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Sample records for neutron rich si

  1. Probing neutron rich matter with parity violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Many compact and energetic astrophysical systems are made of neutron rich matter. In contrast, most terrestrial nuclei involve approximately symmetric nuclear matter with more equal numbers of neutrons and protons. However, heavy nuclei have a surface region that contains many extra neutrons. Precision measurements of this neutron rich skin can determine properties of neutron rich matter. Parity violating electron scattering provides a uniquely clean probe of neutrons, because the weak charge of a neutron is much larger than that of a proton. We describe first results and future plans for the Jefferson Laboratory experiment PREX that measures the thickness of the neutron skin in 208Pb. Another JLAB experiment CREX will measure the neutron radius of 48Ca and test recent microscopic calculations of this neutron rich 48 nucleon system. Finally, we show how measuring parity violation at multiple momentum transfers can determine not just the neutron radius but the full radial structure of the neutron density in 48Ca. A neutron star is eighteen orders of magnitude larger than a nucleus (km vs fm) but both the star and the neutron rich nuclear skin are made of the same neutrons, with the same strong interactions, and the same equation of state. A large pressure pushes neutrons out against surface tension and gives a thick neutron skin. Therefore, PREX will constrain the equation of state of neutron rich matter and improve predictions for the structure of neutron stars. Supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  2. Effective Interactions in Neutron-Rich Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sammarruca, F.; Krastev, P.; Barredo, W.

    2005-10-14

    We are generally concerned with probing the behavior of the isospin-asymmetric equation of state. In particular, we will discuss the one-body potentials for protons and neutrons obtained from our Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations of neutron-rich matter properties. We will also present predictions of proton-proton and neutron-neutron cross sections in the isospin-asymmetric nuclear medium.

  3. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Jorge A.; Porras, Sergio Terrazas; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  4. Pair correlations in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H.

    1995-08-01

    We started a program to study the ground-state properties of heavy, neutron-rich nuclei using the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) approximation. This appears at present to be the most realistic approach for heavy nuclei that contain many loosely bound valence neutrons. The two-neutron density obtained in this approach can be decomposed into two components, one associated with the mean field and one associated with the pairing field. The latter has a structure that is quite similar to the pair-density obtained by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian for a two-neutron halo, which was studied earlier. This allows comparison of the HFB solutions against numerically exact solutions for two-neutron halos. This work is in progress. We intend to apply the HFB method to predict the ground-state properties of heavier, more neutron-rich nuclei that may be produced at future radioactive beam facilities.

  5. The new neutron rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gridnev, K. A.; Gridnev, D. K.; Tarasov, V. N.; Tarasov, D. V.; Viñas, X.; Greiner, W.

    2014-07-23

    Using HF+BCS method with Skyrme forces we analyze the neutron drip line. It is shown that around magic and new magic numbers the drip line may form stability peninsulas. It is shown that the location of these peninsulas does not depend on the choice of Skyrme forces. It is found that the size of the peninsulas is sensitive to the choice of Skyrme forces and the most extended peninsulas appear with the SkI2 set.

  6. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarewicz, W. ||

    1997-11-01

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The new data on exotic nuclei are expected to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  7. - and -delayed neutron- decay of neutron-rich copper isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Korgul, A.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Winger, J. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Gross, Carl J; Batchelder, J. C.; Bingham, C. R.; Borzov, Ivan N; Goodin, C.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Hamilton, Joseph H; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S. N.; Mazzocchi, C.; Nelson, C.; Nowacki, F.; Padgett, Stephen; Piechaczek, A.; Rajabali, M. M.; Shapira, Dan; Sieja, K.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2012-01-01

    The {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich Cu isotopes produced in proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The data were collected using high-resolution online mass separation, reacceleration, and digital {beta}-{gamma} spectroscopy methods. An improved decay scheme of N = 49 {sup 78}Cu and the first observation of N = 50 {sup 79}Cu {beta}-delayed neutron decay followed by a gamma transition are reported. Spin and parity (5{sup -}) are deduced for {sup 78gs}Cu. The {beta}-delayed neutron branching ratios (P{sub {beta}n}) for the {sup 77}Cu and {sup 79}Cu precursors are analyzed with the help of nuclear structure models.

  8. Neutron transfer measurements on neutron-rich N=82 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, Steven D; Jones, K. L.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Cizewski, J. A.; Hatarik, Robert; Kapler, R.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Smith, Michael Scott

    2009-01-01

    Calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis rely significantly on nuclear structure models as input, which are not well tested in the neutron-rich regime, due to the paucity of experimental data on the majority of these nuclei. High quality radioactive beams have recently made possible the measurement of (d,p) reactions on unstable nuclei in inverse kinematics, which can yield information on the development of single-neutron structure away from stability in close proximity to suggested r-process paths. The Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) has been developed for the measurement of such reactions. An early partial implementation of ORRUBA has been utilized to measure the {sup 132}Sn(d,p){sup 133}Sn and {sup 134}Te(d,p){sup 135}Te reactions for the first time.

  9. Spectroscopy of Neutron-rich Pu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Hota, S.; Lakshmi, S.; Tandel, S. K.; Harrington, T.; Jackson, E.; Moran, K.; Shirwadkar, U.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M. P.; Greene, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.

    2011-10-28

    Spectroscopic studies of nuclei in the A{approx}250, Z{approx}100 region provide critical input to theoretical models that attempt to describe the structure and stability of the heaviest elements. We report here on new spectroscopic studies in the N = 150,151 nuclei {sup 244,245}Pu. (Z = 94). Excitations in these nuclei on the neutron-rich side of the valley of stability, accessed via inelastic and transfer reactions, complement fusion-evaporation studies of Z{>=}100 nuclei. States in {sup 244,245}Pu were populated using {sup 47}Ti and {sup 208}Pb beams incident on a {sup 244}Pu target, with delayed and prompt gamma rays detected by the Gammasphere array. The new results are discussed in the context of emerging systematics of one- and two-quasiparticle excitations in N{>=}150 nuclei.

  10. Clusters in neutron-rich light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelavić Malenica, D.; Milin, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Lattuada, M.; Miljanić, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Prepolec, L.; Scuderi, V.; Skukan, N.; Soić, N.; Torresi, D.; Uroić, M.

    2016-05-01

    Due to their high selectivity, transfer and sequential decay reactions are powerful tools for studies of both single particle (nucleon) and cluster states in light nuclei. Their use is particularly simple for investigations of α-particle clustering (because α-particle has Jπ=0+, which simplifies spin and parity assignments to observed cluster states), but they are also easily applicable to other types of clustering. Recent results on clustering in neutron-rich isotopes of beryllium, boron and carbon obtained measuring the 10B+10B reactions (at 50 and 72 MeV) are presented. The highly efficient and segmented detector systems used, built from 4 Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) allowed detection of double and multiple coincidences and, in that way, studies of states populated in transfer reactions, as well as their sequential decay.

  11. Multi-Messenger Observations of Neutron Rich Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    At very high densities, electrons react with protons to form neutron rich matter. This material is central to many fundamental questions in nuclear physics and astrophysics. Moreover, neutron rich matter is being studied with an extraordinary variety of new tools such as the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). We describe the Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) that uses parity violating electron scattering to measure the neutron radius in 208Pb. This has important implications for neutron stars and their crusts. We discuss X-ray observations of neutron star radii. These also have important implications for neutron rich matter. Gravitational waves (GW) open a new window on neutron rich matter. They come from sources such as neutron star mergers, rotating neutron star mountains, and collective r-mode oscillations. Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations, we find neutron star crust to be very strong. It can support mountains on rotating neutron stars large enough to generate detectable gravitational waves. We believe that combing astronomical observations using photons, GW, and neutrinos, with laboratory experiments on nuclei, heavy ion collisions, and radioactive beams will fundamentally advance our knowledge of compact objects in the heavens, the dense phases of QCD, the origin of the elements, and of neutron rich matter.

  12. The Spectroscopy of Neutron-Rich sdf-Shell Nuclei Using the CLARA-PRISMA Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, X.; Hodsdon, A.; Chapman, R.; Burns, M.; Keyes, K.; Ollier, J.; Papenberg, A.; Spohr, K.; Azaiez, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Stanoiu, M.; Haas, F.; Caurier, E.; Curien, D.; Nowacki, F.; Salsac, M.-D.; Bazzacco, D.; Beghini, S.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.

    2006-08-14

    Since the discovery of the breakdown of shell effects in very neutron-rich N=20 and 28 nuclei, studies of the properties of nuclei far from stability have been of intense interest since they provide a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of nuclear interactions in extreme conditions and often challenge our theoretical models.Deep-inelastic processes can be used to populated high spin states of neutron-rich nuclei. In the deep-inelastic processes, an equilibration in N/Z between the target and projectile nuclei is achieved. For most heavy neutron-rich target nuclei, the N/Z ratio is 1.5 - 1.6, while for the possible neutron-rich sdf-shell projectile it is about 1.2. Thus by using deep-inelastic processes one can populate neutron-rich nuclei around N=20 and N=28.New results for the spectroscopy of neutron-rich N=22 36Si and 37P are presented here.

  13. Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Roy, Subinit

    2014-08-14

    Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.

  14. Radiative neutron captures by neutron-rich nuclei and the r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.

    1998-09-01

    The radiative neutron capture by neutron-rich nuclei is estimated with an improved description of the electric giant dipole resonance. In addition, 3 major effects affecting the capture rates by exotic neutron-rich nuclei are studied. These concern the existence of a low-energy E1 pygmy resonance, the overestimate of the statistical predictions for resonance-deficient nuclei and the direct capture mechanism. The total (n,γ) reaction rates including these 3 effects are evaluated for 3100 neutron-rich nuclei and used in parametric r-process calculations to analyze their impact on the r-abundance distribution.

  15. X-Ray And Polarized Neutron Reflectometry: Characterization Of Si/Co/Si And Si/Ni/Si Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Debarati; Basu, Saibal; Poswal, A. K.; Roy, S.; Dev, B. N.

    2010-12-01

    Technologically important metal silicides formed through interdiffusion in metal/Si systems has been probed using two complementary techniques viz. x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR). Both structural and magnetic characterization with good depth resolution has been achieved in these systems. We have studied two systems Si/Co/Si and Si/Ni/Si which relate to important applications in ferromagnetic/ non-magnetic semiconductor layered structures for memory devices.

  16. Modes of decay in neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B.; Biswal, S. K.; Singh, S. K.; Lahiri, C.; Patra, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the ground, first intrinsic excited states and density distribution for neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes, within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) approach using axially deformed basis. The total nucleon densities are calculated, from which the cluster-structures inside the parent nuclei are determined. The possible modes of decay, like α-decay and β-decay are analyzed. We find the neutron-rich isotopes are stable against α-decay, however they are very much unstable against β-decay. The life time of these nuclei predicted to be tens of second against β-decay.

  17. Fusion probability for neutron-rich radioactive Sn induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J Felix; Gross, Carl J; Kohley, Zachary W; Shapira, Dan; Varner Jr, Robert L; Allmond, James M; Caraley, Anne L; Lagergren, Karin B; Mueller, Paul Edward

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation residue cross sections for $^{124,126,127,128}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn+$^{58}$Ni have been measured to study the effects of neutron excess in neutron-rich radioactive nuclei on fusion. For the reactions with $^{64}$Ni, the fusion probability does not decrease with increasing neutron excess in Sn, contrary to the result of the stable beam Sn+Zr measurement. A comparison of the reduced evaporation residue cross sections for $^{126}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn+$^{58}$Ni, which make the same compound nucleus, shows that the fusion probability is indistinguishable for reactions involving the same atomic elements but different isotope combinations.

  18. Octupole strength in the neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, L. A.; McPherson, D. M.; Agiorgousis, M. L.; Baugher, T. R.; Bazin, D.; Bowry, M.; Cottle, P. D.; DeVone, F. G.; Gade, A.; Glowacki, M. T.; Gregory, S. D.; Haldeman, E. B.; Kemper, K. W.; Lunderberg, E.; Noji, S.; Recchia, F.; Sadler, B. V.; Scott, M.; Weisshaar, D.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2016-04-01

    Low-lying excited states of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes Ca-5248 have been studied via γ -ray spectroscopy following inverse-kinematics proton scattering on a liquid hydrogen target using the GRETINA γ -ray tracking array. The energies and strengths of the octupole states in these isotopes are remarkably constant, indicating that these states are dominated by proton excitations.

  19. First principle-based AKMC modelling of the formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters in a neutron irradiated complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of reactor pressure vessel steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngayam-Happy, R.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2013-09-01

    The formation and medium-term evolution of point defect and solute-rich clusters under neutron irradiation have been modelled in a complex Fe-CuMnNiSiP alloy representative of RPV steels, by means of first principle-based atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained reproduce most features observed in available experimental studies, highlighting the very good agreement between both series. According to simulation, solute-rich clusters form and develop via an induced segregation mechanism on either the vacancy or interstitial clusters, and these point defect clusters are efficiently generated only in cascade debris and not Frenkel pair flux. The results have revealed the existence of two distinct populations of clusters with different characteristic features. Solute-rich clusters in the first group are bound essentially to interstitial clusters and they are enriched in Mn mostly, but also Ni to a lesser extent. Over the low dose regime, their density increases in the alloy as a result of the accumulation of highly stable interstitial clusters. In the second group, the solute-rich clusters are merged with vacancy clusters, and they contain mostly Cu and Si, but also substantial amount of Mn and Ni. The formation of a sub-population of pure solute clusters has been observed, which results from annihilation of the low stable vacancy clusters on sinks. The results indicate finally that the Mn content in clusters is up to 50%, Cu, Si, and Ni sharing the other half in more or less equivalent amounts. This composition has not demonstrated any noticeable modification with increasing dose over irradiation.

  20. Informing Neutron-Capture Rates through (d,p) Reactions on Neutron-Rich Tin Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, B.; Cizewski, J. A.; Kozub, R. L.; Ahn, S.; Allmond, J. M.; Bardayan, D. W.; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K. A.; Howard, M. E.; Jones, K. L.; Liang, J. F.; Matos, M.; Nunes, F. M.; Nesaraja, C. D.; O'Malley, P. D.; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Pittman, S. T.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Schmitt, K. T.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M. S.; Titus, L.

    2014-03-01

    Level energies and spectroscopic information for neutron-rich nuclei provide important input for r-process nucleosynthesis calculations; specifically, the location and strength of single-neutron l = 1 states when calculating neutron-capture rates. Surman and collaborators have performed sensitivity studies to show that varying neutron-capture rates can significantly alter final r-process abundances. However, there are many nuclei important to the r-process that cannot be studied. Extending studies to more neutron-rich nuclei will help constrain the nuclear shell-model in extrapolating to nuclei even further from stability. The (d,p) reaction has been measured with radioactive ion beams of 126Sn and 128Sn to complete the set of (d,p) studies on even mass tin isotopes from doubly-magic 132 to stable 124Sn. Work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  1. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S. G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes of 1.0 Msub solar neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. Simulations produce outbursts which last from about 750 seconds to about one week. Peak effective temeratures and luninosities were 26 million K and 80 thousand Lsub solar for the 10 km study and 5.3 millison and 600 Lsub solar for the 20 km study. Hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting about one ten thousandth seconds.

  2. Exotic modes of excitation in deformed neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2011-05-06

    Low-lying dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line is investigated in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and the quasiparticle random-phase approximation employing the Skyrme and the pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying dipole-strength distribution splits into the K{sup {pi}} = 0{sup -} and 1{sup -} components due to the nuclear deformation. The low-lying dipole strength increases as the neutron drip-line is approached.

  3. Synthesis of Si nanopyramids at SiO{sub x}/Si interface for enhancing electroluminescence of Si-rich SiO{sub x}

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.-R.; Lin, C.-K.; Chou, L.-J.; Chueh, Y.-L.

    2006-08-28

    Enhanced electroluminescence (EL) of ITO/SiO{sub x}/Si-nanopyramid/p-Si/Al diode is investigated. By using low-power plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at high substrate temperature, anomalous (100)-oriented Si nanopyramids with a surface density of 1.6x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} are synthesized at SiO{sub x}/Si interface prior to grow Si-rich SiO{sub x} film. Si nanopyramids greatly improve Fowler-Nordheim tunneling based carrier transport and benefit from less damaged oxide structure at lower biases. The turn-on voltage and threshold current density of the diode are reduced to 50 V and 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Defect-related blue-green EL are suppressed to enhance stable near-infrared EL at 30 nW with a lifetime >10 h.

  4. Stress relaxation in Si-rich silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Habermehl, S.

    1998-05-01

    Si-rich silicon nitride thin films have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition, at 850{degree}C from mixtures of dichlorosilane and ammonia. The films{close_quote} elastic properties have been studied as a function of film composition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometric data indicate that the local atomic strain is a strong function of the calculated volume fraction of Si contained in the films. A relationship is observed that shows the strain to be inversely proportional to the cube root of the Si volume fraction. A model that accounts for distortion in Si{endash}Si{sub x}N{sub 4{minus}x} tetrahedra (x=0{endash}4), upon substitution of silicon for nitrogen in the film is applied to the data. The model is shown to be consistent with measurements of intrinsic film stress across a compositional range from stoichiometric silicon nitride, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, to nitrogen-free amorphous silicon, a-Si. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. New Neutron Rich Nuclei Near {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Aeystoe, J.; Andreyev, A.; Evensen, A.-H.; Hoff, P.; Huhta, M.; Huyse, M.; ISOLDE Collaboration; Jokinen, A.; Karny, M.; Kugler, E.; Kurpeta, J.; Lettry, J.; Nieminen, A.; Plochocki, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Ravn, H.; Rykaczewski, K.; Szerypo, J.; VanDuppen, P.; Walter, G.; Woehr, A.

    1998-11-13

    The level properties near the stable doubly-magic nuclei formed the experimental grounds for the theoretical description of nuclear structure. However with a departure from the beta-stability line, the classical well-established shell structure might be modified. In particular, it may even vanish for extremely exotic neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron-drip line. Presently, it is impossible to verify such predictions by a direct experimental studies of these exotic objects. However, one may try to observe and understand the evolution of the nuclear structure while departing in the experiment as far as possible from the stable nuclei. An extension of experimental nuclear structure studies towards the nuclei characterized by high neutron excess is crucial for such verifications as well as for the {tau}-process nucleosynthesis scenario. Heavy neutron-rich nuclei, south-east of doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb, were always very difficult to produce and investigate. The nuclei like {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Pb or {sup 210}Tl marked the border line of known nuclei from the beginning of the radioactivity era for over ninety years. To illustrate the difficulties, one can refer to the experiments employing the on-line mass separator technique. A spallation of heavy targets like {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U by high-energy protons was proven as a source of heavy neutron-rich nuclei. The isotopes near and beyond doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb were produced too. However, such studies often suffered from an isobaric contamination of much more strongly produced and efficiently released elements like francium or radon and their decay products. A new experimental technique, based on the pulsed release element selective method recently developed at the PS Booster-ISOLDE at CERN [7,8,9] greatly reduces the contamination of these very short-lived {alpha}-emitters (Z {ge} 84) for the isobaric mass chains A=215 to A=218.

  6. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code is used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes of 1.0-solar-mass neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. The simulations produce outbursts lasting from approximately 750 seconds to approximately one week. The peak effective temperatures and luminosities are 2.6 x 10 to the 7th K and 8 x 10 to the 4th solar luminosities for the 10 km study and 5.3 x 10 to the 6th K and 600 solar luminosities for the 20 km study. It is found that hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting approximately 0.0001 second. The study assumes that the bursters and transient X-ray sources occur as a result of mass transfer from a secondary onto a neutron star in a fashion analogous to the nova phenomena. The peak temperatures and luminosities are found to be inversely proportional to the radius of the neutron stars and the calculations here, together with those in the literature, indicate that the actual radii of most neutron stars must be closer to 10 km than 20 km.

  7. Shell-model study for neutron-rich sd-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Kazunari; Sun Yang; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Munetake

    2011-01-15

    The microscopic structure of neutron-rich sd-shell nuclei is investigated by using the spherical-shell model in the sd-pf valence space with the extended pairing plus quadrupole-quadrupole forces accompanied by the monopole interaction (EPQQM). The calculation reproduces systematically the known energy levels for even-even and odd-mass nuclei including the recent data for {sup 43}S, {sup 46}S, and {sup 47}Ar. In particular, the erosion of the N=28 shell closure in {sup 42}Si can be explained. Our EPQQM results are compared with other shell-model calculations with the SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions.

  8. Possibility of production of neutron-rich isotopes in transfer-type reactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2008-08-15

    The production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, and Ti in the multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 48}Ca(64 MeV/nucleon, 140 MeV/nucleon) + {sup 181}Ta and {sup 48}Ca(142 MeV/nucleon) + {sup nat}W are estimated. A good agreement of the calculated results with the available experimental data confirms the mechanism of multinucleon transfer at almost peripheral collisions at intermediate energies. The global trend of production cross section with the charge (mass) number of target in reactions with {sup 48}Ca beam is discussed for the future experiments.

  9. One-neutron knockout from light neutron-rich nuclei at relativistic energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Benjamim, E.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gascon, M.; Kurtukian, T.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Aumann, T.; Chatillon, A.; Geissel, H.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Simon, H.; Suemmerer, K.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.; Borge, M. J. G.

    2010-08-15

    One-neutron knockout reactions from neutron-rich nuclei, with Z=6-13 and N=8-22, were studied at the Fragment Separator (GSI) at high beam energies, around 700 MeV/nucleon. Structural phenomena such as the formation of one-neutron halos in odd-mass carbon isotopes ({sup 15,17,19}C) will be discussed. In addition, one-neutron knockout measurements from {sup 22}N were carried out for the first time and demonstrate clearly the change from a 0d{sub 5/2} to a 1s{sub 1/2} orbital for the valence neutron, an effect that is expected above N=14 and that was also observed in {sup 23}O and {sup 24}F. The possibility of an anomalous structure of {sup 26}F, due to a significant 1s{sub 1/2} neutron admixture, will also be discussed in the light of the experimental data obtained in this work. Finally, the ground-state configuration of neutron-rich neon isotopes ({sup 24-28}Ne) was studied, providing new information in a region that is relatively close to the island of inversion.

  10. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Ekström, A.; Frömmgen, N.; Hagen, G.; Hammen, M.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Jansen, G. R.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Nazarewicz, W.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Papenbrock, T.; Papuga, J.; Schwenk, A.; Simonis, J.; Wendt, K. A.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain `magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-rich atomic nuclei.

  11. Formation of Heavy and Superheavy Neutron Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2010-04-30

    A new way is proposed to discover and examine unknown neutron-rich heavy and superheavy nuclei at the 'north-east' part of the nuclear map. The present limits of the upper part of the nuclear map is very close to stability while the unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides to the east of the stability line (also those located along the neutron closed shell N = 126) is extremely important for nuclear astrophysics investigations and for the understanding of the r-process of astrophysical nucleo-genesis. A novel idea is proposed for the production of these nuclei via low-energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions using a gain given by the shell effects. This finding may spur new studies at heavy ion facilities and should have significant impact for future experiments. The use of the multi-nucleon transfer reactions in low-energy collisions of heavy actinide nuclei gives us also the only chance to approach the 'island of stability' of superheavy elements. A possibility for a three-body decay (heavy ternary fission) is predicted for superheavy nuclei.

  12. Fission and Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Joseph H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Carter, H. K.

    2008-08-01

    Opening session. Nuclear processes in stellar explosions / M. Wiescher. In-beam [symbol]-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei at NSCL / A. Gade -- Nuclear structure I. Shell-model structure of neutron-rich nuclei beyond [symbol]Sn / A. Covello ... [et al.]. Shell structure and evolution of collectivity in nuclei above the [symbol]Sn core / S. Sarkar and M. S. Sarkar. Heavy-ion fusion using density-constrained TDHF / A. S. Umar and V. E. Oberacker. Towards an extended microscopic theory for upper-fp shell nuclei / K. P. Drumev. Properties of the Zr and Pb isotopes near the drip-line / V. N. Tarasov ... [et al.]. Identification of high spin states in [symbol] Cs nuclei and shell model calculations / K. Li ... [et al.]. Recent measurements of spherical and deformed isomers using the Lohengrin fission-fragment spectrometer / G. S. Simpson ... [et al.] -- Nuclear structure II. Nuclear structure investigation with rare isotope spectroscopic investigations at GSI / P. Boutachkov. Exploring the evolution of the shell structures by means of deep inelastic reactions / G. de Anaelis. Probing shell closures in neutron-rich nuclei / R. Krücken for the S277 and REX-ISOLDEMINIBALL collaborations. Structure of Fe isotopes at the limits of the pf-shell / N. Hoteling ... [et al.]. Spectroscopy of K isomers in shell-stabilized trans-fermium nuclei / S. K. Tandel ... [et al.] -- Radioactive ion beam facilities. SPIRAL2 at GANIL: a world leading ISOL facility for the next decade / S. Gales. New physics at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) next to GSI / I. Augustin ... [et al.]. Radioactive beams from a high powered ISOL system / A. C. Shotter. RlKEN RT beam factory / T. Motobayashi. NSCL - ongoing activities and future perspectives / C. K. Gelbke. Rare isotope beams at Argonne / W. F. Henning. HRIBF: scientific highlights and future prospects / J. R. Beene. Radioactive ion beam research done in Dubna / G. M. Ter-Akopian ... [et al.] -- Fission I

  13. Enhanced light emission from Si nanocrystals produced using SiOx/SiO2 multilayered silicon-rich oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The light emission from Si nanocrystals (NCs) produced in SiO2 by annealing of SiOx/SiO2 multilayered silicon-rich oxide (SRO) is examined as a function of the SiOx layer thickness. Multilayered SRO structures are shown to produce a significant increase in emission intensities with a large redshift of spectra as compared with a single-layer SRO film. A multilayered SRO film with ∼6-nm thick SiO1.45 layers exhibits a 13-fold increase in the emission intensity with a redshift of ∼70 nm relative to a single-layer SiO1.45 SRO film with a thickness equivalent to the total SiO1.45 layer thickness in the multilayered film. The transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that the enhancement of the emission intensity with the redshift of spectrum is caused by the enhanced aggregation of phase separated Si atoms in the former SiOx layers due to the hindering of interlayer diffusion of Si by the neighboring SiO2 layers.

  14. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-15

    On the occasion of the 75{sup th} anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions {sup 238}U({sup 18}O,f) and {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction {sup 245}Cm(n{sup th},f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  15. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, A. K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-01

    On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions 238U(18O,f) and 208Pb(18O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction 245Cm(nth,f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  16. The pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang Hung, Nguyen; Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Duc, Huynh Ngoc; Thi Chuong, Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR), which has been observed via the enhancement of the electric dipole strength E1 of atomic nuclei, is studied within a microscopic collective model. The latter employs the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with effective nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Skyrme types plus the random-phase approximation (RPA). The results of the calculations obtained for various even-even nuclei such as 16-28O, 40-58Ca, 100-120Sn, and 182-218Pb show that the PDR is significantly enhanced when the number of neutrons outside the stable core of the nucleus is increased, that is, in the neutron-rich nuclei. As the result, the relative ratio between the energy weighted sum of the strength of the PDR and that of the GDR (giant dipole resonance) does not exceed 4%. The collectivity of the PDR and GDR states will be also discussed.

  17. NEUTRON-RICH CHROMIUM ISOTOPE ANOMALIES IN SUPERNOVA NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Dauphas, N.; Remusat, L.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Guan, Y.; Ma, C.; Eiler, J. M.; Chen, J. H.; Roskosz, M.; Stodolna, J.

    2010-09-10

    Neutron-rich isotopes with masses near that of iron are produced in Type Ia and II supernovae (SNeIa and SNeII). Traces of such nucleosynthesis are found in primitive meteorites in the form of variations in the isotopic abundance of {sup 54}Cr, the most neutron-rich stable isotope of chromium. The hosts of these isotopic anomalies must be presolar grains that condensed in the outflows of SNe, offering the opportunity to study the nucleosynthesis of iron-peak nuclei in ways that complement spectroscopic observations and can inform models of stellar evolution. However, despite almost two decades of extensive search, the carrier of {sup 54}Cr anomalies is still unknown, presumably because it is fine grained and is chemically labile. Here, we identify in the primitive meteorite Orgueil the carrier of {sup 54}Cr anomalies as nanoparticles (<100 nm), most likely spinels that show large enrichments in {sup 54}Cr relative to solar composition ({sup 54}Cr/{sup 52}Cr ratio >3.6 x solar). Such large enrichments in {sup 54}Cr can only be produced in SNe. The mineralogy of the grains supports condensation in the O/Ne-O/C zones of an SNII, although a Type Ia origin cannot be excluded. We suggest that planetary materials incorporated different amounts of these nanoparticles, possibly due to late injection by a nearby SN that also delivered {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe to the solar system. This idea explains why the relative abundance of {sup 54}Cr and other neutron-rich isotopes vary between planets and meteorites. We anticipate that future isotopic studies of the grains identified here will shed new light on the birth of the solar system and the conditions in SNe.

  18. β- decay of the neutron-rich isotope 215Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Witte, H.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Borzov, I. N.; Cederkäll, J.; De Smet, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Janas, Z.; Köster, U.; Kurcewicz, W.; Kurpeta, J.; Płochocki, A.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Weissman, L.

    2013-06-01

    This Brief Report reports on the first observation of the β--delayed γ decay of 215Pb, feeding states in 215Bi. The 215Pb beam was produced using resonant laser ionization and mass separated at the ISOLDE-CERN on-line mass separator. This ensured clean identification of the γ rays as belonging to the decay of 215Pb or its β-decay daughters. A half-life of 147(12) s was measured for the 215Pb β decay and a level scheme for the daughter nucleus 215Bi is proposed, resulting in an extended systematics of the excited states of the neutron-rich Bi isotopes.

  19. Level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    The level structures of neutron-rich Xe isotopes were determined by observing prompt gamma-ray coincidences in {sup 248}Cm fission fragments. A 5-mg {sup 248}Cm, in the form of {sup 248}Cm-KCl pellet, was placed inside Eurogam array which consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. Transitions in Xe isotopes were identified by the appearance of new peaks in the {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by gating on the gamma peaks of the complementary Mo fragments.

  20. Magicity of neutron-rich nuclei within relativistic self-consistent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia Jie; Margueron, Jérôme; Long, Wen Hui; Van Giai, Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    The formation of new shell gaps in intermediate mass neutron-rich nuclei is investigated within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, and the role of the Lorentz pseudo-vector and tensor interactions is analyzed. Based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, we discuss in detail the role played by the different terms of the Lorentz pseudo-vector and tensor interactions in the appearing of the N = 16, 32 and 34 shell gaps. The nuclei 24O, 48Si and 52,54Ca are predicted with a large shell gap and zero (24O, 52Ca) or almost zero (48Si, 54Ca) pairing gap, making them candidates for new magic numbers in exotic nuclei. We find from our analysis that the Lorentz pseudo-vector and tensor interactions induce very specific evolutions of single-particle energies, which could clearly sign their presence and reveal the need for relativistic approaches with exchange interactions.

  1. Laser induced sponge-like Si in Si-rich oxides for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, S; Ozen, E Sungur; Hübner, R; Heinig, K H; Aydinli, A

    2013-10-01

    We show that a sponge-like structure of interconnected Si nanowires embedded in a dielectric matrix can be obtained by laser annealing of silicon rich oxides (SRO). Due to quantum confinement, the large bandgap displayed by these percolated nanostructures can be utilized as a tandem stage in 3rd generation thin-film solar cells. Well passivated by the SiO₂ dielectric matrix, they are expected to overcome the difficulty of carrier separation encountered in the case of isolated crystalline quantum dots. In this study PECVD grown SRO were irradiated by a cw Ar⁺ laser. Raman spectroscopy has been used to assess the crystallinity of the Si nanostructures and thus to optimize the annealing conditions as dwell times and power densities. In addition, Si plasmon imaging in the transmission electron microscope was applied to identify the sponge-like structure of phase-separated silicon. PMID:24104345

  2. Two-Neutron Separation Energies Of Even-Even Rare-Earth Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.

    2007-04-23

    The variation of the two-neutron separation energy (S2N), as a function of N, is studied using a microscopic model that includes the pairing effects rigorously within the Fixed-Sharp-BCS method. The model has been tested for ''ordinary'' nuclei and has correctly reproduced the experimental data. The study has then been extended to the neutron-rich nuclei and has shown a relatively important variation of S2N when N= 100 which may be attributed to the existence of a new magic number.

  3. Neutron density distributions of neutron-rich nuclei studied with the isobaric yield ratio difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Bai, Xiao-Man; Yu, Jiao; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-09-01

    The isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) between two reactions of similar experimental setups is found to be sensitive to nuclear density differences between projectiles. In this article, the IBD probe is used to study the density variation in neutron-rich 48Ca . By adjusting diffuseness in the neutron density distribution, three different neutron density distributions of 48Ca are obtained. The yields of fragments in the 80 A MeV 40, 48Ca + 12C reactions are calculated by using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. It is found that the IBD results obtained from the prefragments are sensitive to the density distribution of the projectile, while the IBD results from the final fragments are less sensitive to the density distribution of the projectile.

  4. Beta decay rates of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Marketin, Tomislav; Huther, Lutz; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2015-10-15

    Heavy element nucleosynthesis models involve various properties of thousands of nuclei in order to simulate the intricate details of the process. By necessity, as most of these nuclei cannot be studied in a controlled environment, these models must rely on the nuclear structure models for input. Of all the properties, the beta-decay half-lives are one of the most important ones due to their direct impact on the resulting abundance distributions. Currently, a single large-scale calculation is available based on a QRPA calculation with a schematic interaction on top of the Finite Range Droplet Model. In this study we present the results of a large-scale calculation based on the relativistic nuclear energy density functional, where both the allowed and the first-forbidden transitions are studied in more than 5000 neutron-rich nuclei.

  5. Beta decay rates of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marketin, Tomislav; Huther, Lutz; Petković, Jelena; Paar, Nils; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Heavy element nucleosynthesis models involve various properties of thousands of nuclei in order to simulate the intricate details of the process. By necessity, as most of these nuclei cannot be studied in a controlled environment, these models must rely on the nuclear structure models for input. Of all the properties, the beta-decay half-lives are one of the most important ones due to their direct impact on the resulting abundance distributions. In this study we present the results of a large-scale calculation based on the relativistic nuclear energy density functional, where both the allowed and the first-forbidden transitions are studied in more than 5000 neutron-rich nuclei. Aside from the astrophysical applications, the results of this calculation can also be employed in the modeling of the electron and antineutrino spectra from nuclear reactors.

  6. γ-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich S40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Haas, F.; Azaiez, F.; Behera, B. R.; Burns, M.; Caurier, E.; Corradi, L.; Curien, D.; Deacon, A. N.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Hodsdon, A.; Ibrahim, F.; Jungclaus, A.; Keyes, K.; Kumar, V.; Latina, A.; Lunardi, S.; Mărginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Nowacki, F.; Ollier, J.; O'Donnell, D.; Papenberg, A.; Pollarolo, G.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefanini, A. M.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Verney, D.

    2010-05-01

    Yrast states up to (6+) in the neutron-rich S40 nucleus have been studied using binary grazing reactions produced by the interaction of a 215 MeV beam of S36 ions with a thin Pb208 target. The novel experimental setup that combines the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, PRISMA, and the high-efficiency γ-ray detection array, CLARA, was used. A new γ-ray transition at an energy of 1572 keV was observed and tentatively assigned to the (6+)→(4+) transition. A comparison of experimental observations and the results of large-scale 0ℏω sd-pf shell-model calculations indicates that one- and two-proton excitations from the 2s1/2 to the 1d3/2 orbitals play an important role in reproducing the S40 yrast level structure and the published B(E2;0g.s.+→21+) value. The structure of the yrast states of the even-A isotopes of sulfur is interpreted in terms of the configurations of valence protons and neutrons within the context of large-scale 0ℏω sd-pf shell-model calculations.

  7. Production and identification of new, neutron-rich nuclei in the {sup 208}Pb region

    SciTech Connect

    Rykaczewski, K. ||; Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A.

    1998-11-01

    The recently developed methods allowing the experimental studies on new neutron-rich nuclei beyond doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb are briefly described. An identification of new neutron-rich isotopes {sup 215}Pb and {sup 217}Bi, and new decay properties of {sup 216}Bi studied by means of a pulsed release element selective technique at PS Booster-ISOLDE are reported.

  8. Toward neutron-rich nuclei via transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Oh, Yongseok; Kim, Youngman

    2015-05-01

    The possibilities of production of yet-undiscovered neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, W, Os, Hg, Pb, and Th are explored in various multinucleon transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams. The probable projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies to produce these neutron-rich isotopes are suggested for future experiments.

  9. Study of dipole excitations and the single particle structure of neutron rich Ni isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, K.; Paschalis, S.; Adrich, P.; Aksouh, F.; Aumann, T.; Babilon, M.; Behr, K.-H.; Benlliure, J.; Berg, T.; Boehmer, M.; Boretzky, K.; Brünle, A.; Casarejos, E.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Pramanik, U. Datta; Deveaux, L.; Elvers, M.; Emling, H.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Gorska, M.; Hüller, W.; Ickert, G.; Johansson, H.; Junghans, A.; Karagiannis, C.; Kern, L.; Kiselev, O.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindenberg, K.; Litvinov, Y.; Maierbeck, P.; Müller, S.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Palit, R.; Prokopowicz, W.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H.; Sümmerer, K.; Wagner, A.; Walus, W.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.

    2008-05-01

    An experiment was performed using the FRS-LAND setup at GSI to study the dipole strength distributions above neutron separation threshold for neutron-rich Ni isotopes. Measurements, using the same experimental setup, were also carried out to extract single particle occupancies via knockout reactions to investigate the structure and magicity of the neutron-rich Ni isotopes. The status of the data analysis and preliminary results are presented.

  10. Structure of molten Al and eutectic Al-Si alloy studied by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlborg, U.; Kramer, Matthew J.; Besser, M.; Morris, J. R.; Calvo-Dahlborg, M.

    2012-11-24

    The structure of molten eutectic Al87.8Si12.2 alloy has been studied by neutron diffraction during a temperature cycle. For comparison measurements were performed on pure molten Al. The measurements show that the alloy after heating above the liquidus contains particles of two kinds, aluminum-rich and silicon-rich. The silicon-rich particles are partly dissolved after a further heating. Earlier published data obtained by the γ-ray absorption technique of the density of the molten eutectic Al–Si alloy had demonstrated the existence of two temperatures above the liquidus temperature: A dissolution temperature Td, at which the microstructure of the melt inherited from the ingot starts to dissolve and a branching temperature, Tb, at which the melt reaches a fully mixed state. The highest temperature that was possible to reach during the neutron experiments lies between Td and Tb. The obtained results support these conclusions that molten alloys after melting are inhomogeneous up to a temperature well above the liquidus. Moreover, the difference in shape between the static structure factors measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction on molten aluminum is observed and is found to be more accentuated and to extend to larger wavevectors than in earlier works.

  11. Use of Neutron Transfer Reactions to Indirectly Determine Neutron Capture Cross Sections on Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tribble, R. E.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; Banu, A.; Roeder, B.; Goldberg, V.; Trache, L.; Chen, X. F.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2010-03-01

    {sup 14}C(n,gamma){sup 15}C is being used as a test case in the development of an indirect method to determine neutron capture cross sections on neutron-rich unstable nuclei at astrophysical energies. Our approach makes use of two reactions: one peripheral used to find the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) and a second non-peripheral reaction to determine the spectroscopic factor. The ANC for {sup 15}C has been determined using a HI neutron transfer reaction with a 12 MeV/nucleon {sup 14}C beam on a {sup 13}C target. The spectroscopic factor will be determined using {sup 14}C(d,p) in forward kinematics with an incident deuteron energy of 60 MeV. Both experiments were performed using the MDM high-resolution spectrometer at Texas A and M University.

  12. Recent developments at TRISTAN: nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear physics program at the fission product mass separator, TRISTAN, has greatly expanded, both in the types of experiments possible and in the range of nuclei available. Surface ionization, FEBIAD, high-temperature thermal, high-temperature plasma, and negative surface ionization ion sources are routinely available. Experimental facilities developed to further expand the capabilities of TRISTAN include a superconducting magnet for g-factor and Q/sub ..beta../ measurements, a windowless Si(Li) detector for conversion electron measurements, and a colinear fast-beam dye laser system for hyperfine interaction studies. This combination of ion sources, experimental apparatus, and the long running time available at a reactor makes TRISTAN a powerful tool for nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich nuclei. The effect of these developments on the nuclear physics program at TRISTAN will be discussed and recent results from some of these facilities will be presented. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Exploring Neutron-Rich Oxygen Isotopes with MoNA

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, N.; Gade, A.; Peters, W. A.; Thoennessen, M.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Scheit, H.; Schiller, A.; Brown, J.; DeYoung, P. A.; Finck, J. E.; Hinnefeld, J.; Howes, R.; Luther, B.

    2007-11-30

    The Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) was used in conjunction with a large-gap dipole magnet (Sweeper) to measure neutron-unbound states in oxygen isotopes close to the neutron dripline. While no excited states were observed in {sup 24}O, a resonance at 45(2) keV above the neutron separation energy was observed in {sup 23}O.

  14. The neutron skin in neutron-rich nuclei at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark M.

    2013-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab program to measure the symmetry energy of neutron-rich nuclear matter, using precision electroweak methods, is progressing well. The initial measurement by the PREX experiment, leading to a 2-sigma determination of the "neutron skin" in {sup 208}Pb , has been published. Design and preparation for a further, more-precise measurement on {sup 208}Pb is progressing well and there is general acceptance of the great advantage to a further measurement on {sup 48}Ca . The surprising ancillary result that the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry for {sup 208}Pb is consistent with zero is also now in the literature. This paper will discuss the current experimental situation of the program.

  15. Structure of unbound neutron-rich 9He studied using single-neutron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Kalanee, T.; Gibelin, J.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Keeley, N.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Force, C.; Gaudefroy, L.; Gillibert, A.; Guillot, J.; Iwasaki, H.; Krupko, S.; Lapoux, V.; Mittig, W.; Mougeot, X.; Nalpas, L.; Pollacco, E.; Rusek, K.; Roger, T.; Savajols, H.; de Séréville, N.; Sidorchuk, S.; Suzuki, D.; Strojek, I.; Orr, N. A.

    2013-09-01

    The 8He(d,p) reaction was studied in inverse kinematics at 15.4A MeV using the MUST2 Si-CsI array in order to shed light on the level structure of 9He. The well known 16O(d,p)17O reaction, performed here in reverse kinematics, was used as a test to validate the experimental methods. The 9He missing mass spectrum was deduced from the kinetic energies and emission angles of the recoiling protons. Several structures were observed above the neutron-emission threshold and the angular distributions were used to deduce the multipolarity of the transitions. This work confirms that the ground state of 9He is located very close to the neutron threshold of 8He and supports the occurrence of parity inversion in 9He.

  16. Intruder configurations in neutron-rich {sup 34}P

    SciTech Connect

    Ollier, J.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Labiche, M.; Spohr, K.-M.; Davison, M.; De Angelis, G.; Axiotis, M.; Kroell, T.; Napoli, D.R.; Martinez, T.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Lunardi, S.; Smith, A.G.; Haas, F.

    2005-03-01

    Extensions to the yrast and near-yrast decay sequences of the neutron-rich nucleus {sub 15}{sup 34}P{sub 19} have been established through an analysis of the {gamma} deexcitation of fragments produced in deep-inelastic processes which occur when 230-MeV {sup 36}S ions interact with a thick target of {sup 176}Yb. The highly sensitive GASP array of escape-suppressed Ge detectors was used to measure the resulting {gamma}-ray deexcitations of both projectilelike and targetlike fragments. Previously unobserved excited states in {sup 34}P were observed at 3351, 6236, 2320, and (4723) keV. Several states above an excitation energy of 2.3 MeV involve intruder configurations from the f{sub 7/2} shell. The investigation of negative parity intruder states on the periphery of the 'island of inversion' has an important role to play in our understanding of the evolution of nuclear structure as the island of inversion is approached.

  17. Transition probabilities in neutron-rich Se,8684

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzinger, J.; Blazhev, A.; Dewald, A.; Didierjean, F.; Duchêne, G.; Fransen, C.; Lozeva, R.; Sieja, K.; Verney, D.; de Angelis, G.; Bazzacco, D.; Birkenbach, B.; Bottoni, S.; Bracco, A.; Braunroth, T.; Cederwall, B.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Désesquelles, P.; Eberth, J.; Ellinger, E.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Gernhäuser, R.; Goasduff, A.; Görgen, A.; Gottardo, A.; Grebosz, J.; Hackstein, M.; Hess, H.; Ibrahim, F.; Jolie, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Kolos, K.; Korten, W.; Leoni, S.; Lunardi, S.; Maj, A.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatovic, T.; Million, B.; Möller, O.; Modamio, V.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D. R.; Niikura, M.; Pollarolo, G.; Pullia, A.; Quintana, B.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Rosso, D.; Sahin, E.; Salsac, M. D.; Scarlassara, F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Theisen, Ch.; Valiente Dobón, J. J.; Vandone, V.; Vogt, A.

    2015-12-01

    Reduced quadrupole transition probabilities for low-lying transitions in neutron-rich Se,8684 are investigated with a recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) experiment. The experiment was performed at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro using the Cologne Plunger device for the RDDS technique and the AGATA Demonstrator array for the γ -ray detection coupled to the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer for an event-by-event particle identification. In 86Se the level lifetime of the yrast 21+ state and an upper limit for the lifetime of the 41+ state are determined for the first time. The results of 86Se are in agreement with previously reported predictions of large-scale shell-model calculations using Ni78-I and Ni78-II effective interactions. In addition, intrinsic shape parameters of lowest yrast states in 86Se are calculated. In semimagic 84Se level lifetimes of the yrast 41+ and 61+ states are determined for the first time. Large-scale shell-model calculations using effective interactions Ni78-II, JUN45, jj4b, and jj4pna are performed. The calculations describe B (E 2 ;21+→01+) and B (E 2 ;61+→41+) fairly well and point out problems in reproducing the experimental B (E 2 ;41+→21+) .

  18. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawitter, R.; Bader, A.; Brodeur, M.; Chowdhury, U.; Chaudhuri, A.; Fallis, J.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lascar, D.; Leach, K. G.; Lennarz, A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Pearkes, J.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the mass measurements of several neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes in the A ≈100 region with the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer. By using highly charged ions in the charge state q =10 + , the masses of Rb,9998 and Sr-10098 have been determined with a precision of 6-12 keV, making their uncertainty negligible for r -process nucleosynthesis network calculations. The mass of 101Sr has been determined directly for the first time with a precision eight times higher than the previous indirect measurement and a deviation of 3 σ when compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation. We also confirm the mass of 100Rb from a previous measurement. Furthermore, our data indicate the existence of a low-lying isomer with 80 keV excitation energy in 98Rb. We show that our updated mass values lead to minor changes in the r process by calculating fractional abundances in the A ≈100 region of the nuclear chart.

  19. Beta Decay Study of Neutron-rich Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, John; Rajabali, Mustafa; Griffin Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Within the ``island of inversion'' around the N = 20 shell gap, isotopes of magnesium, and aluminum deviate from the expected closed-shell structure. Particles promoted across the N = 20 shell gap result in a lower energy deformed ground state configuration rather than the expected spherical configuration. An experiment was conducted at TRIUMF laboratory in the summer of 2015 to study the decay of ``island of inversion'' isotopes 33 , 34 , 35Mg and the structure of the respective daughter nuclei. The isotopes of interest were produced by a proton beam from TRIUMF's 500 MeV cyclotron impacting on a UCx target. The magnesium decays populated states along the decay chain in Al, Si, P, and S isotopes. The new GRIFFIN spectrometer in the ISAC-I facility was used to detect the gamma rays. Two sets of scintillators, one for detecting the beta particles (SCEPTAR) and the other for detecting beta-delayed neutrons (DESCANT), were also used in conjunction with GRIFFIN. The GRIFFIN data were energy calibrated and partially analyzed for this project. New algorithms were developed for the analysis. Preliminary results for new transitions detected in 34Mg as well as the half lives obtained will be presented in their current form. This research was supported by the Tennessee Tech research office.

  20. Empirical pairing gaps, shell effects, and di-neutron spatial correlation in neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong; Wyss, R.

    2015-08-01

    The empirical pairing gaps derived from four different odd-even mass staggering formulas are compared. By performing single-j shell and multi-shell seniority model calculations as well as by using the standard HFB approach with Skyrme force we show that the simplest three-point formula ΔC(3) (N) =1/2 [ B (N, Z) + B (N - 2, Z) - 2 B (N - 1, Z) ] can provide a good measure of the neutron pairing gap in even-N nuclei. It removes to a large extent the contribution from the nuclear mean field as well as contributions from shell structure details. It is also less contaminated by the Wigner effect for nuclei around N = Z. We also show that the strength of ΔC(3) (N) can serve as a good indication of the two-particle spatial correlation in the nucleus of concern and that the weakening of ΔC(3) (N) in some neutron-rich nuclei indicates that the di-neutron correlation itself is weak in these nuclei.

  1. Nanocrystalline Si pathway induced unipolar resistive switching behavior from annealed Si-rich SiN{sub x}/SiN{sub y} multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan Yang, Huafeng; Yu, Jie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2014-09-28

    Adding a resistive switching functionality to a silicon microelectronic chip is a new challenge in materials research. Here, we demonstrate that unipolar and electrode-independent resistive switching effects can be realized in the annealed Si-rich SiN{sub x}/SiN{sub y} multilayers with high on/off ratio of 10{sup 9}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that for the high resistance state broken pathways composed of discrete nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) exist in the Si nitride multilayers. While for the low resistance state the discrete nc-Si regions is connected, forming continuous nc-Si pathways. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependent I-V characteristics and HRTEM photos, we found that the break-and-bridge evolution of nc-Si pathway is the origin of resistive switching memory behavior. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of the resistive switching behavior in nc-Si films, opening a way for it to be utilized as a material in Si-based memories.

  2. Si-rich SiNx based Kerr switch enables optical data conversion up to 12 Gbit/s

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Su, Sheng-Pin; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Huang, Bo-Ji; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Wu, Chih-I; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonic interconnection on chip is the emerging issue for next-generation integrated circuits. With the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring based optical Kerr switch, we demonstrate for the first time the wavelength and format conversion of optical on-off-keying data with a bit-rate of 12 Gbit/s. The field-resonant nonlinear Kerr effect enhances the transient refractive index change when coupling the optical data-stream into the micro-ring through the bus waveguide. This effectively red-shifts the notched dip wavelength to cause the format preserved or inversed conversion of data carried by the on-resonant or off-resonant probe, respectively. The Si quantum dots doped Si-rich SiNx strengthens its nonlinear Kerr coefficient by two-orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Si or Si3N4. The wavelength-converted and cross-amplitude-modulated probe data-stream at up to 12-Gbit/s through the Si-rich SiNx micro-ring with penalty of −7 dB on transmission has shown very promising applicability to all-optical communication networks. PMID:25923653

  3. New Isomers in the Neutron-Rich Region Beyond 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardo, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Benzoni, G.; Gadea, A.; Lunardi, S.; Boutachkov, P.; Bruce, A. M.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pfützner, M.; Regan, P. H.; Weick, H.; Alcántara Núñez, J.; Algora, A.; Al-Dahan, N.; de Angelis, G.; Ayyad, Y.; Alkhomashi, N.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Bazzacco, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bowry, M.; Bracco, A.; Bunce, M.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Cortes, M. L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Corsi, A.; Bacelar, A. M. Denis; Deo, A. Y.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Doncel, M.; Dombradi, Zs.; Engert, T.; Eppinger, K.; Farrelly, G. F.; Farinon, F.; Farnea, E.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Gregor, E.; Habermann, T.; Hoischen, R.; Janik, R.; John, P. R.; Klupp, S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lenzi, S. M.; Leoni, S.; Mandal, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Modamio, V.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D. R.; Naqvi, F.; Nicolini, R.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Prokopowicz, W.; Recchia, F.; Ribas, R. V.; Reed, M. W.; Rudolph, D.; Sahin, E.; Schaffner, H.; Sharma, A.; Sitar, B.; Siwal, D.; Steiger, K.; Strmen, P.; Swan, T. P. D.; Szarka, I.; Ur, C. A.; Walker, P. M.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The region of neutron-rich nuclei beyond 208Pb has been very difficult to explore due to its high mass and exoticity. However, recent experimental improvements allowed one to perform a quite extended isomer decay spectroscopy of these nuclei.

  4. Studies of near-barrier fusion induced by neutron-rich nuclei at HRIBF

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J Felix

    2011-01-01

    Fusion induced by neutron-rich radioactive beams is a topic of current interest. The findings will be useful for using radioactive beams to produce superheavy elements. Results from recent measurements performed with neutron-rich radioactive Sn and Te beams are presented. Coupled-channels calculations were carried out to study the observed sub-barrier fusion enhancement. The fusion probability in Sn on Ni were probed by comparing the evaporation residue cross sections at high excitation energies.

  5. Production cross section of neutron-rich isotopes with radioactive and stable beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Oh, Yongseok; Kim, Youngman

    2014-03-01

    The production cross section of neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Zn, Te, Xe, and Pt are predicted in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions with stable and radioactive beams. With these isotopes one can treat the neutron shell evolution beyond N =28, 50, 82, and 126. Because of the small cross sections, the production of nuclei near the neutron drip line requires the optimal choice of reaction partners and bombarding energies.

  6. Continuum Response and Reaction in Neutron-Rich Be Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Ueda, Manabu; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2004-02-27

    We study E1 resonances, breakup and fusion reactions for weakly bound Be nuclei. The absorbing-boundary condition (ABC) is used to describe both the outgoing and incoming boundary conditions. The neutron continuum plays important roles in response and reaction of neutron drip-line nuclei.

  7. Continuum quasiparticle random-phase approximation for astrophysical direct neutron capture reactions on neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    I formulate a many-body theory to calculate the cross section of direct radiative neutron capture reaction by means of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field model and the continuum quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). A focus is put on very-neutron-rich nuclei and low-energy neutron kinetic energy in the range from 1 keV to several MeV, which is relevant to the rapid neutron capture process of nucleosynthesis. I begin with the photoabsorption cross section and the E 1 strength function. Next, in order to apply the reciprocity theorem, I decompose the cross section into partial cross sections corresponding to different channels of one- and two-neutron emission decays of photo-excited states. A numerical example is shown for the photo-absorption of 142Sn and the neutron capture of 141Sn .

  8. Nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning in massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, T. A.; Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    The production of heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning has been calculated using a hydrodynamical model of a 15-solar mass (Type II) supernova and an n-process nuclear reaction network. It is found that the resulting neutron-rich heavy nuclei are not produced in the relative abundances of solar-system r-process material, especially in the vicinity of Pt, nor are any actinides produced. These deficiencies reflect an inadequate supply of neutrons. However, some neutron-rich isotopes, normally associated with the r-process, are produced which may be significant for the production of isotopic anomalies in meteorites.

  9. Framework Stabilization of Si-Rich LTA Zeolite Prepared in Organic-Free Media

    SciTech Connect

    Conato, Marlon T.; Oleksiak, Matthew D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Motkuri, Radha K.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-10-16

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  10. Sponge-like Si-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite—Morphology studies of spinodally decomposed silicon-rich oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, D.; Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K. H.; Liedke, B.; Mücklich, A.; Hübner, R.; Wolf, D.; Kölling, S.; Mikolajick, T.

    2013-09-23

    Sponge-like Si nanostructures embedded in SiO{sub 2} were fabricated by spinodal decomposition of sputter-deposited silicon-rich oxide with a stoichiometry close to that of silicon monoxide. After thermal treatment a mean feature size of about 3 nm was found in the phase-separated structure. The structure of the Si-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was investigated by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), EFTEM tomography, and atom probe tomography, which revealed a percolated Si morphology. It was shown that the percolation of the Si network in 3D can also be proven on the basis of 2D EFTEM images by comparison with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Nuclear Structure Between N = 20 and N = 28: Beta-Decay in the Neutron-Rich Mg and Al Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Heather; NSCL Experiment E14063 Team

    2015-10-01

    The structure of nuclei in the vicinity of expected nuclear shell closures away from stability has been, and continues to be, a cornerstone for nuclear structure study. The confirmation of certain ``magic numbers'' in exotic nuclei provides insight into the evolution of nucleon configurations with isospin, but perhaps even more light is shed into the structure of the atomic nucleus when expected shell closures are found to be weakened, or entirely disappear. Two instances where this has been the case are the N = 20 and N = 28 neutron shell closures in the neutron-rich Mg, Si and S nuclei. However, a question which is only beginning to be answered is the nature of the transitional nuclei between N = 20 and 28. Recent experimental work in the Mg isotopes has suggested a chain of prolate-deformed nuclei at Z = 12, but the nature of the Al and Si isotopes just above remains a question. An experiment was conducted at NSCL to study the β-decay of neutron-rich Na, Mg, Al and Si isotopes to provide additional, and in some cases, first information on the level structures of the daughter isotopes in the region between N = 20 and N = 28. First results from this work will be presented, and the implications for nuclear structural evolution in this region discussed. This work was supported by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1068217 (NSCL) and by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL).

  12. Neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter and its impacts on nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich nucleonic matter reflects the spacetime nonlocality of the isovector nuclear interaction. It affects the neutron/proton ratio during the earlier evolution of the Universe, cooling of proto-neutron stars, structure of rare isotopes and dynamics of heavy-ion collisions. While there is still no consensus on whether the neutron-proton effective mass splitting is negative, zero or positive and how it depends on the density as well as the isospin-asymmetry of the medium, significant progress has been made in recent years in addressing these issues. There are different kinds of nucleon effective masses. In this mini-review, we focus on the total effective masses often used in the non-relativistic description of nuclear dynamics. We first recall the connections among the neutron-proton effective mass splitting, the momentum dependence of the isovector potential and the density dependence of the symmetry energy. We then make a few observations about the progress in calculating the neutron-proton effective mass splitting using various nuclear many-body theories and its effects on the isospin-dependence of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections. Perhaps, our most reliable knowledge so far about the neutron-proton effective mass splitting at saturation density of nuclear matter comes from optical model analyses of huge sets of nucleon-nucleus scattering data accumulated over the last five decades. The momentum dependence of the symmetry potential from these analyses provide a useful boundary condition at saturation density for calibrating nuclear many-body calculations. Several observables in heavy-ion collisions have been identified as sensitive probes of the neutron-proton effective mass splitting in dense neutron-rich matter based on transport model simulations. We review these observables and comment on the latest experimental findings.

  13. Stellar (n, gamma) cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Marganiec, J.; Domingo Pardo, C.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2010-03-01

    The present measurements were performed by means of the activation technique. Neutrons were produced at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. For proton energies just above threshold, one obtains a neutron spectrum similar to a Maxwellian distribution for kT = 25 keV. This quasi-stellar neutron spectrum allowed us to measure the Maxwellian averaged cross sections directly. The experimental results of {sup 174,176}Yb, {sup 184,186}W, {sup 190,192}Os, {sup 196,198}Pt, and {sup 202}Hg were extrapolated from kT = 25 keV to lower and higher temperatures.

  14. Shell And Halo Structure In Neutron-Rich Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nociforo, C.

    2010-06-01

    Spectroscopic investigations performed at the neutron drip line in case of sd shell nuclei have recently shown the existence of the new magic numbers Z = 8 and N = 14,16. Predictions within the nuclear shell model calculations for the {sup 23,24}O ground state have been confirmed measuring their neutron occupancy in breakup reactions performed by using the inflight radioactive ion beams produced at the Fragment Separator FRS of GSI. Some perspectives of studying the evolution of magic numbers in this region of light exotic nuclei are given.

  15. Structural and optical characterization of pure Si-rich nitride thin films.

    PubMed

    Debieu, Olivier; Nalini, Ramesh Pratibha; Cardin, Julien; Portier, Xavier; Perrière, Jacques; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The specific dependence of the Si content on the structural and optical properties of O- and H-free Si-rich nitride (SiNx>1.33) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering is investigated. A semiempirical relation between the composition and the refractive index was found. In the absence of Si-H, N-H, and Si-O vibration modes in the FTIR spectra, the transverse and longitudinal optical (TO-LO) Si-N stretching pair modes could be unambiguously identified using the Berreman effect. With increasing Si content, the LO and the TO bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, and the LO band intensity dropped suggesting that the films became more disordered. Besides, the LO and the TO bands shifted to higher wavenumbers with increasing annealing temperature which may result from the phase separation between Si nanoparticles (Si-np) and the host medium. Indeed, XRD and Raman measurements showed that crystalline Si-np formed upon 1100°C annealing but only for SiNx<0.8. Besides, quantum confinement effects on the Raman peaks of crystalline Si-np, which were observed by HRTEM, were evidenced for Si-np average sizes between 3 and 6 nm. A contrario, visible photoluminescence (PL) was only observed for SiNx>0.9, demonstrating that this PL is not originating from confined states in crystalline Si-np. As an additional proof, the PL was quenched while crystalline Si-np could be formed by laser annealing. Besides, the PL cannot be explained neither by defect states in the bandgap nor by tail to tail recombination. The PL properties of SiNx>0.9 could be then due to a size effect of Si-np but having an amorphous phase. PMID:23324447

  16. Structural and optical characterization of pure Si-rich nitride thin films

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The specific dependence of the Si content on the structural and optical properties of O- and H-free Si-rich nitride (SiNx>1.33) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering is investigated. A semiempirical relation between the composition and the refractive index was found. In the absence of Si-H, N-H, and Si-O vibration modes in the FTIR spectra, the transverse and longitudinal optical (TO-LO) Si-N stretching pair modes could be unambiguously identified using the Berreman effect. With increasing Si content, the LO and the TO bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, and the LO band intensity dropped suggesting that the films became more disordered. Besides, the LO and the TO bands shifted to higher wavenumbers with increasing annealing temperature which may result from the phase separation between Si nanoparticles (Si-np) and the host medium. Indeed, XRD and Raman measurements showed that crystalline Si-np formed upon 1100°C annealing but only for SiNx<0.8. Besides, quantum confinement effects on the Raman peaks of crystalline Si-np, which were observed by HRTEM, were evidenced for Si-np average sizes between 3 and 6 nm. A contrario, visible photoluminescence (PL) was only observed for SiNx>0.9, demonstrating that this PL is not originating from confined states in crystalline Si-np. As an additional proof, the PL was quenched while crystalline Si-np could be formed by laser annealing. Besides, the PL cannot be explained neither by defect states in the bandgap nor by tail to tail recombination. The PL properties of SiNx>0.9 could be then due to a size effect of Si-np but having an amorphous phase. PMID:23324447

  17. Structural and optical characterization of pure Si-rich nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debieu, Olivier; Nalini, Ramesh Pratibha; Cardin, Julien; Portier, Xavier; Perrière, Jacques; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The specific dependence of the Si content on the structural and optical properties of O- and H-free Si-rich nitride (SiN x>1.33) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering is investigated. A semiempirical relation between the composition and the refractive index was found. In the absence of Si-H, N-H, and Si-O vibration modes in the FTIR spectra, the transverse and longitudinal optical (TO-LO) Si-N stretching pair modes could be unambiguously identified using the Berreman effect. With increasing Si content, the LO and the TO bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, and the LO band intensity dropped suggesting that the films became more disordered. Besides, the LO and the TO bands shifted to higher wavenumbers with increasing annealing temperature which may result from the phase separation between Si nanoparticles (Si-np) and the host medium. Indeed, XRD and Raman measurements showed that crystalline Si-np formed upon 1100°C annealing but only for SiN x<0.8. Besides, quantum confinement effects on the Raman peaks of crystalline Si-np, which were observed by HRTEM, were evidenced for Si-np average sizes between 3 and 6 nm. A contrario, visible photoluminescence (PL) was only observed for SiN x>0.9, demonstrating that this PL is not originating from confined states in crystalline Si-np. As an additional proof, the PL was quenched while crystalline Si-np could be formed by laser annealing. Besides, the PL cannot be explained neither by defect states in the bandgap nor by tail to tail recombination. The PL properties of SiN x>0.9 could be then due to a size effect of Si-np but having an amorphous phase.

  18. Continuous-wave laser annealing of Si-rich oxide: A microscopic picture of macroscopic Si-SiO{sub 2} phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Nikitin, Timur; Raesaenen, Markku; Domanskaya, Alexandra; Boninelli, Simona; Iacona, Fabio; Engdahl, Anders; Juhanoja, Jyrki; Novikov, Sergei

    2010-12-15

    We report on the first observation of the macroscopic (long-range) Si-SiO{sub 2} phase separation in Si-rich oxide SiO{sub x}(x<2) obtained by continuous-wave laser annealing of free-standing SiO{sub x} films. The effect is analyzed by a unique combination of microscopic methods (Raman, transmission, photoluminescence, and infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Three regions can be distinguished on a SiO{sub x} free-standing film after 488 nm laser annealing at intensities above {approx}10{sup 4} W cm{sup -2}: central spot, ring around the central spot, and pristine film outside the irradiated area. In the pristine SiO{sub x} material, small Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) (diameters of a few nanometer) are surrounded by SiO{sub 2} with an addition of residual suboxides, the Si-nc being produced by annealing at 1100 deg. C in a furnace. The central spot of the laser-annealed area (up to {approx}30 {mu}m wide in these experiments) is practically free of Si excess and mainly consists of amorphous SiO{sub 2}. The ring around the central spot contains large spherical Si-nc (diameters up to {approx}100 nm) embedded in amorphous SiO{sub 2} without the presence of suboxides. Laser-induced temperatures in the structurally modified regions presumably exceed the Si melting temperature. The macroscopic Si-SiO{sub 2} phase separation is connected with extensive diffusion in temperature gradient leading to the Si concentration gradient. The present work demonstrates the advantages of high spatial resolution for analysis in materials research.

  19. Production of Neutron-Rich Bi Isotopes by Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, D. S.; Baranova, O. D.

    2010-04-30

    The short time (approx10 minutes) high voltage electrolysis of nitrate bismuth solution was performed. After electrolysis about 30 mg of electrolyte have been dried up on a thin polyethylene film. The sample obtained was placed into the detecting system (Si detector and plastic detector). Alpha-radioactivity of the sample was measured. The results showed that alpha-radioactivity increased about 100 times to the base level. The radioactivity decreasing was about 2 times for 50 minutes. Some signals from the Si detector was accompanied by a signal from the electron detector (22 events). The signal from the plastic detector for all the events the electron recorded preceded the Si detector signal with delay less than 1.4 musec. The conclusion was made that beta-decay of nuclei {sup 212}Bi and the subsequent alpha-decay of nuclei {sup 212}Po were recorded. The effect was reproduced in 28 experiments. The possible explanation of the phenomenon was given.

  20. Microstructure evolution and energy band alignment at the interface of a Si-rich amorphous silicon carbide/c-Si heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xixing; Zeng, Xiangbin; Liao, Wugang; Wen, Yangyang; Chen, Xiaoxiao

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure evolution of Si-rich amorphous a-SiC:H films obtained under different annealing conditions was investigated by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of its microstructure on the energy band alignment at a Si-rich a-SiC:H/n-type c-Si hetero-interface was analyzed by ultraviolet visible transmission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed that the as-deposited Si-rich a-SiC:H film was mainly in an amorphous state. After annealing, Si and SiC quantum dots (QDs) formed, and the crystallinity of the QDs and the proportion of SiC QDs increased with increasing the annealing time at the same annealing temperature. It is found that the energy band alignment at the hetero-interface was influenced by the crystallinity of the films, the sizes of the QDs, and the relative proportion of Si to SiC QDs in a-SiC:H films. Moreover, the contact potential at the hetero-interface decreased with the improved crystallinity of the QDs in a-SiC:H film. The determination of energy band alignment at the Si-rich a-SiC:H/c-Si hetero-interface is beneficial to understanding the carrier transport behavior and designing hetero-structure devices.

  1. Boron-rich benzene and pyrene derivatives for the detection of thermal neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Yemam, Henok A.; Mahl, Adam; Koldemir, Unsal; Remedes, Tyler; Parkin, Sean; Greife, Uwe; Sellinger, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic methodology is developed to generate boron rich aromatic small molecules based on benzene and pyrene moieties for the detection of thermal neutrons. The prepared aromatic compounds have a relatively high boron content up to 7.4 wt%, which is important for application in neutron detection as 10B (20% of natural abundance boron) has a large neutron induced reaction cross-section. This is demonstrated by preparing blends of the synthesized molecules with fluorescent dopants in poly(vinyltoluene) matrices resulting in comparable scintillation light output and neutron capture as state-of-the art commercial scintillators, but with the advantage of much lower cost. The boron-rich benzene and pyrene derivatives are prepared by Suzuki conditions using both microwave and traditional heating, affording yields of 40–93%. This new procedure is simple and straightforward, and has the potential to be scaled up. PMID:26334111

  2. Three-Body Forces and Neutron-Rich Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu; Suzuki, Toshio

    2013-08-01

    Physics of three-body forces in connection to exotic nuclei will be discussed. Three-nucleon forces (3NF), especially Fujita-Miyazawa 3NF, are shown to be the key for the solution to the long-standing problem of oxygen drip line, which deviates from basic trend towards the stability line. Three-body forces produce repulsive modifications to effective interaction between valence neutrons, and make the ground states less bound. The oxygen drip line is then located at the right place. The relation to the neutron matter is presented. Applications to Ca isotopes will be presented. The shell evolution due to the 3NF depicts the raising of single-particle energies and the widening of splitting among the orbits. This is in contrast to the so-called shell quenching. The 2+ levels are calculated for Ca isotopes, suggesting about the same sub-magic structure for N = 32 and 34.

  3. Calibrations for studies of neutron-rich precursor fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Maria; Parkhurst, Rachel; Wilensky, Samuel; Mosby, Michelle; Stephenson, Sharon; Rogers, Warren; MoNA Collaboration Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies produce the radioactive beams used at nuclear structure facilities worldwide. However, there are still unanswered questions about the reaction mechanism of projectile fragmentation and the specific roles that ablation, evaporation, and abrasion play. Using the projectile fragmentation of a 32Mg beam at 86 MeV/u on a natural Beryllium target at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), our experimental goal is to better understand the excitation energy and the momentum distribution of the precursors of the observed final fragments (neon, sodium, and fluorine). A suite of charged particle detectors in conjunction with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) allows us to analyze both the charged final fragments as well as the coincident neutrons. Detector calibration results and preliminary results will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants PHY-1205537.

  4. Exotic structure in light neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Zhao, P. W.; Meng, J.; Matsuno, H.; Suhara, T.

    2015-10-15

    In this presentation I discussed two subjects. One is the persistence of threefold symmetry in the ground state of {sup 12}C. Recently D{sub 3h} symmetry has been established in {sup 12}C, which reflects the geometric symmetry of the three α particles. Although the spin-orbit interaction plays a significant role and this interaction breaks the α clusters, we show that threefold symmetry of {sup 12}C is still there. We use AQCM approach and discuss that inclusion of spin-orbit interaction, which is absent in the conventional microscopic α cluster models, is possible keeping the threefold symmetry. The second subject is the appearance of rod shape in C isotopes, which has been investigated in the framework of the cranking covariant density functional theory. The relationship between the stability of such states and the spin and isospin degrees of freedom is discussed; adding valence neutrons and rotating the system. These two effects stabilize the rod shape, and in addition, their coherent effect has been found; the σ-orbits (parallel to the symmetry axis) of the valence neutrons, which enhances the rod shape, is lowered by the rotation of the system, and this σ-orbit pulls down the single particle energies of protons with linear configuration owing to the proton-neutron interaction effect.

  5. Trap-assisted studies of odd, neutron-rich isotopes from Tc to Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpeta, J.; Jokinen, A.; Penttilä, H.; Płochocki, A.; Rissanen, J.; Urban, W.; Äystö, J.

    2014-01-01

    We review the present and future of trap-assisted structure studies of odd, neutron-rich Tc, Ru, Rh and Pd isotopes at the limits of present experimental techniques. These nuclei of refractory elements are produced in light-particle induced fission and filtered by their mass number with the IGISOL mass separator. Further mass separation with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap system provides a clean, monoisotopic beam perfectly suited for precise nuclear spectroscopy. Connecting the IGISOL and the JYFLTRAP facilities to the recently installed MCC30/15 cyclotron opens new prospects for post-trap spectroscopy of very exotic, neutron-rich nuclei.

  6. Isospin effects on fragmentation in the asymmetric reactions induced by neutron-rich targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2016-05-01

    To understand the isospin effects in terms of fragment's yield in the asymmetric reactions induced by neutron-rich targets, we perform a theoretical study using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Simulations are carried out for reactions of 16O+Br80,84,92 and 16O+Ag108,113,122. We envision that fragments's yield in the asymmetric collisions induced by neutron-rich targets is better candidate to study isospin effects via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross-sections. Also, pronounced effects of symmetry energy and cross-sections can be found at lower and higher beam energies, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of Damage Tolerance of Advanced SiC/SiC Composites after Neutron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.

    2011-10-01

    Silicon carbide composites (SiC/SiC) are attractive candidate materials for structural and functional components in fusion energy systems. The effect of neutron irradiation on damage tolerance of the nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites (plain woven Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S reinforced CVI matrix composites multilayer interphase and unidirectional Tyranno™-SA3 reinforced NITE matrix with carbon mono-layer interphase) was evaluated by means of miniaturized single-edged notched beam test. No significant changes in crack extension behavior and in the load-loadpoint displacement characteristics such as the peak load and hysteresis loop width were observed after irradiation to 5.9 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 800°C and to 5.8 × 1025 n/m2 at 1300°C. By applying a global energy balance analysis based on non-linear fracture mechanics, the energy release rate for these composite materials was found to be unchanged by irradiation with a value of 3±2 kJ/m2. This has led to the conclusion that, for these fairly aggressive irradiation conditions, the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture resistance of these composites appears insignificant.

  8. Neutron Rich Nuclei in a New Binding Energy Formula and the Astrophysical r-PROCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Chirashree; Gangopadhyay, G.

    Neutron rich nuclei has been studied with a new phenomenological mass formula. Predictions of different mass formulas for the location of the neutron drip line are compared with those from the present calculation. The implications of the new mass formula for r-process nucleosynthesis are discussed. It is found that though the neutron drip line obtained from this formula differs substantially from other formulas, the r-process abundance upto mass 200 are unlikely to be significantly different. The errors inherent in the mass formula are found to play an insignificant role beyond mass A = 80.

  9. Shell model study of the neutron-rich nuclei around N=28

    SciTech Connect

    Retamosa, J.; Caurier, E.; Poves, A.

    1997-03-01

    We describe the properties of the neutron-rich nuclei around N=28 in the shell mode framework. The valence space includes the sd shell for protons and the pf shell for neutrons without any restriction. Good agreement is found with the available experimental data. The N=28 shell closure persists, even if eroded by the large neutron excess. The calculations predict that {sup 40}S and {sup 42}S are deformed with {beta}=0.29 and {beta}=0.32 respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Measurement of the dipole polarizability of the unstable neutron-rich nucleus 68Ni.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D M; Adrich, P; Aksouh, F; Alvarez-Pol, H; Aumann, T; Benlliure, J; Böhmer, M; Boretzky, K; Casarejos, E; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Cortina-Gil, D; Datta Pramanik, U; Emling, H; Ershova, O; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Geissel, H; Gorska, M; Heil, M; Johansson, H T; Junghans, A; Kelic-Heil, A; Kiselev, O; Klimkiewicz, A; Kratz, J V; Krücken, R; Kurz, N; Labiche, M; Le Bleis, T; Lemmon, R; Litvinov, Yu A; Mahata, K; Maierbeck, P; Movsesyan, A; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Palit, R; Paschalis, S; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Savran, D; Scheit, H; Simon, H; Sümmerer, K; Wagner, A; Waluś, W; Weick, H; Winkler, M

    2013-12-13

    The E1 strength distribution in 68Ni has been investigated using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics at the R3B-LAND setup and by measuring the invariant mass in the one- and two-neutron decay channels. The giant dipole resonance and a low-lying peak (pygmy dipole resonance) have been observed at 17.1(2) and 9.55(17) MeV, respectively. The measured dipole polarizability is compared to relativistic random phase approximation calculations yielding a neutron-skin thickness of 0.17(2) fm. A method and analysis applicable to neutron-rich nuclei has been developed, allowing for a precise determination of neutron skins in nuclei as a function of neutron excess. PMID:24483648

  11. Measurement of the Dipole Polarizability of the Unstable Neutron-Rich Nucleus Ni68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, D. M.; Adrich, P.; Aksouh, F.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Benlliure, J.; Böhmer, M.; Boretzky, K.; Casarejos, E.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Geissel, H.; Gorska, M.; Heil, M.; Johansson, H. T.; Junghans, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kiselev, O.; Klimkiewicz, A.; Kratz, J. V.; Krücken, R.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Maierbeck, P.; Movsesyan, A.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Palit, R.; Paschalis, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sümmerer, K.; Wagner, A.; Waluś, W.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.

    2013-12-01

    The E1 strength distribution in Ni68 has been investigated using Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics at the RB3-LAND setup and by measuring the invariant mass in the one- and two-neutron decay channels. The giant dipole resonance and a low-lying peak (pygmy dipole resonance) have been observed at 17.1(2) and 9.55(17) MeV, respectively. The measured dipole polarizability is compared to relativistic random phase approximation calculations yielding a neutron-skin thickness of 0.17(2) fm. A method and analysis applicable to neutron-rich nuclei has been developed, allowing for a precise determination of neutron skins in nuclei as a function of neutron excess.

  12. Observation of large enhancements of charge exchange cross sections with neutron-rich carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Toki, H.; Vargas, J.; Winfield, J. S.; Weick, H.

    2016-04-01

    Production cross sections of nitrogen isotopes from high-energy (˜ 950 MeV per nucleon) carbon isotopes on hydrogen and carbon targets have been measured for the first time for a wide range of isotopes (A = 12 to 19). The fragment separator FRS at GSI was used to deliver C-isotope beams. The cross sections of the production of N-isotopes were determined by charge measurements of forward-going fragments. The cross sections show a rapid increase with the number of neutrons in the projectile. Since the production of nitrogen is mostly due to charge-exchange (Cex) reactions below the proton separation energies, the present data suggests a concentration of Gamow-Teller and/or Fermi transition strength at low excitation energies for neutron-rich carbon isotopes. It was also observed that the Cex cross sections were enhanced much more strongly for neutron-rich isotopes in the C-target data.

  13. Maser emission of the most abundant SiO isotopomers in O-rich stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; García Miró, C.; Cernicharo, J.

    2015-05-01

    SiO maser emission constitutes one of the most puzzling cases in spectroscopy. The overall inversion of the rotational transitions in each vibrational ladder is rather well understood. However, there are a number of anomalies in specific rotational transitions that are still unexplained. O-rich stars are probably the most powerful maser emitters known to date, and therefore the best candidates to model the SiO maser emission at different rotational and vibrational levels. In order to properly tackle the SiO excitation problem, it is vital to simultaneously observe a large number of SiO (and isotopomers) lines in a large and varied sample of sources. We profit the availability of new wideband backends to carry out a deep survey of ^{28}SiO, ^{29}SiO, and ^{30}SiO maser emission, in a sample of 67 evolved O-rich stars. The survey was done using the DSS-54 antenna at the Madrid Deep Space Communications complex in Robledo, and the IRAM 30m radio telescope at Pico Veleta. A total of 61 lines were observed, including rotational transitions from J=1→0 to J=5→4, for vibrational levels from 0 to 6. In this contribution, overall results of the survey are presented.

  14. Mechanical properties of advanced SiC/SiC composites after neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, K.; Nozawa, T.; Katoh, Y.; Hinoki, T.; Kohyama, A.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on tensile properties in advanced 2D-SiC/SiC composites was evaluated. The composites used were composed of a SiC matrix obtained by the forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process and either Tyranno™-SA Grade-3 or Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S fibers with single-layered PyC coating as the interphase. Neutron irradiation fluence and temperature were 3.1 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) and 1.2 × 10 26 n/m 2 at 740-750 °C. Tensile properties were evaluated by cyclic tensile test, and hysteresis loop analysis was applied in order to evaluate interfacial properties. Both composites exhibited excellent irradiation resistance in ultimate and proportional limit tensile stresses. From the hysteresis loop analysis, the level of interfacial sliding stress decreased significantly after irradiation to 1.5 × 10 26 n/m 2 at 750 °C.

  15. Production of heavy and superheavy neutron-rich nuclei in transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Greiner, Walter

    2011-04-15

    The problem of production and study of heavy neutron-rich nuclei has been intensively discussed during recent years. Many reasons arouse a great interest in this problem. The present limits of the upper part of the nuclear map are very close to the {beta} stability line while the unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides (also those located along the neutron closed shell N=126 to the right-hand side of the stability line) is extremely important for nuclear astrophysic investigations and, in particular, for the understanding of the r process of astrophysical nucleogenesis. For elements with Z>100 only neutron deficient isotopes (located to the left of the stability line) have been synthesized so far. The 'northeast' area of the nuclear map can be reached neither in fusion-fission reactions nor in fragmentation processes widely used nowadays for the production of new nuclei. Multinucleon transfer processes in near barrier collisions of heavy (and very heavy, U-like) ions seem to be the only reaction mechanism allowing us to produce and explore neutron-rich heavy nuclei including those located at the superheavy island of stability. In this paper several transfer reactions for different projectile-target combinations are studied in detail. Besides the predictions for the cross sections of such processes, we also analyze the angular and energy distributions of primary and survived reaction products in the laboratory frame. These results, as well as predicted excitation functions for the yields of neutron-rich superheavy isotopes, might be useful for the design of appropriate experimental equipment and for carrying out experiments of such kind.

  16. Theoretical study of triaxial shapes of neutron-rich Mo and Ru nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. L.; Bhat, G. H.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.; Shi, Yue

    2015-09-01

    Background: Whether atomic nuclei can possess triaxial shapes at their ground states is still a subject of ongoing debate. According to theory, good prospects for low-spin triaxiality are in the neutron-rich Mo-Ru region. Recently, transition quadrupole moments in rotational bands of even-mass neutron-rich isotopes of molybdenum and ruthenium nuclei have been measured. The new data have provided a challenge for theoretical descriptions invoking stable triaxial deformations. Purpose: To understand experimental data on rotational bands in the neutron-rich Mo-Ru region, we carried out theoretical analysis of moments of inertia, shapes, and transition quadrupole moments of neutron-rich even-even nuclei around 110Ru using self-consistent mean-field and shell model techniques. Methods: To describe yrast structures in Mo and Ru isotopes, we use nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with the optimized energy density functional UNEDF0. We also apply triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) to describe yrast and positive-parity, near-yrast band structures. Results: Our self-consistent DFT calculations predict triaxial ground-state deformations in Mo,108106 and 108,110,112Ru and reproduce the observed low-frequency behavior of moments of inertia. As the rotational frequency increases, a negative-γ structure, associated with the aligned ν (h11/2) 2 pair, becomes energetically favored. The computed transition quadrupole moments vary with angular momentum, which reflects deformation changes with rotation; those variations are consistent with experiment. The TPSM calculations explain the observed band structures assuming stable triaxial shapes. Conclusions: The structure of neutron-rich even-even nuclei around 110Ru is consistent with triaxial shape deformations. Our DFT and TPSM frameworks provide a consistent and complementary description of experimental data.

  17. Condensation of Si-rich region inside soda-lime glass by parallel femtosecond laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sakakura, Masaaki; Yoshimura, Kouhei; Kurita, Torataro; Shimizu, Masahiro; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Naoaki; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2014-06-30

    Local melting and modulation of elemental distributions can be induced inside a glass by focusing femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at high repetition rate (>100 kHz). Using only a single beam of fs laser pulses, the shape of the molten region is ellipsoidal, so the induced elemental distributions are often circular and elongate in the laser propagation direction. In this study, we show that the elongation of the fs laser-induced elemental distributions inside a soda-lime glass could be suppressed by parallel fsing of 250 kHz and 1 kHz fs laser pulses. The thickness of a Si-rich region became about twice thinner than that of a single 250 kHz laser irradiation. Interestingly, the position of the Si-rich region depended on the relative positions between 1 kHz and 250 kHz photoexcited regions. The observation of glass melt during laser exposure showed that the vortex flow of glass melt occurred and it induced the formation of a Si-rich region. Based on the simulation of the transient temperature and viscosity distributions during laser exposure, we temporally interpreted the origin of the vortex flow of glass melt and the mechanism of the formation of the Si-rich region. PMID:24977898

  18. First-forbidden β-decay rates, energy rates of β-delayed neutrons and probability of β-delayed neutron emissions for neutron-rich nickel isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Çakmak, Necla; Iftikhar, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    First-forbidden (FF) transitions can play an important role in decreasing the calculated half-lives specially in environments where allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are unfavored. Of special mention is the case of neutron-rich nuclei where, due to phase-space amplification, FF transitions are much favored. We calculate the allowed GT transitions in various pn-QRPA models for even-even neutron-rich isotopes of nickel. Here we also study the effect of deformation on the calculated GT strengths. The FF transitions for even-even neutron-rich isotopes of nickel are calculated assuming the nuclei to be spherical. Later we take into account deformation of nuclei and calculate GT + unique FF transitions, stellar β-decay rates, energy rate of β-delayed neutrons and probability of β-delayed neutron emissions. The calculated half-lives are in excellent agreement with measured ones and might contribute in speeding-up of the r-matter flow.

  19. Gamow-Teller response in deformed even and odd neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.; Algora, A.; Pereira, J.

    2014-03-01

    β-decay properties of neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes are investigated within a microscopic theoretical approach based on the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The underlying mean field is described self-consistently from deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock calculations with pairing correlations. Residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces are also included in the formalism. The structural evolution in these isotopic chains including both even and odd isotopes is analyzed in terms of the equilibrium deformed shapes. Gamow-Teller strength distributions, β-decay half-lives, and β-delayed neutron-emission probabilities are studied, stressing their relevance to describe the path of the nucleosynthesis rapid neutron capture process.

  20. Neutron imaging of hydrogen-rich fluids in geomaterials and engineered porous media: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perfect, E.; Cheng, C.-L.; Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Lamanna, J. M.; Gragg, M. J.; Wright, D. M.

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in visualization technologies are providing new discoveries as well as answering old questions with respect to the phase structure and flow of hydrogen-rich fluids, such as water and oil, within porous media. Magnetic resonance and x-ray imaging are sometimes employed in this context, but are subject to significant limitations. In contrast, neutrons are ideally suited for imaging hydrogen-rich fluids in abiotic non-hydrogenous porous media because they are strongly attenuated by hydrogen and can "see" through the solid matrix in a non-destructive fashion. This review paper provides an overview of the general principles behind the use of neutrons to image hydrogen-rich fluids in both 2-dimensions (radiography) and 3-dimensions (tomography). Engineering standards for the neutron imaging method are examined. The main body of the paper consists of a comprehensive review of the diverse scientific literature on neutron imaging of static and dynamic experiments involving variably-saturated geomaterials (rocks and soils) and engineered porous media (bricks and ceramics, concrete, fuel cells, heat pipes, and porous glass). Finally some emerging areas that offer promising opportunities for future research are discussed.

  1. Single-Neutron Structure of Neutron-Rich Nuclei near N=50 and N=82

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, S. D.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeff C; Adekola, Aderemi S; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Kaplan, Ron; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Shapira, Dan; Shriner, Jr., John F; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-01-01

    The 82Ge, 84Se, 132Sn, 130Sn, and 134Te (d,p) reactions have been measured with {approx}4-5-MeV-A rare isotope beams and CD2 targets at the HRIBF at ORNL. Energies and spectroscopic strengths have been measured for excitations in 83Ge and 85Se. Direct neutron capture calculations on 82Ge are presented. Preliminary results for single-neutron excitations in 131Sn, 133Sn, and 135Te are reported.

  2. Isospin quartic term in the kinetic energy of neutron-rich nucleonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2015-07-01

    The energy of a free gas of neutrons and protons is well known to be approximately isospin parabolic with a negligibly small quartic term of only 0.45 MeV at the saturation density of nuclear matter ρ0=0.16 fm-3 . Using an isospin-dependent single-nucleon momentum distribution including a high (low) momentum tail (depletion) with its shape parameters constrained by recent high-energy electron scattering and medium-energy nuclear photodisintegration experiments as well as the state-of-the-art calculations of the deuteron wave function and the equation of state of pure neutron matter near the unitary limit within several modern microscopic many-body theories, we show for the first time that the kinetic energy of interacting nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter has a significant quartic term of 7.18 ±2.52 MeV. Such a large quartic term has broad ramifications in determining the equation of state of neutron-rich nucleonic matter using observables of nuclear reactions and neutron stars.

  3. Origin of SiO 2-rich components in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Palme, Herbert; Nasdala, Lutz; Brenker, Frank E.

    2006-03-01

    Silica-rich objects are common minor components in ordinary chondrites (OC), occurring as fragments and as chondrules. Their typical paragenesis is orthopyroxene + SiO 2 (with bulk SiO 2 >65 wt%) and occasionally with additional olivine and/or spinel. Individual silica-rich components (SRC) have previously been studied in various types of OCs, although there is only one comprehensive study of these objects by Brigham et al. [Brigham, C.A., Murrell, M.T., Yabuki, H., Ouyang, Z., El Goresy, A., 1986. Silica-bearing chondrules and clasts in ordinary chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50, 1655-1666]. Several different explanations of how SRCs formed have been published. The main question is how silica-enrichment was achieved, because CI-chondritic atomic Mg/Si-ratio is 1.07 and as a consequence only olivine and pyroxene, but no free silica should be stable. There are two basic possibilities for the SiO 2-enrichment: (1) a RedOx-mechanism or magmatic fractionation on the parent body and (2) fractional condensation or recycling of chondrule mesostasis in the solar nebula. To better constrain the origin of these objects, we measured major and rare earth elements in SRCs of various types of ordinary chondrites, and in addition, we studied silica polymorphism in these objects using an in situ micro-Raman technique. Bulk chondrule compositions define mixing lines between the compositions of olivine and pyroxene. The SRCs extend these lines to an SiO 2 end member. In contrast, magmatic trends grossly deviate from these mixing lines. Concentrations of CaO, Al 2O 3, and REE in the pyroxenes of the SRCs are low (0.01 to 1× CI) and the CI-normalized REE-patterns are virtually flat, typical of bulk chondrules, but untypical of magmatic trends. We therefore conclude that SiO 2-rich objects are not of magmatic origin. They are the result of fractional condensation in the solar nebula. The silica in SRCs occurs mainly as tridymite and sometimes as cristobalite or—in very rare

  4. β-decay properties of neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, P.; Pereira, J.

    2010-06-01

    Gamow-Teller strength distributions, β-decay half-lives, and β-delayed neutron emission are investigated in neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes within a deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The approach is based on a self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations and residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces. Comparison with recent measurements of half-lives stresses the important role that nuclear deformation plays in the description of β-decay properties in this mass region.

  5. High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Kellerbauer, A.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Blaum, K.; George, S.; Carrel, F.; Herfurth, F.; Yazidjian, C.; Herlert, A.; Schweikhard, L.; Kluge, H.-J.

    2006-09-15

    The atomic masses of the neutron-rich krypton isotopes {sup 84,86-95}Kr have been determined with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 220 ppb. The masses of the short-lived isotopes {sup 94}Kr and {sup 95}Kr were measured for the first time. The masses of the radioactive nuclides {sup 89}Kr and {sup 91}Kr disagree by 4 and 6 standard deviations, respectively, from the present Atomic-Mass Evaluation database. The resulting modification of the mass surface with respect to the two-neutron separation energies as well as implications for mass models and stellar nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  6. Modern Rutherford experiment: tunneling of the most neutron-rich nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lemasson, A; Shrivastava, A; Navin, A; Rejmund, M; Keeley, N; Zelevinsky, V; Bhattacharyya, S; Chatterjee, A; de France, G; Jacquot, B; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Raabe, R; Schmitt, C

    2009-12-01

    A modern variation of the Rutherford experiment to probe the tunneling of exotic nuclear matter from the measurement of the residues formed in the bombardment of (197)Au by extremely neutron-rich (8)He nuclei is presented. Using a novel off-beam technique the most precise and accurate measurements of fusion and neutron transfer involving reaccelerated unstable beams are reported. The results show unusual behavior of the tunneling of (8)He compared to that for lighter helium isotopes, highlighting the role of the intrinsic structure of composite many-body quantum systems and pairing correlations. PMID:20366144

  7. Thermal effects on the Fission Barrier of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Minato, Futoshi; Hagino, Kouichi

    2008-11-11

    We discuss the fission barrier height of neutron-rich nuclei in a r-process site at highly excited state, which is resulted from the beta-decay or the neutron-capture processes. We particularly investigate the sensitivity of the fission barrier height to the temperature, including the effect of pairing phase transition from superfluid to normal fluid phases. To this end, we use the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov method with a zero-range pairing interaction. We also discuss the temperature dependence of the fission decay rate.

  8. Studies of neutron-rich nuclei far from stability at TRISTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The ISOL facility, TRISTAN, is a user facility located at Brookhaven National Laboratory's High Flux Beam Reactor. Short-lived, neutron-rich nuclei, far from stability, are produced by thermal neutron fission of /sup 235/U. An extensive array of experimental end stations are available for nuclear structure studies. These studies are augmented by a variety of long-lived ion sources suitable for use at a reactor facility. Some recent results at TRISTAN are presented as examples of using an ISOL facility to study series of nuclei, whereby an effective means of conducting nuclear structure investigations is available.

  9. Decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes and collectivity around double midshell

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2015-10-15

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes with A ≈ 170, which locate near the middle of the major shells for both proton and neutron between the doubly magic nuclei {sup 132}Sn and {sup 208}Pb, have been investigated by means of decay spectroscopy techniques at the RIBF facility at RIKEN. The nuclei of interest were produced by in-flight fission of a high-intensity {sup 238}U beam at 345 MeV/u. In this contribution, scientific motivations, the details of experimental procedures, and some prospects of the data analysis are reported.

  10. Ground-state configuration of neutron-rich Aluminum isotopes through Coulomb Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro, S.; Boretzky, K.; Caesar, C.; Carlson, B. V.; Catford, W. N.; Chatterjee, S.; Chartier, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; De Angelis, G.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Emling, H.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; Fraile, L. M.; Ershova, O.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Jonson, B.; Kelic, A.; Johansson, H.; Kruecken, R.; Kroll, T.; Kurcewicz, J.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Leifels, Y.; Munzenberg, G.; Marganiec, J.; Nociforo, C.; Najafi, A.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Rahaman, A.; Reifarth, R.; Ricciardi, V.; Rossi, D.; Ray, J.; Simon, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Typel, S.; Taylor, J.; Togano, Y.; Volkov, V.; Weick, H.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weigand, M.; Winfield, J. S.; Yakorev, D.; Zoric, M.

    2014-03-01

    Neutron-rich 34,35Al isotopes have been studied through Coulomb excitation using LAND-FRS setup at GSI, Darmstadt. The method of invariant mass analysis has been used to reconstruct the excitation energy of the nucleus prior to decay. Comparison of experimental CD cross-section with direct breakup model calculation with neutron in p3/2 orbital favours 34Al(g.s)⊗νp3/2 as ground state configuration of 35Al. But ground state configuration of 34Al is complicated as evident from γ-ray spectra of 33Al after Coulomb breakup of 34Al.

  11. Monopole Modes of Excitation in Deformed Neutron-rich Mg Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-08-26

    The giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the low-frequency mode of monopole excitation in neutron-rich magnesium isotopes close to the drip line are investigated by means of the deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and quasiparticle random-phase approximations. It is found that the GMR has a two-peak structure due to the deformation. The lower-energy resonance is generated associated with the coupling to the K{sup p}i = 0{sup +} component of the giant quadrupole resonance. Besides the GMR, we obtain the soft K{sup p}i = 0{sup +} mode below the neutron emission threshold energy.

  12. Modern Rutherford Experiment: Tunneling of the Most Neutron-Rich Nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; France, G. de; Jacquot, B.; Raabe, R.; Schmitt, C.; Keeley, N.; Zelevinsky, V.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.

    2009-12-04

    A modern variation of the Rutherford experiment to probe the tunneling of exotic nuclear matter from the measurement of the residues formed in the bombardment of {sup 197}Au by extremely neutron-rich {sup 8}He nuclei is presented. Using a novel off-beam technique the most precise and accurate measurements of fusion and neutron transfer involving reaccelerated unstable beams are reported. The results show unusual behavior of the tunneling of {sup 8}He compared to that for lighter helium isotopes, highlighting the role of the intrinsic structure of composite many-body quantum systems and pairing correlations.

  13. Symmetry energy and surface properties of neutron-rich exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidarov, M. K.; Antonov, A. N.; Sarriguren, P.; Moya de Guerra, E.

    2014-07-23

    The symmetry energy, the neutron pressure and the asymmetric compressibility of spherical Ni, Sn, and Pb and deformed Kr and Sm neutron-rich even-even nuclei are calculated within the coherent density fluctuation model using the symmetry energy as a function of density within the Brueckner energy-density functional. The correlation between the thickness of the neutron skin and the characteristics related with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is investigated for isotopic chains of these nuclei in the framework of the deformed self-consistent mean-field Skyrme HF+BCS method. The mass dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness are also studied together with the role of the neutron-proton asymmetry. The studied correlations reveal a smoother behavior in the case of spherical nuclei than for deformed ones. We also notice that the neutron skin thickness obtained for {sup 208}Pb with SLy4 force is found to be in a good agreement with the recent data. In addition to the interest that this study may have by itself, we give some numerical arguments in proof of the existence of peculiarities of the studied quantities in Ni and Sn isotopic chains that are not present in the Pb chain.

  14. Cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams: A spectroscopic tool for neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoni, S.; Leoni, S.; Fornal, B.; Raabe, R.; Rusek, K.; Benzoni, G.; Bracco, A.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Morales, A. I.; Bednarczyk, P.; Cieplicka-Oryńczak, N.; Królas, W.; Maj, A.; Szpak, B.; Callens, M.; Bouma, J.; Elseviers, J.; De Witte, H.; Flavigny, F.; Orlandi, R.; Reiter, P.; Seidlitz, M.; Warr, N.; Siebeck, B.; Hellgartner, S.; Mücher, D.; Pakarinen, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Bauer, C.; Georgiev, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Balabanski, D.; Sferrazza, M.; Kowalska, M.; Rapisarda, E.; Voulot, D.; Lozano Benito, M.; Wenander, F.

    2015-08-01

    An exploratory experiment performed at REX-ISOLDE to investigate cluster-transfer reactions with radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is presented. The aim of the experiment was to test the potential of cluster-transfer reactions at the Coulomb barrier as a mechanism to explore the structure of exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The reactions 7Li(98Rb,α xn ) and 7Li(98Rb,t xn ) were studied through particle-γ coincidence measurements, and the results are presented in terms of the observed excitation energies and spins. Moreover, the reaction mechanism is qualitatively discussed as a transfer of a clusterlike particle within a distorted-wave Born approximation framework. The results indicate that cluster-transfer reactions can be described well as a direct process and that they can be an efficient method to investigate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei at medium-high excitation energies and spins.

  15. Production of heavy neutron-rich nuclei in transfer reactions within the dinuclear system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2015-08-01

    The dynamics of nucleon transfer processes in heavy-ion collisions is investigated within the dinuclear system model. The production cross sections of nuclei in the reactions 136Xe+208Pb and 238U+248Cm are calculated, and the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data. The transfer cross sections for the 58Ni+208Pb reaction are calculated and compared with the experimental data. We predict the production cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei 165-168 Eu, 169-173 Tb, 173-178 Ho, and 181-185Yb based on the reaction 176Yb+238U. It can be seen that the production cross sections of the neutron-rich nuclei 165Eu, 169Tb, 173Ho, and 181Yb are 2.84 μb, 6.90 μb, 46.24 μb, and 53.61 μb, respectively, which could be synthesized in experiment.

  16. Nuclear structure in the neutron-rich doubly magic sup 78 Ni region

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.; Winger, J.A.; Warburton, E.K.; Gill, R.L.; Schuhmann, R.B.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Clark Univ., Worcester, MA )

    1989-01-01

    The magic numbers Z=28 and N=50 imply that very neutron-rich {sup 78}Ni, which has not yet been observed, is doubly magic. The {sup 78}Ni region was investigated by studying the N=50 isotones and neutron-rich Zn isotopes. Results on the level structure of {sup 83}As, {sup 74}Zn, and {sup 76}Zn populated in the decays of {sup 83}Ge, {sup 74}Cu, and {sup 76}Cu are presented. The parent nuclides were produced and mass separated using the TRISTAN facility on-line to the High-Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven. The systematics of the N=50 isotones and even-A Zn isotopes are discussed and compared with shell-model calculations involving active nucleons outside of a {sup 78}Ni and {sup 66}Ni core, respectively. The extent to which the {sup 78}Ni region can be considered doubly magic is assessed. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  17. New μs isomers in the neutron-rich 210Hg nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardo, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Benzoni, G.; Gadea, A.; Lunardi, S.; Boutachkov, P.; Bruce, A. M.; Górska, M.; Grebosz, J.; Pietri, S.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pfützner, M.; Regan, P. H.; Weick, H.; Alcántara Núñez, J.; Algora, A.; Al-Dahan, N.; de Angelis, G.; Ayyad, Y.; Alkhomashi, N.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Bazzacco, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bowry, M.; Bracco, A.; Bunce, M.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Cortes, M. L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Corsi, A.; Denis Bacelar, A. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Doncel, M.; Dombradi, Zs.; Engert, T.; Eppinger, K.; Farrelly, G. F.; Farinon, F.; Farnea, E.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Gregor, E.; Habermann, T.; Hoischen, R.; Janik, R.; John, P. R.; Klupp, S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lenzi, S. M.; Leoni, S.; Mandal, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Modamio, V.; Morales, A. I.; Napoli, D. R.; Naqvi, F.; Nicolini, R.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Prokopowicz, W.; Recchia, F.; Ribas, R. V.; Reed, M. W.; Rudolph, D.; Sahin, E.; Schaffner, H.; Sharma, A.; Sitar, B.; Siwal, D.; Steiger, K.; Strmen, P.; Swan, T. P. D.; Szarka, I.; Ur, C. A.; Walker, P. M.; Wieland, O.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei in the lead region, beyond N = 126, have been studied at the FRS-RISING setup at GSI, exploiting the fragmentation of a primary uranium beam. Two isomeric states have been identified in 210Hg: the 8+ isomer expected from the seniority scheme in the νg9/2 shell and a second one at low spin and low excitation energy. The decay strength of the 8+ isomer confirms the need of effective three-body forces in the case of neutron-rich lead isotopes. The other unexpected low-lying isomer has been tentatively assigned as a 3- state, although this is in contrast with theoretical expectations.

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference Fission and Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Beene, James R; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Carter, H. K.

    2007-11-01

    These proceedings are the fourth in the series of International Conferences covering fission and properties of neutron-rich nuclei, which are at the forefront of nuclear structure research. The time interval of 5 years between each conference allows for significant new results to be achieved. Recently, world leaders in theory and experiments in research and the development of new facilities for research presented their latest results in areas such as synthesis of superheavy elements, new facilities for and recent results with radioactive ion beams, structure of neutron-rich nuclei, nuclear fission process, fission yields and nuclear astrophysics. This book is a major source of the latest research in these areas and plans for the future. The conference brought together a unique group of over 100 speakers including the directors of the major nuclear laboratories in Canada, France, Germany, Japan, Russia and the U.S. along with leading research scientists from around the world.

  19. Three-body force effect on the properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wei; Bombarci, Ignazio; Lombardo, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    We review our research work in recent years on the properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter within the framework of the Brueckner theory extended to include a microscopic three-body force (TBF). We discuss specially the TBF effect on the equation of state and the singleparticle (s.p.) potentials. The TBF turns out to be crucial for describing the saturation properties of nuclear matter in nonrelativistic microscopic framework. The TBF effect on the EOS of neutron-rich nuclear matter is to result in a significant stiffening of its isovector part at supra-saturation densities. Within the Brueckner approach, the TBF may lead to a rearrangement contribution to the s.p. potentials, which enhances strongly the repulsion and momentum-dependence of the s.p. potentials at high densities and high momenta. Our results are also compared with the predictions by other ab initio approaches.

  20. Structure of Light Neutron-rich Nuclei Studied with Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Transfer reactions have been used for many years to understand the shell structure of nuclei. Recent studies with rare-isotope beams extend this work and make it possible to probe the evolution of shell structure far beyond the valley of stability, requiring measurements in inverse kinematics. We present a novel technical approach to measurements in inverse kinematics, and apply this method to different transfer reactions, each of which probes different properties of light, neutron-rich nuclei.

  1. Reflection Asymmetric Shapes in the Neutron-Rich 140,143Ba Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu Sheng-jiang (S, J. Zhu; Wang, Mu-ge; J, H. Hamilton; A, V. Ramayya; B, R. S. Babu; W, C. Ma; Long, Gui-lu; Deng, Jing-kang; Zhu, Ling-yan; Li, Ming; T, N. Ginter; J, Komicki; J, D. Cole; R, Aryaeinejad; Y, K. Dardenne; M, W. Drigert; J, O. Rasmussen; Ts, Yu Oganessian; M, A. Stoyer; S, Y. Chu; K, E. Gregorich; M, F. Mohar; S, G. Prussin; I, Y. Lee; N, R. Johnson; F, K. McGowan

    1997-08-01

    Level schemes for the neutron-rich 140,143Ba nuclei have been determined by study of prompt γ-rays in spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The level pattern and enhanced E1 transitions between π = + and π = - bands show reflection asymmetric shapes with simplex quantum number s = +1 in 140Ba and s = ±i in 143Ba, respectively. The octupole deformation stability with spin variation has been discussed.

  2. Beta-decay studies of nickel-78 and other neutron-rich nuclei in the astrophysical r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul Thomas

    The β-decay properties of several neutron-rich nuclei including the doubly-magic 78Ni were studied. A low-energy neutron detector NERO was designed and calibrated for use in these measurements. β-decay measurements, especially those that combine both half-life and neutron-emission probability measurements, can offer first tests of nuclear theories of neutron-rich nuclei. In addition, 78Ni is an important waiting-point in the astrophysical r-process. The results of the measurements are compared to several nuclear models, and the astrophysical implications are explored.

  3. Sensitivity of elements of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter to the properties of neutron-rich systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity of nuclear symmetry energy elements at the saturation density to the binding energies of ultra-neutron-rich nuclei (neutron-to-proton ratio ˜2 ) and the maximum mass of a neutron star is explored within a relativistic mean field model. Values of the interaction parameters governing the isovector strengths and the symmetry elements are determined in tighter bounds. Assessments based on the sensitivity matrix reveal that the properties of extreme neutron-rich systems play a predominant role in narrowing down the uncertainties in the various symmetry energy parameters. The calculations are extended over a wide range of nuclear matter density, and the results are discussed.

  4. Charge-exchange modes of excitation in deformed neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2015-10-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) mode of excitation and β-decay properties of deformed neutron-rich even-N Zr isotopes are investigated in a self-consistent Skyrme energy-density-functional approach, in which the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation is solved in the coordinate space and the proton-neutron Quasiparticle-RPA equation is solved in the quasiparticle basis. It is found that a stronger collectivity is generated for the GT giant resonance as an increase in the neutron number. Furthermore, we find that the T = 0 pairing enhances the low-lying GT strengths cooperatively with the T = 1 pairing correlation depending on the microscopic structure of the low-lying mode and the shell structure around the Fermi levels, and that the enhanced strength shortens the β-decay half-lives by at most an order of magnitude.

  5. Beta-decay properties of neutron-rich medium-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarriguren, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    β-decay properties of even-even and odd-A neutron-rich Ge, Se, Kr, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ru, and Pd isotopes involved in the astrophysical rapid neutron capture process are studied within a microscopic proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The underlying mean field is based on a self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock + BCS calculation that includes deformation as a key ingredient. The isotopic evolution of the various nuclear equilibrium shapes and the corresponding charge radii are investigated in all the isotopic chains. The energy distributions of the Gamow-Teller strength, as well as the β-decay half-lives are discussed and compared with the available experimental information. It is shown that nuclear deformation plays a significant role in the description of the decay properties in this mass region. Reliable predictions of the strength distributions are essential to evaluate decay rates in astrophysical scenarios.

  6. Structural changes at large angular momentum in neutron-rich Cd,123121

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Caamaño, M.; Clément, E.; Delaune, O.; Farget, F.; de France, G.; Jacquot, B.; Lemasson, A.

    2016-02-01

    Prompt γ rays of isotopically identified neutron-rich isotopes of Cd, produced in transfer- and fusion-fission induced by the 238U beam at 6.2 MeV/u on a 9Be target, were measured using the EXOGAM γ -ray detector array and the magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++. New results for the level scheme of Cd,123121, extending to relatively large angular momentum are reported. The energy levels above 2-MeV excitation energy, are found to differ from those observed in lighter isotopes of Cd indicating a change in structure in these more neutron-rich nuclei. These states are not explained by large-scale shell model calculations, that explain well the structure of the underlying Sn isotopes and the neighboring even-A Cd isotopes. The present data, especially for the odd-A nuclei, point to a deficiency in the matrix elements related to the p-n residual interaction and provide a new domain for testing widely used shell model interactions employed for understanding the evolution of structure in neutron-rich nuclei.

  7. Nucleon effective E-mass in neutron-rich matter from the Migdal-Luttinger jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Bao-Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2016-06-01

    The well-known Migdal-Luttinger theorem states that the jump of the single-nucleon momentum distribution at the Fermi surface is equal to the inverse of the nucleon effective E-mass. Recent experiments studying short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei using electron-nucleus scatterings at the Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB) together with model calculations constrained significantly the Migdal-Luttinger jump at saturation density of nuclear matter. We show that the corresponding nucleon effective E-mass is consequently constrained to M0*,E / M ≈ 2.22 ± 0.35 in symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and the E-mass of neutrons is smaller than that of protons in neutron-rich matter. Moreover, the average depletion of the nucleon Fermi sea increases (decreases) approximately linearly with the isospin asymmetry δ according to κp/n ≈ 0.21 ± 0.06 ± (0.19 ± 0.08) δ for protons (neutrons). These results will help improve our knowledge about the space-time non-locality of the single-nucleon potential in neutron-rich nucleonic matter useful in both nuclear physics and astrophysics.

  8. A SiO 2-1 SURVEY TOWARD GAS-RICH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Jiangshui; Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we performed a survey of SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) transition toward ten gas-rich active galaxies with the IRAM 30 m telescope. As the first survey of SiO in such galaxies, we detected SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) emission in six galaxies above the 3σ level and one galaxy (NGC 3690) at the 2.7σ level. The detection rate is not related to the AGN type or to star formation activity. In comparison with M82, which is a pure star-forming galaxy without nuclear activity, our SiO detections could not be completely ascribed to being due to star formation activity. This suggests that the AGN feedback may be efficient in producing SiO molecules in such galaxies. Further surveys with large single-dish millimeter telescopes and interferometers are necessary for understanding the origin of SiO in galaxies with nuclear activity.

  9. Observation of Gamma Irradiation-Induced Suppression of Reversed Annealing in Neutron Irradiated MCZ Si Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Gul, R.; Harkonen, J.; Kierstead, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Seidel, S.

    2009-02-06

    For the development of radiation-hard Si detectors for the SiD BeamCal program for the future ILC (International Linear Collider), n-type MCZ Si detectors have been irradiated first by fast neutrons to flueneces of 1.5 x 1014 and 3 x 1014 neq/cm2, and then by gamma up to 500 Mrad. The motivation of this mixed radiation project is to develop a Si detector that can utilize the gamma/electron radiation that exists in the ICL radiation environment, which also includes neutrons. By using the positive space charge (SC) created by gamma radiation in MCZ Si detectors, one can cancel the negative space charge created by neutrons, thus reducing the overall/net space charge density and therefore the full depletion voltage of the detector.

  10. CRYSTALLIZATION EXPERIMENTS OF SiO{sub 2}-RICH AMORPHOUS SILICATE: APPLICATION TO SiO{sub 2}-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST AND GEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Junya; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Koike, Chiyoe; Chihara, Hiroki; Imai, Yuta; Noguchi, Ryo; Ohi, Shugo

    2012-07-10

    Crystallization experiments of relatively SiO{sub 2}-rich amorphous silicates using the mean chemical composition of the silicate portions in GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide), which is a major component in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles and a primitive material of the early solar system, were performed to understand the presence of crystalline silica around young stars and crystallization in GEMS. Olivine crystallized at {approx}900-1400 K, probably prior to pyroxene. Three different polymorphs of pyroxene, protopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene, were identified at {>=}1000 K. Cristobalite, which is one of the silica polymorphs, crystallized only at high temperatures ({>=}1500 K). We obtained time-temperature-transformation (TTT) crystallization diagrams. These results suggest that crystallization of a silica polymorph is kinetically difficult in a day or so at {approx}900-1400 K even for the SiO{sub 2}-saturated composition, while the crystallization might be possible after metastable olivine crystallization if duration is long enough. The TTT diagram also indicates that the GEMS cooling timescale was {approx}10{sup 5} s if they condensed at 1000 K as amorphous silicates and annealed during cooling after the condensation.

  11. Effects of neutron irradiation on dimensional stability and on mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Senor, J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the development and the performance of continuous fiber SiC{sub f}/SiC composites as a structural material for advanced fusion reactor application. The dimensional stability and some mechanical properties of two similar 2D 0-90{degree} weave SiC{sub f}/SiC composites made with Nacalon{trademark} ceramic-grade fiber were characterized and compared after neutron irradiation to those properties for {beta}-SiC. The major difference between these two composites was that one had a thin (150 nm) and the other a thick (1000 nm) graphite interface layer. The irradiation conditions consisted of relatively high doses (4.3 to 26 dpa-SiC) at high temperature (430-1200{degree}C).

  12. Si-rich Fe-Ni grains in highly unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaldi, E. R.; Sears, D. W.; Wasson, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the Si contents of Fe-Ni grains in highly unequilibrated chondrites, which have undergone little metamorphosis and thus best preserve the record of processes in the solar nebula. Electron microprobe determinations of silicon content in grains of the Bishunpur chondrite are presented for the six Si-bearing Fe-Ni grains for which data could be obtained, five of which were found to be embedded in olivine chondrules. In addition, all grains are found to be Cr-rich, with Cr increased in concentration towards the grain edge, and to be encased in FeS shells which evidently preserved the Si that entered the FeNi at higher temperatures. A mechanism for the production of Si-bearing metal during the condensation of the cooling solar nebula is proposed which considers the metal to have condensed heterogeneously while the mafic silicates condensed homogeneously with amounts of required undercooling in the low-pressure regions where ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites formed, resulting in Si mole fractions of 0.003 at nebular pressures less than 0.000001 atm.

  13. Si-rich Fe-Ni grains in highly unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaldi, E. R.; Sears, D. W.; Wasson, J. T.

    1980-10-01

    Consideration is given to the Si contents of Fe-Ni grains in highly unequilibrated chondrites, which have undergone little metamorphosis and thus best preserve the record of processes in the solar nebula. Electron microprobe determinations of silicon content in grains of the Bishunpur chondrite are presented for the six Si-bearing Fe-Ni grains for which data could be obtained, five of which were found to be embedded in olivine chondrules. In addition, all grains are found to be Cr-rich, with Cr increased in concentration towards the grain edge, and to be encased in FeS shells which evidently preserved the Si that entered the FeNi at higher temperatures. A mechanism for the production of Si-bearing metal during the condensation of the cooling solar nebula is proposed which considers the metal to have condensed heterogeneously while the mafic silicates condensed homogeneously with amounts of required undercooling in the low-pressure regions where ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites formed, resulting in Si mole fractions of 0.003 at nebular pressures less than 0.000001 atm.

  14. Enthalpy of formation of carbon-rich polymer-derived amorphous SiCN ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, R. M.; Mera, G.; Navrotsky, A.; Varga, T.; Riedel, R.; Poli, F.; Muller, K.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at Davis; Technische Univ. Darmstadt; Univ. of Stuttgart

    2008-10-01

    Carbon-rich silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramics derived from polysilylcarbodiimides represent a novel class of materials where the incorporation of a high amount of carbon was demonstrated to be beneficial for ultrahigh-temperature resistance against crystallization. Calorimetric measurements of heat of oxidative dissolution in a molten oxide solvent show that these amorphous SiCN ceramics produced at 1000 or 1100 C possess a small positive or near zero enthalpy of formation relative to their crystalline constituents, namely silicon nitride, silicon carbide, and graphite. The enthalpy of formation does not change strongly with increasing SiC mole fraction. Because the enthalpies of formation from crystalline constituents are at most slightly positive, and the entropies of formation are expected to be significantly positive because of disorder in the amorphous phase, it is likely that the free energies of formation from silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and graphite are negative and the high-temperature persistence of amorphous SiCN ceramics may originate from thermodynamic stabilization. However, this stabilization is less pronounced than that for SiCO polymer-derived ceramics studied earlier.

  15. Probing the Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Matter with Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An

    2006-06-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of neutron-rich matter plays many important roles in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. However, it is still very poorly known, especially its isospin dependent part, namely the symmetry energy. Nuclear reactions with neutron-rich nuclei, stable and/or radioactive, provide a great opportunity to pin down the EOS of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. In this talk, we report some recent theoretical progress in this field within an isospin and momentum dependent transport model (IBUU04). Using in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections consistent with the nuclear mean field used in the transport model, a symmetry energy of Esym(ρ) ≈ 31.6(ρ/ρ0)0.69 was found most acceptable compared with both the MSU isospin diffusion data and the presently acceptable neutron-skin thickness in 208Pb. The isospin dependent part Kasy(ρ0) of isobaric nuclear incompressibility was further narrowed down to -500 ± 50 MeV. Predictions on several observables sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at supranormal densities accessible at GSI and the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) are also made.

  16. Production of Extremely Neutron-Rich Rare Isotopes at Texas A&M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souliotis, G. A.; Veselsky, M.; Yennello, S. J.

    2002-03-01

    The production of extermely neutron-rich isotopes in heavy-ion collisions around and below the Fermi energy ( 30 MeV/ncleon) has been investigated using the MARS recoil separator at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University. At present, the reactions: 25 MeV/nucleon ^86Kr + ^64Ni and 21 MeV/nucleon ^124Sn+^124Sn have been investigated. The experimental results on cross sections obtained to date will be presented and compared with reaction simulations appropriate for this energy domain. The current calculations involve a deep inelastic transfer code for the primary interaction stage and a modern statistical evaporation code for the deexcitation stage. The results are also compared with higher energy projectile fragmentation data and available parametrizations. In general, we show that such reactions, near or below the Fermi energy, involving substantial nucleon exchange between the projectile and the target, can be a fruitful pathway to approach extremely neutron-rich nuclei towards the neutron drip-line. Apart from in-flight possibilities, the option of utilizing this type of reaction for rare isotope production in ISOL-based facilities will be mentioned. Finally, application of such reactions in current plans of both in-flight and ISOL-type rare beam production at Texas A&M will be discussed.

  17. Searching for isovector signatures in the neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Piekarewicz, J.

    2015-09-01

    We search for potential isovector signatures in the neutron-rich oxygen and calcium isotopes within the framework of a relativistic mean-field theory with an exact treatment of pairing correlations. To probe the isovector sector we calibrate a few relativistic density functionals using the same isoscalar constraints but with one differing isovector assumption. It is found that under certain conditions, the isotopic chain in oxygen can be made to terminate at the experimentally observed 24O isotope and in the case of the calcium isotopes at 60Ca. To produce such behavior, the resulting symmetry energy must be soft, with predicted values for the symmetry energy and its slope at saturation density being J = (30.92 ± 0.47) MeV and L = (51.0 ± 1.5) MeV, respectively. As a consequence, the neutron-skin thickness of 208Pb is rather small: Rskin208 = (0.161 ± 0.011) fm. This same model-labeled "FSUGarnet"-predicts R1.4 = (13.0 ± 0.1) km for the radius of a "canonical" 1.4M⊙ neutron star, yet is also able to support a two-solar-mass neutron star.

  18. Results from the NSCL TOF Mass Measurement of Neutron-rich Isotopes of Argon through Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Zachary; George, Sebastian; NSCL TOF Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    A recent experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory has resulted in an extension of the nuclear mass surface for neutron-rich isotopes of argon through iron. The time-of-flight technique was employed to experimentally determine the masses of several nuclei for the first time. Results include the identification of argon as the lowest even- Z element exhibiting the N = 28 shell closure, as well the uncovering of a relatively small odd-even mass stagger between 56 Ti and 56 Sc. The latter result yields strong Urca cooling when implemented in a state-of-the-art accreted neutron star crust reaction network. A strong 56 Ti-56 Sc Urca neutrino cooling layer makes shallow neutrino cooling in the crust of accreting neutron stars a strong and robust effect due to the copious production of A = 56 material in thermonuclear burning processes that occur at the accreted neutron star surface. This project is funded by the NSF through Grants 247 No. PHY-0822648, PHY-1102511, PHY-1404442, and 248 No. PHY-1430152. S.G. acknowledges support from 249 the DFG under Contracts No. GE2183/1-1 and No. 250 GE2183/2-1.

  19. Pygmy dipole mode in deformed neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-10-15

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the low-lying isovector-dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich {sup 36,38,40}Mg close to the drip line by means of the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation employing the Skyrme and the local pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying bump structure above the neutron emission-threshold energy develops when the drip line is approached, and that the isovector dipole strength at E{sub x}<10 MeV exhausts about 6.0% of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule in {sup 40}Mg. We obtained the collective dipole modes at around 8-10 MeV in Mg isotopes, that consist of many two-quasiparticle excitations of the neutron. The transition density clearly shows an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isoscalar core. We found significant coupling effects between the dipole and octupole excitation modes due to the nuclear deformation. It is also found that the responses for the compressional dipole and isoscalar octupole excitations are much enhanced in the lower energy region.

  20. Microscopic description of fission in neutron-rich radium isotopes with the Gogny energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrıguez-Guzmán, R.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mean-field calculations, based on the D1S, D1N and D1M parametrizations of the Gogny energy density functional, have been carried out to obtain the potential energy surfaces relevant to fission in several Ra isotopes with the neutron number 144≤ N≤ 176. Inner and outer barrier heights as well as first and second isomer excitation energies are given. The existence of a well-developed third minimum along the fission paths of Ra nuclei is analyzed in terms of the energetics of the "fragments" defining such elongated configuration. The masses and charges of the fission fragments are studied as functions of the neutron number in the parent Ra isotope. The comparison between fission and α -decay half-lives, reveals that the former becomes faster for increasing neutron numbers. Though there exists a strong variance of the results with respect to the parameters used in the computation of the spontaneous fission rate, a change in tendency is observed at N=164 with a steady increase that makes heavier neutron-rich Ra isotopes stable against fission, diminishing the importance of fission recycling in the r-process.

  1. Si-rich W silicide films composed of W-atom-encapsulated Si clusters deposited using gas-phase reactions of WF6 with SiH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Naoya; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko

    2016-02-01

    We formed Si-rich W silicide films composed of Sin clusters, each of which encapsulates a W atom (WSin clusters with 8 < n ≤ ˜ 12), by using a gas-phase reaction between WF6 and SiH4 in a hot-wall reactor. The hydrogenated WSinHx clusters with reduced F concentration were synthesized in a heated gas phase and subsequently deposited on a substrate heated to 350-420 °C, where they dehydrogenated and coalesced into the film. Under a gas pressure of SiH4 high enough for the WSinHx reactant to collide a sufficient number of times with SiH4 molecules before reaching the substrate, the resulting film was composed of WSin clusters with a uniform n, which was determined by the gas temperature. The formed films were amorphous semiconductors with an optical gap of ˜0.8-1.5 eV and an electrical mobility gap of ˜0.05-0.12 eV, both of which increased as n increased from 8 to 12. We attribute this dependence to the reduction of randomness in the Si network as n increased, which decreased the densities of band tail states and localized states.

  2. Shell structure in neutron-rich Ca and Ni nuclei under semi-realistic mean fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nakada, H.

    2010-05-15

    Shell structure in the neutron-rich Ca and Ni nuclei is investigated by the spherical Hartree-Fock calculations with semi-realistic NN interactions. Specific ingredients of the effective interaction, particularly the tensor force, often play a key role in the Z dependence of the neutron shell structure. Such examples are found in N=32 and N=40; N=32 becomes magic or submagic in {sup 52}Ca while its magicity is broken in {sup 60}Ni, and N=40 is submagic (though not magic) in {sup 68}Ni but not in {sup 60}Ca. Comments are given on the doubly magic nature of {sup 78}Ni. We point out that the loose binding can lead to a submagic number N=58 in {sup 86}Ni, assisted by the weak pair coupling.

  3. Promises and Challenges of Two-Step Targets for Production of Neutron-rich RIBs

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, W.L.; Drake, D.M.; Hsu, H.-H.; Wilson, M.T.

    2003-08-26

    Development of a prototype two-step target to produce neutron-rich RIBs is presented, with particular emphasis on thermal analysis under high-power operation. The two-step target is an attractive concept for production of fission-product activities without interference by high-energy spallation reactions which occur in direct production targets. In this concept, a high-energy production beam interacts with a primary target of refractory metal, depositing beam energy in the primary target and producing low-energy neutrons that cause fissions in a surrounding secondary target of mixed UC2 and excess C. Thermal analysis of the composite target presents challenges in cooling the primary target while maintaining the secondary target at temperatures suitable for release of the fission products. The effects of fission energy deposition in the secondary target are discussed, along with the complexities resulting from the thermally insulating character of the secondary target material.

  4. High Spin States and Octupole Deformation in Neutron-Rich ^145,147La Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. J.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Babu, B. R. S.; Jones, E. F.; Kormicki, J.; Daniel, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Beyer, C. J.; Wang, M. G.; Long, G. L.; Li, M.; Zhu, L. Y.; Gan, C. Y.; Ma, W. C.; Cole, J. D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Dardenne, Y. X.; Drigert, M. W.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Asztalos, S.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Chu, S. Y.; Gregorich, K. E.; Mohar, M. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Lougheed, R. W.; Moody, K. J.; Wild, J. F.; Prussin, S. G.

    1998-04-01

    High spin states in neutron-rich odd-Z nuclei ^145,147La have been investigated from the study of prompt γ- rays in spontaneous fission of ^252Cf by using γ-γ- and γ-γ-γ- coincidence techniques. Alternating parity bands are extended up to spins I=(41/2) and I=(43/2) in ^145La and ^147La, respectively. Strong E1 transitions between the negative and positive parity bands give evidence for stable octupole deformation. The new higher spin levels give evidence for rotational enhancement of the stability of the octupole deformation. These collective bands show competition and co-existence between symmetric and asymmetric shapes in ^145La. Band crossing was found around hbarω≈ 0.26 ~0.30 MeV in both nuclei and these backbends are related to the alignment of two i_13/2 neutron from cranked shell model calculations.

  5. β and β -n decay of the neutron-rich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korgul, A.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Bingham, C. R.; Brewer, N. T.; Gross, C. J.; Ciemny, A. A.; Jost, C.; Karny, M.; Madurga, M.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mendez, A. J.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Padgett, S.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Piersa, M.; Stracener, D. W.; Stryjczyk, M.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-06-01

    The β -decay properties of the very neutron-rich neutron emission was observed. The shell-model calculations and apparent β transition intensities were used to guide the spin assignment to the

  6. Beta-decay study of neutron rich isotopes of Bromine and Krypton

    SciTech Connect

    Miernik, Krzysztof A; Gross, Carl J; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Madurga, M; Mendez, II, Anthony J; Miller, D.; Padgett, S; Paulauskas, Stanley V; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stracener, Daniel W; Wolinska-Cichocka, Marzena; Zganjar, E. F.; Batchelder, J. C.; Brewer, N.T.; Cartegni, L.; Fijalkowska, Aleksandra G; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Ilyushkin, S.; Jost, Carola U; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.; Liu, S.H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Surman, Rebecca; Winger, J. A.; Wolinska-Cichocka, M

    2013-01-01

    Short lived neutron rich nuclei including 93 Br, 93 Kr and 94 Kr were produced in proton induced fission of 238 U at the HRIBF in Oak Ridge. Their beta decay was studied by means of a high resolution on line mass separator and beta gamma spectroscopy methods. The half life of 93Br T1/2 = 152(8) ms and delayed branching ratio of Pn = 53-8+11 may be compared to the previously reported values of T1/2 = 102(10) ms and Pn = 68(7)%. At the same time the half life of 94Kr T1/2 = 227(14) ms and B delayed branching ratio of Pn = 1.9+0.6 0.2 % of 93Kr are in very good agreement with literature values. The decay properties of 93Br include four new gamma transitions following beta delayed neutron emission.

  7. Nuclear shape transitions in neutron-rich medium-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sarriguren, P.; Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Robledo, L. M.

    2012-10-20

    We study the isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes in neutron-rich Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Mo isotopic chains. Both even-even and odd-A nuclei are included in the analysis. For the latter we also study the systematics of their one-quasiparticle low-lying configurations. The theoretical approach is based on a selfconsistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism with finite range Gogny energy density functionals. Neutron separation energies, charge radii, and the spin-parity of the ground states are calculated and compared with available data. Shape-transition signatures are identified around N= 60 isotones as discontinuities in both charge radii isotopic shifts and spin-parities of the ground states. The nuclear deformation including triaxiality is shown to play a relevant role in the understanding of the bulk and spectroscopic features of the ground and low-lying one-quasiparticle states.

  8. Continuum Effects and Three-Nucleon Forces in Neutron-Rich Oxygen Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, Gaute; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Jansen, G R; Machleidt, R; Papenbrock, T.

    2012-01-01

    We employ interactions from chiral effective field theory and compute binding energies, excited states, and radii for isotopes of oxygen with the coupled-cluster method. Our calculation includes the effects of three-nucleon forces and of the particle continuum, both of which are important for the description of neutron-rich isotopes in the vicinity of the nucleus 24O. Our main results are the placement of the neutron drip-line at 24O, the assignment of spins, parities and resonance widths for several low-lying states of the drip-line nucleus, and an efficient approximation that incorporates the effects of three-body interactions.

  9. Production of unknown neutron-rich isotopes in 238U collisions at near-barrier energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Zhuxia; Zhang, Yingxun; Wang, Ning; Li, Qingfeng; Shen, Caiwan; Wang, Yongjia; Wu, Xizhen

    2016-08-01

    The production cross sections for primary and residual fragments with charge number from Z =70 to 120 produced in the collision of 238U at 7.0 MeV/nucleon are calculated by the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model incorporated with the statistical evaporation model (hivap code). The calculation results predict that about 60 unknown neutron-rich isotopes from elements Ra (Z =88 ) to Db (Z =105 ) can be produced with the production cross sections above the lower bound of 10-8 mb in this reaction. And almost all of the unknown neutron-rich isotopes are emitted at the laboratory angles θlab≤60°. Two cases, i.e., the production of the unknown uranium isotopes with A ≥244 and that of rutherfordium with A ≥269 , are investigated to understand the production mechanism of unknown neutron-rich isotopes. It is found that for the former case the collision time between two uranium nuclei is shorter and the primary fragments producing the residues have smaller excitation energies of ≤30 MeV and the outgoing angles of those residues cover a range of 30°-60°. For the latter case, a longer collision time is needed for a large number of nucleons being transferred and thus it results in higher excitation energies and smaller outgoing angles of primary fragments, and eventually results in a very small production cross section for the residues of Rf with A ≥269 which have a small interval of outgoing angles of θlab=40°-50°.

  10. One-phonon isovector 2(1,MS)(+) state in neutron-rich nucleus (132)Te

    SciTech Connect

    Danchev, M.; Rainovski, G.; Gladnishki, K. A.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu; Scheck, M.; Wambach, J.; Pietralla, N.; Gargano, A.; Covello, A.; Baktash, Cyrus; Beene, James R; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Gross, Carl J; Radford, David C; Yu, Chang-Hong; Bingham, C. R.; Riedinger, L. L.; Stuchbery, Andrew E; Zamfir, Nicolae Victor

    2011-01-01

    The 2{sub 2}{sup +} state in {sup 132}Te is identified as the one-phonon mixed-symmetry state in a projectile Coulomb excitation experiment presenting a firm example of a mixed-symmetry state in unstable, neutron-rich nuclei. The results of shell-model calculations based on the low-momentum interaction V{sub low-k} are in good agreement with experiment demonstrating the ability of the effective shell-model interaction to produce states of mixed-symmetry character.

  11. Decay of the neutron-rich isotope 171Ho and the identification of 169Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteler, R. M.; Nitschke, J. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Vierinen, K. S.; Wilmarth, P. A.

    1990-10-01

    Neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes were produced in multinucleon transfer reactions between 170Er ions and natW targets. On-line mass separation was used together with β- and γ-ray spectroscopy in these studies. At mass A=169, the heaviest known dysprosium isotope, 39(8) s,169Dy, was identified. It was observed to β- decay to the ground state of 169Ho or through a level at 1578 keV. In the A=171 mass chain, a partial decay scheme for 55(3)-s 171Ho was determined.

  12. Structure of Light Neutron-Rich Nuclei around N = 14 Using Quasi-Free Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Pol, Héctor; Díaz-Fernández, Paloma; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Caamaño, Manuel; Fernández-Domínguez, Beatriz; Mostazo, Magdalena; Pietras, Ben; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Benlliure, José; Casarejos, Enrique; Alcántara, Juan

    Light neutron-rich nuclei around N = 14 (23O, 22O and 21N) have been for the first time investigated using quasi-free scattering (p,2p) and (p,pn) reactions at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The inclusive cross sections and the momentum distributions have been measured in inverse kinematics at relativistic energies, supporting previous observations of the existence of a change of the structure of these nuclei when we move from N = 14 to 15 (from 0d5/2 shell to the 1s1/2).

  13. Collective properties of neutron-rich Ru, Pd, and Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. B.; Rissanen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Collective properties of neutron-rich Ru, Pd, and Cd isotopes are reviewed, combining the original results from the IGISOL β-decay experiments with recent experimental and theoretical progress. The transitional nature of Ru and Pd nuclei is discussed via the low-lying level systematics, including the low-lying 0 + states. Although the role of an anharmonic quadrupole vibrator in Cd nuclei was recently questioned, level systematics for the three-phonon quintuplet in 116,118,120Cd are presented, and an outlook of the spectroscopic methods for the level lifetime or B( E2) values is given.

  14. Gamow-Teller strength distributions for neutron-rich nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Gamow-Teller transition properties for neutron-rich nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine isotopes are studied in integrated energy. The structures of these nuclei are described by means of nuclear shell model with the WBT interaction in the p-sd shell space. Calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution reproduce the experimental data reasonably in the low-energy region. For the dripline nucleus 24O, a super Gamow-Teller transition to a single state at excitation energy of 14.72 MeV in 24F is predicted. β-decay half-lives for these nuclei are calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  15. β-decay studies of neutron-rich Tl, Pb, and Bi isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Gottardo, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Corsi, A.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Nicolini, R.; Wieland, O.; Gadea, A.; Lunardi, S.; Górska, M.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Boutachkov, P.; Weick, H.; Grebosz, J.; Bruce, A. M.; Núñez, J. Alcántara; Algora, A.; Al-Dahan, N.; Ayyad, Y.; Alkhomashi, N.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Bazzacco, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bowry, M.; Bunce, M.; Casarejos, E.; Cortes, M. L.; Bacelar, A. M. Denis; Deo, A. Y.; de Angelis, G.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Doncel, M.; Dombradi, Zs.; Engert, T.; Eppinger, K.; Farrelly, G. F.; Farinon, F.; Farnea, E.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Gregor, E.; Habermann, T.; Hoischen, R.; Janik, R.; Klupp, S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Mandal, S.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Naqvi, F.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Prokopowicz, W.; Recchia, F.; Ribas, R. V.; Reed, M. W.; Rudolph, D.; Sahin, E.; Schaffner, H.; Sharma, A.; Sitar, B.; Siwal, D.; Steiger, K.; Strmen, P.; Swan, T. P. D.; Szarka, I.; Ur, C. A.; Walker, P. M.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The fragmentation of relativistic uranium projectiles has been exploited at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung laboratory to investigate the β decay of neutron-rich nuclei just beyond 208Pb. This paper reports on β-delayed γ decays of 211-213Tl, 215Pb, and 215-219Bi de-exciting states in the daughters 211-213Pb, 215Bi, and 215-219Po. The resulting partial level schemes, proposed with the help of systematics and shell-model calculations, are presented. The role of allowed Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden β transitions in this mass region is discussed.

  16. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei around the N = 50 shell-gap closure

    SciTech Connect

    Faul, T.; Duchene, G.; Nowacki, F.; Thomas, J.-C.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.

    2010-04-26

    The structure of neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 78}Ni have been investigated via the beta-decay of {sup 71,73,75}Cu isotopes (ISOLDE, CERN). Experimental results have been compared with shell-model calculations performed with the ANTOINE code using a large (2p{sub 3/2}1 f{sub 5/2}2 p{sub 1/2}1 g{sub 9/2}) valence space and a (56/28)Ni{sub 28} core.

  17. Collective Band Structures in the Neutron-Rich 107,109Ru Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sheng-jiang; Gan, Cui-yun; J, Hamilton H.; A, Ramayya V.; B, Babu R. S.; M, Sakhaee; W, Ma C.; Long, Gui-lu; Deng, Jing-kang; Zhu, Ling-yan; Li, Ming; Yang, Li-ming; J, Komicki; J, Cole D.; R, Aryaeinejad; Y, Dardenne K.; M, Drigert W.; J, Rasmussen O.; M, Stoyer A.; S, Chu Y.; K, Gregorich E.; M, Mohar F.; S, Prussin G.; I, Lee Y.; N, Johnson R.; F, McGowan K.

    1998-11-01

    The levels in neutron-rich odd-A 107,109Ru nuclei have been investigated by using γ-γ- and γ-γ-γ-coincidence studies of the prompt γ-rays from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The ground state bands and the negative parity bands are identified and expanded in both nuclei. Triaxial rotor plus particle model calculations indicate the ground state bands originate from ν(d5/2 + g7/2) quasiparticle configurations and the negative parity bands are from νh11/2 orbital.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of high density silicon quantum dots in gradient Si-rich carbide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaobo

    2014-10-01

    Gradient Si-rich carbide (GSRC) thin films were deposited on monocrystalline silicon wafers and quartz substrates by magnetron co-sputtering, with subsequent thermal annealing by rapid thermal processing. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, grazing incident X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and Hall measurements were used to analyze the microstructure and conductivity of the films. It was observed that bonding configurations, microstructure and conductivity properties changes with the annealing temperature from 700°C to 1000°C. The experimental results demonstrate that Si QDs with crystal volume fraction of 72.5%, average size of 4.5 nm, and number density of 2 ×1012cm-2 embedded in the amorphous SiC matrix can be formed using a GSRC multilayer structure, with subsequent annealing at 1000°C. The 1000°C annealed thin film possesses a conductivity of 5 S ṡ cm-1, which can be attributed to high carrier transport efficiency caused by high Si QD density.

  19. Li dynamics in carbon-rich polymer-derived SiCN ceramics probed by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Reinold, Lukas; Graczyk-Zajac, Magdalena; Riedel, Ralf; Hammerath, Franziska; Buechner, Bernd; Grafe, Hajo

    2014-03-01

    We report 7Li, 29Si, and 13C NMR studies of two different carbon-rich SiCN ceramics SiCN-1 and SiCN-3 derived from the preceramic polymers polyphenylvinylsilylcarbodiimide and polyphenylvinylsilazane, respectively. From the spectral analysis of the three nuclei at room temperature, we find that only the 13C spectrum is strongly influenced by Li insertion/extraction, suggesting that carbon phases are the major electrochemically active sites for Li storage. Temperature and Larmor frequency (ωL) dependences of the 7Li linewidth and spin-lattice relaxation rates T1-1 are described by an activated law with the activation energy EA of 0.31 eV and the correlation time τ0 in the high temperature limit of 1.3 ps. The 3 / 2 power law dependence of T1-1 on ωL which deviates from the standard Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) model implies that the Li motion on the μs timescale is governed by continuum diffusion mechanism rather than jump diffusion. On the other hand, the rotating frame relaxation rate T1ρ-1 results suggest that the slow motion of Li on the ms timescale may be affected by complex diffusion and/or non-diffusion processes.

  20. New Precision Mass Measurements of Neutron-Rich Calcium and Potassium Isotopes and Three-Nucleon Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, A. T.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Holt, J. D.; Mané, E.; Menéndez, J.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M.; Savajols, H.; Schwenk, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present precision Penning trap mass measurements of neutron-rich calcium and potassium isotopes in the vicinity of neutron number N=32. Using the TITAN system, the mass of 51K was measured for the first time, and the precision of the 51,52Ca mass values were improved significantly. The new mass values show a dramatic increase of the binding energy compared to those reported in the atomic mass evaluation. In particular, 52Ca is more bound by 1.74 MeV, and the behavior with neutron number deviates substantially from the tabulated values. An increased binding was predicted recently based on calculations that include three-nucleon (3N) forces. We present a comparison to improved calculations, which agree remarkably with the evolution of masses with neutron number, making neutron-rich calcium isotopes an exciting region to probe 3N forces.

  1. Electrical properties of amorphous and epitaxial Si-rich silicide films composed of W-atom-encapsulated Si clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Naoya; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko

    2015-03-07

    We investigated the electrical properties and derived the energy band structures of amorphous Si-rich W silicide (a-WSi{sub n}) films and approximately 1-nm-thick crystalline WSi{sub n} epitaxial films (e-WSi{sub n}) on Si (100) substrates with composition n = 8–10, both composed of Si{sub n} clusters each of which encapsulates a W atom (WSi{sub n} clusters). The effect of annealing in the temperature range of 300–500 °C was also investigated. The Hall measurements at room temperature revealed that a-WSi{sub n} is a nearly intrinsic semiconductor, whereas e-WSi{sub n} is an n-type semiconductor with electron mobility of ∼8 cm{sup 2}/V s and high sheet electron density of ∼7 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}. According to the temperature dependence of the electrical properties, a-WSi{sub n} has a mobility gap of ∼0.1 eV and mid gap states in the region of 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} eV{sup −1} in an optical gap of ∼0.6 eV with considerable band tail states; e-WSi{sub n} has a donor level of ∼0.1 eV with sheet density in the region of 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} in a band gap of ∼0.3 eV. These semiconducting band structures are primarily attributed to the open band-gap properties of the constituting WSi{sub n} cluster. In a-WSi{sub n}, the random network of the clusters generates the band tail states, and the formation of Si dangling bonds results in the generation of mid gap states; in e-WSi{sub n}, the original cluster structure is highly distorted to accommodate the Si lattice, resulting in the formation of intrinsic defects responsible for the donor level.

  2. Structural properties and preparation of Si-rich Si1-xCx thin films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yisong; Ye, Chao; Wang, Xiangying; Gao, Mingwei; Guo, Jiaming; Yang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    Si-rich silicon carbide (Si1-xCx) thin films were prepared by radio-frequency (2 MHz, 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz) magnetron sputtering. Their structural properties were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of ions energy on films deposition was also analyzed by retarding field energy analyzer. The results show that the films compositions are related to the energy of ions impacting the SiC target. At the lower sputtering power, Si-rich Si1-xCx (1-x = 0.57-0.90) thin films can be well deposited.

  3. Silicon-rich SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayers: A promising material for the third generation of solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gourbilleau, F.; Ternon, C.; Dufour, C.

    2009-07-01

    Si-rich-SiO{sub 2}(SRSO)/SiO{sub 2} multilayers (MLs) have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering. The presence of silicon nanoclusters (Si-ncls) within the SRSO sublayer and annealing temperature influence optical absorption as well as photoluminescence. The optimized annealing temperature has been found to be 1100 deg. C, which allows the recovery of defects and thus enhances photoluminescence. Four MLs with Si-ncl size ranging from 1.5 to 8 nm have been annealed using the optimized conditions and then studied by transmission measurements. Optical absorption has been modeled so that a size effect in the linear absorption coefficient alpha (in cm{sup -1}) has been evidenced and correlated with TEM observations. It is demonstrated that amorphous Si-ncl absorption is fourfold higher than that of crystalline Si-ncls.

  4. Reaction cross-section and reduced strong absorption radius measurements of neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of closed shells N=20 and N=28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouaja, A.; Villari, A. C. C.; Benjelloun, M.; Hirata, D.; Auger, G.; Savajols, H.; Mittig, W.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Orr, N. A.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Pita, S.; Gillibert, A.; Chartier, M.; Demonchy, C. E.; Giot, L.; Baiborodin, D.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Catford, W. N.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Dlouhy, Z.

    2006-12-01

    The energy-integrated reaction cross-sections of several neutron-rich nuclei ( 17-22N, 19-24O, 21-27F, 23-30Ne, 26-33Na, 28-35Mg, 31-38Al, 33-40Si, 36-42P, 39-44S, 42-45Cl, 45,46Ar), measured at intermediate energy (30-65 A MeV), via direct method, are presented. Silicon detectors have been used as the active target as well as for particles identification. The reduced strong absorption radii r02 are extracted and compared to the data available from the literature. New measurements for 19 nuclei ( 27F, 27,30Ne, 33Na, 28,34-35Mg, 36-38Al, 38-40Si, 41-42P, 42-44S, 45Cl) are revealed. From the study of the isospin dependence of the reduced strong absorption radius, a new quadratic parameterisation of the nuclear radii in the closed shell regions N=8 and N=28, is proposed. According to this parameterisation, the proton/neutron rich nuclei skin effect is well described and a new anomalous structure: halo-structure or large deformation is suggested for 35Mg and 44S nuclei.

  5. New neutron-rich isotope production in 154Sm+160Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Guo, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Deep inelastic scattering in 154Sm+160Gd at energies above the Bass barrier is for the first time investigated with two different microscopic dynamics approaches: improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model and time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. No fusion is observed from both models. The capture pocket disappears for this reaction due to strong Coulomb repulsion and the contact time of the di-nuclear system formed in head-on collisions is about 700 fm/c at an incident energy of 440 MeV. The isotope distribution of fragments in the deep inelastic scattering process is predicted with the simulations of the latest ImQMD-v2.2 model together with a statistical code (GEMINI) for describing the secondary decay of fragments. More than 40 extremely neutron-rich unmeasured nuclei with 58 ≤ Z ≤ 76 are observed and the production cross sections are at the order of μb to mb. The multi-nucleon transfer reaction of Sm+Gd could be an alternative way to synthesize new neutron-rich lanthanides which are difficult to be produced with traditional fusion reactions or fission of actinides.

  6. Residue Coulomb Interaction Among Isobars and Its Influence in Symmetry Energy of Neutron-Rich Fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yan-Li; Zhao, Yi-Long; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2015-09-01

    The residue Coulomb interaction (RCI), which affects the result of symmetry-energy coefficient of neutron-rich nucleus in isobaric yield ratio (IYR) method, is difficult to be determined. Four RCI approximations are investigated: (i) The M1-RCI adopting the ac/T (the ratio of Coulomb energy coefficient to temperature) determined from the IYR of mirror-nucleus fragments; (ii) The M2-RCI by fitting the difference between IYRs; (iii) The M3-RCI adopting the standard Coulomb energy at a temperature T = 2 MeV; and (iv) Neglecting the RCI among isobars. The M1-, M2- and M3-RCI are no larger than 0.4. In particular, the M2-RCI is very close to zero. The effects of RCI in asym/T of fragment are also studied. The M1- and M4-asym/T are found to be the lower and upper limitations of asym/T, respectively. The M2-asym/T overlaps the M4-asym/T, which indicates that the M2-RCI is negligible in the IYR method, and the RCI among the three isobars can be neglected. The relative consistent low values of M3-asym/T (7.5 ± 2.5) are found in very neutron-rich isobars. Supported by the Program for Science & Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province (13HASTIT046), and Young Teacher Project in Henan Normal University (HNU), China

  7. Study of shape transition in the neutron-rich Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, P. R.; Modamio, V.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Mengoni, D.; Gottardo, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.; Alexander, T.; de Angelis, G.; Ashwood, N.; Barr, M.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Bottoni, S.; Bowry, M.; Bracco, A.; Browne, F.; Bunce, M.; Gadea, A.; Camera, F.; Corradi, L.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Farnea, E.; Fioretto, E.; Kokalova, Tz.; Korten, W.; Kuşoğlu, A.; Lenzi, S.; Leoni, S.; Michelagnoli, C.; Mijatović, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Montanari, D.; Napoli, D. R.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pollarolo, G.; Recchia, F.; Roberts, O. J.; Şahin, E.; Salsac, M.-D.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Szilner, S.; Ur, C. A.; Walshe, J.; Wheldon, C.

    2014-03-01

    The neutron-rich isotopes of tungsten, osmium and platinum have different shapes in their ground states and present also shape transitions phenomena. Spectroscopic information for these nuclei is scarce and often limited to the gamma rays from the decay of isomeric states. For the neutron-rich even-even osmium isotopes 194Os and 198Os, a shape transition between a slightly prolate deformed to an oblate deformed ground state was deduced from the observed level schemes. For the even-even nucleus lying in between, 196Os, no gamma ray transition is known. In order to elucidate the shape transition and to test the nuclear models describing it, this region was investigated through gamma-ray spectroscopy using the AGATA demonstrator and the large acceptance heavy-ion spectrometer PRISMA at LNL, Italy. A two-nucleon transfer from a 198Pt target to a stable 82Se beam was utilized to populate medium-high spin states of 196Os. The analysis method and preliminary results, including the first life-time measurement of isomeric states with AGATA, are presented.

  8. Interplay between collective and single particle excitations around neutron-rich doubly-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, S.

    2016-05-01

    The excitation spectra of nuclei with one or two particles outside a doubly-magic core are expected to be dominated, at low energy, by the couplings between phonon excitations of the core and valence particles. A survey of the experimental situation is given for some nuclei lying in close proximity of neutron-rich doubly-magic systems, such as 47,49Ca, 133Sb and 210Bi. Data are obtained with various types of reactions (multinucleon transfer with heavy ions, cold neutron capture and neutron induced fission of 235U and 241Pu targets), with the employment of complex detection systems based on HPGe arrays. A comparison with theoretical calculations is also presented, in terms of large shell model calculations and of a phenomenological particle-phonon model. In the case of 133Sb, a new microscopic "hybrid" model is introduced: it is based on the coupling between core excitations (both collective and non-collective) of the doubly-magic core and the valence nucleon, using the Skyrme effective interaction in a consistent way.

  9. Rotational bands in neutron-rich {sup 169,171,172}Er

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Simon, M.W.; Teng, R.; Vetter, K.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wiedenhoever, I.

    2004-07-01

    The neutron-rich {sup 169,171,172}Er nuclei were populated by few-neutron transfer reactions between {sup 170}Er and {sup 238}U at a near barrier energy. The spectroscopy of these Er isotopes was studied using prompt {gamma} rays correlated with delayed transitions or events involving at least three prompt transitions. The ground-state band of {sup 172}Er was populated up to spin 22{sup +} at an excitation energy of 5528 keV. Rotational bands built on the 1/2{sup -}[521], 5/2{sup -}[512], and 7/2{sup +}[633] neutron configurations in {sup 169,171}Er were extended to substantially higher spins than previously known. The signature splitting observed in these rotational bands is addressed within the framework of the particle-rotor model in terms of triaxiality and Coriolis attenuation. The signature inversion observed in the 5/2{sup -}[512] band is well reproduced by including the triaxial degree of freedom in the calculation. Attenuating the Coriolis interaction in the calculation is found to be necessary to reproduce the signature splitting observed in the 7/2{sup +}[633] band. A similar Coriolis attenuation also is needed to account for the signature splitting as well as the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios in the 7/2{sup +}[633] ground-state band in the neighboring N=99 isotones, {sup 167}Er and {sup 169}Yb.

  10. Nuclear shape and structure in neutron-rich 110,111Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.X.; Hamilton, J.H.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Ramayya, A.V.; Stefanescu, I.; Hwang, J.K.; Zhu, S.J.; Gore, P.M.; Jones, E.F.; Fong,D.; Wu, S.C.; Lee, I.Y.; Ginter, T.N.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Stoyer, M.A.; Donangelo, R.; Gelberg, A.

    2006-02-02

    The structure of Tc nuclei is extended to the moreneutron-rich regions based on measurements of prompt gamma rays from thespontaneous fission of 252Cf at Gammasphere. The level scheme of N=67neutron-rich (Z=43) 110Tc is established for the first time and that of111Tc is expanded. The ground-state band of 111Tc reaches theband-crossing region and the new observation of the weakly populatedalpha = -1/2 member of the band provides important information ofsignature splitting. The systematics of band crossings in the isotopicand isotonic chains and a CSM calculation suggest that the band crossingof the gs band of 111Tc is due to alignment of a pair of h11/2 neutrons.The best fit to signature splitting, branching ratios, and excitations ofthe ground-state band of 111Tc by RTRP model calculations result in ashape of epsilon2 = 0.32 and gamma = -26 deg. for this nucleus. Itstriaxiality is larger than that of 107Tc, to indicate increasingtriaxiality with increasing neutron number. The identification of theweakly-populated "K+2 satellite" band provides strong evidence for thelarge triaxiality of 111Tc. In 110Tc the four lowest-lying levelsobserved are very similar to those in 108Tc. At an excitation of 478.9keV above the lowest state observed, ten states of a delta I = 1 band areobserved. This band is very analogous to the delta I = 1 bands in106,108Tc, but it has greater signature splitting at higherspins.

  11. Thermal stability of photovoltaic a-Si:H determined by neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Qviller, A. J. Haug, H.; You, C. C.; Hasle, I. M.; Marstein, E. S.; Frommen, C.; Hauback, B. C.; Dennison, A. J. C.; Vorobiev, A.; Østreng, E.; Fjellvåg, H.; Hjörvarsson, B.

    2014-12-08

    Neutron and X-ray reflectometry were used to determine the layer structure and hydrogen content of thin films of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited onto crystalline silicon (Si) wafers for surface passivation in solar cells. The combination of these two reflectometry techniques is well suited for non-destructive probing of the structure of a-Si:H due to being able to probe buried interfaces and having sub-nanometer resolution. Neutron reflectometry is also unique in its ability to allow determination of density gradients of light elements such as hydrogen (H). The neutron scattering contrast between Si and H is strong, making it possible to determine the H concentration in the deposited a-Si:H. In order to correlate the surface passivation properties supplied by the a-Si:H thin films, as quantified by obtainable effective minority carrier lifetime, photoconductance measurements were also performed. It is shown that the minority carrier lifetime falls sharply when H has been desorbed from a-Si:H by annealing.

  12. Nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning in a 15 solar-mass supernova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, T. A.; Schramm, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    The production of heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning has been calculated using the Weaver and Woosley self-consistent model of a complete 15 solar-mass star and the n-process code of Blake and Schramm. It was found that the resulting neutron-rich heavy nuclei are not produced in the relative abundances of solar-system r-process material (such as a Pt peak) nor are any actinides produced. Basically insufficient neutrons are available.

  13. Discovery of Highly Excited Long-Lived Isomers in Neutron-Rich Hafnium and Tantalum Isotopes through Direct Mass Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M. W.; Cullen, I. J.; Walker, P. M.; Deo, A. Y.; Kempley, R. S.; Swan, T. P. D.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Winckler, N.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Farinon, F.; Heil, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kurcewicz, J.; Kuzminchuk, N.; Litvinov, S.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.

    2010-10-22

    A study of cooled {sup 197}Au projectile-fragmentation products has been performed with a storage ring. This has enabled metastable nuclear excitations with energies up to 3 MeV, and half-lives extending to minutes or longer, to be identified in the neutron-rich nuclides {sup 183,184,186}Hf and {sup 186,187}Ta. The results support the prediction of a strongly favored isomer region near neutron number 116.

  14. Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, F.; Vervisch, V.; Ottaviani, L.; Szalkai, D.; Vermeeren, L.; Lyoussi, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Lazar, M.; Klix, A.; Palais, O.; Hallén, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of 10B inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted 10B thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  15. Production of neutron-rich Ca, Sn, and Xe isotopes in transfer-type reactions with radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.

    2010-12-15

    The production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes {sup 52,54,56,58,60}Ca, {sup 136,138,140,142}Sn, and {sup 146,148,150,152}Xe are predicted for future experiments in the diffusive multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 86,90,92,94}Kr, {sup 124,130,132,134}Sn, {sup 136,140,142,146}Xe, and {sup 138,144,146}Ba+{sup 48}Ca with stable and radioactive beams at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Because of the small cross sections, the production of neutron-rich isotopes requires the optimal choice of projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies.

  16. K-isomers in Hf nuclei at and beyond the neutron-rich edge of {beta}-stability.

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Alarcao, R. D.; Seabury, E. H.; Walker, P. M.; Wheldon, C.; Ahmad. I.; Carpenter, M. P.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Nisius, D.; Reiter, P.

    1999-03-30

    New high-K isomers are populated in {sup 180,181,182}Hf nuclei via inelastic excitation and transfer reactions, using pulsed {sup 238}U beams on Hf targets. The new data explore K-hindrances for different multipolarities and the role of residual spin-spin interactions for multi-quasiparticle (qp) configurations at the neutron-rich edge of the {beta}-stability line. The mapping of 4-qp K-isomers in the A {approx} 180 region is extended into neutron-rich territory.

  17. Limiting temperatures of neutron rich nuclei: A possible interpretation of data from isotope yield ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Natowitz, J.B.; Hagel, K.; Wada, R.; Majka, Z.; Gonthier, P.; Li, J.; Mdeiwayeh, N.; Xiao, B.; Zhao, Y.

    1995-11-01

    The recent ALADIN report of limiting temperatures for nuclear disassembly, derived from measurements of isotopic ratios for He and Li nuclei, is discussed. It is suggested that the entire excitation energy dependence which is observed may result from the fact that limiting temperatures for the onset of Coulomb instability are being measured for progressively lighter neutron rich nuclei as the excitation energy per nucleon increases. While the basic observation of plateauing in the intermediate excitation energy range remains valid, the higher excitation results may not signal entry into the vapor phase. The ALADIN result for {ital A}{approx}125, when combined with lower energy data, indicates a plateau temperature near 6.5 MeV over the range of 3--11 MeV/nucleon initial excitation energy.

  18. Structure of the Neutron Rich ga and ge Isotopes Observed at Alto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verney, D.; Lebois, M.; Ibrahim, F.; Essabaa, S.; Azaiez, F.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Cottereau, E.; Cuong, P. V.; Ferraton, M.; Flanagan, K.; Franchoo, S.; Guilleamud-Mueller, D.; Hammache, F.; Lau, C.; Le Blanc, F.; Le Du, J.-F.; Mouginot, B.; Petrache, C.; Roussiere, B.; Sagui, L.; de Sereville, N.; Stefan, I.; Tastet, B.

    During test runs dedicated to the commissioning of ALTO (Accélérateur Linéaire et Tandem à Orsay), β and β-n decay of the very neutron rich 3184 {Ga}53 could be observed at the tape station installed on-line with the PARRNe mass-separator. γ-lines observed in the resulting spectra and a careful analysis of the balance of their relative intensities point toward the existence of two β-decaying states in 84Ga. The decay of these long-lived states appear to feed the 21^ + and 41^ + excited states of 3284 {Ge}52 and the 1/21^ + state in 3283 {Ge}51 allowing a significant improvement of the knowledge on nuclear structure in the immediate vicinity of 78Ni.

  19. Splitting of the isovector giant dipole resonance in neutron-rich spherical nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Magner, A.G.; Shlomo, S.

    2006-02-15

    The well-known splitting of the isovector giant dipole resonance is traditionally explained as a phenomenon of the nuclear isospin asymmetry (isospin splitting model) or the nuclear deformation. We suggest a new mechanism of the splitting of the giant multipole resonances in spherical neutron-rich nuclei resulting from the interplay of the isovector and isoscalar sounds with different velocities. Our approach is based on the collisional Landau kinetic theory and can be used for description of the splitting phenomena for both the isoscalar and the isovector modes in a wide region of nuclear masses A{approx}40-240. For the isovector dipole modes, the evaluated values of the splitting energy, the relative strength of the main and satellite resonance peaks, and the contribution to the energy-weighted sum rule are in agreement with experimental data.

  20. β -decay properties of the very neutron-rich isotopes 86Ge and 86As

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocchi, C.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Grzywacz, R.; Bączyk, P.; Bingham, C. R.; Brewer, N. T.; Gross, C. J.; Jost, C.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Madurga, M.; Mendez, A. J.; Miernik, K.; Miller, D.; Padgett, S.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Stracener, D. W.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.

    2015-11-01

    The β -decay properties of very neutron rich nuclei 86Ge and 86As were measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Spectroscopic information on new excited states in 86As and in 86Se was obtained and is interpreted within an advanced shell model approach. These calculations, previously explaining well the structure of 84Ge and 85Ge , are not able to reproduce all the experimentally determined features of the measured level schemes of 86As and 86Se . The Gamow-Teller decay of 86Ge and 86As is also investigated in a shell-model framework. The fission yield for 86Ge is discussed.

  1. Collectivity of neutron-rich palladium isotopes and the valence proton symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, A.; Hackstein, M.; Rother, W.; Jolie, J.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, T.; Starosta, K.; Amthor, A. M.; Bowen, M.; Chester, A.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Miller, D.; Moeller, V.; Norris, R. P.; Voss, P.; Petkov, P.; Adrich, P.; Baumann, T.; Bazin, D.

    2008-11-15

    Absolute transition probabilities for the first 2{sup +} states in {sup 110,114}Pd were measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique following projectile Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energy. This technique was applied for the first time to projectiles produced in a primary fragmentation reaction, which get Coulomb excited in a secondary reaction. The {sup 110}Pd data was used to check the novel experimental technique as well as the data analysis procedure, which is based on the examination of {gamma}-ray line shapes. Whereas the measured B(E2) value for {sup 110}Pd agrees very well with the literature, the value obtained for {sup 114}Pd differs considerably. The new experimental data are compared to calculations in the framework of the Interacting Boson Model. The data are also used to test the novel concept of valence proton symmetry, which allows for extrapolation of nuclear properties to very neutron-rich nuclei.

  2. New subshell closure at N = 58 emerging in neutron-rich nuclei beyond 78Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Winger, J. A.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Gross, Carl J; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Batchelder, J. C.; Goodin, C.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ilyushkin, S.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, Sean; Mazzocchi, C.; Padgett, Stephen; Piechaczek, A.; Rajabali, M. M.; Shapira, Dan; Zganjar, E. F.; Dobaczewski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of neutron-rich nuclei beyond 78Ni was studied using postaccelerated radioactive beams of 83,84,85Ga utilizing and -n spectroscopy. Our data, when combined with energy level systematics, suggests a possible new spherical subshell closure at N = 58 is created by the nearly degenerated 3s1/2 and 2d5/2 orbitals being well separated from other orbitals above N = 50. The near degeneracy of these states could be evidenced by isomerism in this region. The energies of the 2+1 and proposed 4+1 states observed in N = 52 84Ge are interpreted as an indication of a possible weakening of the doubly magic 78Ni core for nuclei beyond N = 50. The experimental evidence is supported by spherical HFB calculations using the SkOT functional involving the tensor term in the nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  3. g-Factors of Isomeric States in the Neutron-Rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, G.; Neyens, G.; Hass, M.; Balabanski, Dimiter Loukanov; Bingham, Carrol R; Borcea, C.; Coulier, N.; Coussenment, R.; Daugas, J. M.; De France, Gilles M; Gorska, M.; Grawe, Hubert H; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Lewitowicz, Marek; Mach, Henryk A; Matea, I.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Page, R. D.; Pfutzner, Marek; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Podolyak, Zsolt F; Regan, Patrick H; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Sawicka, M.; Smirnova, N. A.; Sobolev, Yu.; Stanoiu, M.; Teughels, S.; Vyvey, K.

    2004-02-01

    We report the results from the first experiment to measure gyromagnetic factors of {micro}s isomers in neutron-rich nuclei produced by intermediate-energy projectile-fragmentation reactions. The Time Dependent Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method was applied in combination with the heavy-ion-gamma correlation technique. The nuclides in the vicinity of {sup 68}Ni were produced and spin-oriented following the fragmentation of a {sup 76}Ge, 61.4 MeV/ u beam at GANIL. The results obtained, |g|({sup 69 m}Cu) = 0.225(25) and |g|({sup 67 m}Ni) = 0.125(6) provide another indication of the importance of proton excitation across the Z = 28 shell gap for the description of these states.

  4. Increased rigidly triaxial deformations in neutron-rich Mo, Ru isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, WuYang; Jiao, ChangFeng; Xu, FuRong; Fu, XiMing

    2016-09-01

    Pairing-deformation-frequency self-consistent crankingWoods-Saxon model is employed to investigate the triaxiality in the ground states of the neutron-rich even-even Mo, Ru isotopes. Deformation evolutions and transition probabilities have been studied, giving the triaxial shapes in their ground states. The kinematic moments of inertia have been calculated to illustrate the gradually rigid deformation. To understand the origin of the asymmetry shape in this region, we analyze the evolution of single-particle orbits with changing γ deformation. The present calculations reveal the importance of the triaxial deformation in describing not only static property, but also rotational behaviors in this mass region, providing significant probes into the shell structure around.

  5. High spin structure of the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 137}I and {sup 139}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S. H.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Covello, A.; Itaco, N.; Gargano, A.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Zhu, S. J.; Ma, W. C.

    2009-10-15

    High spin excited states in the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 137}I and {sup 139}Cs were investigated from a study of the prompt {gamma} rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf with the Gammasphere detector array. Ten new excited levels with 18 new deexciting transitions were observed in {sup 139}Cs and the level scheme of {sup 139}Cs was extended up to 4670 keV. Spins and parities of levels in {sup 139}Cs were firmly assigned up to 25/2{sup +}. Three new levels were found in {sup 137}I. Shell model calculations were performed to interpret the experimental results. A good agreement between theory and experiment in both nuclei was found.

  6. {beta}-decay half-lives of new neutron-rich lanthanide isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, S.; Tsukada, K.; Asai, M.; Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Osa, A.; Sakama, M.; Oura, Y.; Kojima, Y.; Shibata, M.; Kawade, K.

    1998-12-21

    New neutron-rich lanthanide isotopes produced in the proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U have been identified using the JAERI on-line isotope separator (JAERI-ISOL) coupled to a gas-jet transport system. The observed K x-rays following the {beta}{sup -}decay of products in the mass separated fraction provided direct isotopic identifications. New isotopes observed, with values of their half-lives given in parentheses, are {sup 159}Pm(2{+-}1 s), {sup 161}Sm(4.8{+-}0.8 s), {sup 165}Gd(10.3{+-}1.6 s), {sup 166}Tb(21{+-}6 s), {sup 167}Tb(19.4{+-}2.7 s) and {sup 168}Tb(8.2{+-}1.3 s). The half-life values are compared to the results of theoretical predictions.

  7. Shell structure in neutron rich nuclei by means of binary reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Angelis, G. de

    2014-08-14

    Nuclear structure studies far from stability rely mainly on the availability of radioactive nuclear beams but can complementary be addressed by means of high intensity beams of stable ions. In such contest, deep-inelastic and multinucleon transfer reactions are a powerful tool to populate yrast and non yrast states in neutron-rich nuclei. Particularly successful is here the combination of large acceptance spectrometers with highly segmented gamma-detector arrays. Such devices can provide the necessary channel selectivity to identify very rare signals. The AGATA gamma-ray detector array coupled to the PRISMA spectrometer at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) in Italy is one example. Large data sets have been collected at LNL for nuclei close to the N=20, 28, 40, 50 and 82 shell closures.

  8. β-DECAY Studies around 78Ni: Investigation of Neutron-Rich ni Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. I.; Benzoni, G.; Watanabe, H.; Sohler, D.; Sahin, E.; de Angelis, G.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Sumikama, T.; Doornenbal, P.; Xu, Z. Y.; Isobe, T.; Söderström, P. A.; Browne, F.; Wu, J.; Baba, H.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Yokoyama, R.; Daido, R.; Fang, Y.; Niikura, M.; Avigo, R.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Blasi, N.; Bracco, A.; Ceruti, S.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Delattre, M.-C.; Dombradi, Zs.; Gottardo, A.; Kuti, I.; Matsui, K.; Melon, B.; Mengoni, D.; Miyazaki, T.; Modamio-Hoybjor, V.; Momiyama, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Orlandi, R.; Sakurai, H.; Taniuchi, R.; Taprogge, J.; Vajta, Zs.; Valiente-Dobòn, J. J.; Wieland, O.; Yagi, A.; Yalcinkaya, M.

    2015-06-01

    This The β- decay of 70-74Co and other species in the vicinity of 78Ni has been investigated following the relativistic fission of a 238U primary beam at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory facility in RIKEN, as part of the EURICA campaign. Extremely neutron-rich nuclei from Mn to Cu were produced and stopped in a state-of-the-art β-decay spectroscopy setup after their in-flight identification. The unprecedented high intensity of the primary beam, I = 10 pnA, ensures the access to a broad number of low-lying excited states in their daughters. In the present contribution, specific details on the setup and the experimental techniques employed are described. As well, the preliminary results are discussed.

  9. Nuclear Structure Studies of Some Neutron Rich Nuclei Produced in 252Cf Spontaneous Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    High spin states of neutron-rich nuclei such as 133,134Te, 93Sr, 105Nb have been studied by measuring γ- γ- γ coincidences (cube), γ- γ- γ- γ coincidences (hypercube) and angular correlations from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf with the LBNL Gammasphere detector array. Four types of particle-hole bands built on the known 334.3 keV isomer in 133Te were identified. The level structure of 93Sr is interpreted, in part, as arising from the weak coupling of the 1d5/2 neutron hole to the yrast states of the 94Sr core. The g-factor of the 4+ state in 134Te was measured, for the first time, by using a new technique developed for measuring angular correlations with Gammasphere. A new level scheme of 105Nb was established. Three new collective bands were identified with a total of 14 new levels and 36 new γ transitions. In 117-122Cd, a shift to more slightly deformed structures was found where the excited levels do not fit the long held picture of one, two and three phonon bands.

  10. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich products of heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.

    1995-08-01

    Thick-target {gamma}{gamma} coincidence techniques are being used to explore the spectroscopy of otherwise hard-to-reach neutron-rich products of deep-inelastic heavy ion reactions. Extensive {gamma}{gamma} coincidence measurements were performed at ATLAS using pulsed beams of {sup 80}Se, {sup 136}Xe, and {sup 238}U on lead-backed {sup 122,124}Sn targets with energies 10-15% above the Coulomb barrier. Gamma-ray coincidence intensities were used to map out yield distributions with A and Z for even-even product nuclei around the target and around the projectile. The main features of the yield patterns are understandable in terms of N/Z equilibration. We had the most success in studying the decays of yrast isomers. Thus far, more than thirty new {mu}s isomers in the Z = 50 region were found and characterized. Making isotopic assignments for previously unknown {gamma}-ray cascades proves to be one of the biggest problems. Our assignments were based (a) on rare overlaps with radioactivity data, (b) on the relative yields with different beams, and (c) on observed cross-coincidences between {gamma} rays from light and heavy reaction partners. However, the primary products of deep inelastic collisions often are sufficiently excited for subsequent neutron evaporation, so {gamma}{gamma} cross-coincidence results require careful interpretation.

  11. Measurement of the isoscalar monopole response in the neutron-rich nucleus 68Ni.

    PubMed

    Vandebrouck, M; Gibelin, J; Khan, E; Achouri, N L; Baba, H; Beaumel, D; Blumenfeld, Y; Caamaño, M; Càceres, L; Colò, G; Delaunay, F; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Garg, U; Grinyer, G F; Harakeh, M N; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Keeley, N; Mittig, W; Pancin, J; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O; Stodel, C; Suzuki, D; Thomas, J C

    2014-07-18

    The isoscalar monopole response has been measured in the unstable nucleus (68)Ni using inelastic alpha scattering at 50A  MeV in inverse kinematics with the active target MAYA at GANIL. The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) centroid was determined to be 21.1 ± 1.9 MeV and indications for a soft monopole mode are provided for the first time at 12.9 ± 1.0 MeV. Analysis of the corresponding angular distributions using distorted-wave-born approximation with random-phase approximation transition densities indicates that the L = 0 multipolarity dominates the cross section for the ISGMR and significantly contributes to the low-energy mode. The L=0 part of this low-energy mode, the soft monopole mode, is dominated by neutron excitations. This demonstrates the relevance of inelastic alpha scattering in inverse kinematics in order to probe both the ISGMR and isoscalar soft modes in neutron-rich nuclei. PMID:25083638

  12. Fusion of neutron-rich systems using time-dependent density-constrained DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberacker, Volker; Umar, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    In connection with experiments at Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities, we study fusion reactions with a new approach [1] which is based on a time-dependent density-constrained density functional theory (DFT). The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We calculate heavy-ion interaction potentials V(R), mass parameters M(R), and total fusion cross sections. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Results will be presented for low-energy fusion reactions of ^12C+^16,24O and for ^16,24O+^16,24,28O which occur in the crust of neutron stars [2]. Finally, we will discuss fusion with neutron-rich halo nuclei, in particular ^11Li+^208Pb.[4pt] [1] Umar and Oberacker, PRC 74, 021601(R) (2006)[0pt] [2] Umar, Oberacker, and Horowitz, PRC 85, 055801 (2012)

  13. Measurement of the Isoscalar Monopole Response in the Neutron-Rich Nucleus Ni68

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Gibelin, J.; Khan, E.; Achouri, N. L.; Baba, H.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Caamaño, M.; Càceres, L.; Colò, G.; Delaunay, F.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Garg, U.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Keeley, N.; Mittig, W.; Pancin, J.; Raabe, R.; Roger, T.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Savajols, H.; Sorlin, O.; Stodel, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thomas, J. C.

    2014-07-01

    The isoscalar monopole response has been measured in the unstable nucleus Ni68 using inelastic alpha scattering at 50A MeV in inverse kinematics with the active target MAYA at GANIL. The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) centroid was determined to be 21.1±1.9 MeV and indications for a soft monopole mode are provided for the first time at 12.9±1.0 MeV. Analysis of the corresponding angular distributions using distorted-wave-born approximation with random-phase approximation transition densities indicates that the L =0 multipolarity dominates the cross section for the ISGMR and significantly contributes to the low-energy mode. The L=0 part of this low-energy mode, the soft monopole mode, is dominated by neutron excitations. This demonstrates the relevance of inelastic alpha scattering in inverse kinematics in order to probe both the ISGMR and isoscalar soft modes in neutron-rich nuclei.

  14. High-spin structure and multiphonon {gamma} vibrations in very neutron-rich {sup 114}Ru

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, E. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Ding, H. B.; Gu, L.; Xu, Q.; Xiao, Z. G.; Zhu, S. J.; Hamilton, J. H.; Li, K.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Liu, Y. X.; Liu, S. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Bhat, G. H.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Lee, I. Y.; Ma, W. C.

    2011-05-15

    High-spin levels of the neutron-rich {sup 114}Ru have been investigated by measuring the prompt {gamma} rays in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. The ground-state band and one-phonon {gamma}-vibrational band have been extended up to 14{sup +} and 9{sup +}, respectively. Two levels are proposed as the members of a two-phonon {gamma}-vibrational band. A back bending (band crossing) has been observed in the ground-state band at ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}{approx_equal} 0.40 MeV. Using the triaxial deformation parameters, the cranked shell model calculations indicate that this back bending in {sup 114}Ru should originate from the alignment of a pair of h{sub 11/2} neutrons. Triaxial projected shell model calculations for the {gamma}-vibrational band structures of {sup 114}Ru are in good agreement with the experimental data. However, when using the oblate deformation parameters, both of the above-calculated results are not in agreement with the experimental data.

  15. gamma-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich {sup 40}S

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. M.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Burns, M.; Hodsdon, A.; Keyes, K.; Kumar, V.; Papenberg, A.; Smith, J. F.; Spohr, K. M.; Haas, F.; Caurier, E.; Curien, D.; Nowacki, F.; Azaiez, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Behera, B. R.; Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.

    2010-05-15

    Yrast states up to (6{sup +}) in the neutron-rich {sup 40}S nucleus have been studied using binary grazing reactions produced by the interaction of a 215 MeV beam of {sup 36}S ions with a thin {sup 208}Pb target. The novel experimental setup that combines the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, PRISMA, and the high-efficiency gamma-ray detection array, CLARA, was used. A new gamma-ray transition at an energy of 1572 keV was observed and tentatively assigned to the (6{sup +})->(4{sup +}) transition. A comparison of experimental observations and the results of large-scale 0(Planck constant/2pi)omega sd-pf shell-model calculations indicates that one- and two-proton excitations from the 2s{sub 1/2} to the 1d{sub 3/2} orbitals play an important role in reproducing the {sup 40}S yrast level structure and the published B(E2;0{sub g.s.}{sup +}->2{sub 1}{sup +}) value. The structure of the yrast states of the even-A isotopes of sulfur is interpreted in terms of the configurations of valence protons and neutrons within the context of large-scale 0(Planck constant/2pi)omega sd-pf shell-model calculations.

  16. Shape of Ar44: Onset of deformation in neutron-rich nuclei near Ca48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, M.; Görgen, A.; Clément, E.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Girod, M.; Korten, W.; Bürger, A.; Catford, W.; Dossat, C.; Iwanicki, J.; Libert, J.; Ljungvall, J.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Obertelli, A.; Piętak, D.; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Sletten, G.; Srebrny, J.; Theisen, Ch.; Wrzosek, K.

    2009-07-01

    The development of deformation and shape coexistence in the vicinity of doubly magic Ca48, related to the weakening of the N=28 shell closure, was addressed in a low-energy Coulomb excitation experiment using a radioactive Ar44 beam from the SPIRAL facility at GANIL. The 21+ and 22+ states in Ar44 were excited on Pb208 and Ag109 targets at two different beam energies. B(E2) values between all observed states and the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the 21+ state were extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections, indicating a prolate shape of the Ar44 nucleus and giving evidence of an onset of deformation already two protons and two neutrons away from doubly magic Ca48. New Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov based configuration mixing calculations have been performed with the Gogny D1S interaction for Ar44 and neighboring nuclei using two different approaches: the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method considering axial quadrupole deformations and a five-dimensional approach including the triaxial degree of freedom. The experimental values and new calculations are furthermore compared to shell-model calculations and to relativistic mean-field calculations. The new results give insight into the weakening of the N=28 shell closure and the development of deformation in this neutron-rich region of the nuclear chart.

  17. Recent activities for β-decay half-lives and β-delayed neutron emission of very neutron-rich isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillmann, Iris; Abriola, Daniel; Singh, Balraj

    2014-05-02

    Beta-delayed neutron (βn) emitters play an important, two-fold role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the 'rapid neutron-capture process' (r process). On one hand they lead to a detour of the material β-decaying back to stability. On the other hand, the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. A large fraction of the isotopes inside the r-process reaction path are not yet experimentally accessible and are located in the (experimental) 'Terra Incognita'. With the next generation of fragmentation and ISOL facilities presently being built or already in operation, one of the main motivation of all projects is the investigation of these very neutron-rich isotopes. A short overview of one of the planned programs to measure βn-emitters at the limits of the presently know isotopes, the BRIKEN campaign (Beta delayed neutron emission measurements at RIKEN) will be given. Presently, about 600 β-delayed one-neutron emitters are accessible, but only for a third of them experimental data are available. Reaching more neutron-rich isotopes means also that multiple neutron-emission becomes the dominant decay mechanism. About 460 β-delayed two-, three-or four-neutron emitters are identified up to now but for only 30 of them experimental data about the neutron branching ratios are available, most of them in the light mass region below A=30. The International Atomic and Energy Agency (IAEA) has identified the urgency and picked up this topic recently in a 'Coordinated Research Project' on a 'Reference Database for Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Data'. This project will review, compile, and evaluate the existing data for neutron-branching ratios and half-lives of β-delayed neutron emitters and help to ensure a reliable database for the future discoveries of new isotopes and help to constrain astrophysical and theoretical models.

  18. Superior magnetic softness at elevated temperature of Si-rich Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Rui-min; Wang, Zhi; Jia, Yun-yun; Wen, Zhuan-ping; Wang, Bo-wen; Zhang, Tao

    2012-10-01

    An excellent high-temperature magnetic softness was observed in a Si-rich nanocrystalline Fe74.5Cu1Nb2Si17.5B5 alloy. The Curie temperatures of amorphous and crystal phases, TCA* and TCcry, for this alloy were detected to be 365 °C and 580 °C, respectively. For the 480 °C-annealed alloy, the initial permeability μi drops to nearly zero just above TCA*; however, for the 540 °C-annealed alloy, the μi of about 10 000 at f = 10 kHz has no perceivable decline in this temperature range and can hold up to more than 400 °C. Such a magnetic softness at elevated temperature is superior to that of Finemet-type Fe-based nanocrystalline alloys ever reported. The origin of the high temperature magnetic softness was interpreted by the enhancement effect of Curie temperature in residual amorphous matrix.

  19. Electron-Rich Driven Electrochemical Solid-State Amorphization in Li-Si Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Gu, Meng; Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao; Connell, Justin G.; Xiao, Jie; Perea, Daniel E.; Lauhon, Lincoln J.; Bang, Junhyeok; Zhang, Shengbai; Wang, Chong M.; Gao, Fei

    2013-08-14

    The physical and chemical behaviors of materials used in energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), are mainly controlled by an electrochemical process, which normally involves insertion/extraction of ions into/from a host lattice with a concurrent flow of electrons to compensate charge balance. The fundamental physics and chemistry governing the behavior of materials in response to the ions insertion/extraction is not known. Herein, a combination of in situ lithiation experiments and large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to explore the mechanisms of the electrochemically driven solid-state amorphization in Li-Si systems. We find that local electron-rich condition governs the electrochemically driven solid-state amorphization of Li-Si alloys. This discovery provides the fundamental explanation of why lithium insertion in semiconductor and insulators leads to amorphization, whereas in metals, it leads to a crystalline alloy. The present work correlates electrochemically driven reactions with ion insertion, electron transfer, lattice stability and phase equilibrium.

  20. The effects of neutron irradiation on shear properties of monolayered PyC and multilayered PyC/SiC interfaces of SiC/SiC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, T.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties at the fiber/matrix interface of SiC/SiC composites was evaluated. The materials investigated were Hi-Nicalon™ Type-S fiber reinforced chemically vapor infiltrated SiC matrix composites with varied interphases: monolayered pyrolytic carbon (PyC) or multilayered PyC/SiC. The neutron fluence was 7.7 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV), and the irradiation temperature was 800 °C. Interfacial shear properties were evaluated by the fiber push-out test method. A modified shear-lag model was applied to analyze the interfacial shear parameters. Test results indicate that the interfacial debond shear strength and the interfacial friction stress for the multilayer composites were significantly degraded by irradiation. Nevertheless, the multilayer composites retained sufficient interfacial shear properties so that overall composite strength after neutron irradiation was unaffected. The actual mechanism of interphase property decrease for the multilayer composites is unknown. The interfacial shear properties of the irradiated monolayer composites appear unaffected.

  1. Si Memory Chip as a Sensitive Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    William Quam

    2008-03-01

    A novel neutron detector is based on semiconductor technology. A boron-containing film is an integral part of the semiconductor device and is in physical contact with the charge-storage medium (CSM). The CSM is a proprietary cell design known as MirrorBit{trademark}, which is different from conventional memory designs such as SRAM or DRAM. The design doubles the resolution and sensitivity in the array. This enables a highly effective detection of the secondary particles, {sup 7}Li and {sup 4}He, produced due to neutron capture by {sup 10}B in the device. Other approaches using semiconductor materials for neutron detection have employed single-diode detectors that require off-system preamplifiers to filter and condition the signal. There are several advantages to this non-volatile detector, one being that it requires no power for detection and retains the signal until reset. Further, this detector, a semiconductor chip, can be seamlessly integrated into other systems. Finally, the semiconductor manufacturing process on which the detector is based will allow for a high-volume and low-cost alternative to current detectors. MirrorBit{trademark} chips were exposed to neutron flux and the signals recorded. Detailed results from this experiment will be described in this presentation.

  2. a Study of Photoconductivity of Neutron Doped Si1-xGex-ALLOYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyev, V.; Chekanov, V.

    The research results of photoelectric, optical and recombination properties of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor solid alloys Si1-xGex (x = 0.008-0.112) are presented in spectral range 0.8-10.6 μm. It is shown that these properties of NTD Si1-xGex are determined by creation of transmutation impurities of Se and Ga as well as by variation of Ge content and compensation. The theoretical and applied aspects of the NTD Si1-xGex have been also considered.

  3. Operando Lithium Dynamics in the Li-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Material via Neutron Diffraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Haodong; An, Ke; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Qian, Danna; Zhang, Minghao; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-04-06

    Neutron diffraction under operando battery cycling is used to study the lithium and oxygen dynamics of high Li-rich Li(Lix/3Ni(3/8-3x/8)Co(1/4-x/4)Mn(3/8+7x/24)O2 (x = 0.6, HLR) and low Li-rich Li(Lix/3Ni(1/3-x/3)Co(1/3-x/3)Mn(1/3+x/3)O2 (x = 0.24, LLR) compounds that exhibit different degrees of oxygen activation at high voltage. The measured lattice parameter changes and oxygen position show largely contrasting changes for the two cathodes where the LLR exhibits larger movement of oxygen and lattice contractions in comparison to the HLR that maintains relatively constant lattice parameters and oxygen position during the high voltage plateau until the end of charge. Density functional theory calculations show the presencemore » of oxygen vacancy during the high voltage plateau; changes in the lattice parameters and oxygen position are consistent with experimental observations. Lithium migration kinetics for the Li-rich material is observed under operando conditions for the first time to reveal the rate of lithium extraction from the lithium layer, and transition metal layer is related to the different charge and discharge characteristics. At the beginning of charging, the lithium extraction predominately occurs within the lithium layer. The lithium extraction from the lithium layer slows down and extraction from the transition metal layer evolves at a faster rate once the high voltage plateau is reached.« less

  4. Light-toned salty soils and co-existing Si-rich species discovered by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Alian; Bell, J.F., III; Li, Ron; Johnson, J. R.; Farrand, W. H.; Cloutis, E.A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L.; Squyres, S. W.; McLennan, S.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ruff, S.W.; Knudson, A.T.; Chen, Wei; Greenberger, R.

    2008-01-01

    Light-toned soils were exposed, through serendipitous excavations by Spirit Rover wheels, at eight locations in the Columbia Hills. Their occurrences were grouped into four types on the basis of geomorphic settings. At three major exposures, the light-toned soils are hydrous and sulfate-rich. The spatial distributions of distinct types of salty soils vary substantially: with centimeter-scaled heterogeneities at Paso Robles, Dead Sea, Shredded, and Champagne-Penny, a well-mixed nature for light-toned soils occurring near and at the summit of Husband Hill, and relatively homogeneous distributions in the two layers at the Tyrone site. Aeolian, fumarolic, and hydrothermal fluid processes are suggested to be responsible for the deposition, transportation, and accumulation of these light-toned soils. In addition, a change in Pancam spectra of Tyrone yellowish soils was observed after being exposed to current Martian surface conditions for 175 sols. This change is interpreted to be caused by the dehydration of ferric sulfates on the basis of laboratory simulations and suggests a relative humidity gradient beneath the surface. Si-rich nodules and soils were observed near the major exposures of S-rich soils. They possess a characteristic feature in Pancam visible near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra that may be diagnostic of hydrated species, and this spectral feature can be used to search for additional Si-rich species. The exposures of hydrated salty soils within various geomorphic settings imply the potential existence of hydrous minerals in similar settings over a much wider area. Hydrous sulfates represent one of the candidates that may contribute the high level of water equivalent hydrogen in equatorial regions detected by the Neutron Spectrometer on Mars Odyssey.

  5. Light-toned salty soils and coexisting Si-rich species discovered by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alian; Bell, J. F.; Li, Ron; Johnson, J. R.; Farrand, W. H.; Cloutis, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L.; Squyres, S. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ruff, S. W.; Knudson, A. T.; Chen, Wei; Greenberger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Light-toned soils were exposed, through serendipitous excavations by Spirit Rover wheels, at eight locations in the Columbia Hills. Their occurrences were grouped into four types on the basis of geomorphic settings. At three major exposures, the light-toned soils are hydrous and sulfate-rich. The spatial distributions of distinct types of salty soils vary substantially: with centimeter-scaled heterogeneities at Paso Robles, Dead Sea, Shredded, and Champagne-Penny, a well-mixed nature for light-toned soils occurring near and at the summit of Husband Hill, and relatively homogeneous distributions in the two layers at the Tyrone site. Aeolian, fumarolic, and hydrothermal fluid processes are suggested to be responsible for the deposition, transportation, and accumulation of these light-toned soils. In addition, a change in Pancam spectra of Tyrone yellowish soils was observed after being exposed to current Martian surface conditions for 175 sols. This change is interpreted to be caused by the dehydration of ferric sulfates on the basis of laboratory simulations and suggests a relative humidity gradient beneath the surface. Si-rich nodules and soils were observed near the major exposures of S-rich soils. They possess a characteristic feature in Pancam visible near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra that may be diagnostic of hydrated species, and this spectral feature can be used to search for additional Si-rich species. The exposures of hydrated salty soils within various geomorphic settings imply the potential existence of hydrous minerals in similar settings over a much wider area. Hydrous sulfates represent one of the candidates that may contribute the high level of water equivalent hydrogen in equatorial regions detected by the Neutron Spectrometer on Mars Odyssey.

  6. Setup with Laser Ionization in Gas Cell for Production and Study of Neutron-Rich Heavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.; Kozulin, E. M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Fedosseev, V.; Bark, R.; Janas, Z.; Othman, H. A.

    2015-11-01

    The present limits of the upper part of the nuclear map are very close to stability while the unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides along the neutron closed shell N=126 is extremely important for nuclear astrophysics investigations and, in particular, for the understanding of the r-process of astrophysical nucleosynthesis. This area of the nuclear map can be reached neither in fusion-fission reactions nor in fragmentation processes widely used nowadays for the production of exotic nuclei. A new way was recently proposed for the production of these nuclei via low-energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions. The estimated yields of neutron-rich nuclei are found to be significantly high in such reactions and several tens of new nuclides can be produced, for example, in the near-barrier collision of 136Xe with 208Pb. A new setup is proposed to produce and study heavy neutron-rich nuclei located along the neutron closed shell N=126.

  7. Model of defect reactions and the influence of clustering in pulse-neutron-irradiated Si

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. M.; Cooper, P. J.; Wampler, W. R.

    2008-08-15

    Transient reactions among irradiation defects, dopants, impurities, and carriers in pulse-neutron-irradiated Si were modeled taking into account the clustering of the primal defects in recoil cascades. Continuum equations describing the diffusion, field drift, and reactions of relevant species were numerically solved for a submicrometer spherical volume, within which the starting radial distributions of defects could be varied in accord with the degree of clustering. The radial profiles corresponding to neutron irradiation were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of vacancy and interstitial distributions obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using a spectrum of primary recoil energies computed for a fast-burst fission reactor. Model predictions of transient behavior were compared with a variety of experimental results from irradiated bulk Si, solar cells, and bipolar-junction transistors. The influence of defect clustering during neutron bombardment was further distinguished through contrast with electron irradiation, where the primal point defects are more uniformly dispersed.

  8. Nitrogen-promoted formation of graphite-like aggregations in SiC during neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P. F.; Ruan, Y. F.; Huang, L.; Zhu, W.

    2012-03-15

    The undoped and nitrogen-doped SiC bulk crystals irradiated with two neutron fluences were investigated by using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy to analyze the effect of nitrogen impurity on irradiation damage. We found that the nitrogen impurity can promote the segregation of carbon atoms into graphite during heavy neutron irradiation, demonstrated by the presence of typical D and G graphite bands. Further experimental analysis indicated that the graphite-like aggregations uniformly distribute in SiC and possess much inferior thermal stability to crystalline graphite. The nucleation, namely generation of stable sp{sup 2} C=C configuration induced by nitrogen atoms, and growth during neutron irradiation can account for the formation of graphite-like aggregations.

  9. Direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments and the persistence of neutron magic number N=32 in Sc isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Xu, Hu-Shan; Shuai, Peng; Tu, Xiao-Lin; Yuri, A. Litvinov; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Bao-Hua; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Klaus, Blaum; Chen, Rui-Jiu; Chen, Xiang-Cheng; Fu, Chao-Yi; Ge, Zhuang; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Huang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Da-Wei; Lam, Yi-Hua; Ma, Xin-Wen; Mao, Rui-Shi; Uesaka, T.; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Xing, Yuan-Ming; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zeng, Qi; Yan, Xin-Liang; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Wen-Long

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments conducted at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou by employing the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) method. The new mass excesses of 52-54Sc nuclides are determined to be -40492(82), -38928(114), -34654(540) keV, which show a significant increase of binding energy compared to the reported ones in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 (AME12). In particular, 53Sc and 54Sc are more bound by 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, respectively. The behavior of the two neutron separation energy with neutron numbers indicates a strong sub-shell closure at neutron number N=32 in Sc isotopes. Supported by 973 Program of China (2013CB834401), the NSFC (U1232208, U1432125, 11205205, 11035007) and the Helmholtz-CAS Joint Research Group (HCJRG-108)

  10. MSL SAM-Like Evolved Gas Analyses of Si-rich Amorphous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdam, Amy; Knudson, Christine; Sutter, Brad; Andrejkovicova, Slavka; Archer, P. Douglas; Franz, Heather; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Morris, Richard; Ming, Douglas; Sun, Vivian; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical analyses of several samples from Murray Formation mudstones and Stimson Formation sandstones by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) revealed the presence of Si-rich amorphous or poorly ordered materials. It is possible to identify the presence of high-SiO2 vs. lower SiO2 amorphous materials (e.g., basaltic glasses), based on the position of the resulting wide diffraction features in XRD patterns from the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument, but it is not possible to distinguish between several candidate high-SiO2 amorphous materials such as opal-A or rhyolitic glass. In the Buckskin (BS) sample from the upper Murray Formation, and the Big Sky (BY) and Greenhorn (GH) samples from the Stimson Formation, analyses by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument showed very broad H2O evolutions during sample heating at temperatures >450-500degC which had not been observed from previous samples. BS also had a significant broad evolution <450-500degC. We have undertaken a laboratory study targeted at understanding if the data from SAM can be used to place constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases. SAM-like evolved gas analyses have been performed on several opal and rhyolitic glass samples. Opal-A samples exhibited wide <500degC H2O evolutions, with lesser H2O evolved above 500degC. H2O evolution traces from rhyolitic glasses varied, having either two broad H2O peaks, <300degC and >500degC, or a broad peak centered around 400degC. For samples that produced two evolutions, the lower temperature peak is more intense than the higher temperature peak, a trend also exhibited by opal-A. This trend is consistent with data from BS, but does not seem consistent with data from BY and GH which evolved most of their H2O >500degC. It may be that dehydration of opal-A and/or rhyolitic glass can result in some preferential loss of lower temperature H2O, to produce traces that more closely resemble BY and GH. This is currently under investigation

  11. Considering Critical Factors of Li-rich Cathode and Si Anode Materials for Practical Li-ion Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Ko, Minseong; Oh, Pilgun; Chae, Sujong; Cho, Woongrae; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-09-01

    In order to keep pace with increasing energy demands for advanced electronic devices and to achieve commercialization of electric vehicles and energy-storage systems, improvements in high-energy battery technologies are required. Among the various types of batteries, lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are among the most well-developed and commercialized of energy-storage systems. LIBs with Si anodes and Li-rich cathodes are one of the most promising alternative electrode materials for next-generation, high-energy batteries. Si and Li-rich materials exhibit high reversible capacities of <2000 mAh g(-1) and >240 mAh g(-1) , respectively. However, both materials have intrinsic drawbacks and practical limitations that prevent them from being utilized directly as active materials in high-energy LIBs. Examples for Li-rich materials include phase distortion during cycling and side reactions caused by the electrolyte at the surface, and for Si, large volume changes during cycling and low conductivity are observed. Recent progress and important approaches adopted for overcoming and alleviating these drawbacks are described in this article. A perspective on these matters is suggested and the requirements for each material are delineated, in addition to introducing a full-cell prototype utilizing a Li-rich cathode and Si anode. PMID:26108922

  12. Impact of oxygen bonding on the atomic structure and photoluminescence properties of Si-rich silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P. D.; Sunding, M. F.; Vestland, L. O.; Finstad, T. G.; Olsen, A.; Kepaptsoglou, D. M.; Ramasse, Q. M.

    2012-10-01

    The atomic structure and optical properties of Si-rich silicon nitride thin films have been for decades the subject of intense research, both theoretically and experimentally. It has been established in particular that modifying the chemical composition of this material (e.g., the Si excess concentration) can lead to dramatic differences in its physical, optical, and electrical properties. The present paper reports on how the incorporation of oxygen into silicon nitride networks influences their chemical bonding and photoluminescence properties. Here, by using a combination of analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is demonstrated that the structure of Si-rich silicon nitride with low O content can be described by the co-existence of Si nanocrystals in a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix, with occasional localized nano-regions of a Si{sub 2}ON{sub 2} phase, depending on the amount of excess Si. Furthermore, it is shown that the structure of silicon nitride with high O content can be adequately described by a so-called random bonding model, according to which the material consists in bonded networks of randomly distributed tetrahedral SiO{sub x}N{sub 4-x} (where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4). Photoluminescence measurements indicate that the effect of O is to introduce a gap state in the band gap of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix. When a large amount of O is introduced, on the other hand, the photoluminescence measurements are in agreement with a shifted conduction band minimum in the dielectric. For both cases (high and low O content), Si dangling bonds were found to give rise to the deep level in the band gap of the nitride matrix, causing the dominant emission band in the photoluminescence of the films.

  13. Neutron absorption of Al-Si-Mg-B4C composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ibrahim, Anis Syukriah; Daud, Abdul Razak; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran

    2016-01-01

    Al-Si-Mg-B4C composites containing 2-8 wt% of B4C were prepared by stir casting technique. Homogenization treatment was carried out at temperatures of 540°C for 4 houra and followed by ageing at 180°C for 2 houra. Microstructure and phase identification were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Neutron absorption study was investigated using neutron source Am/Be241. The result indicated that higher B4C content improved the neutron absorption property. Meanwhile homogeneity of the composite was increased by ageing processes. This composite is potential to be used as neutron shielding material especially for nuclear reactor application.

  14. Boron doped Si rich oxide/SiO2 and silicon rich nitride/SiNx bilayers on molybdenum-fused silica substrates for vertically structured Si quantum dot solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ziyun; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Vertically structured Si quantum dots (QDs) solar cells with molybdenum (Mo) interlayer on quartz substrates would overcome current crowding effects found in mesa-structured cells. This study investigates the compatibility between boron (B) doped Si QDs bilayers and Mo-fused silica substrate. Both Si/SiO2 and Si/SiNx based QDs bilayers were studied. The material compatibility under high temperature treatment was assessed by examining Si crystallinity, microstress, thin film adhesion, and Mo oxidation. It was observed that the presence of Mo interlayer enhanced the Si QDs size confinement, crystalline fraction, and QDs size uniformity. The use of B doping was preferred compared to phosphine (PH3) doping studied previously in terms of better surface and interface properties by reducing oxidized spots on the film. Though crack formation due to thermal mismatch after annealing remained, methods to overcome this problem were proposed in this paper. Schematic diagram to fabricate full vertical structured Si QDs solar cells was also suggested.

  15. Boron doped Si rich oxide/SiO{sub 2} and silicon rich nitride/SiN{sub x} bilayers on molybdenum-fused silica substrates for vertically structured Si quantum dot solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ziyun Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-07-28

    Vertically structured Si quantum dots (QDs) solar cells with molybdenum (Mo) interlayer on quartz substrates would overcome current crowding effects found in mesa-structured cells. This study investigates the compatibility between boron (B) doped Si QDs bilayers and Mo-fused silica substrate. Both Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/SiN{sub x} based QDs bilayers were studied. The material compatibility under high temperature treatment was assessed by examining Si crystallinity, microstress, thin film adhesion, and Mo oxidation. It was observed that the presence of Mo interlayer enhanced the Si QDs size confinement, crystalline fraction, and QDs size uniformity. The use of B doping was preferred compared to phosphine (PH{sub 3}) doping studied previously in terms of better surface and interface properties by reducing oxidized spots on the film. Though crack formation due to thermal mismatch after annealing remained, methods to overcome this problem were proposed in this paper. Schematic diagram to fabricate full vertical structured Si QDs solar cells was also suggested.

  16. Krypton and xenon in Apollo 14 samples - Fission and neutron capture effects in gas-rich samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.

    1975-01-01

    Gas-rich Apollo 14 breccias and trench soil are examined for fission xenon from the decay of the extinct isotopes Pu-244 and I-129, and some samples have been found to have an excess fission component which apparently was incorporated after decay elsewhere and was not produced by in situ decay. Two samples have excess Xe-129 resulting from the decay of I-129. The excess is correlated at low temperatures with excess Xe-128 resulting from neutron capture on I-127. This neutron capture effect is accompanied by related low-temperature excesses of Kr-80 and Kr-82 from neutron capture on the bromine isotopes. Surface correlated concentrations of iodine and bromine are calculated from the neutron capture excesses.

  17. Muscovite dehydration melting in Si-rich metapelites: microstructural evidence from trondhjemitic migmatites, Roded, Southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenburg, Michael; Katzir, Yaron

    2014-02-01

    Making a distinction between partial melting and subsolidus segregation in amphibolite facies migmatites is difficult. The only significant melting reactions at lowpressures, either vapour saturated or muscovite dehydration melting, do not produce melanocratic peritectic phases. If protoliths are Si-rich and K-poor, then peritectic sillimanite and K-feldspar will form in scarce amounts, and may be lost by retrograde rehydration. The Roded migmatites of southern Israel (northernmost Arabian Nubian Shield) formed at P = 4.5 ± 1 kbar and T ≤ 700 °C and include Si-rich, K-poor paragneissic paleosome and trondhjemitic leucosomes. The lack of K-feldspar in leucosomes was taken as evidence for the non-anatectic origin of the Roded migmatites (Gutkin and Eyal, Isr J Earth Sci 47:117, 1998). It is shown here that although the Roded migmatites experienced significant post-peak deformation and recrystallization, microstructural evidence for partial melting is retained. Based on these microstructures, coupled with pseudosection modelling, indicators of anatexis in retrograded migmatites are established. Phase diagram modelling of neosomes shows the onset of muscovite dehydration melting at 4.5 kbar and 660 °C, forming peritectic sillimanite and K-feldspar. Adjacent non-melted paleosomes lack muscovite and would thus not melt by this reaction. Vapour saturation was not attained, as it would have formed cordierite that does not exist. Furthermore, vapour saturation would not allow peritectic K-feldspar to form, however K-feldspar is ubiquitous in melanosomes. Direct petrographic evidence for anatexis is rare and includes euhedral plagioclase phenocrysts in leucosomes and quartz-filled embayments in corroded plagioclase at leucosome-melanosome interfaces. In deformed and recrystallized rocks muscovite dehydration melting is inferred by: (1) lenticular K-feldspar enclosed by biotite in melanosomes, (2) abundant myrmekite in leucosomes, (3) muscovite-quartz symplectites after

  18. Shape Coexistence in Neutron-Rich Nickel Isotopes around N = 40

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, C. J.; e14039 Collaboration; e14057 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Shape coexistence is a fascinating phenomenon in atomic nuclei characterized by multiple states with different intrinsic shapes coexisting at similar excitation energies. In even-even nuclei, a hallmark of shape coexistence is low-energy 0+ states. In 68Ni, the Monte-Carlo Shell Model (MCSM) employing the A3DA interaction, utilizing the fpg9/2d5 / 2 model space for protons and neutrons, predicts triple shape coexistence with three 0+ states below 3 MeV. Transitioning to 70Ni, the energy of the prolate-deformed 0+ state is predicted to drop precipitously from 2511 to 1525 keV. This is due to strengthening of the attractive νg9 / 2 - πf5 / 2 and repulsive νg9 / 2 - πf7 / 2 monopole interactions of the tensor force altering the effective single-particle energies of the πf7 / 2 and πf5 / 2 single-particle states, thereby reducing the spherical Z = 28 shell gap. Recent beta-decay spectroscopy experiments at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) have discovered a new excited 0+ state at 1567 keV in 70Ni. This result supports MCSM predictions extending the picture of shape coexistence to 70Ni and demonstrates the importance of the tensor force for describing the nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei. Results of the latest NSCL experiments will be presented. Supported by NSF Contract No. PHY-1102511, by the DOE NNSA Award Nos. DE-NA0000979 and DE-FG52-08NA28552, the U.S DOE SC NP Contract No. DE-AC-06CH11357 and Grant Nos. DE-FG02-94ER40834 and DE-FG02-96ER40983, and U.S. ARL Coop. Agreement W911NF-12-2-0019.

  19. Stability of SiC and its Composites at High Neutron Fluence

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Snead, Lance Lewis; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    High purity chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) and near-stoichiometric SiC fiber, chemically vapor-infiltrated (CVI) SiC matrix composite were evaluated following neutron irradiation to {approx}28 dpa at 300 and 650 C and to {approx}41 dpa at 800 C, respectively. The irradiated swelling, thermal conductivity, and elastic modulus indicated no additional changes in these properties at high fluences after saturation at low fluences. With a statistically meaningful sample population, no change in flexural strength of CVD SiC was observed after 300 C irradiation. A slight decrease in strength was observed after 650 C irradiation but was attributed to an experimental artifact; specifically, a reaction between samples and the capsule components. The Hi-Nicalon{trademark} Type-S, CVI SiC composite retained the pre-irradiation strength and the non-linear fracture mode. The electrical resistivity measurement revealed a relatively minor effect of irradiation. Overall, irradiation-insensitivity of the high purity SiC ceramics and composite to neutron irradiation to doses 30-40 dpa at temperatures 300-800 C was demonstrated.

  20. Spectroscopy of {sup 36}Mg: Interplay of Normal and Intruder Configurations at the Neutron-Rich Boundary of the 'Island of Inversion'

    SciTech Connect

    Gade, A.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; McDaniel, S.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Siwek, K.; Terry, J. R.; Adrich, P.; Bazin, D.; Ettenauer, S.; Obertelli, A.; Weisshaar, D.; Kemper, K. W.; Otsuka, T.; Tostevin, J. A.; Utsuno, Y.

    2007-08-17

    We report on the first spectroscopy study of the very neutron-rich nucleus {sub 12}{sup 36}Mg{sub 24} using the direct two-proton knockout reaction {sup 9}Be({sup 38}Si,{sup 36}Mg+{gamma})X at 83 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the first excited 2{sup +} state of {sup 36}Mg, E(2{sub 1}{sup +})=660(6) keV, was measured. The magnitude of the partial cross sections to the ground state and the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state is indicative of strong intruder admixtures in the lowest-lying states as suggested by Monte Carlo shell-model calculations.

  1. Production of Na-22 and Other Radionuclides by Neutrons in Al, SiO2, Si, Ti, Fe and Ni Targets: Implications for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Jones, D. T. L.; Binns, P. J.; Langen, K.; Schroeder, I.; Buthelezi, Z.; Latti, E.; Brooks, F. D.; Buffler, A.; Allie, M. S.; Herbert, M. S.; Nchodu, M. R.; Makupula, S.; Ullmann, J.; Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are summarized. Measured cross sections for 22 Na produced by neutrons in Al and Si are used to calculate the production rate for 22 Na in lunar rock 12002 by galactic cosmic ray particles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Dimensional isotropy of 6H and 3C SiC under neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Terrani, Kurt A.; Specht, Eliot D.

    2016-01-16

    This investigation experimentally determines the as-irradiated crystal axes dimensional change of the common polytypes of SiC considered for nuclear application. Single crystal α-SiC (6H), β-SiC (3C), CVD β-SiC, and single crystal Si have been neutron irradiated near 60 °C from 2 × 1023 to 2 × 1026 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), or about 0.02–20 dpa, in order to study the effect of irradiation on bulk swelling and strain along independent crystalline axes. Single crystal, powder diffractometry and density measurement have been carried out. For all neutron doses where the samples remained crystalline all SiC materials demonstrated equivalent swelling behavior.more » Moreover the 6H–SiC expanded isotropically. The magnitude of the swelling followed a ~0.77 power law against dose consistent with a microstructure evolution driven by single interstitial (carbon) mobility. Extraordinarily large ~7.8% volume expansion in SiC was observed prior to amorphization. Above ~0.9 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) all SiC materials became amorphous with an identical swelling: a 11.7% volume expansion, lowering the density to 2.84 g/cm3. As a result, the as-amorphized density was the same at the 2 × 1025 and 2 × 1026 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) dose levels.« less

  3. Dimensional isotropy of 6H and 3C SiC under neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Terrani, Kurt; Specht, Eliot D.

    2016-04-01

    This investigation experimentally determines the as-irradiated crystal axes dimensional change of the common polytypes of SiC considered for nuclear application. Single crystal α-SiC (6H), β-SiC (3C), CVD β-SiC, and single crystal Si have been neutron irradiated near 60 °C from 2 × 1023 to 2 × 1026 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), or about 0.02-20 dpa, in order to study the effect of irradiation on bulk swelling and strain along independent crystalline axes. Single crystal, powder diffractometry and density measurement have been carried out. For all neutron doses where the samples remained crystalline all SiC materials demonstrated equivalent swelling behavior. Moreover the 6H-SiC expanded isotropically. The magnitude of the swelling followed a ∼0.77 power law against dose consistent with a microstructure evolution driven by single interstitial (carbon) mobility. Extraordinarily large ∼7.8% volume expansion in SiC was observed prior to amorphization. Above ∼0.9 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) all SiC materials became amorphous with an identical swelling: a 11.7% volume expansion, lowering the density to 2.84 g/cm3. The as-amorphized density was the same at the 2 × 1025 and 2 × 1026 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) dose levels.

  4. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei: Completing the isotope chains of Yb, Os, Pt, and Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Käppeler, F.

    2014-12-01

    The (n ,γ ) cross sections of the most neutron-rich stable isotopes of Yb, Os, Pt, and Hg have been determined in a series of activation measurements at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, using the quasistellar neutron spectrum for k T =25 keV that can be produced with the 7Li(p ,n ) 7Be reaction. In this way, Maxwellian averaged cross sections could be directly obtained with only minor corrections. After irradiation the induced activities were counted with a HPGe detector via the strongest γ -ray lines. The stellar neutron capture cross sections of Yb,176174, Os,192190, Pt,198196, and Hg,204202, extrapolated to k T =30 keV, were found to be 157 ±6 mb, 114 ±8 mb, 278 ±11 mb, 160 ±7 mb, 171 ±19 mb, 94 ±4 mb, 62 ±2 mb, and 32 ±15 mb, respectively. In the case of 196Pt the partial cross section to the isomeric state at 399.5 keV could be determined as well. With these results the cross section data for long isotopic chains could be completed for a discussion of the predictive power of statistical model calculations towards the neutron-rich and proton-rich sides of the stability valley.

  5. Correlation of charge transport to intrinsic strain in silicon oxynitride and Si-rich silicon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, S.; Apodaca, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Poole-Frenkel emission in Si-rich nitride and silicon oxynitride thin films is studied in conjunction with compositional aspects of their elastic properties. For Si-rich nitrides varying in composition from SiN1.33 to SiN0.54, the Poole-Frenkel trap depth (ΦB) decreases from 1.08 to 0.52 eV as the intrinsic film strain (ɛi) decreases from 0.0036 to -0.0016. For oxynitrides varying in composition from SiN1.33 to SiO1.49N0.35, ΦB increases from 1.08 to 1.53 eV as ɛi decreases from 0.0036 to 0.0006. In both material systems, a direct correlation is observed between ΦB and ɛi. Compositionally induced strain relief as a mechanism for regulating ΦB is discussed.

  6. Correlation of charge transport to intrinsic strain in silicon oxynitride and Si-rich silicon nitride thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Apodaca, Roger T.; Habermehl, Scott D.

    2003-07-01

    Poole-Frenkel emission in Si-rich nitride and silicon oxynitride thin films is studied in conjunction with compositional aspects of their elastic properties. For Si-rich nitrides varying in composition from SiN{sub 1.33} to SiN{sub 0.54}, the Poole-Frenkel trap depth ({Phi}{sub B}) decreases from 1.08 to 0.52 eV as the intrinsic film strain ({Epsilon}{sub i}) decreases from 0.0036 to -0.0016. For oxynitrides varying in composition from SiN{sub 1.33} to SiO{sub 1.49}N{sub 0.35}, {Phi}{sub B} increases from 1.08 to 1.53 eV as {Epsilon}{sub i} decreases from 0.0036 to 0.0006. In both material systems, a direct correlation is observed between {Phi}{sub B} and {Epsilon}{sub i}. Compositionally induced strain relief as a mechanism for regulating {Phi}{sub B} is discussed.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of silicon quantum dots in Si-rich silicon carbide films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Geng-Rong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan; Xu, Kewei

    2011-12-01

    Amorphous Si-rich silicon carbide films were prepared by magnetron co-sputtering and subsequently annealed at 900-1100 degrees C. After annealing at 1100 degrees C, this configuration of silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous silicon carbide formed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the chemical modulation of the films. The formation and orientation of silicon quantum dots were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, which shows that the ratio of silicon and carbon significantly influences the species of quantum dots. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations directly demonstrated that the formation of silicon quantum dots is heavily dependent on the annealing temperatures and the ratio of silicon and carbide. Only the temperature of about 1100 degrees C is enough for the formation of high-density and small-size silicon quantum dots due to phase separation and thermal crystallization. Deconvolution of the first order Raman spectra shows the existence of a lower frequency peak in the range 500-505 cm(-1) corresponding to silicon quantum dots with different atom ratio of silicon and carbon. PMID:22409005

  8. Diode p-i-n-STRUCTURES Based on Neutron Doped Si1-xGex-ALLOYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekanov, V.; Yevseyev, V.; Kuryatkov, V.; Prokofyeva, T.

    Photoelectric properties of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) Si1-xGex solid solutions (alloy) with variable composition are presented. It is shown that the application of NTD method to Si1-xGex solid solutions with gradient composition (x = 0-2 at.%) along an ingot allows to receive p-i-n-structures with typical diode characteristics. We studied electrical and photoelectrical properties of that structure. Deep level transient spectroscopy of p-i-n diode has revealed the energy levels in the forbidden zone of Si1-xGex, connected with transmutation Se impurity. It is established that p-i-n-structures possess high spectral sensitivity with a maximum at hν = 1.2-1.5 eV (300 K). Possible application of Si1-xGex-alloys in development of uncooled photodiodes with large effective area was considered.

  9. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; et al

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudesmore » for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.« less

  10. Isomers in Neutron-Rich A ?? 190 NNuclides from 208Pb Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Caamano, M.; Walker, P. M.; Regan, P. H.; Pfutzner, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Gerl, J.; Hellstrom, M.; Mayet, P.; Mineva, M. N.; Aprahamian, A.; Benlliure, J.; Bruce, A. M.; Butler, P. A.; Cortina Gil, D.; Cullen, D. M.; Doring, J.; Enqvist, T.; Fox, C.; Garces Narro, J.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Kleinbohl, A.; Korten, W.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lucas, R.; Mach, H.; O'Leary, C. D.; De Oliveira, F.; Pearson, C. J.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Sawicka, M.; Schaffner, H.; Schlegel, C.; Schmidt, K.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Stevenson, P. D.; Theisen, Ch.; Vives, F.; Warner, D. D.; Wheldon, C.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Wooding, S.; Xu, F.; Yordanov, O.

    2005-01-01

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of {sup 208}Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A {approx} 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in {sup 188}Ta, {sup 190}W, {sup 192}Re, {sup 193}Re, {sup 195}Os, {sup 197}Ir, {sup 198}Ir, {sup 200}Pt, {sup 201}Pt, {sup 202}Pt and {sup 203}Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for {sup 174}Er, {sup 175}Er, {sup 185}Hf, {sup 191}Re, {sup 194}Re and {sup 199}Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In {sup 200}Pt and {sup 201}Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics.

  11. High-spin structures in the neutron-rich isotopes {sup 57-60}Mn.

    SciTech Connect

    Steppenbeck, D.; Deacon, A. N.; Freeman, S. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Honma, M.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, J. F.; Tabor, S. L.; Varley, B. J.; Physics; Schuster Lab.; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Aizu; Florida State Univ.

    2010-01-01

    Excited states in the neutron-rich isotopes {sup 57-60}Mn have been studied with fusion-evaporation reactions induced by {sup 48}Ca beams at 130 MeV on {sup 13,14}C targets. Level schemes have been deduced reaching spins of {approx}16{h_bar} and {approx}27{h_bar}/2 in the odd-odd and odd-even isotopes, respectively. States with natural parity within an fp model space are compared to the predictions of large-scale shell-model calculations using the recently developed GXPF1A effective interaction. Quasirotational structures are evident in all of the isotopes and are discussed in terms of the deformation-driving potential of the ?1g{sub 9/2} intruder orbital. It is apparent that an enlarged model space, incorporating at least the 1g{sub 9/2} intruder state, is necessary to reproduce the observed experimental systematics in a more satisfactory manner.

  12. Direct evidence of octupole deformation in neutron-rich 144Ba

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; Wu, C. Y.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Butler, P. A.; Campbell, C. M.; et al

    2016-03-17

    Here, the neutron-rich nucleus 144Ba (t1/2 = 11.5 s) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV 144Ba beam on a 1.0–mg/cm2 208Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, < 31–∥M(E3)∥01+ >= 0.65(+17–23) eb3/2, corresponds to a reduced B(E3) transition probabilitymore » of 48(+25–34) W.u. This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation.« less

  13. Direct Evidence of Octupole Deformation in Neutron-Rich ^{144}Ba.

    PubMed

    Bucher, B; Zhu, S; Wu, C Y; Janssens, R V F; Cline, D; Hayes, A B; Albers, M; Ayangeakaa, A D; Butler, P A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, J A; Crawford, H L; Cromaz, M; David, H M; Dickerson, C; Gregor, E T; Harker, J; Hoffman, C R; Kay, B P; Kondev, F G; Korichi, A; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Pardo, R C; Richard, A; Riley, M A; Savard, G; Scheck, M; Seweryniak, D; Smith, M K; Vondrasek, R; Wiens, A

    2016-03-18

    The neutron-rich nucleus ^{144}Ba (t_{1/2}=11.5  s) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV ^{144}Ba beam on a 1.0-mg/cm^{2} ^{208}Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, ⟨3_{1}^{-}∥M(E3)∥0_{1}^{+}⟩=0.65(+17/-23) eb^{3/2}, corresponds to a reduced B(E3) transition probability of 48(+25/-34)  W.u. This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation. PMID:27035298

  14. Direct Evidence of Octupole Deformation in Neutron-Rich 144Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; Wu, C. Y.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Butler, P. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Clark, J. A.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; David, H. M.; Dickerson, C.; Gregor, E. T.; Harker, J.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Pardo, R. C.; Richard, A.; Riley, M. A.; Savard, G.; Scheck, M.; Seweryniak, D.; Smith, M. K.; Vondrasek, R.; Wiens, A.

    2016-03-01

    The neutron-rich nucleus 144Ba (t1 /2=11.5 s ) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E 1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV 144Ba beam on a 1.0 -mg /cm2 208Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, ⟨31 -∥M (E 3 )∥01 +⟩=0.65 (+17/-23) e b3 /2, corresponds to a reduced B (E 3 ) transition probability of 48 (+25/-34) W .u . This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation.

  15. Resonant states of the neutron-rich Λ hypernucleus He7Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyama, E.; Isaka, M.; Kamimura, M.; Myo, T.; Motoba, T.

    2015-05-01

    The structure of the neutron-rich Λ hypernucleus, He7Λ is studied within the framework of an α +Λ +n +n four-body cluster model. We predict second 3 /2+ and 5 /2+ states, corresponding to a 0 s Λ coupled to the second 2+ state of 6He, as narrow resonant states with widths of Γ ˜1 MeV to be at 0.03 and 0.07 MeV with respect to the α +Λ +n +n threshold. From a separate estimate of the differential cross section for the 7Li (γ ,K+) He7Λ reaction, we suggest a possibility to observe these states at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) in the future. We also calculate the second 2+ state of 6He as a resonant state within the framework of an α +n +n three-body cluster model. Our result is 2.81 MeV with Γ =4.63 MeV with respect to the α +n +n threshold. This energy position is ˜1 MeV higher, and with a much broader decay width, than the recent SPIRAL data. We suggest that an experiment at JLab to search for the second 3 /2+ and 5 /2+ states of He7Λ would provide an opportunity to confirm the second 2+ state of the core nucleus 6He.

  16. E2 transition probabilities for decays of isomers observed in neutron-rich odd Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Iskra, Ł. W.; Broda, R.; Janssens, R. V.F.; Wrzesiński, J.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fornal, B.; Hoteling, N.; Kondev, F. G.; Królas, W.; Lauritsen, T.; Pawłat, T.; Seweryniak, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Walters, W. B.; Zhu, S.

    2015-01-01

    High-spin states were investigated with gamma coincidence techniques in neutron-rich Sn isotopes produced in fission processes following ⁴⁸Ca + ²⁰⁸Pb, ⁴⁸Ca + ²³⁸U, and ⁶⁴Ni + ²³⁸U reactions. By exploiting delayed and cross-coincidence techniques, level schemes have been delineated in odd ¹¹⁹⁻¹²⁵Sn isotopes. Particular attention was paid to the occurrence of 19/2⁺ and 23/2⁺ isomeric states for which the available information has now been significantly extended. Reduced transition probabilities, B(E2), extracted from the measured half-lives and the established details of the isomeric decays exhibit a striking regularity. This behavior was compared with the previously observed regularity of the B(E2) amplitudes for the seniority ν = 2 and 3, 10⁺ and 27/2⁻ isomers in even- and odd-Sn isotopes, respectively.

  17. β-Decay of Neutron-Rich Nuclei around 158Nd and the Origin of Rare-Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Xu, Z. Y.; Ideguchi, E.; Simpson, G. S.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y. F.; Isobe, T.; Li, Z.; Patel, Z.; Rice, S.; Sinclair, L.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Aoi, N.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Benzoni, G.; Gey, G.; Gottardo, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Sakurai, H.; Tanaka, M.; Taprogge, J.; Yamamoto, T.

    A large fraction of the rare-earth elements around mass number A = 160 observed in the solar system are produced in the astrophysical rapid (r-) neutron capture process. However, current stellar models cannot completely explain the relative abundance of these elements partially because of nuclear physics uncertainties. To address this problem, a β-decay spectroscopy experiment was performed at the RI Beam Factory (RIBF), aimed at studying a wide region of very neutron-rich nuclei around 158Nd. The data from this experiment provides a test of nuclear models as well as experimental inputs for r-process calculations.

  18. TEM-characterization of magnetic samarium- and cobalt-rich-nanocrystals formed in hexagonal SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Lichte, Hannes; Lenk, Andreas; Gemming, Thomas; Pasold, Gunnar; Witthuhn, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    Using analytical transmission electron microscopy techniques, nanocrystals embedded in 4H-SiC are studied which formed after high dose samarium (Sm), cobalt (Co), and Sm-and-Co-ion implantations and annealing. SmSi 2, Sm 5C 2, Co 2Si and SmCo-rich nanocrystals have been identified in terms of their crystallography, shape, strain, size, and orientation relationship to the matrix. It is shown, moreover, that cluster creations of foreign atoms (nanocrystals) and of vacancies (voids) are connected and their sizes increase with implantation dose. Carbon onions surrounding the nanocrystals have been found and this carbon excess has been interpreted as a consequence of preferred formation of foreign atom-silicide nanocrystals. For the case of Co implanted 4H-SiC, Lorentz microscopy has been applied revealing both non-magnetic and single-domain ferromagnetic nanocrystals.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented by Hydrogen Rich Gas from a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    J. B. Green, Jr.; N. Domingo; J. M. E. Storey; R.M. Wagner; J.S. Armfield; L. Bromberg; D. R. Cohn; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev

    2000-06-19

    It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four-cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NO x due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma-boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NO x reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation.

  20. Associations of Pd, U and Ag in the SiC layer of neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, Thomas; Rooyen, Isabella Van

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the associations and composition of fission products in the neutron irradiated SiC layer of high-temperature gas reactor TRISO fuel is important to the understanding of various aspects of fuel performance that presently are not well understood. Recently, advanced characterization techniques have been used to examine fuel particles from the Idaho National Laboratory’s AGR-1 experiment. Nano-sized Ag and Pd precipitates were previously identified in grain boundaries and triple points in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel. Continuation of this initial research is reported in this paper and consists of the characterization of a relatively large number of nano-sized precipitates in three areas of the SiC layer of a single irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel particle using standardless EDS analysis on focused ion beam-prepared transmission electron microscopy samples. Composition and distribution analyses of these precipitates, which were located on grain boundaries, triple junctions and intragranular precipitates, revealed low levels, generally <10 atomic %, of palladium, silver and/or uranium with palladium being the most common element found. Palladium by itself, or associated with either silver or uranium, was found throughout the SiC layer. A small number of precipitates on grain boundaries and triple junctions were found to contain only silver or silver in association with palladium while uranium was always associated with palladium but never found by itself or in association with silver. Intergranular precipitates containing uranium were found to have migrated ~23 μm along a radial direction through the 35 μm thick SiC coating during the AGR-1 experiment while silver-containing intergranular precipitates were found at depths up to ~24 μm in the SiC layer. Also, Pd-rich, nano-precipitates (~10 nm in diameter), without evidence for the presence of either Ag or U, were revealed in intragranular regions throughout the SiC layer. Because not all

  1. Associations of Pd, U and Ag in the SiC layer of neutron-irradiated TRISO fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, T. M.; van Rooyen, I. J.

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of the associations and composition of fission products in the neutron irradiated SiC layer of high-temperature gas reactor TRISO fuel is important to the understanding of various aspects of fuel performance that presently are not well understood. Recently, advanced characterization techniques have been used to examine fuel particles from the Idaho National Laboratory's AGR-1 experiment. Nano-sized Ag and Pd precipitates were previously identified in grain boundaries and triple points in the SiC layer of irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel. Continuation of this initial research is reported in this paper and consists of the characterization of a relatively large number of nano-sized precipitates in three areas of the SiC layer of a single irradiated TRISO nuclear fuel particle using standardless EDS analysis on focused ion beam-prepared transmission electron microscopy samples. Composition and distribution analyses of these precipitates, which were located on grain boundaries, triple junctions and intragranular precipitates, revealed low levels, generally <10 atomic %, of palladium, silver and/or uranium with palladium being the most common element found. Palladium by itself, or associated with either silver or uranium, was found throughout the SiC layer. A small number of precipitates on grain boundaries and triple junctions were found to contain only silver or silver in association with palladium while uranium was always associated with palladium but never found by itself or in association with silver. Intergranular precipitates containing uranium were found to have migrated ∼23 μm along a radial direction through the 35 μm thick SiC coating during the AGR-1 experiment while silver-containing intergranular precipitates were found at depths up to ∼24 μm in the SiC layer. Also, Pd-rich, nano-precipitates (∼10 nm in diameter), without evidence for the presence of either Ag or U, were revealed in intragranular regions throughout the SiC layer. Because not

  2. High-spin states in neutron-rich Z ≈ 30 nuclei studied following fusion-evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, M.; Lafosse, D. R.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D. G.; Rudolph, D.; Thirolf, P. G.; Clark, R. M.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.

    1997-10-01

    High-spin states in neutron rich nuclei near the closed shell at Z = 28 and N = 40 were studied with the fusion-evaporation reaction 157 MeV ^48Ca + ^26Mg. This region of the Segrè chart is of particular interest, since it is near the beginning of the astrophysical r-process, and little detailed knowledge of the relevant orbitals is available. The experiment was conducted using the Gammasphere Ge detector array in conjunction with the Microball charged-particle detector array, in order to exploit the sensitivity of this combination for multiple-charged particle evaporation channels. High spin states in heavy isotopes of Ge, Ga, Zn, Cu and Ni will be discussed. The sensitivity and usefulness of heavy-ion fusion reactions in the study of neutron-rich nuclei will also be addressed.

  3. Effects of nitrogen impurities on the microstructure and electronic properties of P-doped Si nanocrystals emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deng-Hao; Zhang, Wei-Jia; Luo, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Zhao-Yi; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Deng-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus doped Si nanocrystals (SNCs) emebedded in silicon-rich SiNx:H films were prepared using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, and the effects of nitrogen incorporation on the microstructure and electronic properties of the thin films have been systematically studied. Transmission electron microscope and Raman observation revealed that nitrogen incorporation prevents the growth of Si nanocrystals, and that their sizes can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of NH3. The reduction of photoluminescence (PL) intensity in the range of 2.1-2.6 eV of photon energy was observed with increasing nitrogen impurity, and a maximal PL intensity in the range 1.6-2.0 eV was obtained when the incorporation flow ratio NH3/(SiH4+H2+PH3) was 0.02. The conductivity of the films is improved by means of proper nitrogen impurity doping, and proper doping causes the interface charge density of the heterojunction (H-J) device to be lower than the nc-Si:H/c-Si H-J device. As a result, the proper incorporation of nitrogen could not only reduce the silicon banding bond density, but also fill some carrier capture centers, and suppress the nonradiative recombination of electrons.

  4. Possibility of production of neutron-rich Zn and Ge isotopes in multinucleon transfer reactions at low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Scheid, W.

    2010-02-15

    The production cross sections of new neutron-rich {sup 84,86}Zn and {sup 90,92}Ge isotopes beyond N=50 are estimated for the first time in the multinucleon transfer reactions {sup 48}Ca + {sup 238}U and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 244}Pu. The production of new isotopes in reactions with a {sup 48}Ca beam is discussed for future experiments.

  5. Point defects in 4H-SiC epilayers introduced by neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazdra, Pavel; Záhlava, Vít; Vobecký, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Electronic properties of radiation damage produced in 4H-SiC by neutron irradiation and its effect on electrical parameters of Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes were investigated. 4H-SiC N-epilayers, which formed the low-doped N-base of JBS power diodes, were irradiated with 1 MeV neutrons with fluences ranging from 1.3 × 1013 to 4.0 × 1014 cm-2. Radiation defects were then characterized by capacitance deep-level transient spectroscopy, I-V and C-V measurement. Results show that neutron irradiation introduces different point defects giving rise to acceptor levels lying 0.61/0.69, 0.88, 1.03, 1.08 and 1.55 eV below the SiC conduction band edge. Introduction rates of these centers are ranging from 0.64 to 4.0 cm-1. These defects have a negligible effect on blocking and dynamic characteristics of irradiated diodes. However, the acceptor character of introduced deep levels and their fast introduction deteriorate diode's ON-state resistance already at fluences exceeding 1 × 1014 cm-2.

  6. A New Island of Inversion Far From Stability: Structure of Neutron-Rich Nuclei Near N = 40

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, Silvia M.

    2010-08-04

    Recent results obtained for neutron-rich nuclei of mass A{approx}60-70 are presented together with the theoretical interpretation. The development of a new region of deformation approaching the neutron number N = 40 in Cr and Fe isotopes is discussed. A new effective interaction that considers the full fp shell model space for protons and the p{sub 3/2}, p{sub 1/2}, f{sub 5/2}, g{sub 9/2}, d{sub 5/2} orbitals for the neutrons allows to reproduce, for the first time, the different structure properties of these nuclei. The configuration of the calculated states suggests the development of a new island of inversion at N{approx}40. The perspectives offered by the forthcoming operation of the AGATA Demonstrator Array coupled to the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA at LNL are also discussed.

  7. Time-of-flight mass measurements of neutron-rich chromium isotopes up to N =40 and implications for the accreted neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, Z.; George, S.; Ahn, S.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Browne, J.; Carpino, J. F.; Chung, H.; Cyburt, R. H.; Estradé, A.; Famiano, M.; Gade, A.; Langer, C.; Matoš, M.; Mittig, W.; Montes, F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pereira, J.; Schatz, H.; Schatz, J.; Scott, M.; Shapira, D.; Sieja, K.; Smith, K.; Stevens, J.; Tan, W.; Tarasov, O.; Towers, S.; Wimmer, K.; Winkelbauer, J. R.; Yurkon, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the mass excesses of Cr-6459, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The mass of 64Cr is determined for the first time, with an atomic mass excess of -33.48 (44 ) MeV. We find a significantly different two-neutron separation energy S2 n trend for neutron-rich isotopes of chromium, removing the previously observed enhancement in binding at N =38 . Additionally, we extend the S2 n trend for chromium to N =40 , revealing behavior consistent with the previously identified island of inversion in this region. We compare our results to state-of-the-art shell-model calculations performed with a modified Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja interaction in the f p shell, including the g9 /2 and d5 /2 orbits for the neutron valence space. We employ our result for the mass of 64Cr in accreted neutron star crust network calculations and find a reduction in the strength and depth of electron-capture heating from the A =64 isobaric chain, resulting in a cooler than expected accreted neutron star crust. This reduced heating is found to be due to the >1 -MeV reduction in binding for 64Cr with respect to values from commonly used global mass models.

  8. -decay measurements for N > 40 Mn nuclei and inference of collectivity for neutron-rich Fe isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Daugas, J; Delaroche, J. P.; Pfutzner, M.; Sawicka, M.; Becker, F.; Belier, G.; Bingham, C. R.; Borcea, C.; Bouchez, E.; Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E.; Georgiev, G.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Hammache, F.; Libert, J.; Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Sauvestre, J. E.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Theisen, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    A decay spectroscopic study of the neutron-rich isotopes has been performed using fragmentation of a 86Kr primary beam. Fragments from this reaction have been selected by the LISE2000 spectrometer at the Grand Acc el erateur National d Ions Lourds (GANIL). Half-lives of 29 isotopes, including the first ones identified for 61Ti (15 4 ms), 64V (19 8 ms), and 71Fe (28 5 ms), have been determined and compared with model predictions. 67,68Mn -delayed rays were observed for the first time. The branching for the -delayed neutron emission was measured to be greater than 10(5)% in the 67Mn decay. The 67Fe isomeric level is firmly determined at higher energy than assigned in previous works. The excitation energies of the first (2+) and (4+) states of 68Fe are suggested to lie at 522(1) and 1389(1) keV, respectively, thus bringing confirmation of assignments based on in-beam -ray spectroscopy. Beyond-mean-field calculations with the Gogny D1S force have been performed for even-mass nuclei through the Fe isotopic chain. Not only 68Fe but most of the neutron-rich Fe isotopes with neutron numbers below N = 50 are interpreted as soft rotors. The calculated mean occupancy of the neutron g9/2 and d5/2 orbitals in correlated ground states is steadily growing with increasing neutron number throughout the isotopic chain. Interpretation of 67Fe data is based upon the present calculations for the 66Fe and 68Fe even cores.

  9. Lifetimes in neutron-rich Nd isotopes measured by Doppler profile method

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Lister, C.J.; Morss, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    Lifetimes of the rotational levels in neutron-rich even-even Nd isotopes were deduced from the analysis of the Doppler broadened line shapes. The experiment was performed at Daresbury with the Eurogam array, which at that time consisted of 45 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and 5 Low-Energy Photon Spectrometers. The source was in the form of a 7-mm pellet which was prepared by mixing 5-mg; {sup 248}Cm and 65-mg KCl and pressing it under high pressure. Events for which three or more detectors fired were used to construct a cubic data array whose axes represented the {gamma}-ray energies and the contents of each channel the number of events with that particular combination of {gamma}-ray energies. From this cubic array, one-dimensional spectra were generated by placing gates on peaks on the other two axes. Gamma-ray spectra of even-even Nd isotopes were obtained by gating on the transitions in the complimentary Kr fragments. The gamma peaks de-exciting states with I {>=} 12 h were found to be broader than the instrumental line width due to the Doppler effect. The line shapes of they-ray peaks were fitted separately with a simple model for the feeding of the states and assuming a rotational band with constant intrinsic quadruple moment and these are shown in Fig. I-27. The quadrupole moments thus determined were found to be in good agreement with the quadrupole moments measured previously for lower spin states. Because of the success of this technique for the Nd isotopes, we intend to apply this technique to the new larger data set collected with the Eurogam II array. The results of this study were published.

  10. Nuclear-decay studies of neutron-rich rare-earth nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Chasteler, R.M. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-04-26

    Neutron-rich rare-earth nuclei were produced in multinucleon transfer reactions of {sup 170}Er and {sup 176}Yb projectiles on {sup nat}W targets at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC and their radioactive decays properties studied at the on-line mass separation facility OASIS. Two unknown isotopes, {sup 169}Dy (t {sub 1/2} {equals} 39 {plus minus} 8 s) and {sup 174}Er(t{sub 1/2} {equals} 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 m) were discovered and their decay characteristics determined. The decay schemes for two previously identified isotopes, {sup 168}Dy (t{sub 1/2} {equals} 8.8 {plus minus} 0.3 m) and {sup 171}Ho (t{sub 1/2} {equals} 55 {plus minus} 3 s), were characterized. Evidence for a new isomer of 3.0 m {sup 168}Ho{sup g}, {sup 168}Ho{sup m} (t{sub 1/2} {equals} 132 {plus minus} 4 s) which decays by isomeric transition (IT) is presented. Beta particle endpoint energies were determined for the decay of {sup 168}Ho{sup g}, {sup 169}Dy, {sup 171}Ho, and {sup 174}Er, the resulting Q{beta}-values are: 2.93 {plus minus} 0.03, 3.2 {plus minus} 0.3, 3.2 {plus minus} 0.6, and 1.8 {plus minus} 0.2 MeV, respectively. These values were compared with values calculated using recent atomic mass formulae. Comparisons of various target/ion source geometries used in the OASIS mass separator facility for these multinucleon transfer reactions were performed. 73 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.