial outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal endpoints in head and neck cancer are survival with improvement of quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients.\\u000a Patients treated for head and neck cancer suffer from a number of symptom domains: physical symptoms linked to diet and feeding,\\u000a communication disorders, pain and their general state of health; psychological symptoms including depression, irritability,\\u000a loss of self-esteem (occasionally feelings

E. Babin; E. Sigston; M. Hitier; D. Dehesdin; J. P. Marie; O. Choussy

2008-01-01

311

Factors Affecting Sperm Quality Before and After Mating of Calopterygid Damselflies  

PubMed Central

Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera) have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm) at each stage of mating and after different storage times in male and female reproductive organs in two damselfly species, Mnais pruinosa and Calopteryx cornelia. Viability of stored sperm in females was lower than that of male stores even just after copulation. Male sperm vesicles were not equipped to maintain sperm quality for longer periods than the internal reproductive organs. However, the sperm vesicles were only used for short-term storage; therefore, this process appeared unlikely to reduce sperm viability when transferred to the female. Males remove rival sperm prior to transfer of their own ejaculate using a peculiar-shaped aedeagus, but sperm removal by males is not always complete. Thus, dilution occurs between newly received sperm and aged sperm already stored in the female, causing lower viability of sperm inside the female than that of sperm transferred by males. If females do not remate, sperm viability gradually decreases with the duration of storage. Frequent mating of females may therefore contribute to the maintenance of high sperm quality. PMID:20361037

Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

2010-01-01

312

Factors affecting sperm quality before and after mating of calopterygid damselflies.  

PubMed

Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera) have a more complex sperm transfer system than other internally ejaculating insects. Males translocate sperm from the internal reproductive organs to the specific sperm vesicles, a small cavity on the body surface, and then transfer them into the female. To examine how the additional steps of sperm transfer contribute to decreases in sperm quality, we assessed sperm viability (the proportion of live sperm) at each stage of mating and after different storage times in male and female reproductive organs in two damselfly species, Mnais pruinosa and Calopteryx cornelia. Viability of stored sperm in females was lower than that of male stores even just after copulation. Male sperm vesicles were not equipped to maintain sperm quality for longer periods than the internal reproductive organs. However, the sperm vesicles were only used for short-term storage; therefore, this process appeared unlikely to reduce sperm viability when transferred to the female. Males remove rival sperm prior to transfer of their own ejaculate using a peculiar-shaped aedeagus, but sperm removal by males is not always complete. Thus, dilution occurs between newly received sperm and aged sperm already stored in the female, causing lower viability of sperm inside the female than that of sperm transferred by males. If females do not remate, sperm viability gradually decreases with the duration of storage. Frequent mating of females may therefore contribute to the maintenance of high sperm quality. PMID:20361037

Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

2010-01-01

313

Factors affecting baseline quality of life in two international adjuvant breast cancer trials. International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG).  

PubMed Central

Quality of life (QL) is used to assess treatments in clinical trials but may be influenced by other factors. We analysed the impact of biomedical, sociodemographic and cultural factors on baseline QL indicators in two International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. Patients with stage II breast cancer were randomized within 6 weeks of primary surgery to various adjuvant treatments. They were asked to assess five indicators of QL at baseline. QL forms were available for 1231 (83%) of the 1475 premenopausal and 989 (82%) of the 1212 post-menopausal patients, who were from nine countries and spoke seven languages. Culture (defined as language/country groups) had a statistically significant impact on baseline QL measures. Premenopausal patients with poor prognostic factors showed a tendency to report worse QL, with oestrogen receptor status as an independent predictor for mood (P = 0.0005). Older post-menopausal patients reported better emotional wellbeing (P = 0.002), mood (P = 0.002), and less effort to cope (P = 0.0009) compared with younger post-menopausal patients. Co-morbidity, type of surgery, treatment assignment and sociodemographic factors showed a statistically significant impact in post-menopausal patients only. Cultural and biomedical factors influenced baseline QL and should be considered when evaluating the impact of treatment on QL in international breast cancer clinical trials. PMID:9744512

Bernhard, J.; Hurny, C.; Coates, A. S.; Peterson, H. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Galligioni, E.; Marini, G.; Thurlimann, B.; Forbes, J. F.; Goldhirsch, A.; Senn, H. J.; Rudenstam, C. M.

1998-01-01

314

Factors associated with quality of services for marginalized groups with mental health problems in 14 European countries  

PubMed Central

Background Different service characteristics are known to influence mental health care delivery. Much less is known about the impact of contextual factors, such as the socioeconomic circumstances, on the provision of care to socially marginalized groups. The objectives of this work were to assess the organisational characteristics of services providing mental health care for marginalized groups in 14 European capital cities and to explore the associations between organisational quality, service features and country-level characteristics. Methods 617 services were assessed in two highly deprived areas in 14 European capital cities. A Quality Index of Service Organisation (QISO) was developed and applied across all sites. Service characteristics and country level socioeconomic indicators were tested and related with the Index using linear regressions and random intercept linear models. Results The mean (standard deviation) of the QISO score (minimum?=?0; maximum?=?15) varied from 8.63 (2.23) in Ireland to 12.40 (2.07) in Hungary. The number of different programmes provided was the only service characteristic significantly correlated with the QISO (p?factors, in particular the national GDP are likely to influence the organisational quality of services providing mental health care for marginalized groups. Such factors should be considered in international comparative studies. Their significance for different types of services should be explored in further research. PMID:24490720

2014-01-01

315

A contour-mode film bulk acoustic resonator of high quality factor in a liquid environment for biosensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter reports an acoustic resonator of high quality factors (Qs) operating in liquid media. The film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is made of a ring-shaped piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin film, and is excited in a contour mode. By having a low motional resistance upon coupling with liquids, the contour mode FBAR achieved Qs up to 189, more than 12× over the state-of-the-art FBARs in liquids. The resonator was characterized by an aptamer—thrombin binding pair for a biosensor and showed a mass resolution of 1.78 ng/cm2.

Xu, Wencheng; Choi, Seokheun; Chae, Junseok

2010-02-01

316

Instrumentation with polarized neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron scattering with polarization analysis is an indispensable tool for the investigation of novel materials exhibiting electronic, magnetic, and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition, polarized neutrons are necessary for neutron spin precession techniques that path the way to obtain extremely high resolution in space and time. Last but not least, polarized neutrons are being used for fundamental studies as well as very recently for neutron imaging. Many years ago, neutron beam lines were simply adapted for polarized beam applications by adding polarizing elements leading usually to unacceptable losses in neutron intensity. Recently, an increasing number of beam lines are designed such that an optimum use of polarized neutrons is facilitated. In addition, marked progress has been obtained in the technology of 3He polarizers and the reflectivity of large- m supermirrors. Therefore, if properly designed, only factors of approximately 2-3 in neutron intensity are lost. It is shown that S-benders provide neutron beams with an almost wavelength independent polarization. Using twin cavities, polarized beams with a homogeneous phase space and P>0.99 can be produced without significantly sacrificing intensity. It is argued that elliptic guides, which are coated with large m polarizing supermirrors, provide the highest flux.

Böni, P.; Münzer, W.; Ostermann, A.

2009-09-01

317

Structural equation model of factors related to quality of life for community-dwelling schizophrenic patients in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to clarify how community mental healthcare systems can be improved. Methods We included 79 schizophrenic patients, aged 20 to 80 years, residing in the Tokyo metropolitan area who regularly visited rehabilitation facilities offering assistance to psychiatric patients and were receiving treatment on an outpatient basis. No subjects had severe cognitive disorders or were taking medication with side effects that could prevent the completion of questionnaires. Questionnaires included items related to quality of life, self-efficacy, self-esteem, psychosis based on the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale, health locus of control, and socio-demographic factors. We performed multiple linear regression analysis with quality of life as the dependent variable and, based on covariance structural analysis, evaluated the goodness of fit of the resulting structural equations models. Results Self-efficacy, self-esteem, and degree of psychosis significantly impacted quality of life. Marital status, age, and types of medications also influenced quality of life. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed psychiatric symptoms (Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-32 [daily living and role functioning] (Beta?=??0.537, p?quality of life score. Based on covariance structural analysis, the resulting model was found to exhibit reasonable goodness of fit. Conclusions Self-efficacy had an especially strong and direct impact on QOL. Therefore, it is important to provide more positive feedback to patients, provide social skills training based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and engage patients in role playing to improve self-efficacy and self-concept. PMID:25101143

2014-01-01

318

Use of fast neutrons for assessing sarcopenia by measuring body phosphorus: relevance to health and quality of life of the elderly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sarcopenia, defined as the loss of skeletal muscle with age, may lead to frailty, fractures due to falls, and reduced immunity to disease. By understanding the causes of muscle loss with age we will be able to develop ways of maintaining functional capacity and quality of life for the elderly. Elemental Partition Analysis (EPA) is a new approach to body composition assessment. A major element of the body is measured and then, by means of other measurements, is partitioned to the contributing body compartments. We developed a model for measuring total body muscle by applying the EPA method to total body phosphorus (TBP). We measure TBP by in vivo fast neutron activation analysis using the reaction 31P(n,(alpha) )28Al. The main contributors to TBP are bone and skeletal muscle. Adipose tissue and the liver contribute less than 3 percent. We use dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate the contribution of bone to TBP. COrrections are applied for the small contributions of the liver and adipose tissue to TBP to derive muscle phosphorus. The technique requires high precision measurements for both TBP and DXA. The total body radiation exposure for measuring human subjects is 0.30 mSv.

Kehayias, Joseph J.; Zhuang, Hong; Doherty, Patricia L.

1997-02-01

319

Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2012-03-15

320

Aluminum nitride piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavity with high quality factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a piezoelectrically actuated, one-dimensional acoustic and photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated from aluminum nitride (AlN). Through simultaneous band structure engineering in both photonic and acoustic domains, we obtain high-quality piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities with intrinsic optical Q of 1.2 × 105. The piezoelectric actuation of the confined mechanical mode at 3.18 GHz is demonstrated with mechanical Q exceeding 10 000. Such piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities will find important applications in cavity optomechanics that desire effective coupling to the electrical degree of freedom.

Fan, Linran; Sun, Xiankai; Xiong, Chi; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X.

2013-04-01

321

Probing shell structure and shape changes in neutron-rich sulfur isotopes through transient-field g factor measurements on fast radioactive beams of 38S and 40S  

E-print Network

The shell structure underlying shape changes in neutron-rich nuclei near N=28 has been investigated by a novel application of the transient field technique to measure the first-excited state g factors in 38S and 40S produced as fast radioactive beams. There is a fine balance between proton and neutron contributions to the magnetic moments in both nuclei. The g factor of deformed 40S does not resemble that of a conventional collective nucleus because spin contributions are more important than usual.

A. D. Davies; A. E. Stuchbery; P. F. Mantica; P. M. Davidson; A. N. Wilson; A. Becerril; B. A. Brown; C. M. Campbell; J. M. Cook; D. C. Dinca; A. Gade; S. N. Liddick; T. J. Mertzimekis; W. F. Mueller; J. R. Terry; B. E. Tomlin; K. Yoneda; H. Zwahlen

2006-02-23

322

Development of Quality Criteria To Evaluate Nontherapeutic Studies of Incidence, Prevalence, or Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases: Pilot Study of New Checklists. Methods Research Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to develop two checklists for the quality of observational studies of incidence or risk factors of diseases. Initial development of the checklists was based on a systematic literature review. The checklists were refined after pilot trial...

D. Moher, G. Janes, G. Raman, M. Grant, M. Maglione, M. Nasser, M. R. Ansari, N. D. Berkman, R. L. Kane, T. A. Shamliyan

2011-01-01

323

Detection of GTA welding quality and disturbance factors with spectral signal of arc light  

Microsoft Academic Search

By just artificially causing disturbance factors, the change in the spectrum of the welding arc is studied in order to identify special spectral processing zones that could provide signals, with high signal to noise ratio, for a proper evaluation of the GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. Furthermore, the selected spectral processing zones were applied for in situ detection of

Li Zhiyong; Wang Bao; Ding Jingbin

2009-01-01

324

Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system  

SciTech Connect

Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K{sub d}`s > 10{sup 5} reach about 1 to 5 {mu}g/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed.

Johnson, V.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cutshall, N.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-08-01

325

Microdosimetry for boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

Preclinical studies for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using epithermal neutrons are ongoing at several laboratories. The absorbed dose in tumor cells is a function of the thermal neutron flux at depth, the microscopic boron concentration, and the size of the cell. Dosimetry is therefore complicated by the admixture of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons, plus gamma rays, and the array of secondary high-linear-energy-transfer particles produced within the patient from neutron interactions. Microdosimetry can be a viable technique for determining absorbed dose and radiation quality. A 2.5-cm-diameter tissue-equivalent gas proportional counter has been built with 50 parts per million (ppm) 10B incorporated into the walls and counting gas to simulate the boron uptake anticipated in tumors. Measurements of lineal energy (y) spectra for BNCT in simulated volumes of 1-10 microns diameter show a dose enhancement factor of 4.3 for 30 ppm boron, and a "y" of 250 keV/microns for the boron capture process. Chamber design plus details of experimental and calculated linear energy spectra will be presented. PMID:1594762

Wuu, C S; Amols, H I; Kliauga, P; Reinstein, L E; Saraf, S

1992-06-01

326

Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Quality Traceable System Established by Edible Agricultural Products Enterprises—Taking Sichuan as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the investigation data from 81 edible agricultural products enterprises in Sichuan Province, the influence factors of establishing quality tracing system are empirically analyzed from four aspects, including the enterprise features, the attitudes of operators, management and market competition by using the Logistic model. The results show that the enterprise can establish the quality tracing system after the comprehensive

Xiao Xie; Xiu-min Wu; Zhi-jing Zhao

2011-01-01

327

Associated factors to erosive tooth wear and its impact on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

To evaluate the presence and associated factors of erosive tooth wear (ETW) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as its impact on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Parents of 60 CP children, between 6 and 14 years of age, answered the Brazilian version of the parental-caregivers perception questionnaire (P-CPQ). The ETW diagnosis was performed by a single calibrated examiner according to the O'Brien´s modified index. Associated factors such as family income, behavioral factors, and type of CP were also collected. OHRQoL was measured through P-CPQ domains and total score, and Poisson regression was used to correlate ETW to associated factors and to the scores. ETW was present in 48.3% of the children. The multivariate adjusted model showed that the presence of ETW was associated with more than 2 days of soft drink intake per week (p = 0.003), daily intake of powdered juice (p = 0.002) and reported gastroesophageal reflux (p = 0.016). The family income higher than one Brazilian minimum wage showed a positive impact on the CP children's OHRQoL (RR = 0.53; p ? 0.001). ETW in CP children is associated to frequent consumption of soft drinks, powdered juices, and reported gastroesophageal reflux; however, ETW has not a negative impact on the OHRQoL. PMID:24738748

Abanto, Jenny; Shitsuka, Caleb; Murakami, Christiana; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Bönecker, Marcelo

2014-11-01

328

The N-Pact Factor: Evaluating the Quality of Empirical Journals with Respect to Sample Size and Statistical Power  

PubMed Central

The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)—the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings. PMID:25296159

Fraley, R. Chris; Vazire, Simine

2014-01-01

329

Neutron spectra around medical treatment facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron field condition in and around the treatment room of the neutron therapy facility at the research reactor FRM in Garching-München was studied for radiation protection purposes. Neutron spectrometry was conducted by using a 15-channel multisphere spectrometer. From the unfolded spectral shapes, averaged dose conversion coefficients were derived and correction factors for the reading of two neutron monitors obtained.

H. Schraube; P. Kneschaurek; G. Schraube; F. M Wagner; E. Weitzenegger

2002-01-01

330

Correlation between emission intensity of self-assembled germanium islands and quality factor of silicon photonic crystal nanocavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparative microphotoluminescence study of the emission intensity of self-assembled germanium islands coupled to the resonator mode of two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal defect nanocavities. The cavity-mode intensity is investigated for L3 and hexapole cavities with a range of different mode quality factors. For each type of cavity, many nominally identical samples are probed to obtain reliable statistics. As the cavity-mode quality factor increases, we observe a clear reduction of the average mode emission intensity under conditions of strong optical pumping. This clear trend is compared with simulations based on a dissipative master-equation approach that describes a cavity weakly coupled to an ensemble of emitters. We obtain direct evidence that reabsorption of photons in the cavity is responsible for the observed trend. When combined with the observation of cavity linewidth broadening in power-dependent measurements, we conclude that free carrier absorption limits the cavity-mediated light enhancement under conditions of strong excitation.

Hauke, N.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Zabel, T.; Laussy, F. P.; Laucht, A.; Kaniber, M.; Bougeard, D.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Arakawa, Y.

2011-08-01

331

Quality of Life (QOL) and Its Associated Factors Using WHOQOL-BREF Among Elderly in Urban Puducherry, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Quality of Life (QOL) among elderly is a neglected issue especially in developing countries including India. Aim: To assess the QOL and its associated factors among elderly population. Materials and Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 elderly subjects in urban Puducherry, India. Data on QOL was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) by Katz ADL scale. Socio-demographic factors and chronic morbid conditions were recorded by using structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample test and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Majority (64%, 192) were in the (60-69) years’ age-group. Overall mean Standard Deviation (SD) score of QOL was 49.74 (10.21). QOL was significantly low among those with no schooling, nuclear family, not receiving pension, not with partner, having musculoskeletal disorder, low vision and impaired ADL groups in univariate analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that older age (p=0.014), no schooling (p=0.004), without spouse (p=<0.001), nuclear family (p=0.039), musculoskeletal disorder (p=<0.001), low vision (p=0.049) and hearing impairment (0.001) were associated with low QOL score. Conclusion: QOL score among elderly is average, while social relationship domain of QOL score was found to be low. Health education with regard to activity and environmental changes and increase in social relationship may help in improving the QOL among the elderly population. PMID:24596723

Kumar S., Ganesh; Majumdar, Anindo; G., Pavithra

2014-01-01

332

Effects of polymorphisms in the bovine growth differentiation factor 9 gene on sperm quality in Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Members of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) superfamily are critical regulators of germ cell development that act as extracellular ligands of the signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and other aspects of cell behavior. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the TGF? superfamily that plays a critical role in ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate in females; however, its role in the testis has not been well elucidated. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of GDF9 mutations on the quality of fresh and frozen semen of Holstein bulls. Two reported single nucleotide polymorphisms of GDF9, A485TA and A625C, were analyzed in 129 Holstein bulls. Analysis of variance revealed that the A485T polymorphism had significant effects on the acrosome integrity rate (P < 0.05), whereas the A625T polymorphism was significantly associated with sperm concentration (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant additive effect on sperm concentration was detected for the A485T polymorphism (P < 0.05), whereas the polymorphisms A485TA and A625C had significant dominant effects on acrosome integrity rate and sperm motility in frozen semen, respectively (P < 0.05). This study is the first to show a significant association of GDF9 with sperm quality traits, and the results implied that GDF9 is involved in the initiation or maintenance of spermatogenesis; however, further verification is needed. PMID:23884762

Tang, K Q; Yang, W C; Zhang, X X; Yang, L G

2013-01-01

333

Socioeconomic Status and Improvements in Lifestyle, Coronary Risk Factors, and Quality of Life: The Multisite Cardiac Lifestyle Intervention Program  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to clarify whether patients of low socioeconomic status (SES) can make lifestyle changes and show improved outcomes in coronary heart disease (CHD), similar to patients with higher SES. Methods. We examined lifestyle, risk factors, and quality of life over 3 months, by SES and gender, in 869 predominantly White, nonsmoking CHD patients (34% female) in the insurance-sponsored Multisite Cardiac Lifestyle Intervention Program. SES was defined primarily by education. Results. At baseline, less-educated participants were more likely to be disadvantaged (e.g., past smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high fat diet, overweight, depression) than were higher-SES participants. By 3 months, participants at all SES levels reported consuming 10% or less dietary fat, exercising 3.5 hours per week or more, and practicing stress management 5.5 hours per week or more. These self-reports were substantiated by improvements in risk factors (e.g., 5-kg weight loss, and improved blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and exercise capacity; P < .001), and accompanied by improvements in well-being (e.g., depression, hostility, quality of life; P < .001). Conclusions. The observed benefits for CHD patients with low SES indicate that broadening accessibility of lifestyle programs through health insurance should be strongly encouraged. PMID:18923113

Govil, Sarah R.; Merritt-Worden, Terri; Ornish, Dean

2009-01-01

334

[Relationships between Dendrobium quality and ecological factors based on partial least square regression].  

PubMed

A total of eleven ecological factors values were obtained from the ecological suitability database of the geographic information system for traditional Chinese medicines production areas (TCM-GIS), and the relationships between the chemical components of Dendrobium and the ecological factors were analyzed by partial least square (PLS) regression. There existed significant differences in the chemical components contents of the same species of Dendrobium in different areas. The polysaccharides content of D. officinale had significant positive correlation with soil type, the accumulated dendrobine in D. nobile was significantly positively correlated with annual precipitation, and the erianin content of D. chrysotoxum was mainly affected by air temperature. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Zhejiang Province was the optimal production area for D. officinale, Guizhou Province was the most appropriate planting area for D. nobile, and Yunnan Province was the best production area of D. chrysotoxum. PMID:24483071

Li, Wen-Tao; Huang, Lin-Fang; Du, Jing; Chen, Shi-Lin

2013-10-01

335

Learning style as a factor which affects the quality of e-learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of the Internet, many organizations and schools have adopted the idea of applying the e-learning system, which\\u000a is considered as one of the most important services provided by the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to investigate\\u000a the factors affecting the acceptance and use of e-learning system. There are a number of implicit and explicit frameworks

Suzana Markovi?; Nenad Jovanovi?

336

Comparison of two indices of diet quality with acculturation factors and demographics in Haitian Americans.  

PubMed

This study examined associations of language preference and length of stay in the United States and diet among 132 Haitian Americans aged ?35, born in Haiti. Two dietary indices, Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), were used to assess dietary quality. Years in the United States (>15 years; B?=?0.063, p = .012) and female gender (B?=?5.63, p = .028) were positively associated with AHEI. Lower HEI scores were associated with speaking no English (B =?-6.11, p = .026). Participants reporting an income under 20,000/yr had lower AHEI scores (B =?-7.63, p = .014). Concurrent use of these indices would provide a screening tool for nutrition intervention. Public health programs targeting low-cost resources, such as community gardening, are recommended to reduce health disparities among this population. PMID:24437543

Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Zarini, Gustavo G; Dixon, Zisca

2014-01-01

337

Water quality factors affecting bromate reduction in biologically active carbon filters.  

PubMed

Biological removal of the ozonation by-product, bromate, was demonstrated in biologically active carbon (BAC) filters. For example, with a 20-min EBCT, pH 7.5, and influent dissolved oxygen (DO) and nitrate concentrations 2.1 and 5.1 mg/l, respectively, 40% bromate removal was obtained with a 20 microg/l influent bromate concentration. In this study, DO, nitrate and sulfate concentrations, pH, and type of source water were evaluated for their effect on bromate removal in a BAC filter. Bromate removal decreased as the influent concentrations of DO and nitrate increased, but bromate removal was observed in the presence of measurable effluent concentrations of DO and nitrate. In contrast, bromate removal was not sensitive to the influent sulfate concentration, with only a slight reduction in bromate removal as the influent sulfate concentration was increased from 11.1 to 102.7 mg/l. Bromate reduction was better at lower pH values (6.8 and 7.2) than at higher pH values (7.5 and 8.2), suggesting that it may be possible to reduce bromate formation during ozonation and increase biological bromate reduction through pH control. Biological bromate removal in Lake Michigan water was very poor as compared to that in tapwater from a groundwater source. Bromate removal improved when sufficient organic electron donor was added to remove the nitrate and DO present in the Lake Michigan water, indicating that the poor biodegradability of the natural organic matter may have been limiting bromate removal in that water. Biological bromate removal was demonstrated to be a sustainable process under a variety of water quality conditions, and bromate removal can be improved by controlling key water quality parameters. PMID:11235884

Kirisits, M J; Snoeyink, V L; Inan, H; Chee-Sanford, J C; Raskin, L; Brown, J C

2001-03-01

338

Neutron dosimetry in low-earth orbit using passive detectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes neutron dosimetry measurements made by the USF Physics Research Laboratory aboard US and Russian LEO spacecraft over the past 20 years using two types of passive detector. Thermal/resonance neutron detectors exploiting the 6Li(n,T) alpha reaction were used to measure neutrons of energies <1 MeV. Fission foil neutron detectors were used to measure neutrons of energies above 1 MeV. While originally analysed in terms of dose equivalent using the NCRP-38 definition of quality factor, for the purposes of this paper the measured neutron data have been reanalyzed and are presented in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Dose equivalent rate for neutrons <1 MeV ranged from 0.80 microSv/d on the low altitude, low inclination STS-41B mission to 22.0 microSv/d measured in the Shuttle's cargo bay on the highly inclined STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. In one particular instance a detector embedded within a large hydrogenous mass on STS-61 (in the ECT experiment) measured 34.6 microSv/d. Dose equivalent rate measurements of neutrons >1 MeV ranged from 4.5 microSv/d on the low altitude STS-3 mission to 172 microSv/d on the 6 year LDEF mission. Thermal neutrons (<0.3 eV) were observed to make a negligible contribution to neutron dose equivalent in all cases. The major fraction of neutron dose equivalent was found to be from neutrons >1 MeV and, on LDEF, neutrons >1 MeV are responsible for over 98% of the total neutron dose equivalent. Estimates of the neutron contribution to the total dose equivalent are somewhat lower than model estimates, ranging from 5.7% at a location under low shielding on LDEF to 18.4% on the highly inclined (82.3 degrees) Biocosmos-2044 mission. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

2001-01-01

339

Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

2013-10-01

340

Factors affecting the quality of cryopreserved buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Storage of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull semen in the cryopreserved state is discussed in this article. Fertility rate in buffalo following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen is reviewed. To better understand the freezability of bubaline spermatozoa, the available data on biochemical components and the activity of specific enzymes of semen/spermatozoa are given. Moreover, the major factors that may influence the post-thaw viability and fertility of buffalo spermatozoa are examined in detail. In addition, suggestions for improvement in cryogenic procedures for buffalo spermatozoa are also given. PMID:18954384

Andrabi, S M H

2009-06-01

341

Prevalence and impacts of poor sleep on quality of life and associated factors of good sleepers in a sample of older Chinese adults  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep disturbance is a complex health problem in ageing global populations decreasing quality of life among many older people. Geographic, cultural, and ethnic differences in sleep patterns have been documented within and between Western and Asian populations. The aim of this study was to explore sleep problems among Hong Kong seniors by examining the prevalence of poor sleep quality, the relationship between sleep quality and health-related quality of life, and associated factors of good sleepers in different age groups. Methods This cross-sectional study used convenience sampling and gathered data during face-to-face interviews. Older community-dwelling individuals (n?=?301) were recruited in community centres in 2010. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 were used to measure sleep quality and health-related quality of life. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 domain scores were compared between good and bad sleepers and between long and short sleepers using Hotelling’s?T-Square test. SF-36 domain scores were placed into a logistic regression model that controlled for significant demographic variables (gender, educational level, perceived health). Results Most (77.7%) participants were poor sleepers. Participants who had global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores <5 and slept ?5.5?h/night had better health-related quality of life. Vitality, emotional role, physical functioning, and bodily pain domain scores were associated factors of good sleepers in different age groups. Conclusions This study found a strong negative association between sleep deprivation (poor quality, short duration) and health-related quality of life. Associated factors for good sleep quality in later life differ among age groups in relation to universal age-related changes, and should be addressed by social policies and health-care programmes. PMID:22709334

2012-01-01

342

Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and the use of microchannels have emerged as viable target cooling options. Neutron fields for reactor-based neutron sources provide an obvious basis of comparison for ABNS field quality. This paper compares Monte Carlo calculations of neutron field quality for an ABNS and an idealized standard reactor neutron field (ISRNF). The comparison shows that with lithium as a target, an ABNS can create a neutron field with a field quality that is significantly better (by a factor of approximately 1.2, as judged by the relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-dose that can be delivered to a tumor at a depth of 6cm) than that for the ISRNF. Also, for a beam current of 10 mA, the treatment time is calculated to be reasonable (approximately 30 min) for the boron concentrations that have been assumed. PMID:12749700

Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

2003-01-01

343

Writing quality, reading skills, and domain knowledge as factors in text comprehension.  

PubMed

Subjects listened to and recalled three passages. Each subject was also given a general reading comprehension test. The passages were presented either in such a way that subjects could use their general knowledge to help understand them, or in such a way that no specific world knowledge seemed applicable. This was achieved by giving the passages a helpful title, versus no title or an unhelpful title. The passages were written in two different versions, preserving their content but varying their style. In one version, the language was as helpful as we could make it in signalling to the listener discourse importance, while in the other version the language was as unhelpful as we could make it while still writing an English text. All three factors--domain knowledge, writing style, and skill--significantly affected reproductive recall, and there were no interactions between these factors. However, while good writing was sufficient to improve the reproduction of the texts, an analysis of the recall elaborations subjects made revealed that the correctness of their elaborations depended strongly on the availability of appropriate domain knowledge. Thus, good writing and domain knowledge are not simply substitutable, but affect comprehension in somewhat different ways. PMID:8364534

Moravcsik, J E; Kintsch, W

1993-06-01

344

Treatment Factors Affecting Longitudinal Quality of Life in New Onset Pediatric Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objectives?Recognizing the importance of patient-reported outcomes, this longitudinal, prospective study examined: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over seven months following antiepileptic drug (AED) initiation and the relationship of seizures, AED side-effects, and AED type to HRQOL. Method?Parents of 124 children with newly diagnosed epilepsy completed measures of HRQOL and side-effects at each clinic visit. Treatment information was also collected.?Results?HRQOL remained stable over time; however, seizures and AED side-effects significantly affected multiple HRQOL domains. Higher seizure activity was associated with decreased Physical HRQOL. Side-effects were negatively associated with all HRQOL domains. Children taking carbamazepine who experienced higher side-effects early in therapy demonstrated declining emotional functioning compared to children experiencing no/some side-effects.?Conclusions?AED side-effects, AED type, and seizure frequency were associated with longitudinal HRQOL in children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy. Routine assessment of AED side-effects and HRQOL may be useful for clinical decision making. PMID:21278379

Ingerski, Lisa M.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Glauser, Tracy A.

2011-01-01

345

The impact of heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke on indoor air quality as determined by Compton suppression neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been improved for air filter samples in the determination of low level heavy metals in indoor air. By using the techniques of epithermal neutron irradiation in conjunction with Compton suppression, the detection limits of cadmium, arsenic and antimony measurements have been dramatically reduced to 2 ng for Cd, 0.2 ng for

S. landsberger; D. Wu

1995-01-01

346

Vascular endothelial growth factor A improves quality of matured porcine oocytes and developing parthenotes.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor is a multipotent angiogenic factor implicated in cell survival and proliferation. The objective was to determine effects of exogenous recombinant human VEGFA (or VEGFA165) in culture media on porcine oocyte maturation and parthenote development. Adding 5 ng/mL VEGFA to the culture medium improved the maturation rate of denuded oocytes (P < 0.05), although 5, 50, or 500 ng/mL did not significantly affect nuclear maturation of oocytes. Parthenotes from oocytes cultured either in in vitro maturation or in vitro culture medium supplemented with 5 or 50 ng/mL VEGFA had an improved blastocyst rate and increased total numbers of cells (P < 0.05). Moreover, those treated with 5 ng/mL of VEGFA had a higher hatched blastocyst rate (average of 121 cells per blastocyst). All VEGFA-treated oocytes had reduced apoptotic indices (P < 0.05), except for those with a higher dose (500 ng/mL) of VEGFA which had more apoptotic cells (P < 0.05). Adding 5 ng/mL VEGFA to oocytes during the last 22 h of in vitro maturation improved (P < 0.05) blastocyst rates and total numbers of cells, with reduced apoptosis indices similar to that of long-term (44 h) culture. Furthermore, Axitinib (VEGFR inhibitor) reversed the effects of VEGFA on parthenote development (P < 0.05). Follicular fluids from medium (2-6 mm) to large (>6 mm) follicles contained 5.3 and 7.0 ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor protein, respectively, higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations in small (<2 mm) follicles (0.4 ng/mL). Also, VEGFA and its receptor (VEGFR-2) were detected (immunohistochemistry) in growing follicles and developing blastocysts. In addition, VEGFA inhibited caspase-3 activation in matured oocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this is apparently the first report that VEGFA has proliferative and cytoprotective roles in maturing porcine oocytes and parthenotes. Furthermore, an optimal VEGFA concentration promoted porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent development. PMID:25061966

Kere, M; Siriboon, C; Liao, J W; Lo, N W; Chiang, H I; Fan, Y K; Kastelic, J P; Ju, J C

2014-10-01

347

Fabrication of an integrated high-quality-factor (high-Q) optofluidic sensor by femtosecond laser micromachining.  

PubMed

We report on fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality factor (i.e., Q-factor of ~3.24 × 10(6) measured under the critical coupling condition) integrated in a microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. Coupling of light into and out of the microresonator has been realized with a fiber taper that is reliably assembled with the microtoroid. The assembly of the fiber to the microtoroid is achieved by welding the fiber taper onto the sidewall of the microtoroid using CO2 laser irradiation. The integrated microresonator maintains a high Q-factor of 3.21 × 10(5) as measured in air, which should still be sufficient for many sensing applications. We test the functionality of the integrated optofluidic sensor by performing bulk refractive index sensing of purified water doped with tiny amount of salt. It is shown that a detection limit of ~1.2 × 10(-4) refractive index unit can be achieved. Our result showcases the capability of integration of high-Q microresonators with complex microfluidic systems using femtosecond laser 3D micromachining. PMID:24977574

Song, Jiangxin; Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Liao, Yang; He, Fei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

2014-06-16

348

Fabrication of an integrated high-quality-factor (high-Q) optofluidic sensor by femtosecond laser micromachining  

E-print Network

We report on fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality factor (i. e., Q-factor of ~3.24x10^6 measured under the critical coupling condition) integrated in a microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. Coupling of light into and out of the microresonator has been realized with a fiber taper that is reliably assembled with the microtoroid. The assembly of the fiber to the microtoroid is achieved by welding the fiber taper onto the sidewall of the microtoroid using CO_2 laser irradiation. The integrated microresonator maintains a high Q-factor of 3.21x10^5 as measured in air, which should still be sufficient for many sensing applications. We test the functionality of the integrated optofluidic sensor by performing bulk refractive index sensing of purified water doped with tiny amount of salt. It is shown that a detection limit of ~1.2x10^-4 refractive index unit can be achieved. Our result showcases the capability of integration of high-Q microresonators wit...

Song, Jiangxin; Tang, Jialei; Liao, Yang; He, Fei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Sugiok, Koji; Cheng, Ya

2014-01-01

349

Micromachined piezoelectric membranes with high nominal quality factors in newtonian liquid media: A Lamb's model validation at the microscale  

E-print Network

Although extensively presented as one of the most promising silicon-based micromachined sensor adapted to real-time measurements in liquid media, the cantilevered structure still suffers from its quality factor (Q) dramatic dependence on the liquid viscosity thus lowering the measurement resolution. In this paper, micromachined piezoelectric membranes are introduced as a potential alternative to the cantilevers for biological applications. HighQ-factors (up to 150) of micromachined piezoelectric membranes resonating in various liquid mixtures (water/glycerol and water/ethanol) are thus reported and a theoretical model proposed by Lamb [H. Lamb, On the vibrations of an elastic plate in contact with water, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 98 (1920) 205?216] is validated for microscale structures proving that the variation of the liquid viscosity (if lower than 10 cP) has no effect on the dynamic behavior of the membranes. To conclude, two types of experiments were performed in water/glycerol mixtures: in-flow (with liquid continuously flowing on the devices) and in-spot (with individual membranes oscillating in a 5 $\\mu$L volume of liquid). The results interestingly showed that for the in-spot configuration the Q-factor values are more than two-fold the ones corresponding to in-flow measurements thus providing alternative insights into the way to conceive ideal configurations for real-time biological measurements in liquid media.

Cédric Ayela; Liviu Nicu

2009-06-19

350

Encapsulated Annealing: Enhancing the Plasmon Quality Factor in Lithographically-Defined Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Lithography provides the precision to pattern large arrays of metallic nanostructures with varying geometries, enabling systematic studies and discoveries of new phenomena in plasmonics. However, surface plasmon resonances experience more damping in lithographically–defined structures than in chemically–synthesized nanoparticles of comparable geometries. Grain boundaries, surface roughness, substrate effects, and adhesion layers have been reported as causes of plasmon damping, but it is difficult to isolate these effects. Using monochromated electron energy–loss spectroscopy (EELS) and numerical analysis, we demonstrate an experimental technique that allows the study of these effects individually, to significantly reduce the plasmon damping in lithographically–defined structures. We introduce a method of encapsulated annealing that preserves the shape of polycrystalline gold nanostructures, while their grain-boundary density is reduced. We demonstrate enhanced Q–factors in lithographically–defined nanostructures, with intrinsic damping that matches the theoretical Drude damping limit. PMID:24986023

Bosman, Michel; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Huigao; Tan, Shu Fen; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

2014-01-01

351

Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate.  

PubMed

The aims of this research are to study properties of a neutron imaging plate (NIP) and to test it for use in nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials. The experiments were carried out by using a BAS-ND 2040 Fuji NIP and a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1. The neutron intensity and Cd ratio at the specimen position were approximately 9x10(5) ns/cm(2) s and 100 respectively. It was found that the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time and approximately 40 times faster than the conventional NR using Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The sensitivities of the imaging plate to slow neutron and to Ir-192 gamma-rays were found to be approximately 4.2x10(-3) PSL/mm(2) per neutron and 6.7x10(-5) PSL/mm(2) per gamma-ray photon respectively. Finally, some specimens containing light elements were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the NIP and the Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The image quality obtained from the two recording media was found to be comparable. PMID:19828321

Chankow, Nares; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Wonglee, Sarinrat

2010-01-01

352

Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

2003-01-01

353

Dehydration process of fish analyzed by neutron beam imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since regulation of water content of the dried fish is an important factor for the quality of the fish, water-losing process during drying (squid and Japanese horse mackerel) was analyzed through neutron beam imaging. The neutron image showed that around the shoulder of mackerel, there was a part where water content was liable to maintain high during drying. To analyze water-losing process more in detail, spatial image was produced. From the images, it was clearly indicated that the decrease of water content was regulated around the shoulder part. It was suggested that to prevent deterioration around the shoulder part of the dried fish is an important factor to keep quality of the dried fish in the storage.

Tanoi, K.; Hamada, Y.; Seyama, S.; Saito, T.; Iikura, H.; Nakanishi, T. M.

2009-06-01

354

Study of the Influence of the Source Quality on the Determination of the Shape Factor of Beta Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing metallic magnetic calorimeters for beta spectrometry with the aim of determining the shape factors of beta spectra. The beta emitter is enclosed inside the detector absorber and the absorber size is chosen such that the detection efficiency is close to 100% for the entire spectrum. The nature of the deposit of the beta emitter is critical for precise measurement. A dependence of the shape of the spectrum on the quality of the source has been observed, supposedly due to interactions between the electrons and the deposit itself. We chose for this comparative study a nuclide with an allowed transition whose theoretical spectrum is relatively well-known, 63Ni, a pure beta emitter with an endpoint energy of 66.98 keV. Results of measurements of 63Ni deposited with different techniques are presented and compared to each other and to the theoretical spectrum.

Le-Bret, C.; Loidl, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Mougeot, X.; Bouchard, J.

2012-06-01

355

Mitochondrial Fission Factor Drp1 Maintains Oocyte Quality via Dynamic Rearrangement of Multiple Organelles.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that change their morphology by active fusion and fission in response to cellular signaling and differentiation [1, 2]. The in vivo role of mitochondrial fission in mammals has been examined by using tissue-specific knockout (KO) mice of the mitochondria fission-regulating GTPase Drp1 [3, 4], as well as analyzing a human patient harboring a point mutation in Drp1 [5], showing that Drp1 is essential for embryonic and neonatal development and neuronal function. During oocyte maturation and aging, structures of various membrane organelles including mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are changed dynamically [6, 7], and their organelle aggregation is related to germ cell formation and epigenetic regulation [8-10]. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of organelle dynamics during the development and aging of oocytes have not been well understood. Here, we analyzed oocyte-specific mitochondrial fission factor Drp1-deficient mice and found that mitochondrial fission is essential for follicular maturation and ovulation in an age-dependent manner. Mitochondria were highly aggregated with other organelles, such as the ER and secretory vesicles, in KO oocyte, which resulted in impaired Ca(2+) signaling, intercellular communication via secretion, and meiotic resumption. We further found that oocytes from aged mice displayed reduced Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission and defective organelle morphogenesis, similar to Drp1 KO oocytes. On the basis of these findings, it appears that mitochondrial fission maintains the competency of oocytes via multiorganelle rearrangement. PMID:25264261

Udagawa, Osamu; Ishihara, Takaya; Maeda, Maki; Matsunaga, Yui; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yokota, Sadaki; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Mizushima, Noboru; Ishihara, Naotada

2014-10-20

356

Sport-specific and anthropometric factors of quality in junior male water polo players.  

PubMed

There is evident lack of studies which examined anthropological determinants of success in water polo. The aim of this investigation was to study the physical fitness differences between two qualitative levels of junior water polo players (males; 16-18 years of age; 6+ year of experience in water polo). The sample (N = 54) comprised of 13 members of the junior national-squad (5 centers and 8 perimeter players), and 41 team-athletes (11 centers and 30 perimeter players). The sample of variables included: four anthropometric measures (body height, body mass, BMI and body fat percentage), and five sport-specific fitness tests (20-meters-sprint-swimming, maximal dynamometric force in eggbeater kick, in-water vertical jump, drive-shoot-speed, and sport-swimming-endurance). Discriminant analysis and t-test revealed no significant differences between national-squad and team-players for center players. The national-squad perimeters were advanced over their team-level peers in most of the fitness capacities and body-height. The result highlights the necessity of the playing-position-specific approach in defining anthropological factors of success in team-sports. PMID:24611343

Idrizovi?, Kemal; Uljevi?, Ognjen; Ban, Divo; Spasi?, Miodrag; Rausavljevi?, Nikola

2013-12-01

357

Experts and Novices Use the Same Factors-But Differently-To Evaluate Pearl Quality  

PubMed Central

Well-trained experts in pearl grading have been thought to evaluate pearls according to their glossiness, interference color, and shape. However, the characteristics of their evaluations are not fully understood. Using pearl grading experiments, we investigate the consistency of novice (i.e., without knowledge of pearl grading) and expert participants’ pearl grading skill and then compare the novices’ grading with that of experts; furthermore, we discuss the relationship between grading, interference color, and glossiness. We found that novices’ grading was significantly less concordant with experts average grading than was experts’ grading; more than half of novices graded pearls the opposite of how experts graded those same pearls. However, while experts graded pearls more consistently than novices did, novices’ consistency was relatively high. We also found differences between the groups in regression analyses that used interference color and glossiness as explanatory variables and were conducted for each trial. Although the regression coefficient was significant in 60% of novices’ trials, there were fewer significant trials for the experts (20%). This indicates that novices can also make use of these two factors, but that their usage is simpler than that of the experts. These results suggest that experts and novices share some values about pearls but that the evaluation method is elaborated for experts. PMID:24466074

Tani, Yusuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

2014-01-01

358

Neutron spectra and dose equivalents calculated in tissue for high-energy radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Neutrons are by-products of high-energy radiation therapy and a source of dose to normal tissues. Thus, the presence of neutrons increases a patient’s risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Although neutrons have been thoroughly studied in air, little research has been focused on neutrons at depths in the patient where radiosensitive structures may exist, resulting in wide variations in neutron dose equivalents between studies. In this study, we characterized properties of neutrons produced during high-energy radiation therapy as a function of their depth in tissue and for different field sizes and different source-to-surface distances (SSD). We used a previously developed Monte Carlo model of an accelerator operated at 18 MV to calculate the neutron fluences, energy spectra, quality factors, and dose equivalents in air and in tissue at depths ranging from 0.1 to 25 cm. In conjunction with the sharply decreasing dose equivalent with increased depth in tissue, the authors found that the neutron energy spectrum changed drastically as a function of depth in tissue. The neutron fluence decreased gradually as the depth increased, while the average neutron energy decreased sharply with increasing depth until a depth of approximately 7.5 cm in tissue, after which it remained nearly constant. There was minimal variation in the quality factor as a function of depth. At a given depth in tissue, the neutron dose equivalent increased slightly with increasing field size and decreasing SSD; however, the percentage depth-dose equivalent curve remained constant outside the primary photon field. Because the neutron dose equivalent, fluence, and energy spectrum changed substantially with depth in tissue, we concluded that when the neutron dose equivalent is being determined at a depth within a patient, the spectrum and quality factor used should be appropriate for depth rather than for in-air conditions. Alternately, an appropriate percent depth-dose equivalent curve should be used to correct the dose equivalent at the patient surface. PMID:19472632

Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Salehpour, Mohammad; Followill, David S.

2009-01-01

359

Psychological distress and quality of life in older persons: relative contributions of fixed and modifiable risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background With a rapidly ageing population and increasing life expectancy, programs directed at improving the mental health and quality of life (QOL) of older persons are extremely important. This issue may be particularly relevant in the aged-care residential sector, where very high rates of depression and poor QOL are evident. This study aims to investigate the fixed and modifiable risk factors of psychological distress and QOL in a cohort of Australians aged 60 and over living in residential and community settings. Methods The study examined the relationship between demographic, health and lifestyle factors and the outcome variables of self-reported QOL and psychological distress (K10 scores) based on data from 626 Australians aged 60 and over from the 45 and Up Study dataset. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses (performed on a subset of 496) examined risk factors related to psychological distress and QOL adjusting for age and residential status. Results Significant psychological distress was experienced by 15% of the residential sample and 7% of the community sample and in multivariate analyses was predicted by older age, more functional limitations, more time spent sleeping and lower levels of social support (accounting for 18% of the variance). Poorer QOL was predicted by more functional limitations and greater levels of psychological distress. Together these variables accounted for 35% of the variance in QOL ratings. Conclusions While psychological distress was more common in residential settings, programs targeting modifiable risk factors have the potential to improve QOL and reduce psychological distress in older persons living in both residential and community settings. In particular, promoting health and mobility, optimising sleep-wake cycles and increasing social support may reduce levels of psychological distress and improve QOL. PMID:24103220

2013-01-01

360

Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

2000-01-01

361

Sex Disparities in the Quality of Diabetes Care: Biological and Cultural Factors May Play a Different Role for Different Outcomes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the quality of type 2 diabetes care according to sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Clinical data collected during the year 2009 were extracted from electronic medical records; quality-of-care indicators were evaluated. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the likelihood of women versus men to be monitored for selected parameters, to reach clinical outcomes, and to be treated with specific classes of drugs. The intercenter variability in the proportion of men and women achieving the targets was also investigated. RESULTS Overall, 415,294 patients from 236 diabetes outpatient centers were evaluated, of whom 188,125 (45.3%) were women and 227,169 (54.7%) were men. Women were 14% more likely than men to have HbA1c >9.0% in spite of insulin treatment (odds ratio 1.14 [95% CI 1.10–1.17]), 42% more likely to have LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) ?130 mg/dL (1.42 [1.38–1.46]) in spite of lipid-lowering treatment, and 50% more likely to have BMI ?30 kg/m2 (1.50 [1.50–1.54]). Women were less likely to be monitored for foot and eye complications. In 99% of centers, the percentage of men reaching the LDL-C target was higher than in women, the proportion of patients reaching the HbA1c target was in favor of men in 80% of the centers, and no differences emerged for blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Women show a poorer quality of diabetes care than men. The attainment of the LDL-C target seems to be mainly related to pathophysiological factors, whereas patient and physician attitudes can play an important role in other process measures and outcomes. PMID:23835692

Rossi, Maria Chiara; Cristofaro, Maria Rosaria; Gentile, Sandro; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Manicardi, Valeria; Mulas, Maria Franca; Napoli, Angela; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pellegrini, Fabio; Suraci, Concetta; Giorda, Carlo

2013-01-01

362

A generally applicable validation scheme for the assessment of factors involved in reproducibility and quality of DNA-microarray data  

PubMed Central

Background In research laboratories using DNA-microarrays, usually a number of researchers perform experiments, each generating possible sources of error. There is a need for a quick and robust method to assess data quality and sources of errors in DNA-microarray experiments. To this end, a novel and cost-effective validation scheme was devised, implemented, and employed. Results A number of validation experiments were performed on Lactococcus lactis IL1403 amplicon-based DNA-microarrays. Using the validation scheme and ANOVA, the factors contributing to the variance in normalized DNA-microarray data were estimated. Day-to-day as well as experimenter-dependent variances were shown to contribute strongly to the variance, while dye and culturing had a relatively modest contribution to the variance. Conclusion Even in cases where 90 % of the data were kept for analysis and the experiments were performed under challenging conditions (e.g. on different days), the CV was at an acceptable 25 %. Clustering experiments showed that trends can be reliably detected also from genes with very low expression levels. The validation scheme thus allows determining conditions that could be improved to yield even higher DNA-microarray data quality. PMID:15907200

van Hijum, Sacha AFT; de Jong, Anne; Baerends, Richard JS; Karsens, Harma A; Kramer, Naomi E; Larsen, Rasmus; den Hengst, Chris D; Albers, Casper J; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P

2005-01-01

363

Computational fluid dynamics approaches in quality and hygienic production of semisolid low-moisture foods: a review of critical factors.  

PubMed

Low-moisture foods have been responsible for a number of salmonellosis outbreaks worldwide over the last few decades, with cross contamination from contaminated equipment being the most predominant source. To date, actions have been focused on stringent hygienic practices prior to production, namely periodical sanitization of the processing equipment and lines. Not only does optimum sanitization require in-depth knowledge on the type and source of contaminants, but also the heat resistance of microorganisms is unique and often dependent on the heat transfer characteristics of the low-moisture foods. Rheological properties, including viscosity, degree of turbulence, and flow characteristics (for example, Newtonian or non-Newtonian) of both liquid and semisolid foods are critical factors impacting the flow behavior that consequently interferes heat transfer and related control elements. The demand for progressively more accurate prediction of complex fluid phenomena has called for the employment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model mass and heat transfer during processing of various food products, ranging from drying to baking. With the aim of improving the quality and safety of low-moisture foods, this article critically reviewed the published literature concerning microbial survival in semisolid low-moisture foods, including chocolate, honey, and peanut butter. Critical rheological properties and state-of-the-art CFD application relevant to quality production of those products were also addressed. It is anticipated that adequate prediction of specific transport properties during optimum sanitization through CFD could be used to solve current and future food safety challenges. PMID:25224872

Mondal, Arpita; Buchanan, Robert L; Lo, Y Martin

2014-10-01

364

Measurements in support of a neutron radiography facility for the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of using the small (20 kWh) SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor for neutron radiography has been investigated. Although designed primarily for neutron activation analysis (NAA) and radioisotope production, the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMC was installed with a thermal column of heavy water in a sector of the water gap between the beryllium reflector and the reactor container. The thermal-neutron flux in the reactor pool, just beyond the reactor container, has been measured to be a factor of 2.7 higher than in similar locations remote from the thermal column. Placed in this location was a prototype neutron radiography facility, consisting of a beam tube (or collimator), vertically tangential to the reactor core, and a beam stop. Once the feasibility of using a SLOWPOKE-2 for neutron radiography was demonstrated, subsequent investigations were carried out to optimize the quality of the obtainable radiographs. Both neutron radiographic and thermal-neutron flux measurements were undertaken to determine the optimum placement and arrangement of the beam tube. A Category III (as defined by the ASTM Standard E545-86) neutron radiography facility was obtained, although Category I or II were indicated as feasible. Based on this prototype design and experimentation, a permanent neutron radiography facility will be installed. The design calculations have been finalized, construction blueprints have been prepared, and work is proceeding with the construction, installation and commissioning of the facility.

Lewis, W. J.; Andrews, W. S.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Beeley, P. A.

1990-12-01

365

Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy. PMID:21695030

Shyu, Guey-Shin; Cheng, Bai-You; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

2011-01-01

366

Technique for measuring angular correlations and g-factors of excited states with large multi-detector arrays: An application to neutron rich nuclei produced by the spontaneous fission of 252Cf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triple coincidences between prompt ?-rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf were measured with Gammasphere. These data are used to measure the angular correlation of cascades of ?-rays from excited states of neutron rich fission fragments stopped in an unmagnetized iron foil. The hyperfine fields in the iron lattice cause attenuations of the angular correlations between ?-rays emitted from the excited states which have sufficiently long lifetimes. This attenuation is measured and used to calculate the g-factors of excited states in many neutron rich nuclei.

Daniel, A. V.; Goodin, C.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Stone, N. J.; Hwang, J. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stone, J. R.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Stoyer, M. A.; Zhu, S. J.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Lee, I. Y.

2007-09-01

367

Effective neutron targets  

SciTech Connect

Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the {sup 3}He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized {sup 3}He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized {sup 3}He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized {sup 3}He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized {sup 3}He targets will also be discussed.

Gao, H.

1997-07-01

368

Relative role of climatic factors and anthropogenic actions in the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aveiro lagoon harbours one of the largest saltmarshes in Europe, with a significant role of ecological services, supporting at the same time several economic activities that might impact its water and ecological quality. Besides the pressures associated with human activities, the impacts of climate change in estuarine ecosystems are also matter of concern worldwide. In this context, understanding the systems' natural variability, the impacts of climate change and the relative role of anthropogenic pressures is essential to ensure estuarine ecosystems' long-term management. Thus, this study evaluates the influence of climatic factors and anthropogenic pressures on the water quality and ecological dynamics of the Aveiro lagoon based on an integrated approach. This approach combines the analysis of long time series from the past 25 years and high-resolution numerical modelling of future scenarios of climate change (increase in air temperature, changes in the precipitation regimes and sea level rise) and anthropogenic interventions (dredging, a marina construction and emergency by-pass wastewater discharges) in the lagoon. The analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of variability of the water and ecological quality in the Aveiro lagoon at different scales, based on historical data from 1985 to 2010 complemented by the campaigns performed, suggested a combined influence of the climatic variability and anthropogenic interventions. Future scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic interventions simulated revealed a larger influence of climate change when compared with the analysed anthropogenic actions. The most important variations from the reference scenario are predicted for the sea level rise scenarios, followed by the changes in the hydrological regimes scenarios, putting in evidence the main role of circulation (tide and river flow) in establishing the water quality and ecological dynamics in the lagoon. A significant decrease of chlorophyll a and nutrients is predicted in the downstream and middle areas of the channel due to sea level rise, while a significant salinity increase is predicted upstream. These changes may promote modifications in the communities' distribution and composition, affecting the food web and promoting a progression further upstream of the marine species. Results also suggest that the identified effects may be more important in shallow estuaries.

Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Queiroga, Henrique; Brotas, Vanda; Fortunato, André B.; Manso, Maria Dolores

2013-04-01

369

Associations of Lifestyle Factors, Disease History and Awareness with Health-Related Quality of Life in a Thai Population  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of the presence and awareness of individual health states on quality of life (HRQoL) is often documented. However, the impacts of different health states have rarely been compared amongst each other, whilst quality of life data from Asia are relatively sparse. We examined and compared the effects of different health states on quality of life in a Thai population. Methods In 2008–2009, 5,915 corporate employees were invited to participate in a survey where HRQoL was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. The adjusted mean SF-36 scores were calculated for each self-reported illness, number of chronic conditions, lifestyle factors and awareness of diabetes and hypertension. The effect sizes (ES) were compared using Cohen's d. Results The response rate was 82% and 4,683 (79.1%) had complete data available for analysis. Physical and Mental Component Summary (PCS and MCS) scores decreased as the number of chronic conditions increased monotonically (p<0.0001). Diabetes and hypertension negatively influenced PCS (mean score differences ?0.6 and ?1.5, p<0.001 respectively) but not MCS, whereas awareness of diabetes and hypertension negatively influenced MCS (?2.9 and ?1.6, p<0.005 respectively) but not PCS. Arthritis had the largest ES on PCS (?0.37), while awareness of diabetes had the largest ES on MCS (?0.36). CVD moderately affected PCS and MCS (ES ?0.34 and ?0.27 respectively). Obesity had a negative effect on PCS (ES ?0.27). Exercise positively affected PCS and MCS (ES +0.08 and +0.21 (p<0.01) respectively). Conclusion Health promotion to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases is important to improve the quality of life in Asian populations. Physical activity is an important part of such programs. Awareness of diseases may have greater impacts on mental health than having the disease itself. This has implications for the evaluation of the cost-benefit of screening and labeling of individuals with pre-disease states. PMID:23189172

Vathesatogkit, Prin; Sritara, Piyamitr; Kimman, Merel; Hengprasith, Bunlue; E-Shyong, Tai; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Woodward, Mark

2012-01-01

370

Principles of Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

Waite, T.D.

1984-01-01

371

An aquatic toxicological evaluation of sulfate: the case for considering hardness as a modifying factor in setting water quality guidelines.  

PubMed

Elevated concentrations of sulfate occur commonly in anthropogenically impacted and natural waters. However, water quality guidelines (WQG) have not been developed in many jurisdictions, and chronic toxicity data are scarce for this anion. A variety of test organisms, including species of invertebrate, fish, algae, moss, and an amphibian, were tested for chronic toxicity to develop a robust dataset that could be used to develop WQGs. As an example of how these data might be used to establish guidelines, calculations were performed using two standard procedures: a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach, following methods employed in developing Canadian WQGs, and a safety factor approach, according to procedures typically used in the development of provincial WQGs in British Columbia. The interaction of sulfate toxicity and water hardness was evaluated and incorporated into the calculations, resulting in separate values for soft (10-40?mg/L), moderately hard (80-100?mg/L) and hard water (160-250?mg/L). The resulting values were 129, 644, and 725?mg/L sulfate, respectively, following the SSD approach, and 75, 625, and 675?mg/L sulfate, following the safety factor approach. PMID:20872896

Elphick, James R; Davies, Martin; Gilron, Guy; Canaria, Edmund C; Lo, Bonnie; Bailey, Howard C

2011-01-01

372

A high-quality factor of 267?000 micromechanical silicon resonator utilizing TED-free torsional vibration mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In industrial applications of a micromechanical silicon resonator as a physical sensor, a high-quality factor Q and a low-temperature coefficient of Q (TCQ) are required for high sensitivity in a wide temperature range. Although the newly developed thin film encapsulation technique enables a beam to operate with low viscous damping in a vacuum cavity, the Q of a flexural vibration mode is limited by thermo-elastic damping (TED). We proposed a torsional beam resonator which features both a high Q and a low TCQ because theoretically the torsional vibration mode does not suffer from TED. From experiments, Q of 267?000 and TCQ of 1.4 for the 20 MHz torsional vibration mode were observed which were superior to those of the flexural mode. The pressure of the residual gas in the cavity of only 20 pl volume, which is one of the energy loss factors limiting the Q, was successfully estimated to be 1-14 Pa. Finally, the possibilities of improving the Q and the difference of the measured TCQ from a theoretical value were discussed.

Nakamura, K.; Naito, Y.; Onishi, K.; Kawakatsu, H.

2012-12-01

373

Hydrology and relation of selected water-quality constituents to selected physical factors in Dakota County, Minnesota, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selected water-quality constituents were determined in water from 5 surface-water sites and 29 wells in Dakota County, Minnesota, to search for possible relations to selected physical factors, including waste-water discharge, agricultural 1and, Quaternary deposits, bedrock, soil-leaching potential, and water-table depth. All surface-water samples were from the Vermillion River Basin, whose hydrologic setting was studied to determine its relation to the ground-water ftow in the surrounding surficial sand aquifer. Each site was sampled from 1 to 12 times during 1990-91. A total of 198 samples were collected; selected samples were analyzed for major inorganic ions, nutrients, and triazine content. Physical factors within the area of land assumed to be contributing water to each sampling site were determined from existing mapped or digitized sources. Nitrate concentrations in ground water were related to agricultural land and soil-leaching potential. Nitrate concentrations were large (median 13.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) where the percentage of agricultural land in the contributing area was large (equal to or greater than 75 percent) and where the soils had a large soil-leaching potential. Nitrate concentrations were small (median 3.2 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) where the soils had a sma11 soil-leaching potential, despite a large percentage of agricultural land. The statistical relation was not particularly strong, however: the null hypothesis that sites with different soil-leaching potentials had the same nitrate concentrations in ground water was rejected by the Kruskal-Wallis test at only the probability P = 0.15 level. Water-table depth was not an important factor in the relation betwean nitrate concentrations in ground water and agricultural land. Discharge from a waste-water treatment plant provided most of the downstream loading of nitrate into the Vermiilion River mainstem. Triazines were found in small concentrations (less than 2 micrograms per liter) in the Vermillion River and its tributaries. No relation was apparent between selected water-quality constituents and either Quaternary deposits or bedrock.

Almendinger, J. E.; Mitton, G. B.

1995-01-01

374

A study of neutron room scattering at RPCF  

SciTech Connect

High energy physics facilities must monitor the radiation doses received by their personnel. This monitoring can only be effective if the radiation detection devices can be calibrated with a good degree of accuracy. Radiation fields are usually composed of several types of radiation, including gamma rays, beta radiation, neutrons, etc. The neutron detection instruments respond not only to the neutrons coming directly from the source but also those scattered from the floor, walls, and ceiling. The amount of neutron scattering varies from site to site depending on the construction materials and layout of the building. The purpose of this study was to determine the scattered neutron fraction in the central volume of the calibration mezzanine of the Radiation Physics Calibration Facility (RPCF) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). At Fermilab, radiation workers dosimeters use CR39 for neutron detection, which are sent to an outside vendor for reading. As part of the quality assurance program, Fermilab routinely sends the vendor ``spiked`` badges, i.e. badges exposed to a known amount of neutron dosage at RPCF. This study determines a correction factor due to scattered neutron to the spiked badges. The study was conducted in a room with floor dimensions of 12 m by 9.5 m. The walls and ceiling are thin steel and insulation supported by steel 1-beams. We determined the total amount of radiation at three heights above the floor, and at three distances from an AmBe neutron source at each height in the RPCF using the Bonner Sphere technique.

Kemp, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Elwyn, A.; Vaziri, K.

1996-09-01

375

Preoperative Factors Affecting Postoperative Early Quality of Life During the Learning Curve of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the preoperative factors related to early quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) during the surgeon's learning curve. Methods The medical records of 82 patients with a follow-up period of at least 3 months who were treated with HoLEP during the time of a surgeon's learning curve were analyzed retrospectively. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the QoL component of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 3 months after HoLEP: the high QoL group (IPSS/QoL?3) and the low QoL group (IPSS/QoL?4). Preoperative factors in each group were compared, including prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, history of acute urinary retention (AUR), urgency incontinence, IPSS, and urodynamic parameters. Detrusor underactivity was defined as a bladder contractility index less than 100 on urodynamic study. Results A total of 61 patients (74.3%) had a high QoL, whereas 21 (25.7%) had a low QoL. A history of AUR, detrusor pressure on maximal flow (PdetQmax), bladder outlet obstruction grade, bladder contractility index, and detrusor underactivity were associated with postoperative QoL in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, a history of AUR and PdetQmax were independent factors affecting postoperative QoL. Conclusions A history of AUR and bladder contractility affect early QoL, and preoperative urodynamic study plays an important role in the proper selection of patients during the HoLEP learning curve. PMID:23869273

Cho, Kang Jun; Kim, Hyo Sin; Koh, Jun Sung; Han, Seung Bum; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Cho, Su Yeon

2013-01-01

376

Water quality, weather and environmental factors associated with fecal indicator organism density in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches.  

PubMed

Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in sand and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers with sand contact have important public health implications because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact activities. Yet, factors that influence fecal pollution in beach sand remain unclear. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study, sand samples were collected at three locations (60m apart) on weekend days (Sat, Sun) and holidays between June and September at two marine beaches - Fairhope Beach, AL and Goddard Beach, RI - with nearby publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) outfalls. F(+) coliphage, enterococci, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides spp., and Clostridium spp. were measured in sand using culture and qPCR-based calibrator-cell equivalent methods. Water samples were also collected on the same days, times and transects as the 144 sand samples and were assayed using the same FIO measurements. Weather and environmental data were collected at the time of sample collection. Mean FIO concentrations in sand varied over time, but not space. Enterococci CFU and CCE densities in sand were not correlated, although other FIOs in sand were. The strongest correlation between FIO density in sand and water was fecal Bacteroides CCE, followed by enterococci CFU, Clostridium spp. CCE, and Bacteroidales CCE. Overall, the factors associated with FIO concentrations in sand were related to the sand-water interface (i.e., sand-wetting) and included daily average densities of FIOs in water, rainfall, and wave height. Targeted monitoring that focuses on daily trends of sand FIO variability, combined with information about specific water quality, weather, and environmental factors may inform beach monitoring and management decisions to reduce microbial burdens in beach sand. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:25150738

Heaney, Christopher D; Exum, Natalie G; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Haugland, Richard A; Chern, Eunice; Schwab, Kellogg J; Love, David C; Serre, Marc L; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J

2014-11-01

377

Calculation of effective dose from measurements of secondary neutron spectra and scattered photon dose from dynamic MLC IMRT for 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV beam energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective doses were calculated from the delivery of 6 MV, 15 MV, and 18 MV conventional and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate treatment plans. ICRP-60 tissue weighting factors were used for the calculations. Photon doses were measured in phantom for all beam energies. Neutron spectra were measured for 15 MV and 18 MV and ICRP-74 quality conversion factors used to

Rebecca M. Howell; Nolan E. Hertel; Wang Zhonglu; Jesson Hutchinson; Gary D. Fullerton

2006-01-01

378

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): implications of neutron beam and boron compound characteristics.  

PubMed

The potential efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant glioma is a significant function of epithermal-neutron beam biophysical characteristics as well as boron compound biodistribution characteristics. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to evaluate the relative significance of these factors on theoretical tumor control using a standard model. The existing, well-characterized epithermal-neutron sources at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR), and the Finnish Research Reactor (FiR-1) were compared. Results for a realistic accelerator design by the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) are also compared. Also the characteristics of the compound p-Boronophenylaline Fructose (BPA-F) and a hypothetical next-generation compound were used in a comparison of the BMRR and a hypothetical improved reactor. All components of dose induced by an external epithermal-neutron beam fall off quite rapidly with depth in tissue. Delivery of dose to greater depths is limited by the healthy-tissue tolerance and a reduction in the hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose allow for longer irradiation and greater dose at a depth. Dose at depth can also be increased with a beam that has higher neutron energy (without too high a recoil dose) and a more forward peaked angular distribution. Of the existing facilities, the FiR-1 beam has the better quality (lower hydrogen-recoil and incident gamma dose) and a penetrating neutron spectrum and was found to deliver a higher value of Tumor Control Probability (TCP) than other existing beams at shallow depth. The greater forwardness and penetration of the HFR the FiR-1 at greater depths. The hypothetical reactor and accelerator beams outperform at both shallow and greater depths. In all cases, the hypothetical compound provides a significant improvement in efficacy but it is shown that the full benefit of improved compound is not realized until the neutron beam is fully optimized. PMID:10435523

Wheeler, F J; Nigg, D W; Capala, J; Watkins, P R; Vroegindeweij, C; Auterinen, I; Seppälä, T; Bleuel, D

1999-07-01

379

Radiation tolerance of a high quality synthetic single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond detector irradiated by 14.8 MeV neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond exhibits many properties such as an outstanding radiation hardness and fast response time both important to design detectors working in extremely radioactive environments. Among the many applications these devices can be used for, there is the development of a fast and radiation hard neutron detector for the next generation of fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project, under construction at Cadarache in France. A technology to routinely produce electronic grade synthetic single crystal diamond detectors was recently developed by our group. One of such detectors, with an energy resolution of 0.9% as measured using an A241m ? particle source, has been heavily irradiated with 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by the Frascati Neutron Generator. The modifications of its spectroscopic properties have been studied as a function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0×1014 n/cm2. In the early stage of the irradiation procedure an improvement in the spectroscopic performance of the detector was observed. Subsequently the detection performance remains stable for all the given neutron fluence up to the final one thus assessing a remarkable radiation hardness of the device. The neutron damage in materials has been calculated and compared with the experimental results. This comparison is discussed within the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis, which states that performance degradation is proportional to NIEL.

Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Aielli, G.; Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

2008-09-01

380

Diet quality and the influence of social and physical factors on food consumption and nutrient intake in materially deprived older people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:To investigate the influence of social and physical factors on diet quality in materially deprived (low income) older people in the United Kingdom.Subjects\\/Methods:A diet quality index was obtained for 222 men and 440 women aged 65 and over living alone or with other adults of retirement age from the United Kingdom Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2003–2005). The association

B A Holmes; C L Roberts

2011-01-01

381

Quality Assessment of Physical Activity Recommendations Within Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors in People With Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review was to assess the quality of physical activity recommendations within clinical practice guidelines\\u000a for the prevention and treatment of the cardio-metabolic risk factors in schizophrenia. Several databases were searched from\\u000a their inception through July 2010. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation instrument was used for the quality\\u000a assessment. Twelve recommendations met all the

Davy Vancampfort; Kim Sweers; Michel Probst; Alex J. Mitchell; Jan Knapen; Marc De Hert

382

Factors Associated with Self and Informant Ratings of the Quality of Life of People with Dementia Living in Care Facilities: A Cross Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is no consensus regarding the optimal approach to assessment of the quality of life of people with dementia. We undertook the present study to describe and determine the factors associated with ratings of the quality of life of a cohort of people with dementia living in a residential care facility.Methodology\\/Principal Findings351 people with dementia living in residential care facilities,

Christopher Beer; Leon Flicker; Barbara Horner; Nick Bretland; Samuel Scherer; Nicola T. Lautenschlager; Frank Schaper; Osvaldo P. Almeida; Jose Vina

2010-01-01

383

The effect of exercise and diet on mental health and quality of life in middle-aged individuals with elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health and quality of life were assessed before and after a one-year exercise and diet intervention among 219 healthy individuals, aged 41–50 years, with elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The participants were randomized to four groups: diet (n=55), diet and exercise (n=67), exercise (n=54) and no active intervention (n=43). Quality of life was measured with one eight-item scale

MARIT SORENSEN; SIGMUND ANDERSSEN; INGVAR HJERMAN; INGAR HOLME; HOLGER URSIN

1999-01-01

384

Optimization study for an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy at the University of Virginia Research Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The non-surgical brain cancer treatment modality, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), requires the use of an epithermal neutron beam. This purpose of this thesis was to design an epithermal neutron beam at the University of Virginia Research Reactor (UVAR) suitable for BNCT applications. A suitable epithermal neutron beam for BNCT must have minimal fast neutron and gamma radiation contamination, and yet retain an appreciable intensity. The low power of the UVAR core makes reaching a balance between beam quality and intensity a very challenging design endeavor. The MCNP monte carlo neutron transport code was used to develop an equivalent core radiation source, and to perform the subsequent neutron transport calculations necessary for beam model analysis and development. The code accuracy was validated by benchmarking output against experimental criticality measurements. An epithermal beam was designed for the UVAR, with performance characteristics comparable to beams at facilities with cores of higher power. The epithermal neutron intensity of this beam is 2.2 {times} 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s. The fast neutron and gamma radiation KERMA factors are 10 {times} 10{sup {minus}11}cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi} and 20 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} cGy{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/n{sub epi}, respectively, and the current-to-flux ratio is 0.85. This thesis has shown that the UVAR has the capability to provide BNCT treatments, however the performance characteristics of the final beam of this study were limited by the low core power.

Burns, T.D. Jr.

1995-05-01

385

Small-angle neutron scattering study of pH dependence of the liquid structure factor of concentrated solutions of eye lens gamma-B crystallin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are evaluating the pH dependence of the liquid structure of aqueous solutions of the eye lens protein, gammaB crystallin, near its critical point for liquid-liquid phase separation, to help evaluate the influence of protein charge on the phase separation. We have obtained small-angle neutron scattering data from gammaB crystallin solutions at pH 6.4, 7.1 and 7.4 in a 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, and at pH 4.5 in a 0.020M sodium acetate buffer, all in D2O. Protein concentrations ranged from 6 to 260 mg protein/ml solution and the scattering vector magnitude (q) ranged from 0.004 to 0.45 inverse Angstroms. At pH 6.4 to 7.4 liquid structure factors vs. concentration and temperature near the cloud point for liquid-liquid phase separation are well represented, in general, by the Baxter sticky sphere model. In contrast, at pH 4.5, concentrated gammaB shows a very different liquid structure indicating highly repulsive interprotein interactions, consistent with both high net protein charge and reduced screening.

Desmond, Kenneth; Thurston, George; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

2006-03-01

386

Factors Affecting Echinacea Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

East to introduce cultivation, processing, and marketing. Today, E. purpurea in the markets originates solely from cultivation, while E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. paradoxa, E. tenneseensis, and E. sanguinea raw materi- als are sourced either from partial cultivation or totally collected from the wild. Investigations of the pharmacological and biological activities of purported echinacea extracts have fre- quently shown them

W. Letchamo; L. V. Polydeonny; T. J. Arnason; J. Livesey; D. V. C. Awang

2002-01-01

387

Effects of land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality in a mountainous watershed with intensive agricultural production in East china.  

PubMed

Understanding the primary effects of anthropogenic activities and natural factors on river water quality is important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this study, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlations, Multiple regression analysis (MRA) and Redundancy analysis (RDA) were applied as an integrated approach in a GIS environment to explore the temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to estimate the influence of watershed land use, topography and socio-economic factors on river water quality based on 3 years of water quality monitoring data for the Cao-E River system. The statistical analysis revealed that TN, pH and temperature were generally higher in the rainy season, whereas BOD5, DO and turbidity were higher in the dry season. Spatial variations in river water quality were related to numerous anthropogenic and natural factors. Urban land use was found to be the most important explanatory variable for BOD5, CODMn, TN, DN, NH4+-N, NO3--N, DO, pH and TP. The animal husbandry output per capita was an important predictor of TP and turbidity, and the gross domestic product per capita largely determined spatial variations in EC. The remaining unexplained variance was related to other factors, such as topography. Our results suggested that pollution control of animal waste discharge in rural settlements, agricultural runoff in cropland, industrial production pollution and domestic pollution in urban and industrial areas were important within the Cao-E River basin. Moreover, the percentage of the total overall river water quality variance explained by an individual variable and/or all environmental variables (according to RDA) can assist in quantitatively identifying the primary factors that control pollution at the watershed scale. PMID:25090375

Chen, Jiabo; Lu, Jun

2014-01-01

388

Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P<0.001. However, no significant variation (P>0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

2014-01-01

389

[Factors influencing life quality improvement in patients of different age one year after coronary artery bypass surgery].  

PubMed

The study was aimed at examining the factors having an impact on changes in the quality of life (QL) parameters a year after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in different age groups. 408 patients aged 31-79 years had their QL assessed by means of the SF-36 questionnaire before and one year after elective CABG. Additionally, the patients were tested for the presence of type D personality before and one year after CABG by means of the DS-14 questionnaire. The groups were comparable in terms of previous carotid endarterectomy, peripheral arterial and aortic reconstruction number (p > 0.05). One year after CABG the improved QL (p < 0.01) was reported whereas type D patients had significantly poorer psychological test results (p < 0.01). One year after CABG type D personality and high Euroscore had an independent impact on the QL improvement while previous carotid endartectomies resulted in a significantly improved psychological health component. Thus, along with the detection and treatment of non-coronary lesions the personality type assessment and focused behavioral interventions can contribute to the QL improvement in long-term CABG period. PMID:24003741

Sumin, A N; Ga?fulin, R A; Mos'kin, M G; Korok, E V; Shcheglova, A V; Ra?kh, O I; Ivanov, S V; Barbarash, O L

2013-01-01

390

Factors influencing quality of life and disease severity in Hungarian children and young adults with cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of our study was to evaluate factors affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to assess the level of agreement on HRQol between children and their parents. Methods Fifty-nine patients (mean age: 14.03?±?4.81 years) from 5 Hungarian CF centres completed the survey. HRQoL was measured using The Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R). Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their smoking habits, educational level and history of chronic illness. Disease severity was assessed using the physician-reported Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score system. Spirometry, Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile (pc), hospitalisation and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection were examined as physiologic parameters of CF, and the impact of these factors on HRQoL was assessed. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the most important factors affecting HRQoL. The level of significance was set to 0.05. Results Passive smoking and parental educational level and chronic diseases status did not have a significant impact on the patients’ HRQoL (p?>?0.05). Significantly lower SK scores and spirometry values were found in low BMI pc patients (p?25th BMI pc) (p?

2014-01-01

391

Effects of Factors Related to Water Quality and Population Density on the Sensitivity of Juvenile Largemouth Bass to Mortality Induced by Viral Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental stressors can predispose fish to mortality from infectious disease. This study examined the effects of two factors, water quality and physical crowding, on the responses of fish to viral infection. Juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were experimentally inoculated with largemouth bass virus (LMBV), an emerging pathogen in the family Iridoviridae. In separate experiments, fish were exposed to various concentrations

Kate R. Inendino; Emily C. Grant; David P. Philipp; Tony L. Goldberg

2005-01-01

392

Psychological Problems, Protective Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life in Youth Affected by Violence: The Burden of the Multiply Victimised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates self-rated mental health in terms of psychological problems, protective factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 6813) aged 11-17 involved in violence with varying frequency. Using MANCOVA and ANCOVA, youth with single and multiple histories of violent…

Schlack, Robert; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2013-01-01

393

Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The conceptual models are intended in part to provide a foundation for subsequent development of regional-scale statistical models that relate specific constituent concentrations or occurrence in groundwater to natural and human factors.

Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

2011-01-01

394

Development of a tissue-equivalent proportional-counter system for the measurement of neutron dose. Final report, 1986-1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a neutron-gamma dose-measurement system utilizing a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC). A multi-channel analyzer acquires the data and sends it to a personal computer for analysis on a spreadsheet. The system yields information on lineal energy, absorbed dose, quality factor, and dose equivalent for different neutron-gamma sources. Results are presented that compare the response of the TEPC

Hilarides

1987-01-01

395

Ferromagnetic phase diagram of neutron matter  

E-print Network

The magnetic properties of matter under extreme conditions are of particular importance to understanding the neutron star interior. One contributing factor to the magnetic field of a neutron star could be the ferromagnetic phase of nuclear matter. In this letter we present a self-consistent, relativistic description of ferromagnetism in dense matter, within which the ferromagnetic phase diagram for neutron matter is calculated.

J. P. W. Diener; F. G. Scholtz

2010-06-29

396

General Electric PETtrace cyclotron as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates the use of a PETtrace cyclotron produced by General Electric (GE) as a neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The GE PETtrace was chosen for this investigation because this type of cyclotron is popular among nuclear pharmacies and clinics in many countries; it is compact and reliable; it produces protons with energies high enough to produce neutrons with appropriate energy and fluence rate for BNCT and it does not require significant changes in design to provide neutrons. In particular, the standard PETtrace 18O target is considered. The cyclotron efficiency may be significantly increased if unused neutrons produced during radioisotopes production could be utilized for other medical modalities such as BNCT at the same time. The resulting dose from the radiation emitted from the target is evaluated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP at several depths in a brain phantom for different scattering geometries. Four different moderating materials of various thicknesses were considered: light water, carbon, heavy water, arid Fluental(TM). The fluence rate tally was used to calculate photon and neutron dose, by applying fluence rate-to-dose conversion factors. Fifteen different geometries were considered and a 30-cm thick heavy water moderator was chosen as the most suitable for BNCT with the GE PETtrace cyclotron. According to the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) protocol, the maximum dose to the normal brain is set to 12.5 RBEGy, which for the conditions of using a heavy water moderator, assuming a 60 muA beam current, would be reached with a treatment time of 258 min. Results showed that using a PETtrace cyclotron in this configuration provides a therapeutic ratio of about 2.4 for depths up to 4 cm inside a brain phantom. Further increase of beam current proposed by GE should significantly improve the beam quality or the treatment time and allow treating tumors at greater depths.

Bosko, Andrey

397

Single-neutron excitations near 132Sn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-neutron excitations in neutron-rich tin isotopes have been studied with (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics with accelerated beams of 124,126,128,130,132Sn. Reaction protons were measured with silicon strip detectors from ORRUBA. For the heavier isotopes, f and p single neutron configurations from across the N=82 gap dominate the spectra. Heavy-ion induced neutron transfer reactions have recently been measured with particle-gamma-ray coincidences. Measures of direct neutron capture can be obtained from the spectroscopic factors for p states. Plans to deduce the statistical component of neutron-capture cross sections are discussed.

Cizewski, Jolie A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Manning, B.; Nunes, F.; Pain, S. D.; Ribens Collaboration

2012-10-01

398

Quality of Life in Animals as a New Outcome for Surgical Research: G-CSF as a Quality of Life Improving Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepsis is still a major problem in human medicine with a high mortality rate. Nearly all attempts to improve the outcome of septic patients with immune modulators failed. In most of these trials only mechanistic endpoints such as mortality rate, complication rate, cytokine levels and physiological parameters were assessed. Only in a very few trials quality of life had been

Artur Bauhofer; Klaus Witte; Björn Lemmer; Martin Middeke; Wilfried Lorenz; Ilhan Celik

2002-01-01

399

Neutron sensitivity of vanadium self powered neutron detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron sensitivity of vanadium self powered neutron detectors (Type 5503-B), manufactured by Studsvik, Sweden, has been measured. Using the calculational model developed by Warren, the neutron sensitivity of these detectors has been computed taking into account additional factors viz. flux depression caused by the detector and the interaction of 52V gamma rays with the emitter, the correction factors due to which have been evaluated to be 0.957 and 1.03 respectively. The evaluation of different parameters that are necessary in this connection and the neutron flux density determination at the position of irradiation of these detectors by gold foil activation, are presented. The measured and calculated values of neutron sensitivity are observed to agree to within 4%.

Rao, P. S.; Misra, S. C.

1986-12-01

400

Double Neutron Star Binaries: Implications for LIGO  

E-print Network

Double neutrons are especially important because they give most accurate informations on the masses of neutron stars. Observations on double neutron stars show that all masses of the neutron stars are below 1.5$\\msun$. Furthermore, two neutron stars in a given double pulsar are nearly equal in mass. With hypercritical accretion, we found that the probability of having companion mass $>1.5\\msun$ is larger than 90%, while there is no observations on such systems. We believe that those companions with masses higher than $1.5\\msun$ went into black holes, which is consistent with our preferred maximum neutron star mass $M_{NS}^{max} \\approx 1.5\\msun$ due to the kaon condensation. In this work, we point out that the black-hole neutron star binaries are 10 times more dominant than double neutron star binaries. As a result, black-hole, neutron star binaries can increase the LIGO detection rate by a factor 20.

Chang-Hwan Lee; Gerald E. Brown

2005-10-13

401

Vulnerability, Risk, Protective Factors, and the Quality of Child-Parent Attachment in Foster and Adoptive Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the literature uses the theoretical perspective of attachment theory to examine key factors in the parent\\/child relationship in foster and adoptive families. Discussion of these factors is organized using Begun's delineation of vulnerability factors (those internal to the child and parents) and risk and protective factors (those external to the child and parents). The concept of reactive

Kathy Gomez

2007-01-01

402

General health related quality of life and associated factors among prostate cancer patients in two tertiary medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Measurement of quality of life among prostate cancer patients helps the health care providers to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective. The main aim of this study is to measure the quality of life among prostate cancer patients at University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and to ascertain the association factors for physical coefficient summary (PCS) and mental coefficient summary (MCS). A hospital based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted over a period of 6 months. A total of 193 respondents were recruited. Their total quality of life score was 70.1± 14.7 and the PCS score was lower compared to MCS. The factors associated for PCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, urinary problem of intermittency, dysuria and hematuria. Factors associated for MCS were: age, living partner, renal problem, presenting prostatic specific antigen and urinary problem of intermittency and dysuria. Our prostate cancer patients had moderate quality of life in the physical health components but their mental health was less affected. PMID:23464393

Isa, Mohamad Rodi; Ming, Moy Foong; Abdul Razack, Azad Hassan; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Mohd; Zainal, Nur Zuraida

2012-01-01

403

Unperturbed moderator brightness in pulsed neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unperturbed neutron brightness of a moderator can be defined from the number of neutrons leaving the surface of a moderator completely surrounded by a reflector. Without openings for beam extraction, it is the maximum brightness that can be theoretically achieved in a moderator. The unperturbed brightness of a cylindrical cold moderator filled with pure para-H2 was calculated using MCNPX; the moderator dimensions were optimised, for a fixed target and reflector geometry corresponding to the present concept for the ESS spallation source. This quantity does not depend on openings for beam extraction and therefore can be used for a first-round optimisation of a moderator, before effects due to beam openings are considered. We find that such an optimisation yields to a factor of 2 increase with respect to a conventional volume moderator, large enough to accommodate a viewed surface of 12×12 cm2: the unperturbed neutron brightness is maximum for a disc-shaped moderator of 15 cm diameter, 1.4 cm height. The reasons for this increase can be related to the properties of the scattering cross-section of para-H2, to the added reflector around the exit surface in the case of a compact moderator, and to a directionality effect. This large optimisation gain in the unperturbed brightness hints towards similar potentials for the perturbed neutron brightness, in particular in conjunction with advancing the optical quality of neutron delivery from the moderator to the sample, where by Liouville theorem the brightness is conserved over the beam trajectory, except for absorption and similar type losses.

Batkov, K.; Takibayev, A.; Zanini, L.; Mezei, F.

2013-11-01

404

Quality of life profile and correlated factors in chronic leg ulcer patients in the mid-west of S?o Paulo State, Brazil*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Chronic leg ulcer may have an impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to identify the impact of leg ulcers on patient's quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index and to define the main factors correlated with this perception. METHOD Cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling study. We included patients with chronic leg ulcers being treated for at least 3 months. A sociodemographic and clinical survey was conducted to assess the profile of the ulcers. We administered a screening for depressive symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test for categorical data, Pearson for numeric variables, and multiple regression for categorical data. RESULTS Forty-one patients were assessed. Their mean age was 61.78 years. Venous ulcers (48.8%) were the most prevalent. Seventy-three percent of the sample perceived no impact/low impact on quality of life in the past week, and 26.8% perceived moderate/high impact. A multiple regression analysis identified the causes of lesion, pain related to the ulcers, time of onset, and severity of the depressive symptoms as the variables that had an influence on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the sample perceived low or no impact of the condition on the quality of the life. The variables etiology of the lesion (p<0.001), pain related to the ulcers (p=0.001), time of onset (p=0.006), and severity of the depressive symptoms (p<0.001) had an influence on the quality of life, suggesting the need for further studies with more robust designs to confirm the causal relationship between these characteristics and quality of life. PMID:24626651

Wachholz, Patrick Alexander; Masuda, Paula Yoshiko; Nascimento, Dejair Caitano; Taira, Cecilia Midori Higashi; Cleto, Norma Gondim

2014-01-01

405

Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS under the New Epidemic Characteristics in China and the Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Improvement of quality of life has been one of goals in health care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In China, the epidemic characteristics have changed and transmission is now most commonly sexual contact. However, the assessment of quality of life of PLWHA under new characteristics has limited reporting. This study was designed to assess the quality of life among PLWHA who contracted disease mainly via sexual contact and to clarify the associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning Province. Sample size (800) was calculated based on the fatality rate and enlarged with consideration on the loss of response. Participants were sampled by tables of random numbers among all registered PLWHA. Questionnaires pertaining to quality of life (SF-36) and related factors (demographic characteristics, social support and network, HIV/AIDS awareness, and behavior factors) were distributed during December 2010-April 2011. 783 effective responses were obtained. Results The average