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Sample records for newly excysted paragonimus

  1. Development of an in vitro drug sensitivity assay based on newly excysted larvae of Echinostoma caproni

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Echinostomiasis is one of the major food-borne trematodiases and the species Echinostoma caproni serves as a useful model for trematocidal drug discovery. The current in vitro drug sensitivity assay uses adult E. caproni worms that are incubated with candidate drugs and scored microscopically for viability at 72 hrs. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of newly excysted larvae (NEL) of E. caproni for in vitro drug testing, which would be faster, more cost effective and more ethical compared to adult worm assays. Methods Larvae were obtained by collecting metacercariae from snails and triggering their excystation using the trypsin-bile salt excystation method. Studies concerning various parameters of this chemical transformation process as well as appropriate NEL culturing conditions were carried out and findings evaluated. NEL and adult worms were incubated with praziquantel, tribendimidine, albendazole and quinine and evaluated microscopically 72 hrs post-incubation. In addition, the colorimetric markers resazurin, CellTiter-Glo® and Vybrant® were tested as an alternative assay read-out method. Results The chemical excystation method successfully induced E. caproni metacercariae to excyst at a rate of about 20-60%. NEL remained viable in culture medium for 5–7 days. The results of an in vitro drug assay using NEL mirrored the results of an assay using adult worms incubated with the same drugs. None of the markers could reliably produce signals proportional to NEL viability or cytotoxicity without significant complications. Conclusion NEL are adequate for in vitro drug testing. Challenges remain in further improving the excystation yield and the practicability of the assay setup. Resolving these issues could also improve read-outs using colorimetric markers. Using NEL is in alignment with the 3 R rules of the ethical use of laboratory animals and can greatly increase the rate and affordability with which drugs are screened in vitro

  2. Development of a versatile in vitro method for understanding the migration of Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Baird, Alan W; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that causes serious losses to livestock producers, and also zoonotic disease. The limitations of chemotherapy for the control of fasciolosis have led to significant interest in the development of vaccines to protect cattle and sheep from infection. However, relatively few studies have concentrated on the mechanisms of invasion of the gut by newly excysted juvenile liver flukes (NEJ) and the host response triggered by this event. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model to study invasion by NEJ, while also reducing the requirement for challenge infections of experimental animals. Fasciola hepatica metacercariae were excysted in vitro and placed into compartments containing rat distal jejunal sheets. Variations in incubation medium, chamber size and incubation temperature were used to identify optimal conditions for NEJ migration across the gut. Histological examination showed increased migration until 120 min post-incubation. The use of RPMI, without gassing at 39 °C, as the incubation medium was found to be optimal, with 40·5% of NEJ migrating after 150 min. This study describes a readily-reproducible method for studying the migration of F. hepatica NEJ within the definitive host. It will be useful for identifying potential drug and vaccine targets. PMID:26521819

  3. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; O’Neill, Sandra; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3) and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3) proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1) on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139) on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description of F

  4. Tegument Glycoproteins and Cathepsins of Newly Excysted Juvenile Fasciola hepatica Carry Mannosidic and Paucimannosidic N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Ravidà, Alessandra; Nguyen, D Linh; Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Dalton, John P; Hokke, Cornelis H; O'Neill, Sandra; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire. After in vitro excystation, NEJ were fixed and NEJTeg was extracted. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of released N-glycans revealed that oligomannose and core-fucosylated truncated N-glycans were the most dominant glycan types. By lectin binding studies these glycans were identified mainly on the NEJ surface, together with the oral and ventral suckers. NEJTeg glycoproteins were affinity purified after targeted biotinylation of the glycans and identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the total set of proteins previously identified in NEJTeg, eighteen were also detected in the glycosylated fraction, including the F. hepatica Cathepsin B3 (FhCB3) and two of the Cathepsin L3 (FhCL3) proteins, among others. To confirm glycosylation of cathepsins, analysis at the glycopeptide level by LC-ESI-ion-trap-MS/MS with collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) was carried out. We established that cathepsin B1 (FhCB1) on position N80, and FhCL3 (BN1106_s10139B000014, scaffold10139) on position N153, carry unusual paucimannosidic Man2GlcNAc2 glycans. To our knowledge, this is the first description of F

  5. Surface fine topography and PCR-based determination of metacercaria of Paragonimus sp. from edible crabs in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, V; Prasad, P K; Chatterjee, A; Bhutia, P T

    2007-12-01

    In several mountainous regions of Northeastern India, foci of Paragonimus infection reportedly involving species that are known to prevail in China have been identified. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the surface fine topography and sequence analysis of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA; second internal transcribed spacer, ITS2) of the metacercarial stages of the lung fluke collected from a mountain stream of the area (Miao, Changlang District in Arunachal Pradesh). The encysted metacercariae were oval in shape and had a smooth surface. The newly excysted metacercaria had a ventral sucker larger than the oral; the body surface was covered with numerous single-pointed and thorn-like tegumentary spines, of which those on the anterior part of the body were bigger in size and showed a gradual reduction in length and number towards the posterior end; dome-shaped papillae in variable numbers were seen around the rim of the oral sucker and were sparsely distributed all over the body surface. The polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae were aligned with known sequences for the various species of Paragonimus, and the expectation value was found to be most significant with P. westermani, revealing an absolute match. The surface topography including the number and distribution of papillae and spination patterns and the ITS2 sequences of the metacercariae strongly suggest that the Paragonimus species, prevalent in the region of India, is in fact P. westermani. PMID:17786478

  6. MODELS FOR EXCYSTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two methods are described for inducing Giardia lamblia to excyst. Both at times can be shown to yield trophozoites, although the success rate varies widely depending on the investigator and the cyst source. The excystation procedure for Giardia muris is much more satisfactory; ho...

  7. Morphological and molecular identification of a lung fluke, Paragonimus macrorchis (Trematoda, Paragonimidae), found in central Lao PDR and its molecular phylogenetic status in the genus Paragonimus.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-12-01

    Paragonimus macrorchis is rather a rare species with sporadic discovery reports. To date, little is known about morphological features and the molecular phylogenetic status of P. macrorchis. Here we provide such information on P. macrorchis, of which metacercariae were collected from freshwater crabs in Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR. After morphological observation, metacercariae were excysted and were injected intra-peritoneally into Mongolian gerbils. Paragonimus adult worms were collected from the lungs of experimental gerbils 45 days after infection. A small piece of body tissue was cut at the posterior part of each adult worm for genomic DNA extraction. Then, the adult worms were stained and mounted for morphological identification. The second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS2) of rDNA and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were amplified using PCR method and sequenced. The results of morphological identification of metacercariae and adult worms together with their DNA sequences of ITS2 and partial cox1 gene clearly show that the specimens we collected in the central Lao PDR were P. macrorchis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. macrorchis forms an independent cluster from other Paragonimus species in Asia. PMID:26170107

  8. Natural hybridization between Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Guo, Zhihong; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-06-01

    Paragonimus bangkokensis and Paragonimus harinasutai, which are morphologically distinguishable species, often co-infect in the same crab intermediate hosts. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two species are genetically close to each other and are considered as the sister species. While we have been studying Paragonimus adult worms obtained from the lungs of a cat experimentally infected with Paragonimus metacercariae which were morphologically identified as P. harinasutai collected from central Viet Nam, one out of 6 adult worms has grouped cuticular spines, which is a feature of P. bangkokensis. By molecular analyses, the CO1 sequence of this specimen was identical with that of P. bangkokensis, but the ITS2 and the D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences showed a two peak pattern. Then, PCR products of the ITS2 and the D2 region of 28S rDNA sequences were ligated to TOPO vector and subcloned to determine the heterozygosity. Two types of sequences were obtained from each ITS2 and D2 region of 28S; one was identical with P. harinasutai and the other with P. bangkokensis. Taking all these morphological and molecular data together, we identified this adult worm as a hybrid specimen of P. bangkokensis and P. harinasutai. PMID:23384812

  9. A major cathepsin B protease from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has atypical active site features and a potential role in the digestive tract of newly excysted juvenile parasites.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Simone A; Piedrafita, David; Phillips, Carolyn I; Samarawickrema, Nirma; Law, Ruby H P; Smooker, Peter M; Quinsey, Noelene S; Irving, James A; Greenwood, Deanne; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Turk, Boris; Coetzer, Theresa H; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Spithill, Terry W; Pike, Robert N

    2009-07-01

    The newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage of the Fasciola hepatica lifecycle occurs just prior to invasion into the wall of the gut of the host, rendering it an important target for drug development. The cathepsin B enzymes from NEJ flukes have recently been demonstrated to be crucial to invasion and migration by the parasite. Here we characterize one of the cathepsin B enzymes (recombinant FhcatB1) from NEJ flukes. FhcatB1 has biochemical properties distinct from mammalian cathepsin B enzymes, with an atypical preference for Ile over Leu or Arg residues at the P(2) substrate position and an inability to act as an exopeptidase. FhcatB1 was active across a broad pH range (optimal activity at pH 5.5-7.0) and resistant to inhibition by cystatin family inhibitors from sheep and humans, suggesting that this enzyme would be able to function in extracellular environments in its mammalian hosts. It appears, however, that the FhcatB1 protease functions largely as a digestive enzyme in the gut of the parasite, due to the localization of a specific, fluorescently labeled inhibitor with an Ile at the P(2) position. Molecular modelling and dynamics were used to predict the basis for the unusual substrate specificity: a P(2) Ile residue positions the substrate optimally for interaction with catalytic residues of the enzyme, and the enzyme lacks an occluding loop His residue crucial for exopeptidase activity. The unique features of the enzyme, particularly with regard to its specificity and likely importance to a vital stage of the parasite's life cycle, make it an excellent target for therapeutic inhibitors or vaccination. PMID:19401154

  10. NEW METHOD FOR EXCYSTATION OF GIARDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro excystation of Giardia is used to estimate cyst viability and may also be used to obtain trophozoites and cyst walls for analysis. Recently published excystation procedures include the use of trypsin, serum or bile salts in the excystation step. Trypsin, serum or bile sa...

  11. 'GIARDIA MURIS': SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF IN VITRO EXCYSTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recently developed in vitro excystation procedure results in almost total excystation of Giardia muris, an intestinal parasite of mice. The present experiment examines the G. muris cyst morphology by scanning electron microscopy and evaluates the efficacy of the excystation pro...

  12. Gene expression during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study describes transcription of mRNA from genes encoding metabolic or structural proteins during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. RNA was harvested from C. parvum oocysts before excystation, and at 5, 10, and 15 min during excystation. Subtractive cDNA libraries were pre...

  13. Excystation signals do not isolate gregarine gene pools: experimental excystation of Blabericola migrator among 11 species of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Steele, Shelby M; Clopton, Debra T; Clopton, Richard E

    2012-10-01

    An experimental excystation assay was used to test the potential species isolating effects of excystation signaling among gregarines. Oocysts of a single gregarine species, Blabericola migrator , were tested for activation, excystation, and sporozoite motility by using intestinal extracts from 11 species of cockroaches representing a cohesive phylogeny of 7 genera, 3 subfamilies, and 2 families of Blattodea. Sporozoite activation, excystation, and motility were observed for all excystation assay replications using intestinal fluid from blaberid hosts, but delayed activation or excystation was observed for all assay replications using intestinal fluid from hosts in the family Blattidae. The results illustrate a trend toward a generalized excystation signal among gregarines that is conserved across the host clade at a subfamily or family level but that is unlikely to play a significant role as a species-isolating mechanism among sibling gregarine species. PMID:22540337

  14. In vitro excystment of the metacercariae of Ribeiroia ondatrae.

    PubMed

    Fried, Bernard; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2005-03-01

    In vitro excystation studies were done on the metacercarial cysts of Ribeiroia ondatrae obtained from naturally infected leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Studies were done in Petri dish cultures in various media maintained at 41 degrees C. The media consisted of 0.5% trypsin-0.5% bile salts in Earle's balanced salt solution at pH 7.8 (TB), 1% acid pepsin (AP) in 0.85% saline adjusted to pH 2 with HCl; acid saline (AS) adjusted to pH 2 with HCl, and saline (S). The TB medium, used successfully to excyst the metacercariae of numerous species of digeneans, did not induce excystation of Ribeiroia ondatrae. Some excystation occurred in AS but not in S. Excystation was 100% in AP with most organisms excysting within 30 s after placement in the medium at 41 degrees C. Excystation in vitro in AP at 41 degrees C is compatible with the fact that this organism establishes itself in the acid-pepsin environment of the proventriculus of avian hosts. PMID:15678351

  15. Fasciola hepatica: migration of newly excysted juveniles in resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Burden, D J; Bland, A P; Hammet, N C; Hughes, D L

    1983-10-01

    Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the early migration of juvenile Fasciola hepatica was examined in naive and resistant rats. In naive rats, the migration of flukes to the peritoneal cavity was uneventful. In resistant rats, flukes were rapidly coated with antibody whilst still in the gut lumen and a proportion of the flukes were unable to penetrate the intestinal wall. Those that did penetrate were unharmed as they crossed the gut wall, but on entering the peritoneal cavity they were coated with antibody and host cells including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells. Eosinophils were seen degranulating onto the fluke surface, and this appeared to result in the erosion of the tegumental syncytium. PMID:6617806

  16. Molecular Variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus Complex in Thailand and Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region. PMID:24516273

  17. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment. PMID:27213066

  18. Paragonimus kellicotti: A Lung Infection in Our Own Backyard

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Eric; Nguyen, Van

    2016-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by the lung fluke of the genus Paragonimus. Within the United States, paragonimiasis has been commonly diagnosed in Southeast Asian immigrants infected with the Asian lung fluke Paragonimus westermani. Infections from the North American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, have been rare, although more infections have been seen in people in the Midwestern United States. A 29-year-old male with a history of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presented with hemoptysis. A CT scan showed a mass in the left upper lung lobe. A biopsy showed eosinophils and parasite eggs, some with a recognizable operculum. Further investigation revealed that he takes canoe trips on rivers within Missouri and would eat crayfish caught from these rivers. A blood sample was confirmed positive for Paragonimiasis serologically at the Center for Disease Control. Paragonimus kellicotti is found in rivers within the Mississippi basin. Infection occurs by consuming uncooked or undercooked crawfish. Microscopic identification of parasite eggs has been the gold standard. Serologic tests have been developed to aid in the diagnosis. Patients typically present with fever and hemoptysis. Common CT findings include pleural effusion, a mass, and lymphadenopathy. Awareness of P. kellicotti is important to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and ensuring proper treatment. PMID:27213066

  19. FACTORS PROMOTING 'IN VITRO' EXCYSTATION OF 'GIARDIA MURIS' CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia muris cysts, isolated from mouse feces, excysted routinely at levels greater than 90%, when induced in 1X Hanks' supplemented with 17 mM glutathione, 29 mM L-cysteine-HC1, and 50 mM NaHCO3 for 30 minutes at 35 deg. C, followed by washing and suspension in trypsin-Tyrode's...

  20. Ectopic (subcutaneous) Paragonimus miyazakii infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Madarame, H; Suzuki, H; Saitoh, Y; Tachibana, M; Habe, S; Uchida, A; Sugiyama, H

    2009-09-01

    Ectopic infection with Paragonimus miyazakii was determined to be the cause of a subcutaneous inguinal mass in a 15-month-old, male, boar-hunting dog. On histologic examination, the mass comprised granulomatous panniculitis, intralesional adult trematodes and eggs, and lymphadenitis. Extrapulmonary paragonimosis in animals is rare. This appears to be the first report in a dog of ectopic P. miyazakii infection with mature trematodes and eggs that involved the inguinofemoral lymphocenter and surrounding subcutis. PMID:19429999

  1. Life history, excystment features, and growth characteristics of the Mediterranean harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax.

    PubMed

    Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed; Kéfi Daly-Yahia, Ons

    2015-10-01

    Studies considering the biology and ecology of the toxic bloom-forming species, Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, are rare. Our results highlight five features not described before in A. pseudogonyaulax life cycle: (i) A. pseudogonyaulax gametes showed two modes of conjugation, anisogamy and isogamy, (ii) sexual conjugation occurs either in the dark or in the light phase by engulfment or a fusion process, (iii) the presence of planozygote and newly formed cysts in monoclonal culture suggests homothallism, (iv) newly formed cysts have very dark vesicular content and are mostly unparatabulated when observed under light microscope and (v) natural resting cysts are able to give either a planomeiocyte or two vegetative cells. Cyst viability was enhanced after 5 months of cold storage (4°C), with excystment rate reaching 97% after 3 d of incubation. Excystment rate was highest (43%-79%) in Enriched Natural Sea Water diluted culture medium, whereas few germling cells were able to survive without the culture medium (0%-13%). Salinity-irradiance experiments revealed that the highest cell concentrations occur at high irradiances for all the tested salinities. Vegetative growth rates generally increased with increasing irradiance, and were less dependent on salinity variations. The relatively low growth rate, low cell densities in the laboratory, and the notable capacity of producing cysts along growth phases of A. pseudogonyaulax could explain the occurrence of high resting cysts densities in the sediment of Bizerte lagoon and the relatively low abundances of vegetative cells in the water column. PMID:26986892

  2. Encystment and excystment of the paramphistomid trematode Zygocotyle lunata.

    PubMed

    LeSage, K E; Fried, B

    2011-09-01

    This study reports further observations on encystment and excystment of the paramphistomid trematode Zygocotyle lunata. Of numerous substrates tested in the laboratory for cercarial encystment, i.e. plastic and glass dishes, Styrofoam™, aluminium foil, snail shells, and cheesecloth, all but cheesecloth allowed for 100% encystment within 4 h of cercarial release at 28°C. Numerous physical and chemical factors were tested to kill cysts, and their capacity to do so was determined by the subsequent inability of cysts to excyst within a chemical excystment medium. Vinegar, Italian salad dressing, soy sauce and 10% solutions of sucrose, acetic acid and sodium chloride were the most detrimental. Freezing, boiling and storage of cysts for more than 2 years also killed them. Several marinades such as lemon juice, Worcestershire sauce, and various concentrations of potassium permanganate, did not kill the majority of cysts tested. Since Z. lunata is a potential foodborne trematode for humans and animals, it is important to determine suitable ways to control or kill these cysts. PMID:20863421

  3. Experimental infection of Oncomelania quadrasi with Paragonimus ohirai.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, K; Blas, B L; Santos, A T

    1984-06-01

    Two hundred Oncomelania quadrasi collected from Leyte, Philippines were exposed to infection with Paragonimus ohirai, a rodent type lung fluke. In a group, each snail was exposed individually to 10 miracidia hatched from eggs which were brought from Japan to the Philippines. In another group, 100 snails were placed in a Petri dish and P. ohirai miracidia were added to provide 10 per snail. The observations were made each successive week after exposure. All the snails examined were positive for the larvae of P. ohirai. Nine-ten weeks after exposure, many cercariae were recognized. It was proved that O. quadrasi is highly susceptible to P. ohirai. PMID:6505784

  4. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  5. Molecular identification of a case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus infection in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-10-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98-100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99-100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90-95%. PMID:22826489

  6. Molecular Identification of a Case of Paragonimus pseudoheterotremus Infection in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Imtawil, Kanokwan; Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Nawa, Yukifumi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2012-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Southeast Asia, Paragonimus heterotremus is the only proven causative pathogen. Recently, a new Paragonimus species, P. pseudoheterotremus, was found in Thailand. This species is genetically similar to P. heterotremus and is considered as a sister species. However, infectivity or pathogenicity of P. pseudoheterotremus to humans remains unclear. We report the first confirmed human pulmonary paragonimiasis case caused by P. pseudoheterotremus infection. After polymerase chain reaction/sequencing of the DNA extracted from Paragonimus eggs in the sputum of the patient, partial internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences were approximately identical (98–100%) with those of P. pseudoheterotremus. For P. heterotremus, the partial internal transcribed spacer 2 sequence was approximately identical (99–100%), but the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence showed a similarity of 90–95%. PMID:22826489

  7. Cryptosporidium excystation and invasion: getting to the guts of the matter.

    PubMed

    Smith, Huw V; Nichols, Rosely A B; Grimason, Anthony M

    2005-03-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum excystation and host cell invasion have been characterized in some detail ultrastructurally. However, until recently, the biochemical and molecular basis of host-parasite interactions and parasite- and host-specific molecules involved in excystation, motility and host cell invasion have been poorly understood. This article describes our understanding of Cryptosporidium excystation and the events leading to host cell invasion, and draws from information available about these processes in other apicomplexans. Many questions remain but, once the specific mechanisms are identified, they could prove to be novel targets for drug delivery. PMID:15734661

  8. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Morley, N J; Crane, M; Lewis, J W

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of cadmium, zinc and cadmium/zinc mixtures at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 50000 microg/l were investigated against cercariae and metacercariae of Parorchis acanthus obtained from the dog whelk Nucella lapillus. Cercarial encystment at concentrations of 25000 microg/l or higher was significantly impaired by all test metals; however, at lower concentrations only zinc demonstrated toxicity. Mixtures of cadmium and zinc had a synergistic effect compared with single metal toxicity but only at 50000 microg/l. Excystment in vitro was only significantly affected by cercariae exposed to cadmium/zinc mixtures whilst encysting. Twenty-four h exposures of fully formed cysts had no effect on excystment in vitro. Effects on in vitro excystment rates over a 2 h period demonstrated widespread effects for cercariae-exposed P. acanthus. No effects were evident on excystment rates of cyst-exposed parasites. PMID:11197767

  9. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T.; Segel, Nicholas H.; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:26543803

  10. In vitro excystation of Cryptosporidium muris oocysts and viability of released sporozoites in different incubation media.

    PubMed

    Melicherová, Janka; Mazourová, Veronika; Valigurová, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and document the excystation process of Cryptosporidium muris oocysts in various incubation media, and to monitor the behaviour of excysting and freshly excysted sporozoites. A test of oocyst viability, using fluorescent double staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, was performed prior to each experimental assay. Light microscope observations confirmed that relatively often only three sporozoites were released; the fourth one either left the oocyst later together with a residual body or remained trapped within the oocyst wall. These results suggest that successful oocyst excystation is not limited by the viability of all four sporozoites. Darkening of oocysts to opaque and their specific movement (the so-called "oocyst dancing") preceded the final excystation and liberation of sporozoites, while the dormant oocysts appeared refractive. The process of excystation in C. muris is not gradual as generally described in cryptosporidia but very rapid in an eruptive manner. Experiments were performed using oocysts stored at 4 °C for various time periods, as well as oocysts freshly shed from host rodents (Mastomys coucha) of different ages. The most suitable medium supporting high excystation rate (76 %) and prolonged motility of sporozoites was RPMI 1640, enriched with 5 % bovine serum albumin (BSA). Our results emphasize that to reliably evaluate the success of in vitro excystation of cryptosporidia, not only the number of released sporozoites in a set time period should be taken into consideration but also their subsequent activity (motility), as it is expected to be essential for the invasion of host cells. PMID:26678654

  11. North American Paragonimiasis (Caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the Context of Global Paragonimiasis

    PubMed Central

    Procop, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Paragonimus species are highly evolved parasites with a complex life cycle that involves at least three different hosts, i.e., snails, crustaceans, and mammals. The adult forms of Paragonimus species reside and mate in the lungs of a variety of permissive mammalian hosts, including humans. Although human paragonimiasis is uncommonly encountered in North America, both autochthonous and imported disease may be encountered. Paragonimus kellicotti, the species endemic to North America, is a well-known pathogen in wild and domestic animals. Five patients with North American paragonimiasis have been reported in the recent medical literature. The biologic, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory features of paragonimiasis are reviewed, with emphasis on North American paragonimiasis whenever possible. PMID:19597007

  12. Molecular and biochemical characterization of Paragonimus westermani tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Ahn, C-S; Kim, J-G; Kong, Y

    2015-05-01

    Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5.0 to 8.0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype. PMID:25621413

  13. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-11-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  14. Current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero, Daniel; Castañeda, Byron; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    A review of national and international publications on paragonimiasis in Ecuador, epidemiological records from the Ministry of Public Health and unpublished research data was conducted to summarise the current status of the parasite/disease. The purpose of the review is to educate physicians, policy-makers and health providers on the status of the disease and to stimulate scientific investigators to conduct further research. Paragonimiasis was first diagnosed in Ecuador 94 years ago and it is endemic to both tropical and subtropical regions in 19 of 24 provinces in the Pacific Coast and Amazon regions. Paragonimus mexicanus is the only known species in the country, with the mollusc Aroapyrgus colombiensis and the crabs Moreirocarcinus emarginatus, Hypolobocera chilensis and Hypolobocera aequatorialis being the primary and secondary intermediate hosts, respectively. Recent studies found P. mexicanus metacercariae in Trichodactylus faxoni crabs of the northern Amazon. Chronic pulmonary paragonimiasis is commonly misdiagnosed and treated as tuberculosis and although studies have demonstrated the efficacy of praziquantel and triclabendazole for the treatment of human infections, neither drug is available in Ecuador. Official data recorded from 1978-2007 indicate an annual incidence of 85.5 cases throughout the 19 provinces, with an estimated 17.2% of the population at risk of infection. There are no current data on the incidence/prevalence of infection, nor is there a national control programme. PMID:25410987

  15. Paragonimus paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Vientiane Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Habe, Shigehisa; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Yahiro, Shinichiro; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Barennes, Hubert; Odermatt, Peter; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2013-12-01

    Among Paragonimus species, P. paishuihoensis is one of the most mysterious and poorly understood species. Metacercariae are characterized by having a unique dendritically branched excretory bladder. However, the morphology of the adult worm remains unknown. To date, metacercariae of this species have been reported only in China and Thailand. In this study, we first found P. paishuihoensis metacercariae in freshwater crabs, Potamon lipkei, in Hinheub District, Vientiane, Lao PDR, with a prevalence of 77.7% and the average intensity of 10.3 (range 1-28) metacercariae per crab. The molecular data based on ITS2 and CO1 markers indicated that P. paishuihoensis from Laos and Thailand were almost completely identical and were close to members of the Paragonimus bangkokensis/Paragonimus harinasutai complex. Attempts to infect experimental animals (cats, dogs, and rats) with P. paishuihoensis were unsuccessful, suggesting that these animals might be unsuitable definitive hosts for the species. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the taxonomic status and life cycle of P. paishuihoensis. PMID:24516274

  16. Compounds of the upper gastrointestinal tract induce rapid and efficient excystation of Entamoeba invadens

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Biswa Nath; Pradel, Gabriele; Frevert, Ute; Eichinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The infective stage of Entamoeba parasites is an encysted form. This stage can be readily generated in vitro, which has allowed identification of stimuli that trigger the differentiation of the parasite trophozoite stage into the cyst stage. Studies of the second differentiation event, emergence of the parasite from the cyst upon infection of a host, have been hampered by the lack of an efficient means to excyst the parasite and complete the life cycle in vitro. We have determined that a combination of exposures to water, bicarbonate and bile induces rapid excystment of Entamoeba invadens cysts. The high efficiency of this method has allowed the visualization of the dynamics of the process by electron and confocal microscopy, and should permit the analysis of stage-specific gene expression and high through-put screening of inhibitory compounds. PMID:20018192

  17. Discovery of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam and its molecular phylogenetic status in P. westermani complex.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Shinohara, Akio; Horii, Yoichiro; Habe, Shigehisa; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-04-01

    Paragonimus westermani is the most well-known species among the genus Paragonimus. It is widely distributed in Asia with considerable genetic diversity to form P. westermani species complex. While P. westermani distributed in Japan, Korea, China, and Taiwan are genetically homogeneous to form the East Asia group, those found in other geographic areas are heterogeneous and would be divided into several groups. Recent discoveries of P. westermani in India and Sri Lanka highlighted new insights on molecular phylogenetic relationship of geographic isolates of this species complex. Since Vietnam is located at the east end of Southeast Asia, the intermediate position between South and East Asia, it is of interest to see whether P. westermani is distributed in this country. Here, we report that P. westermani metacercariae were found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus sp., collected in Quangtri province in the central Vietnam. Adult worms were successfully obtained by experimental infection in cats. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. westermani of Vietnamese isolates have high similarities with those of East Asia group. PMID:19083013

  18. Comparison of animal infectivity, excystation, and fluorogenic dye as measures of Giardia muris cyst inactivation by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Labatiuk, C.W.; Finch, G.R.; Belosevic, M. ); Schaefer, F.W. III )

    1991-11-01

    Giardia muris cyst viability after ozonation was compared by using fluorescein diacetate-ethidium bromide staining, the C3H/HeN mouse-G. muris model, and in vitro excystation. Bench-scale batch experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions (pH 6.7, 22C) in ozone-demand-free phosphate buffer. There was a significant difference between fluorogenic staining and infectivity with fluorogenic staining overestimating viability compared with infectivity estimates of viability. This suggests that viable cysts as indicated by fluorogenic dyes may not be able to complete the life cycle and produce an infection. No significant differences between infectivity and excystation and between fluorogenic staining and excystation were detected for inactivations up to 99.9%. Only animal infectivity had the sensitivity to detect inactivations greater than 99.9%. Therefore, the animal model is the best method currently available for detecting high levels of G. muris cyst inactivation.

  19. Putative cis-Regulatory Elements Associated with Heat Shock Genes Activated During Excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Ana M.; Serrano, Myrna; Sheth, Nihar; Buck, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidiosis is a ubiquitous infectious disease, caused by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum, leading to acute, persistent and chronic diarrhea worldwide. Although the complications of this disease can be serious, even fatal, in immunocompromised patients of any age, they have also been found to lead to long term effects, including growth inhibition and impaired cognitive development, in infected immunocompetent children. The Cryptosporidium life cycle alternates between a dormant stage, the oocyst, and a highly replicative phase that includes both asexual vegetative stages as well as sexual stages, implying fine genetic regulatory mechanisms. The parasite is extremely difficult to study because it cannot be cultured in vitro and animal models are equally challenging. The recent publication of the genome sequence of C. hominis and C. parvum has, however, significantly advanced our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of this parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, our goal was to identify cis-regulatory elements associated with heat shock response in Cryptosporidium using a combination of in silico and real time RT-PCR strategies. Analysis with Gibbs-Sampling algorithms of upstream non-translated regions of twelve genes annotated as heat shock proteins in the Cryptosporidium genome identified a highly conserved over-represented sequence motif in eleven of them. RT-PCR analyses, described herein and also by others, show that these eleven genes bearing the putative element are induced concurrent with excystation of parasite oocysts via heat shock. Conclusions/Significance Our analyses suggest that occurrences of a motif identified in the upstream regions of the Cryptosporidium heat shock genes represent parts of the transcriptional apparatus and function as stress response elements that activate expression of these genes during excystation, and possibly at other stages in the life cycle of the parasite

  20. The effects of various chemical and physical factors on encystment and excystment of Zygocotyle lunata.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Robert C; Fried, Bernard

    2008-09-01

    The effects of various chemical and physical treatments on the cercariae and metacercariae of Zygocotyle lunata were studied. Cercariae that actively emerged from Helisoma trivolvis snails were examined in 4 ml of test solution in a 3-cm diameter Stender dish. Observations were usually made on encystment and excystment from 2 to 24 h after cercariae were placed in the Stender dishes. Preferences for certain substrates for encystment were noted, such as smooth glass rather than rough glass, the macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis, and plastic Petri dishes. Many of the solutions tested allowed for encystment, i.e., artificial spring water (ASW), 10% artificial ocean water (AOW), and saline (0.85% NaCl). Certain hypertonic solutions allowed for both in vitro encystment and subsequent excystment, i.e., Locke's solution, 25% AOW, and Locke's 1:1. Serial dilutions of ammonium hydroxide, neutral buffered formalin, potassium permanganate, hydrochloric acid, and acetic acid killed cercariae at all concentrations. Ethanol was effective in killing cercariae at all concentrations except at 3.1%, which allowed for encystment. Cercariae were able to encyst at a low temperature of 16 degrees C and a high temperature of 41 degrees C. Morphometric analysis was performed on both live and fixed cercariae of Z. lunata as well as metacercarial cysts formed in Locke's, Locke's 1:1, and ASW. Live cercariae had larger body dimensions than cercariae fixed in hot 5% neutral buffered formalin and mounted in glycerin jelly. Cysts formed in ASW had very similar length and width measurements. Cyst dimensions became less similar to one another as the tonicity of the medium increased. The phenomenon of spontaneous excystation in Z. lunata after in vitro encystment in a hypertonic medium appears to be reported for the first time in digeneans. PMID:18568444

  1. Divergent long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon families in the genome of Paragonimus westermani

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-An

    2003-01-01

    To gain information on retrotransposons in the genome of Paragonimus westermani, PCR was carried out with degenerate primers, specific to protease and reverse transcriptase (rt) genes of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, after which 12 different retrotransposon-related sequences were isolated from the trematode genome. These showed various degrees of identity to the polyprotein of divergent retrotransposon families. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these sequences could be classified into three different families of LTR retrotransposons, namely, Xena, Bel, and Gypsy families. Of these, two mRNA transcripts were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR, showing that these two elements preserved their mobile activities. The genomic distributions of these two sequences were found to be highly repetitive. These results suggest that there are diverse retrotransposons including the ancient Xena family in the genome of P. westermani, which may have been involved in the evolution of the host genome. PMID:14699263

  2. Raman spectroscopic study on the excystation process in a single unicellular organism amoeba (Acanthamoeba polyphaga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2015-05-01

    An in vivo Raman spectroscopic study of amoeba (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) is presented. The changes of the spectra during the amoeba cyst activation and excystation are analyzed. The spectra show the changes of the relative intensities of bands corresponding to protein, lipid, and carotenoid components during cyst activation. The presence of carotenoids in the amoeba is observed via characteristic Raman bands. These signals in the Raman spectra are intense in cysts but decrease in intensity with cyst activation and exhibit a correlation with the life cycle of amoeba. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for the detection of single amoeba microorganisms in vivo and for the analysis of the amoeba life activity. The information obtained may have implications for the estimation of epidemiological situations and for the diagnostics and prognosis of the development of amoebic inflammations.

  3. Emergence of the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus from a resting cyst: rupture of the cyst wall by active expansion of an excystment vacuole.

    PubMed

    Funadani, Ryoji; Suetomo, Yasutaka; Matsuoka, Tatsuomi

    2013-01-01

    The first sign of excysting Colpoda cucullus cells is the initiation of the pulsation of a contractile vacuole, which is then replaced by a non-pulsating vacuole (excystment vacuole) that continues to expand and finally ruptures the outermost cyst wall (ectocyst) due to inner pressure. A ciliate surrounded by flexible membranes (endocyst) thus emerges. The osmolarity of the excysting cells is estimated to be 140 mOsm L(-1) from the relationship between the frequency of contractile vacuole pulsation and the external sucrose concentration. Both the expansion of the excystment vacuole and the emergence of ciliates occurred even when the cysts were immersed in hypertonic medium. In hypotonic medium containing sodium azide (NaN3, a cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor), the contractile vacuole of vegetative cells stopped pulsating and gradually expanded, causing cells to burst. When C. cucullus was induced to encyst in a hypotonic medium containing NaN3, the expansion of the excystment vacuoles was inhibited. These results suggest that the active uptake of water may be responsible for the expansion of the excystment vacuole required for the ectocyst to rupture. PMID:23268793

  4. Immunoblot observation of antigenic protein fractions in Paragonimus westermani reacting with human patients sera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Kong, Yoon; Kim, Suk Il; Kang, Shin Yong; Cho, Seung Yull

    1988-12-01

    In order to observe the antigenic fractions in saline extract of adult Paragonimus westermani, proteins in the crude extract were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in reducing conditions. The separated protein fractions were transferred to nitrocellulose paper on which 20 sera from human paragonimiasis were reacted and immunoblotted. Out of 15 stained protein bands in SDS-PAGE, 7 reacted with the sera. Of 14 reacted bands, 30 kilodalton(kDa) band was the most frequently reacted (95%) and was a strong antigen. Protein bands of 23 and 46 kDa were also strong antigens. Bands of over 150 kDa, 120 kDa, 92 kDa, 86 kDa, 74 kDa, 62 kDa, 51 kDa, 32 kDa, 28 kDa, 16.5 kDa and 15.5 kDa were also reactive but their frequencies of the reaction were variable. PMID:12811037

  5. Impact of zooplankton grazing on the excystation, viability, and infectivity of the protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Connelly, S J; Wolyniak, E A; Dieter, K L; Williamson, C E; Jellison, K L

    2007-11-01

    Very little is known about the ability of the zooplankton grazer Daphnia pulicaria to reduce populations of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in surface waters. The potential for D. pulicaria to act as a biological filter of C. parvum and G. lamblia was tested under three grazing pressures (one, two, or four D. pulicaria grazers per 66 ml). (Oo)cysts (1 x 10(4) per 66 ml) were added to each grazing bottle along with the algal food Selenastrum capricornutum (6.6 x 10(4) cells per 66 ml) to stimulate normal grazing. Bottles were rotated (2 rpm) to prevent settling of (oo)cysts and algae for 24 h (a light:dark cycle of 16 h:8 h) at 20 degrees C. The impact of D. pulicaria grazing on (oo)cysts was assessed by (i) (oo)cyst clearance rates, (ii) (oo)cyst viability, (iii) (oo)cyst excystation, and (iv) oocyst infectivity in cell culture. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the total number of C. parvum oocysts by 52% and G. lamblia cysts by 44%. Furthermore, two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased C. parvum excystation and infectivity by 5% and 87%, respectively. Two D. pulicaria grazers significantly decreased the viability of G. lamblia cysts by 52%, but analysis of G. lamblia excystation was confounded by observed mechanical disruption of the cysts after grazing. No mechanical disruption of the C. parvum oocysts was observed, presumably due to their smaller size. The data provide strong evidence that zooplankton grazers have the potential to substantially decrease the population of infectious C. parvum and G. lamblia in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:17873076

  6. Newly Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... start this journey: Get a copy of your pathology report. We can help you understand the report ...

  7. Excystation and culturing of human and animal Giardia spp. by using gerbils and TYI-S-33 medium.

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, P M; Wallis, H M

    1986-01-01

    Mongolian gerbils were used as an animal model to excyst and host Giardia spp. isolated from meadow voles, dogs, beavers, and humans. Both cysts and trophozoites were used to establish infections. Gerbils were infected with Giardia duodenalis from beaver, dog, and human sources, and the trophozoites were extracted and cultured in Diamond TYI-S-33 medium. The use of gentamicin and ampicillin in the medium, coupled with treatment of gerbils with gentamicin before they were sacrificed, permitted the elimination of trophozoite purification techniques before culturing. An extract of whole bovine calf blood, CLEX, was substituted for fetal bovine serum in TYI-S-33 medium and was found to be both adequate and less expensive. PMID:3516070

  8. Serial CT Findings of Paragonimus Infested Dogs and the Micro-CT Findings of the Worm Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung-Tae; Shen, Cheng Hua; Chung, Doo Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Chang, Jung Min; Eo, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the serial CT findings of Paragonimus westermani infected dogs and the microscopic structures of the worm cysts using Micro-CT. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the committee on animal research at our institution. Fifteen dogs infected with P. westermani underwent serial contrast-enhanced CT scans at pre-infection, after 10 days of infection, and monthly thereafter until six months for determining the radiologic-pathologic correlation. Three dogs (one dog each time) were sacrificed at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. After fixation of the lungs, both multi-detector CT and Micro-CT were performed for examining the worm cysts. Results The initial findings were pleural effusion and/or subpleural ground-glass opacities or linear opacities at day 10. At day 30, subpleural and peribronchial nodules appeared with hydropneumothorax and abdominal or chest wall air bubbles. Cavitary change and bronchial dilatation began to be seen on CT scan at day 30 and this was mostly seen together with mediastinal lymphadenopathy at day 60. Thereafter, subpleural ground-glass opacities and nodules with or without cavitary changes were persistently observed until day 180. After cavitary change of the nodules, the migratory features of the subpleural or peribronchial nodules were seen on all the serial CT scans. Micro-CT showed that the cyst wall contained dilated interconnected tubular structures, which had communications with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. Conclusion The CT findings of paragonimiasis depend on the migratory stage of the worms. The worm cyst can have numerous interconnected tubular channels within its own wall and these channels have connections with the cavity and the adjacent distal bronchus. PMID:17923779

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  11. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  12. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  13. Ethanol and Isopropanol in Concentrations Present in Hand Sanitizers Sharply Reduce Excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and Eliminate Oral Infectivity of Giardia Cysts in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. PMID:26282413

  14. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Newly Diagnosed Newly Diagnosed Staging the Disease Issues ... you care about has recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer, this section will help guide you through the ...

  15. Newly Deployed Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This 8-image mosaic was acquired during the late afternoon (near 5pm LST, note the long shadows) on Sol 2 as part of the predeploy 'insurance panorama' and shows the newly deployed rover sitting on the Martian surface. This color image was generated from images acquired at 530,600, and 750 nm. The insurance panorama was designed as 'insurance' against camera failure upon deployment. Had the camera failed, the losslessly-compressed, multispectral insurance panorama would have been the main source of image data from the IMP.

    However, the camera deployment was successful, leaving the insurance panorama to be downlinked to Earth several weeks later. Ironically enough, the insurance panorama contains some of the best quality image data because of the lossless data compression and relatively dust-free state of the camera and associated lander/rover hardware on Sol 2.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  16. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  17. Newly Diagnosed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Avvisati, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a medical emergency with a high rate of early mortality. As a consequence, as soon as the diagnosis is suspected based upon cytologic criteria, it is necessary to start all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment without delay. For patients with newly diagnosed APL, induction therapy with ATRA plus anthracycline based chemotherapy is recommended. At present the combination of arsenic trioxide plus ATRA should be considered for patients who are not candidates for anthracycline-based therapy. For pediatric and adult patients with APL aged < 60 years who achieve a CR with induction, I recommend 3 intensive courses of consolidation chemotherapy associated to ATRA, targeted on the basis of the risk group at diagnosis. In patients treated with a very intensive consolidation chemotherapy maintenance treatment can be omitted. However If a maintenance treatment has to be adopted I suggest the use of intermittent ATRA for 15 days every 3 months for a period of 2 years, rather than ATRA associated to chemotherapy. Moreover, taking into account the medical literature, a reduced dosage of ATRA ( 25 mg/m2) in pediatric patients and a consolidation chemotherapy of reduced intensity in elderly patients is recommended. Furthermore, in order to maximize survival, careful attention should be reserved to the coagulopathy and to the appearance of the differentiation syndrome. Finally, PCR for the PML/RARA fusion gene on a bone marrow specimen every three months for two years, and then every six months for additional three years are needed during the follow-up. PMID:22220261

  18. Generational differences among newly licensed registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. PMID:20494691

  19. The Florida Survey of Newly Legalized Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; Nimnicht, Glen

    This study was conducted to gather more definitive information about aliens who were newly legalized under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. Two groups of eligible legal aliens were interviewed in Florida: those residing in the United States before 1982 (PRE-82s) and special agricultural workers (SAWs). The 1,300 subjects were asked…

  20. Anxiety and the Newly Returned Adult Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Michelle Navarre

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews with students who had recently returned to school, this essay demonstrates the need for, challenges of, and ways to respond to the writing anxiety many adults bring with them back to school. Jessica and Sam were two of twenty-five newly returned adult students whom the author spent over sixty hours interviewing in the fall of…

  1. Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

  2. Magnetospheric substorms - A newly emerging model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1981-01-01

    A surge of progress in magnetospheric substorm studies is expected by the following three recent developments: (1) the finding of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function epsilon, (2) the determination of the Pedersen current distribution over the entire polar region, and (3) a new understanding of the auroral potential structure. In this paper, the significance of the three developments and the newly emerging model of magnetospheric substorms is described.

  3. Magnetospheric substorms - A newly emerging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    1981-10-01

    A surge of progress in magnetospheric substorm studies is expected by the following three recent developments: (1) the finding of the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function epsilon, (2) the determination of the Pedersen current distribution over the entire polar region, and (3) a new understanding of the auroral potential structure. In this paper, the significance of the three developments and the newly emerging model of magnetospheric substorms is described.

  4. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eudes Gv; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj; Carneiro, Adriana R; Le Loir, Yves; Baumbach, Jan; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-05-26

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information. PMID:24921006

  5. The newly-found Rheticus lectures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraai, J.

    This article discusses a hitherto unknown set of lectures presumably given by Georg Joachim Rheticus, and taken down by several students in Wittenberg. These lectures offer considerable insight into Rheticus' teaching activities shortly before the publication of De Revolutionibus (1543). The most salient aspects of this newly-found text may be summarized as follows: a) Rheticus was known among the students in Wittenberg as Joachimus Heliopolitanus, i.e. Joachim of the City of the Sun - a clear reference to Rheticus' stay in Frauenburg with Copernicus, b) Rheticus returned from his stay with Copernicus to Wittenberg for a short period of time in 1540 to fulfill his professorial obligations, and c) we have 155 folio pages which document Rheticus' introductory lectures on astronomy.

  6. Understanding the newly observed heavy pentaquark candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Hai; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    We find that several thresholds can contribute to the enhancements of the newly observed heavy pentaquark candidates Pc+ (4380) and Pc+ (4450) via the anomalous triangle singularity (ATS) transitions in the specific kinematics of Λb → J / ψK- p. Apart from the observed two peaks we find that another peaks around 4.5 GeV can also be produced by the ATS. We also show that the Σc(*) can be produced at leading order in Λb decay. This process is different from the triangle diagram and its threshold enhancement only appears as CUSP effects if there is no pole structure or the ATS involved. The threshold interaction associated with the presence of the ATS turns out to be a general phenomenon and plays a crucial role in the understanding of candidates for exotic states.

  7. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony. PMID:25241502

  8. Arsenic behavior in newly drilled wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, inorganic arsenic species and chemical parameters in groundwater were determined to investigate the factors related to the distribution of arsenic species and their dissolution from rock into groundwater. For the study, groundwater and core samples were taken at different depths of two newly drilled wells in Huron and Lapeer Counties, Michigan. Results show that total arsenic concentrations in the core samples varied, ranging from 0.8 to 70.7 mg/kg. Iron concentration in rock was about 1800 times higher than that of arsenic, and there was no correlation between arsenic and iron occurrences in the rock samples. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater ranged from <1 to 171 ??g/l. The arsenic concentration in groundwater depended on the amount of arsenic in aquifer rocks, and as well decreased with increasing depth. Over 90% of arsenic existed in the form of As(III), implying that the groundwater systems were in the reduced condition. The results such as high ferrous ion, low redox potential and low dissolved oxygen supported the observed arsenic species distribution. There was no noticeable difference in the total arsenic concentration and arsenic species ratio between unfiltered and filtered (0.45 ??m) waters, indicating that the particulate form of arsenic was negligible in the groundwater samples. There were correlations between water sampling depth and chemical parameters, and between arsenic concentration and chemical parameters, however, the trends were not always consistent in both wells. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of newly established elk populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Oehler, M.W., Sr.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of newly established elk (Cervus elaphus) populations can provide insights about maximum sustainable rates of reproduction, survival, and increase. However, data used to estimate rates of increase typically have been limited to counts and rarely have included complementary estimates of vital rates. Complexities of population dynamics cannot be understood without considering population processes as well as population states. We estimated pregnancy rates, survival rates, age ratios, and sex ratios for reintroduced elk at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, USA; combined vital rates in a population projection model; and compared model projections with observed elk numbers and population ratios. Pregnancy rates in January (early in the second trimester of pregnancy) averaged 54.1% (SE = 5.4%) for subadults and 91.0% (SE = 1.7%) for adults, and 91.6% of pregnancies resulted in recruitment at 8 months. Annual survival rates of adult females averaged 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94-0.98) with hunting included and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.97-0.99) with hunting excluded from calculations. Our fitted model explained 99.8% of past variation in population estimates and represents a useful new tool for short-term management planning. Although we found no evidence of temporal variation in vital rates, variation in population composition caused substantial variation in projected rates of increase (??=1.20-1.36). Restoring documented hunter harvests and removals of elk by the National Park Service led to a potential rate of ?? = 1.26. Greater rates of increase substantiated elsewhere were within the expected range of chance variation, given our model and estimates of vital rates. Rates of increase realized by small elk populations are too variable to support inferences about habitat quality or density dependence.

  10. Newly Identified Pathogens Associated with Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Chaparro, P.J.; Gonçalves, C.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Faveri, M.; Lobão, E.; Tamashiro, N.; Duarte, P.; Feres, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the role of certain oral bacteria species in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Nevertheless, results of independent-culture diagnostic methods introduced about a decade ago have pointed to the existence of new periodontal pathogens. However, the data of these studies have not been evaluated together, which may generate some misunderstanding on the actual role of these microorganisms in the etiology of periodontitis. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the current weight of evidence for newly identified periodontal pathogens based on the results of “association” studies. This review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched up to September 2013 for studies (1) comparing microbial data of subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health and (2) evaluating at least 1 microorganism other than the already-known periodontal pathogens. From 1,450 papers identified, 41 studies were eligible. The data were extracted and registered in predefined piloted forms. The results suggested that there is moderate evidence in the literature to support the association of 17 species or phylotypes from the phyla Bacteroidetes, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes. The phylum Candidatus Saccharibacteria and the Archaea domain also seem to have an association with disease. These data point out the importance of previously unidentified species in the etiology of periodontitis and might guide future investigations on the actual role of these suspected new pathogens in the onset and progression of this infection. PMID:25074492

  11. Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, David K.; Rudy, R. J.; Bernstein, L. S.

    2008-09-01

    Newly Identified Rydberg Emission Lines in Novae David K. Lynch, Richard. J. Rudy (The Aerospace Corporation) & Lawrence S. Bernstein (Spectral Sciences, Inc.) Novae spectra in the near infrared frequently show a set of six emission lines that have not been positively identified (Williams, Longmore, & Geballe 1996, MNRAS, 279, 804; Lynch et al. 2001, AJ, 122, 2013; Rudy et al. 2002 ApJ, 573, 794; Lynch et al. 2004 Astron. J. 127, 1089-1097). These lines are at 0.8926, 1.1114, 1.1901, 1.5545, 2.0996 and 2.425 µm ± 0.005 µm. Krautter et al. (1984 A&A 137, 304) suggested that three of the lines were due to rydberg (hydrogenic) transitions in an unspecified atomic species that was in the 4th or 5th ionization stage (core charge = 4 & 5). We believe that Krautter et al.'s explanation is correct based on 4 additional lines that we have identified in the visible and near infrared spectrum of V723 Cassiopeiae. The observed Rydberg lines appear to originate from high angular momentum states with negligible quantum defects. The species cannot be determined with any certainty because in rydberg states, the outer electron sees a nucleus shielded by the inner electrons and together the inner atom appears to have a charge of +1, like hydrogen. As a result, the atom looks hydrogenic and species such as CV, NV, OV, MgV, SiV, etc. have their rydberg transitions at very similar wavelengths. All the lines represent permitted transitions, most likely formed by recombination. Atoms with core charges 4, 5 & 6 are rarely seen in the astrophysical environment because an extremely hot radiation field is necessary to ionize them. Thermonuclear runaways on the surface of a white dwarf can reach millions of degrees K, and thus there are enough X-ray photons available to achieve the necessary high ionization levels.

  12. Vitamin C nutriture in newly diagnosed diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Paik, Hee Young; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum L-ascorbic acid, vitamin C intake, and diabetes in a nested case-control study. A cross-sectional survey of diet and health was conducted in 2,048 adults with an age of 30 y or older in Yonchon County, Korea. An oral glucose tolerance test was administered to all participants. One hundred cases of newly diagnosed diabetes were identified. Two healthy controls for each case matched with age, gender, drinking status, and smoking status were selected among the survey participants. L-Ascorbic acid levels were analyzed in fasting serum samples and one 24-h dietary recall was performed. Dietary vitamin C intake of persons with diabetes was 50.1±47.6 mg/d and that of controls was 55.1±41.1 mg/d. People with diabetes (22.3±16.8 µmol/L) have lower serum ascorbic acid levels than their controls (26.3±17.0 µmol/L) and the difference was significant by paired t-test (p<0.01). The association between diabetes and serum ascorbic acid level was still significant in non-smokers (24.2±17.8 µmol/L for the diabetes group and 29.5±16.7 µmol/L for the control group, p<0.01) but not in smokers (19.4±15.7 µmol/L for the diabetes group and 21.2±16.0 µmol/L for the control group). Our results suggest that diabetes and smoking interactively affect serum ascorbic acid levels. Since this population had poor nutritional status of vitamin C, further investigation of association between serum ascorbic acid level and diabetes and smoking by the level of vitamin C consumption is warranted. PMID:20924142

  13. 40 CFR 268.38 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly identified organic toxicity characteristic wastes and newly listed coke by-product and chlorotoluene production wastes. 268.38 Section 268.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND...

  14. Higher Education, Democracy, and Development: Implications for Newly Industrialized Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the university's role in emerging economies of the Pacific Rim's Newly Industrialized Countries, noting that universities are central to educating people for technologically oriented societies, providing a voice to emerging democracies. (SM)

  15. Newly Released Inmates Account for 1 in 10 Fatal ODs

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159858.html Newly Released Inmates Account for 1 in 10 Fatal ODs Many may not realize ... the general population," Persaud added. Not only did one in 10 overdose deaths involve a recently released ...

  16. Diffusional spread and confinement of newly exocytosed synaptic vesicle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gimber, Niclas; Tadeus, Georgi; Maritzen, Tanja; Schmoranzer, Jan; Haucke, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmission relies on the calcium-triggered exocytic fusion of non-peptide neurotransmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the presynaptic membrane at active zones (AZs) followed by compensatory endocytic retrieval of SV membranes. Here, we study the diffusional fate of newly exocytosed SV proteins in hippocampal neurons by high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Newly exocytosed SV proteins rapidly disperse within the first seconds post fusion until confined within the presynaptic bouton. Rapid diffusional spread and confinement is followed by slow reclustering of SV proteins at the periactive endocytic zone. Confinement within the presynaptic bouton is mediated in part by SV protein association with the clathrin-based endocytic machinery to limit diffusional spread of newly exocytosed SV proteins. These data suggest that diffusion, and axonal escape of newly exocytosed vesicle proteins, are counteracted by the clathrin-based endocytic machinery together with a presynaptic diffusion barrier. PMID:26399746

  17. Diffusional spread and confinement of newly exocytosed synaptic vesicle proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimber, Niclas; Tadeus, Georgi; Maritzen, Tanja; Schmoranzer, Jan; Haucke, Volker

    2015-09-01

    Neurotransmission relies on the calcium-triggered exocytic fusion of non-peptide neurotransmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the presynaptic membrane at active zones (AZs) followed by compensatory endocytic retrieval of SV membranes. Here, we study the diffusional fate of newly exocytosed SV proteins in hippocampal neurons by high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Newly exocytosed SV proteins rapidly disperse within the first seconds post fusion until confined within the presynaptic bouton. Rapid diffusional spread and confinement is followed by slow reclustering of SV proteins at the periactive endocytic zone. Confinement within the presynaptic bouton is mediated in part by SV protein association with the clathrin-based endocytic machinery to limit diffusional spread of newly exocytosed SV proteins. These data suggest that diffusion, and axonal escape of newly exocytosed vesicle proteins, are counteracted by the clathrin-based endocytic machinery together with a presynaptic diffusion barrier.

  18. Direct visualization of identified and newly synthesized proteins in situ

    PubMed Central

    Dieck, Susanne tom; Kochen, Lisa; Hanus, Cyril; Bartnik, Ina; Nassim-Assir, Belquis; Merk, Katrin; Mosler, Thorsten; Garg, Sakshi; Bunse, Stefanie; Tirrell, David A.; Schuman, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a dynamic process to tune the cellular proteome to internal and external demands. Metabolic labeling approaches identify the general proteomic response but missing is a tool to visualize within cells specific newly synthesized proteins. Here we describe a technique that couples non-canonical amino acid tagging or puromycylation with the proximity-ligation assay to visualize identified newly synthesized proteins and monitor their origin, redistribution and turnover in situ. PMID:25775042

  19. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM METALLOAMINOPEPTIDASE INHIBITORS PREVENT IN VITRO EXCYSTATION. (R824759)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. 'GIARDIA MURIS': ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF 'IN VITRO' EXCYSTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giardia muris cysts were examined by TEM before treatment, post-induction, and at timed intervals during incubation. Untreated G. muris cysts had a thick cyst wall composed of a fibrous outer wall and a thin, electron dense inner membrane which extended from the trophozoite plasm...

  1. Advances in the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Theeler, Brett J; Gilbert, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a refractory malignancy with limited treatment options at tumor recurrence. Only a small proportion of patients survive 2 years or longer with the current standard of care. Gene expression profiling can segregate newly diagnosed patients into groups with different prognoses, and these biomarkers are being incorporated into a new generation of personalized clinical trials. Using the experience from recently completed large scale, multi-faceted, randomized glioblastoma clinical trials, a new clinical trial paradigm is being established to move promising therapies forward into the newly diagnosed treatment setting. Upcoming trials using the immune check-point inhibitors are an example of this changing paradigm and these and other immunotherapies have potential as promising new treatment modalities for newly diagnosed GB patients. PMID:26646075

  2. [Principles of nutrition in patients with newly appointed stoma].

    PubMed

    Pachocka, Lucyna Małgorzata; Urbanik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of intestinal stoma is often a difficult experience for patients and results in numerous problems in the physical, psychological and social aspects. Therefore, post-operative care of the patient with the newly appointed stoma should be taken by therapeutic team consisting of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, psychologists and social workers. Appropriate nutritional education of patients aims to improve their quality of life and to prevent from unpleasant ailments formed after the operation. The specific type of stoma may decide about certain dietary recommendations. The presented work provides a practical dietary recommendations for patients with newly appointed stoma. PMID:27162293

  3. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Filho, Edismauro Garcia Freitas; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. PMID:27578923

  4. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zanotto, Camila Ziliotto

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators. PMID:27578923

  5. Dilemmas of a Newly Recruited Academic Qualified Professor: A Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the situation of a newly recruited academic professor who volunteered to teach a course on Research Methods to first-term MBA students in a practitioner-oriented case method Business School. Research Methods is a unique course due to its relevance not only in business but also across all graduate programs. Instructional and…

  6. Enhancing the Employability of Newly Qualified Nurses: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dray, Beattie; Burke, Linda; Hurst, Heather M.; Ferguson, Anne; Marks-Maran, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Vocationally based higher education programmes are meant to prepare people for employment in their chosen fields of study. In nursing, historically, employment after qualifying has been almost assured, with sufficient vacancies available for newly qualified nurses. Recently, however, for a number of reasons, primarily related to economic…

  7. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  8. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  9. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  10. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  11. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  12. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL,...

  13. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  14. Nuclear reaction effects in use of newly recommended quality factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The biological risk for energetic ion exposure cannot be reliably estimated exclusive of the target nuclear reaction products produced within the local tissue. A theoretical basis is derived for evaluating target fragment contributions that are evaluated for the newly proposed quality factor.

  15. Impact of weed barriers on newly planted peach trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newly planted (Feb. 2005) ‘Sunracer’ and ‘Sunhome’ nectarine and ‘Tropic Snow’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) trees were subjected to conventional and four 'organic' weed control methods. Two of the 'organic' methods used weed barriers of white plastic (WP) or landscape fabric (LF). A third co...

  16. Field Performance of a Newly Developed Upflow Filtration Device

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research is to examine the removal capacities of a newly developed Upflow filtration device for treatment of stormwater. The device was developed by engineers at the University of Alabama through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant from the U....

  17. Creating a Positive School Culture in Newly Opened Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Michael Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective practices by school administrators when creating school culture in newly opened schools. Using semi-structured interviews, four principals who opened a new school were interviewed individually and in a focus group. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. Two themes…

  18. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  19. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  20. Recontextualising Professional Knowledge--Newly Qualified Nurses and Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeby, Jens-Christian; Vagan, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the discrepancy between newly qualified nurses' and physicians' assessment of acquired knowledge in education and their assessment of the knowledge demands in occupational practice. Knowledge learned in educational institutions is traditionally conceived as general and decontextualised with great potential for transmission…

  1. Self-Regulation in Newly Arrived International Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda Grey; Miller, Laurie C.

    2011-01-01

    Many newly arrived international adoptees (IA) have difficulties with eating, sleeping, and self-soothing/self-stimulating (SS) behaviors. However, to date the prevalence of these problems and associated risk factors have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we proposed to evaluate 387 IA for the presence of these self-regulation and behavioral…

  2. Oral Definitions of Newly Learned Words: An Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared patterns of errors in the oral definitions of newly learned words. Fifteen 9- to 11-year-old children with language learning disability (LLD) and 15 typically developing age-matched peers inferred the meanings of 20 nonsense words from four novel reading passages. After reading, children provided oral definitions…

  3. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal ...

  4. Why does A&E attract newly qualified registered nurses?

    PubMed

    Cronin, Gerard; Cronin, Camille

    2006-04-01

    Workforce planning is a particular buzzword that nurse managers must grapple with and now must understand. They must develop strategies to ensure the life and growth of a department while incorporating numerous government targets to ensure the service reaches quality, achieves and meets predetermined goals. To do all this that manager needs a workforce. The recruitment of nursing staff to a specialist area such as Accident & Emergency (A&E) requires a level of creativity and sustained effort. Newly qualified registered nurse working in A&E have, in the past, been considered to be an unusual group of staff to apply to work in A&E. However, many health service managers receive applications from staff in this category and are often encouraged to recruit newly qualified registered nurse's rather than pay for agency workers. Using a qualitative approach this paper explores the key reasons why newly qualified registered nurses choose to work in an Accident & Emergency environment. Data was collected from a sample of 25 newly qualified registered nurses and analysed thematically. Five themes are presented: challenge, teamwork, diversity, support, and learning. These themes have implications for Accident and Emergency units and human resource and workforce planning departments. PMID:16464593

  5. The Newly Qualified Teacher in the Working Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the working community, this article concentrates on the newly qualified foreign language teachers' (NQT) experiences and on factors that promoted or prevented the development of professional expertise at the outset of their working life. It draws on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted at the University of Jyväskylä,…

  6. Resume Writing in Russia and the Newly Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Betsy; Sapp, David Alan; Sargsyan, Nelly

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the teaching of resume writing at one university in Russia and several institutions in the Newly Independent States (NIS). The authors explore challenges including variable cultural norms for written versus oral communication, severe financial and material hardship in the educational sector, cultural discomfort with the norms…

  7. 26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View of fully flooded drydock with caisson opened. Newly arrived submarine is being placed in position. Berthed submarine on right is same as that seen in photo WA-116-25. Camera is pointed S from bulkhead. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  9. The Circulation of Newly Formed Deep Water in the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, M.; Kieke, D.; Steinfeldt, R.

    2012-04-01

    The circulation of newly formed deep water masses (Labrador Sea Water, LSW, and Denmark Strait Overflow Water, DSOW) is examined by discussing the distribution of two parameters (age τ and fraction F of young water) calculated from the chlorofluorocarbon data measured between 1980 and 2005 in the Atlantic. Compared to previous studies, a much larger data set was used with an improved gridding procedure, allowing to resolve the distributions in more detail.

  10. Visualisation of newly synthesised collagen in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oostendorp, Corien; Uijtdewilligen, Peter J.E.; Versteeg, Elly M.; Hafmans, Theo G.; van den Bogaard, Ellen H.; de Jonge, Paul K.J.D.; Pirayesh, Ali; Von den Hoff, Johannes W.; Reichmann, Ernst; Daamen, Willeke F.; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying collagen produced de novo by cells in a background of purified collagenous biomaterials poses a major problem in for example the evaluation of tissue-engineered constructs and cell biological studies to tumor dissemination. We have developed a universal strategy to detect and localize newly deposited collagen based on its inherent association with dermatan sulfate. The method is applicable irrespective of host species and collagen source. PMID:26738984

  11. 35. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE NEWLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE NEWLY CONSTRUCTED NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER. NORTH TRAINING WALL AND FEDERAL CHANNEL ARE AT FAR RIGHT. Dated 23 April 1942. U.S. Navy photograph from the Fleet Industrial Supply Center archive (FISCO; Naval Supply Center, Oakland). Original print on file at the Port of Oakland, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Deamination of newly-formed dopamine in rat renal tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. H.; Pestana, M.; Soares-da-Silva, P.

    1991-01-01

    1. The present study has examined the formation of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in slices of the rat renal cortex and the renal medulla loaded with exogenous L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). The effects of pargyline and of two selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) types A and B, respectively Ro 41-1049 and Ro 19-6327, on the deamination of newly-synthesized dopamine in kidney slices incubated with exogenous L-DOPA were also tested. The assay of L-DOPA, dopamine, noradrenaline and DOPAC was performed by means of h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection. 2. Incubation of renal slices with exogenous L-DOPA resulted in a concentration-dependent accumulation of dopamine and DOPAC; the tissue levels of newly-formed dopamine and DOPAC in slices of the renal medulla were 6-8% of those in cortical slices. 3. Pargyline (0.1 mM) produced a marked decrease (84% reduction) in the formation of DOPAC in kidney slices loaded with 1.0 mM L-DOPA; this effect was accompanied by a 17% increase in the accumulation of dopamine. Similar effects were obtained at higher concentrations of pargyline (0.5 and 1.0 mM). At 5.0 and 10.0 mM pargyline, a marked decrease (46 and 76% reduction) in the accumulation of newly-formed dopamine was observed. 4. The accumulation of dopamine and DOPAC was found to be time-dependent in experiments in which tissues were incubated with 5 and 10 microM L-DOPA for 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Pargyline (0.1 mM) produced an increase in the accumulation of dopamine at all incubation periods and decreased the formation of DOPAC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1364853

  13. Surgical Outcomes of Newly Trained ShangRing Circumcision Providers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard K.; Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Barone, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Devices can potentially accelerate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have demonstrated advantages of the ShangRing device over conventional circumcision. With the need to train providers rapidly for scale-up, concerns arise about the transferability of techniques and the expertise of new trainees. Methods: We compared outcomes of ShangRing circumcisions conducted in Kenya by experienced providers (experience with more than 100 ShangRing circumcisions) and newly trained providers (trained in Kenya by the experienced providers before the study began). During training, trainees performed at least 7 ShangRing circumcisions and 3 removals. Newly trained providers received intermittent clinical mentoring initially during the study but otherwise conducted circumcisions on their own. Results: Four hundred six and 115 ShangRing procedures were performed by the new trainees and the experienced providers, respectively. The mean duration of circumcisions was 6.2 minutes for both trained and experienced provider groups (P = 0.45), whereas the mean pain score (on an 11-point scale) was 2.5 and 3.2, respectively (P = 0.65). There was no difference in the proportion of participants healed by the day 42 visit (P = 0.13) nor in the incidence of moderate and severe adverse events observed (P = 0.16). Participants in both groups were equally satisfied with final wound cosmesis. Discussion: Results demonstrate that the ShangRing circumcision technique is easy to learn and master. Newly trained providers can safely conduct ShangRing circumcisions in routine service settings. The ShangRing can facilitate rapid rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27331584

  14. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W.D.; Setaro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP.

  15. Inverse Association of Serum Docosahexaenoic Acid With Newly Diagnosed Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Wang, Feng-Lei; Yu, Wei; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Observational studies on circulating fatty acid (FA) and primary prevention of hypertension have yielded inconsistent results, and the association among the Chinese population is not fully clear. The aim of the study was to discern important FAs that can discriminate hypertensive patients from normotensive persons, and investigate associations between the important FAs and risk of hypertension. We conducted a case-control study nested within a community-based cohort of 2447 Chinese participants aged 35 to 79 years who completed a baseline assessment between October 2012 and April 2013. In all, 480 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension were identified at baseline and 480 normotensive individuals were randomly selected as matched normotensive controls. Controls were individually matched to cases by age (±2 y), sex, and recruitment center, with a 1:1 case-to-control ratio. Serum FA profile was compared between cases and controls by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for newly diagnosed hypertension was estimated by a conditional logistical analysis. After adjustment for body mass index, education, profession, family history of hypertension, salt intake, heart rate, blood lipids, and fasting glucose levels, serum FA profile in hypertensive patients was typically characterized by higher 16:0 and 16:1n-7, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3, compared with normotensive controls. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) were identified as the important FA contributing most to the intergroup separations. When comparing the highest and lowest quartile of FA composition, newly diagnosed hypertension was negatively associated with 22:6n-3 (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45–0.93; P for trend = 0.02), but positively associated with 16:1n-7 (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46–3.12; P for trend < 0.001). The associations remained pronounced after multiple adjustments and in further stratified

  16. Insights into newly discovered marks and readers of epigenetic information.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Forest H; Strahl, Brian D; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2016-08-18

    The field of chromatin biology has been advancing at an accelerated pace. Recent discoveries of previously uncharacterized sites and types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the identification of new sets of proteins responsible for the deposition, removal, and reading of these marks continue raising the complexity of an already exceedingly complicated biological phenomenon. In this Perspective article we examine the biological importance of new types and sites of histone PTMs and summarize the molecular mechanisms of chromatin engagement by newly discovered epigenetic readers. We also highlight the imperative role of structural insights in understanding PTM-reader interactions and discuss future directions to enhance the knowledge of PTM readout. PMID:27538025

  17. Newly licensed registered nurse job turnover and turnover intent.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Through survey data, this study examines job leaving behaviors of newly licensed registered nurses and identifies educational and managerial issues that need to be addressed to retain them. Within 1.5-2.5 years of graduating, one third of all respondents had left their first job, most for work-related reasons. Predictors of job leaving or intentions to leave included not having had a good orientation, information issues, having difficulties doing a good job, not being rewarded fairly, and low job satisfaction. PMID:25237913

  18. Acute hemolysis in a patient with a newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian G; Grossman, Stuart A

    2016-07-01

    We describe a 62-year-old of Egyptian origin who presented with sudden, severe and symptomatic anemia requiring hospitalization shortly after beginning concurrent radiation and temozolomide for his newly diagnosed glioblastoma. He had also recently been started on steroids, anticonvulsants and Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis. He was ultimately diagnosed with G6PD deficiency with an acute hemolytic anemia precipitated by dapsone. Screening for G6PD deficiency should be considered in high-risk patient populations where P. jirovecii prophylaxis is planned. PMID:27230975

  19. Operational and financial performance of newly established hospices.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J; Thompson, Jon M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the financial and operating performance of newly established, free- standing hospices relative to existing, freestanding hospices. A nonparametric median test was used to compare the median values of operating and financial performance measures between newly established hospices and existing hospices. Operating and financial data were measured for the 2 groups using cost report data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The authors sampled 44 new, freestanding hospices and selected 312 freestanding existing hospices and analyzed their data over 2 years from 2002 to 2003. The study found that 91% of these new hospices were owned by for-profit organizations and were located in the southern region of the United States. New hospices served fewer patients; however, they had a longer length of stay compared to existing hospices. They offered fewer imaging services and radiation therapy services. New hospices generated significantly higher revenue but incurred significantly higher expenses. The results suggest that longer lengths of stay allow these newer hospices to increase revenue and improve overall profitability. PMID:17060288

  20. HOW CAN NEWLY BORN RAPIDLY ROTATING NEUTRON STARS BECOME MAGNETARS?

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-05-10

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (∼10{sup 11} G) to generate an ultra-high (∼10{sup 17} G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ∼10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ∼10{sup 15} G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ∼5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  1. Chemotherapy in newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Nooshin; Peereboom, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) accounts for only 3% of brain tumors. It can involve the brain parenchyma, leptomeninges, eyes and the spinal cord. Unlike systemic lymphoma, durable remissions remain uncommon. Although phase III trials in this rare disease are difficult to perform, many phase II trials have attempted to define standards of care. Treatment modalities for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL include radiation and/or chemotherapy. While the role of radiation therapy for initial management of PCNSL is controversial, clinical trials will attempt to improve the therapeutic index of this modality. Routes of chemotherapy administration include intravenous, intraocular, intraventricular or intra-arterial. Multiple trials have outlined different methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens and have used local techniques to improve drug delivery. A major challenge in the management of patients with PCNSL remains the delivery of aggressive treatment with preservation of neurocognitive function. Because PCNSL is rare, it is important to perform multicenter clinical trials and to incorporate detailed measurements of long-term toxicities. In this review we focus on different chemotherapeutic approaches for immunocompetent patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL and discuss the role of local drug delivery in addition to systemic therapy. We also address the neurocognitive toxicity of treatment. PMID:21789140

  2. Brainstem Evoked Potential in Newly Diagnosed Patients of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Behera, Joshil Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Sood, Sushma; Madan, Harnam Singh; Das, Sibadatta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with impairment of hearing. The hearing impairment may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed. Aims: The aim is to assess the auditory pathway by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in newly diagnosed patients of subclinical hypothyroidism and healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods: The study included 25 healthy sex- and age-matched controls (Group I) and 25 patients of newly diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism (Group II). The recording was taken by using RMS EMG EP MK2 equipment. The unpaired Student's t-test was used and a P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Wave V of right ear BAEP in group II was prolonged (6 ± 0.62 ms) compared to group I (5.49 ± 0.26 ms), and wave V of left ear BAEP in group II was prolonged (5.84 ± 0.57 ms) compared to group I (5.47 ± 0.35 ms). There was no significant coefficient of correlation between wave V and inter-peak latency (IPL) I-V compared to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of both the ears. Conclusion: The prolongation of wave V in BAEPs of both ears suggests that the central auditory pathway is affected significantly in subclinical hypothyroid patients. PMID:25973399

  3. Newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia: update on diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Rajendran, Aruna; Singhi, Sunit

    2014-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) continues to intrigue pediatricians and hematologists alike. Patients can have a dramatic presentation with wide-spread bleeds over a few days. There is an aura and fear of intra-cranial hemorrhage that drives the physician to recommend and the patient's family to accept drug treatment. Difference of opinion among physicians in the recommendations for treatment is not uncommon, even though recent evidence-based guidelines recommend a conservative, observation-based approach for the majority of patients with newly diagnosed childhood ITP. It is important to note that a specific 'platelet cut-off count', is no longer suggested as an indication by itself to recommend drug therapy. The manuscript is an update on newly diagnosed ITP in children. Recent changes in definitions and recommendations for treatment are highlighted. Pros and cons of 1st line drugs, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-D are listed. Adjunctive therapies for the management of epistaxis and menorrhagia are described. Role of splenic artery embolization and emergency splenectomy in the backdrop of severe thrombocytopenia is discussed. Realistic case scenarios, common errors and frequently asked questions are included for a practical and easy reading. PMID:24091868

  4. Effects of a newly designed apparatus on orthodontic skeletal anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Tozlu, Murat; Nalbantgil, Didem; Ozdemir, Fulya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An appliance was designed to increase the cortical bone surface contact area of miniscrew implants (MSIs). The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of this appliance on the anchorage force resistance and the stability of orthodontic MSIs. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 MSIs were placed into bone specimens prepared from the ilium of bovines. Half were placed with the newly designed apparatus and half were placed conventionally. All the specimens were subjected to tangential force loading perpendicular to the MSI with lateral displacement of 0.6 mm, using an Instron Universal Testing machine. The maximum removal torque of each tested specimen was also recorded. Both study and control groups were divided into two subgroups based on whether they had thin and thick cortical bone. Results: The test group had statistically higher force anchorage resistance and maximum insertion torque values than the control group (P < 0.001). The results were found to be more significant in cases in which the cortical bone was thin (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limits of this in vitro study, the present findings suggest that the newly designed apparatus might have a favorable effect on MSI stability in patients presenting with thin cortical bone. Clinical studies are necessary to confirm the results that were observed in vitro. PMID:24966734

  5. May we practise endotracheal intubation on the newly dead?

    PubMed Central

    Ardagh, M

    1997-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a valuable procedure which must be learnt and practised, and performing ETI on cadavers is probably the best way to do this, although lesser alternatives do exist. Performing ETI on a cadaver is viewed with a real and reasonable repugnance and if it is done without proper authorisation it might be illegal. Some form of consent is required. Presumed consent would preferably be governed by statute and should only occur if the community is well informed and therefore in a position of being able to decline. Currently neither statute nor adequate informing exists. Endotracheal intubation on the newly dead may be justifiable according to a Guttman scale if the patient has already consented to organ donation and if further research supports the relevance of the Guttman scale to this question. A "mandated choice" with prior individual consent as a matter of public policy is the best of these solutions, however until such a solution is in place we may not practise endotracheal intubation on the newly dead. PMID:9358348

  6. Determination of Atterberg limits using newly devised mud press machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayabali, Kamil; Akturk, Ozgur; Fener, Mustafa; Ozkeser, Ali; Ustun, Ayla Bulut; Dikmen, Orhan; Harputlugil, Furkan; Asadi, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    Consistency limits are one of the most prominent parameters to be determined in geotechnical investigations. While these limits are akin to one another, different tools determine each one. Each method of determining consistency limits has its own uncertainties, the operator dependency being the top source of uncertainty. Liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) tests have a number of uncertainties affecting the test results. The very speculative nature of the bead-rolling method for the plastic limit has long been known. Besides this, its results can be barely accepted as quantitative. In the past, a number of attempts have been made to eliminate these setbacks for Atterberg limits. The scope of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of newly developed "mud press method (MPM)" to predict the two consistency limits. The material employed for this investigation covers 275 soils, whose liquid limits range from 28 to 166. The log(a) and 1/b parameters obtained from the MPM method were correlated to results of the conventional methods. The PL and LL for each soil were predicted using empirical forms and were compared with the laboratory values. Remarkably good matches were obtained between the conventionally determined test results and the predicted values for the liquid and plastic limits. The newly developed tool is superior in several aspects to the available conventional methods and tools.

  7. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  8. Newly hatched chicks solve the visual binding problem.

    PubMed

    Wood, Justin N

    2014-07-01

    For an organism to perceive coherent and unified objects, its visual system must bind color and shape features into integrated color-shape representations in memory. However, the origins of this ability have not yet been established. To examine whether newborns can build an integrated representation of the first object they see, I raised newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus) in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object. This object rotated continuously, revealing a different color and shape combination on each of its two faces. Chicks were able to build an integrated representation of this object. For example, they reliably distinguished an object defined by a purple circle and yellow triangle from an object defined by a purple triangle and yellow circle. This result shows that newborns can begin binding color and shape features into integrated representations at the onset of their experience with visual objects. PMID:24840718

  9. The Newly Identified T Helper 22 Cells Lodge in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Rastegar Pouyani, Mohsen; Navabi, Shadi sadat; Yazdani, Reza; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a hematological tumor in which the malignant myeloid or lymphoid subsets play a pivotal role. Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4+ T cells with distinguished gene expression, function and specific properties apart from other known CD4+ T cell subsets.Th22 cells are characterized by production of a distinct profile of effector cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of Th22 and cytokine IL-22 are increased and positively related to inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recently, several studies have reported the changes in frequency and function of Th22 in acute leukemic disorders as AML and ALL. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of leukemic disease. PMID:26261700

  10. Radiation grafted adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Ting, T. M.; Abbasi, Ali; Layeghi-moghaddam, Alireza; Sara Alinezhad, S.; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation induced grafting (RIG) is acquired to prepare a number of adsorbents for newly emerging environmental applications using a single route involving RIG of glycidymethacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven fabric. The grafted fabric was subjected to one of three functionalization reactions to impart desired ionic characters. This included treatment with (1) N-dimethyl-D-glucamine, (2) triethylamine and (3) triethylamine and alkalisation with KOH. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to study the changes in chemical and physical structures of the obtained fibrous adsorbents. The potential applications of the three adsorbents for removal of boron from solutions, capturing CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures and catalysing transesterification of triacetin/methanol to methyl acetate (biodiesel) were explored. The obtained fibrous adsorbents provide potential alternatives to granular resins for the investigated applications and require further development.

  11. Newly described or emerging human species of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Griffith, David E; Wallace, Richard J

    2002-03-01

    The advent of molecular testing in the laboratory has brought about the recognition of multiple newly characterized mycobacterial species not previously recognizable with most standard techniques. Some of the species are nonpathogenic, but the majority may cause clinical disease. Each is likely to have its own biology, drug susceptibility pattern, and response to drug/surgical therapy. Thus, it is important to try to recognize these new species in the laboratory. A study of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these new species also may help to elucidate the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these organisms. In addition, there are multiple emerging species of nontuberculous mycobacteria including M. ulcerans, M. haemophilum, M. xenopi, and M. malmoense. [table: see text] These species are being recognized increasingly as a cause of human disease and recovered within the laboratory. The clinician must learn about these new pathogens to recognize them clinically and assist the laboratory in their recovery. PMID:11917813

  12. Scent-marking in lone wolves and newly formed pairs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rothman, R.J.; Mech, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    Scent-marking was studied in wolves (Canis lupus) along 133 km of tracks in northern Minnesota during winters of 1975 to 1976 and 1976 to 1977 and in two captive packs and four captive pairs for various periods. Lone wolves, which possess neither mates nor territories, rarely marked by raised-leg urination and defaecated and urinated less along roads and trails, where territorial pairs and packs generally marked. Newly formed pairs marked the most, eventually decreasing their rates to those of established packs. Generally, wolves that scent-marked also bred, whereas non-marking wolves usually did not breed. Scent-marking apparently is important to the success of courtship in new pairs and to reproductive synchrony in established pairs, as well as serving a territorial function.

  13. Twelve tips for running teaching programmes for newly qualified doctors.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Deborah; Baker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A teaching programme for newly qualified doctors is necessary for their continuing professional development and education. However, guidelines for the logistics and content of such teaching programmes are limited. These 12 tips provide advice and guidance for the creation and development of a successful programme. This article is intended for readers who are involved in teaching; programme directors, administrators, tutors and trainee doctors themselves. The principles included will also be useful for those involved in developing other types of teaching programmes. Engagement of trainees, the education department and other staff in the hospital is crucial for the success of teaching programmes. A culture of attendance and feedback may take time and effort to establish but is absolutely essential for long-term programme viability. Innovative approaches to teaching, a range of teaching staff and coverage of varied clinical and non-clinical topics, all contribute to a strong programme. PMID:22509893

  14. Evaluation of newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to compare lubricating characteristics of Dow Corning 321 (STW4-2955, SCN No. 3) to those of Molykote 321R (STW4-2955). Ten igniter bolts were installed and torqued on test plates using the old formulation thread lubricant (Molykote 321R), and 10 bolts were installed using the new formulation (Dow Corning 321). After bolt removal, no signs of galling were found on any of the bolts or test plates threaded holes. Average torque-load values for each formulation were very close. Test results showed there are no significant differences in lubrication abilities between Molykote 321R and Dow Corning 321. It is recommended that, once current supplies of Molykote 321R are depleted, Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant be used in place of Molykote 321R as a thread lubricant on redesigned solid rocket motor assemblies.

  15. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons.

    PubMed

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 10(18) eV for parameters characteristic of a young star. PMID:26403155

  16. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    PubMed Central

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 1018 eV for parameters characteristic of a young star. PMID:26403155

  17. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    PubMed

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats. PMID:24102737

  18. How I treat newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in 2015.

    PubMed

    Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Piazza, Rocco

    2015-02-01

    The initial treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CP-CML) represents a complex process, which includes a prompt and precise diagnosis, the choice among three available tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and the initial management of care for these patients, which will protract over a very long period of time. This manuscript summarizes different data on activity, side effects, and supportive measures available for each TKI, the need for particular care in the logistical organization of CML management, the scenario which will be opened by the future availability of generic imatinib. The opinion of the authors is that imatinib remains the first-line treatment for CP-CML; this strategy, accompanied by intensive monitoring and possible dose modification/drug switch after the initial 3-12 months of treatment presently assures a normal life expectancy to the population of newly diagnosed patients with CP-CML. PMID:25370814

  19. Subclassification of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastomas through an Immunohistochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Siobhan; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Joseph, Justin V.; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Bhat, Krishna P.; Wagemakers, Michiel; Enting, Roelien H.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM) have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN) and Mesenchymal (MES) signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS) have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples. PMID:25546404

  20. Effectiveness evaluation of simulative workshops for newly licensed drivers.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud

    2014-02-01

    The current study set to examine the effects of simulator use in driving instruction on newly licensed drivers, comparing the road safety knowledge and reported intended behavior, as well as the actual driving performance of new drivers. Participants consisted of 280 newly licensed driver, of which 140 whose drivers license training included additional simulator-based lessons, and 140 drivers whose training precluded simulator-based lessons. All drivers answered questionnaires pertaining to their intended safe driving behaviors (according to Ajzen's (2000) theory of planned behavior), and to their traffic safety knowledge. Of the initial sample, 40 drivers received actual driving performance evaluation by an expert driving instructor, as well as by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs). We assumed that safer drivers report safer driving intentions, demonstrate greater traffic safety knowledge, evaluated as safer drivers by the driving instructor, and display lower and stable driving parameters on the IVDRs. We hypothesized that theoretical driving studies combined with practical training on simulators will elevate the safety level of novices driving. Hierarchical regression analyses on driving intentions indicated that drivers who did not receive simulator-based lessons demonstrated safer driving intentions compared to drivers who received simulator-based lessons. This pattern possibly indicating the drivers who received simulator-based lessons felt more confident in their driving abilities compared to drivers who did not receive simulated training. No significant difference was found in traffic safety knowledge, or in the evaluation of the expert driving instructor. IDVR data comparisons indicated drivers who received simulator-based lessons braked more often and were less prone to headway events, suggesting a more responsive driving style. These findings do not point to any significant advantage or disadvantage of the current simulator-based driving training over

  1. Dibenzothiophene desulfurization capability and evolutionary divergence of newly isolated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Akhtar, Kalsoom

    2016-08-01

    Metabolically microorganisms are diverse, and they are capable of transforming almost every known group of chemical compounds present in coal and oil in various forms. In this milieu, one of the important microbial metabolic processes is the biodesulfurization [cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S) bond] of thiophenic compounds, such as dibenzothiophene (DBT), which is the most abundant form of organic sulfur present in fossil fuels. In the current study, ten newly isolated bacterial isolates, designated as species of genera Gordonia, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium and Mycobacterium, were enriched from different samples in the presence of DBT as a sole source of organic sulfur. The HPLC analysis of the DBT grown cultures indicated the consumption of DBT and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). Detection of 2-HBP, a marker metabolite of 4S (sulfoxide-sulfone-sulfinate-sulfate) pathway, suggested that the newly isolated strains harbored metabolic activity for DBT desulfurization through the cleavage of C-S bond. The maximum 2-HBP formation rate was 3.5 µmol/g dry cell weight (DCW)/h. The phylogenetic analysis of the new isolates showed that they had diverse distribution within the phylogenetic tree and formed distinct clusters, suggesting that they might represent strains of already reported species or they were altogether new species. Estimates of evolutionary divergence showed high level of nucleotide divergence between the isolates within the same genus. The new isolates were able to use a range of heterocyclic sulfur compounds, thus making them suitable candidates for a robust biodesulfurization system for fossil fuels. PMID:26973057

  2. Newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Deborah L.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated newly qualified teachers' visions of science learning and teaching. The study also documented their preparation in an elementary science methods course. The research questions were: What educational and professional experiences influenced the instructor's visions of science learning and teaching? What visions of science learning and teaching were promoted in the participants' science methods course? What visions of science learning and teaching did these newly qualified teachers bring with them as they graduated from their teacher preparation program? How did these visions compare with those advocated by reform documents? Data sources included participants' assignments, weekly reflections, and multi-media portfolio finals. Semi-structured interviews provided the emic voice of participants, after graduation but before they had begun to teach. These data were interpreted via a combination of qualitative methodologies. Vignettes described class activities. Assertions supported by excerpts from participants' writings emerged from repeated review of their assignments. A case study of a typical participant characterized weekly reflections and final multi-media portfolio. Four strands of science proficiency articulated in a national reform document provided a framework for interpreting activities, assignments, and interview responses. Prior experiences that influenced design of the methods course included an inquiry-based undergraduate physics course, participation in a reform-based teacher preparation program, undergraduate and graduate inquiry-based science teaching methods courses, participation in a teacher research group, continued connection to the university as a beginning teacher, teaching in diverse Title 1 schools, service as the county and state elementary science specialist, participation in the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, service on a National Research Council committee, and experience teaching a

  3. Nanoformulation and antimicrobial evaluation of newly synthesized thiouracil derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Ahmed A; Bayoumy, Nesma M; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-07-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of a new series of pyridopyrimidine derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by various analytical and spectral techniques. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated as well as modeling studies were performed to investigate their ability to recognize and bind to the biotin carboxylase (BC)-active site. The results showed a broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal profile of the synthesized derivatives. Docking results demonstrated that all members of this class of new derivatives were able to recognize the active site of Escherichia coli BC and form different types of bonding interactions with key active site amino acid residues. Besides the compounds with promising antimicrobial activity in addition to 6-aminothiouracil, as control, were incorporated into polycaprolactone nanoparticles to improve their water solubility, permeability through physiological barriers and consequently enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The compounds-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using single emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, and their diameters were found to be in the range 136 ± 30 to 213 ± 28 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a spherical and dense morphology of the nanoparticles. The results also showed high entrapment efficiency of the synthesized bioactive compounds in the nanoparticles (85 ± 5% to 91 ± 2%) with a desirable in vitro biodegradation and release profiles. PMID:26559404

  4. Indicators of distress in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Merluzzi, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of cancer can present individuals with a multitude of stressors at various points in that trajectory. Psychosocial distress may appear early in the diagnostic process and have negative effects on compliance with treatment and subsequent quality of life. Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine early-phase predictors of distress before any medical treatment. Method. Consistent with the goals of the study, 123 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (20 to 74 years old) completed multiple indicators of knowledge about breast cancer management and treatment, attitudes toward cancer, social support, coping efficacy, and distress. Results. SEM analysis confirmed the hypothesized model. Age was negatively associated with the patient’s knowledge (β = − 0.22), which, in turn, was positively associated with both attitudes toward breast cancer (β = 0.39) and coping self-efficacy (β = 0.36). Self-efficacy was then directly related to psychological distress (β = − 0.68). Conclusions. These findings establish indicators of distress in patients early in the cancer trajectory. From a practical perspective, our results have implications for screening for distress and for the development of early interventions that may be followed by healthcare professionals to reduce psychological distress. PMID:26244115

  5. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas. PMID:25626569

  6. Spread of the newly emerging infectious laryngotracheitis viruses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Crumpton, Rebecca; Vaz, Paola K; Devlin, Joanne M; O'Rourke, Denise; Blacker-Smith, Hayley Patricia; Konsak-Ilievski, Barbara; Hartley, Carol A; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2016-09-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a significant viral disease of chickens in many countries around the globe. In this report the status of ILT in Australia has been used as a model to evaluate the evolution of the ILT viruses (ILTVs). Due to its geographical isolation, Australia harbored a distinct lineage of ILT viruses (ILTV) up to 2007. However examination of the ILT viruses (ILTV) involved in outbreaks between 2007 and 2009 has revealed that many of the outbreaks were caused by two new viral genotypes, class 8 and class 9. These two recombinant viruses were found to emerge as a result of recombination between previously existing live vaccine strains (SA2 and A20), and another live vaccine strain (Serva) introduced into the country in 2007. The new recombinant ILTVs were also shown to possess significantly higher virulence and replication capacity compared with a previously predominant ILTV, class 2. In the current study, examination of a large number of ILTVs isolated from outbreaks between 2009 and 2015 revealed the emergence of yet another recombinant virus (class 10) that appears to have become a predominant genotype in New South Wales. In Victoria however, the recombinant class 9 gradually became the predominant virus, replacing class 2. Therefore, there was an unusual pattern in geographical spread of the newly emerged viruses in different states of the country. These results suggest that ILTV is fast evolving towards a greater transmissibility and therefore greater capacity to spread into ILTV-free areas. PMID:27223632

  7. Indicators of distress in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chirico, Andrea; Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Merluzzi, Thomas V

    2015-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of cancer can present individuals with a multitude of stressors at various points in that trajectory. Psychosocial distress may appear early in the diagnostic process and have negative effects on compliance with treatment and subsequent quality of life. Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine early-phase predictors of distress before any medical treatment. Method. Consistent with the goals of the study, 123 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (20 to 74 years old) completed multiple indicators of knowledge about breast cancer management and treatment, attitudes toward cancer, social support, coping efficacy, and distress. Results. SEM analysis confirmed the hypothesized model. Age was negatively associated with the patient's knowledge (β = - 0.22), which, in turn, was positively associated with both attitudes toward breast cancer (β = 0.39) and coping self-efficacy (β = 0.36). Self-efficacy was then directly related to psychological distress (β = - 0.68). Conclusions. These findings establish indicators of distress in patients early in the cancer trajectory. From a practical perspective, our results have implications for screening for distress and for the development of early interventions that may be followed by healthcare professionals to reduce psychological distress. PMID:26244115

  8. Current management of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cicconi, L; Lo-Coco, F

    2016-08-01

    The management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has considerably evolved during the past two decades. The advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its inclusion in combinatorial regimens with anthracycline chemotherapy has provided cure rates exceeding 80%; however, this widely adopted approach also conveys significant toxicity including severe myelosuppression and rare occurrence of secondary leukemias. More recently, the advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO) and its use in association with ATRA with or without chemotherapy has further improved patient outcome by allowing to minimize the intensity of chemotherapy, thus reducing serious toxicity while maintaining high anti-leukemic efficacy. The advantage of ATRA-ATO over ATRA chemotherapy has been recently demonstrated in two large randomized trials and this option has now become the new standard of care in low-risk (i.e. non-hyperleukocytic) patients. In light of its rarity, abrupt onset and high risk of early death and due to specific treatment requirements, APL remains a challenging condition that needs to be managed in highly experienced centers. We review here the results of large clinical studies conducted in newly diagnosed APL as well as the recommendations for appropriate diagnosis, prevention and management of the main complications associated with modern treatment of the disease. PMID:27084953

  9. Two ways to save a newly learned motor pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Savings, or faster relearning after initial learning, demonstrates humans' remarkable ability to retain learned movements amid changing environments. This is important within the context of locomotion, as the ability of the nervous system to “remember” how to walk in specific environments enables us to navigate changing terrains and progressively improve gait patterns with rehabilitation. Here, we used a split-belt treadmill to study precisely how people save newly learned walking patterns. In Experiment 1, we investigated savings by systematically varying the learning and unlearning environments. Savings was predominantly influenced by 1) previous exposure to similar abrupt changes in the environment and 2) the amount of exposure to the new environment. Relearning was fastest when these two factors coincided, and we did not observe savings after the environment was introduced gradually during initial learning. In Experiment 2, we then studied whether people store explicit information about different walking environments that mirrors savings of a new walking pattern. Like savings, we found that previous exposure to abrupt changes in the environment also drove the ability to recall a previously experienced walking environment accurately. Crucially, the information recalled was extrinsic information about the learning environment (i.e., treadmill speeds) and not intrinsic information about the walking pattern itself. We conclude that simply learning a new walking pattern is not enough for long-term savings; rather, savings of a learned walking pattern involves recall of the environment or extended training at the learned state. PMID:25855699

  10. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. PMID:25747845

  11. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose), α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 <-> 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose), α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose), and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 <-> 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose). 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time. PMID:22925105

  12. A Newly Adopted Helicopter Platform for Geophysical and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Hannover owns a Sikorsky S-76B helicopter for geophysical and remote sensing airborne surveys. This platform has been completely refurbished and in parts newly designed to be fit for easy installations of complex geophysical instruments underneath, upon and within the helicopter. The airborne platform is equipped with a modern basic navigation equipment consisting of several GNSS antennae, state of the art inertial navigation systems, laser altimeter and video camera systems. Different other modules can be added to the helicopter as a state of the art gamma spectrometer, a laser scanner, airborne gravity meters etc. within the cabin. Moreover, external sensing systems as a photogrammetric camera, infraread camera or optional mulitspectral systems can be installed on the outer skin of the cabin. Different kinds of bird systems towed underneath the helicopter can be hooked up using standard cabling, glas fibres or wireless LAN. Available birds are equipped for frequency domain electromagnetics or gradient magnetics (IPHT Jena & Supracon, Jena). Besides, large georadar systems can be installed as well. The helicopter is able as well to carry TEM-gear or system in development. Main survey targets are groundwater systems, mineral deposits and natural hazards.

  13. Psychosocial problems among newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Gåfvels, C; Hägerström, M; Nordmark, B; Wändell, P E

    2012-03-01

    We identified patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the ages 18-65 years who needed psychosocial interventions. A total of 123 patients (90 women) were asked to participate, but 19 declined and 4 dropped out early in the study, leaving a total of 100 patients (75 women) in the sample. Questionnaires used were the Epidemiological Investigation on Rheumatoid Arthritis study questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale, and the General Coping Questionnaire. Interviews showed that 46% of the included 100 patients had psychosocial problems (PSP). One third of them had problems directly related to RA. The rest had problems with their life situation in general, without or reinforced by RA. Compared to patients without psychosocial problems, PSP patients lived in more strained social situations, especially regarding personal finances and social support. More of the PSP patients were anxious, showed lower SOC scores, and also used more emotion-based coping strategies (resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion) and less problem-oriented (minimization). They also had higher scores on depression and more frequently expected that RA would negatively affect their future. PSP patients also experienced a more negative impact of the disease, a finding not confirmed by the sickness activity score judged by the rheumatologist. Thus, early in the course of RA, screening instruments should be used to identify PSP patients. Psychosocial treatment and support by medical social workers skilled in RA care should be offered. PMID:22089162

  14. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  15. Newly Commissioned Green Bank Telescope Bags New Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's newly commissioned Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered a windfall of three previously undetected millisecond pulsars in a dense cluster of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope "This globular cluster, known as Messier 62, has been very well studied, and it would have been an exciting discovery to find just one new pulsar. The fact that we were able to detect three new pulsars at one time is simply remarkable," said Bryan Jacoby, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology who led the research team. Results of the discovery were recently announced in an International Astronomical Union Circular. Jacoby and his colleague Adam Chandler, also a graduate student at Caltech, used the GBT to search for new pulsars in addition to the three already known in this cluster. Their research was part of the GBT's Early Science Program, which allows scientific investigations during the testing and commissioning of the telescope. The researchers used the Berkeley-Caltech Pulsar Machine, a new instrument whose development was overseen by Donald Backer at the University of California at Berkeley, to process the signals from the GBT and record them for later analysis. After their data were analyzed, the researchers discovered the telltale signatures of three additional pulsars and their white dwarf companion stars. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit intense beams of radio waves along their misaligned magnetic axes. When these beams intersect the Earth, we see the pulsar flash on and off. Due to their exquisitely steady rotation, pulsars allow astronomers to study the basic laws of physics and the ways in which these dense clusters and exotic stellar systems are formed. Astronomers study globular clusters because they are among the oldest building blocks of our Galaxy. With their very dense stellar populations, these

  16. Cilengitide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: biomarker expression and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Michael; Nabors, Louis Burt; Gorlia, Thierry; Leske, Henning; Rushing, Elisabeth; Bady, Pierre; Hicking, Christine; Perry, James; Hong, Yong-Kil; Roth, Patrick; Wick, Wolfgang; Goodman, Simon L.; Hegi, Monika E.; Picard, Martin; Moch, Holger; Straub, Josef; Stupp, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 regulate angiogenesis and invasiveness in cancer, potentially by modulating activation of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway. The randomized phase III CENTRIC and phase II CORE trials explored the integrin inhibitor cilengitide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma with versus without O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. These trials failed to meet their primary endpoints. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of the target integrins of cilengitide, αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, of αvβ8 and of their putative target, phosphorylation of SMAD2, in tumor tissues from CENTRIC (n=274) and CORE (n=224). αvβ3 and αvβ5 expression correlated well in tumor and endothelial cells, but showed little association with αvβ8 or pSMAD2 levels. In CENTRIC, there was no interaction between the biomarkers and treatment for prediction of outcome. In CORE, higher αvβ3 levels in tumor cells were associated with improved progression-free survival by central review and with improved overall survival in patients treated with cilengitide. Integrins αvβ3, αvβ5 and αvβ8 are differentially expressed in glioblastoma. Integrin levels do not correlate with the activation level of the canonical TGF-β pathway. αvβ3 integrin expression may predict benefit from integrin inhibition in patients with glioblastoma lacking MGMT promoter methylation. PMID:26918452

  17. Chemoradiotherapy of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma With Intensified Temozolomide

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Markus; Hartmann, Christian; Wiewrodt, Dorothee; Herrlinger, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) administered in an intensified 1-week on/1-week off schedule plus indomethacin in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 41 adult patients (median Karnofsky performance status, 90%; median age, 56 years) were treated with preirradiation TMZ at 150 mg/m{sup 2} (1 week on/1 week off), involved-field radiotherapy combined with concomitant low-dose TMZ (50 mg/m{sup 2}), maintenance TMZ starting at 150 mg/m{sup 2} using a 1-week on/1-week off schedule, plus maintenance indomethacin (25 mg twice daily). Results: The median follow-up interval was 21.7 months. Grade 4 hematologic toxicity was observed in 15 patients (36.6%). Treatment-related nonhematologic Grade 4-5 toxicity was reported for 2 patients (4.9%). The median progression-free survival was 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-10.4). The 1-year survival rate was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 56.8-84.2%). The presence of O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter methylation in the tumor tissue was associated with significantly superior progression-free survival. Conclusion: The dose-dense regimen of TMZ administered in a 1-week on/1-week off schedule resulted in acceptable nonhematologic toxicity. Compared with data from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/National Cancer Institute of Canada trial 26981-22981/CE.3, patients with an unmethylated MGMT gene promoter appeared not to benefit from intensifying the TMZ schedule regarding the median progression-free survival and overall survival. In contrast, data are promising for patients with a methylated MGMT promoter.

  18. Hα Surges Initiated by Newly-emerging Satellite Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-feng; Zhou, Tuan-hui; Ji, Hai-sheng

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011 and in the active region NOAA 11259 there ap- peared the event of the ejection of solar atmospheric Hα surges. According to the full-disc Hα observations of the Big Bear Solar Observatory in United States, three consecutive surges at one and the same place in the north of the main spot of the active region were discovered. The trajectories of these three surges exhib- ited the figure of straight lines, and their integral configuration is like an inverted Eiffel Tower. The first two surges are quite similar, and in each of them there appeared two bright points in the northern part of the main spot. After several minutes, the surges appeared in the midst of bright points. When the bright- ness of the bright points attained the maximum value, the surges spouted out from the midst of bright points. And after reaching the maximum altitude, they quickly vanished. Before the ejection of the third surge took place, no bright points appeared. Besides, its maximal altitude is merely one half of that of the first two surges. Via a comparison with the SDO/HMI (Solar Dynamics Obser- vatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) data of radial magnetic fields, it is found that in more than one hour before the appearance of the first surge there emerged bipolar magnetic fields in the region of ejection. Besides, in several min- utes before the ejection of each Hα surge the magnetic fluxes of positive polarity diminished. Via our analysis it is found that there appeared reconnections be- tween the newly emerging satellite magnetic fields and the preexisting magnetic fields in the spot, and this caused the continuous ejections of Hα surges.

  19. Clinical Features of Newly Diagnosed Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Keenan, Jeremy D; Ausayakhun, Sakarin; Jirawison, Choeng; Khouri, Claire M; Skalet, Alison H; Heiden, David; Holland, Gary N; Margolis, Todd P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in northern Thailand. Design Prospective, observational cross-sectional study. Methods We recorded characteristics of 52 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with CMV retinitis at a tertiary university-based medical center in northern Thailand. Indirect ophthalmoscopy by experienced ophthalmologists was supplemented with fundus photography to determine the proportion of eyes with various clinical features of CMV retinitis. Results Of the 52 patients with CMV retinitis, 55.8% were female. All were HIV-positive. The vast majority (90.4%) had started antiretroviral therapy. CMV retinitis was bilateral in 46.2% of patients. Bilateral visual acuity worse than 20/60 was observed in 23.1% of patients. Of 76 eyes with CMV retinitis, 61.8% had zone I disease and 21.6% had lesions involving the fovea. Lesions larger than 25% of the retinal area were observed in 57.5% of affected eyes. CMV retinitis lesions commonly had marked or severe border opacity (47.4% of eyes). Vitreous haze was often present (46.1% of eyes). Visual impairment was more common in eyes with larger retinitis lesions. Retinitis lesion size, used as a proxy for duration of disease, was associated with fulminant appearance (OR 1.24 [1.01 – 1.51]), and marked or severe border opacity (OR 1.36 [1.11 – 1.67]). Based on lesion size, retinitis preceded antiretroviral treatment in each patient. Conclusions Patients presenting to a tertiary medical center in northern Thailand have advanced CMV retinitis, possibly due to delayed diagnosis. Earlier screening and treatment of CMV retinitis may limit progression of disease and prevent visual impairment in this population. PMID:22265148

  20. Hyperinsulinemia in newly diagnosed patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Penesova, Adela; Vlcek, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Vernerova, Lucia; Marko, Andrea; Meskova, Milada; Grunnerova, Lucia; Turcani, Peter; Jezova, Daniela; Kollar, Branislav

    2015-08-01

    There are limited data regarding glucose metabolism dysregulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Present study investigates glucose and insulin response during oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) in MS patients. We examined 19 MS patients and 19 age, sex and body mass index (BMI) matched healthy controls. MS patients were newly diagnosed, untreated and with low Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score (1.1 ± 0.7). Plasma glucose, lactate, insulin and GLP-1 during oGTT, and fasting adipokines, lipid and inflammatory parameters were analyzed. Insulin sensitivity indices (ISI) were calculated. MS patients had comparable fasting (5.2 ± 0.3 vs. 5.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p = 0.05) and post-load glucose concentrations as controls. Insulin response to oral glucose load in MS was increased (p = 0.022). Insulin sensitivity was lower in MS compared to controls [ISI(Matsuda) 6.95 ± 3.44 vs. 10.60 ± 4.81, p = 0.011 and ISI(Cederholm) 49.9 ± 15.3 vs. 61.3 ± 16.3, p = 0.032]. We did not find any difference in lactate, GLP-1, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, resistin, leptin, adiponectin levels between groups. We found decreased insulin sensitivity with postprandial hyperinsulinemia in MS patients, which seems not to be related to chronic inflammation or physical inactivity. The role of hyperinsulinemia in CNS function impairment should be further investigated. PMID:25809135

  1. In-vehicle VOCs composition of unconditioned, newly produced cars.

    PubMed

    Brodzik, Krzysztof; Faber, Joanna; Łomankiewicz, Damian; Gołda-Kopek, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The in-vehicle volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations gains the attention of both car producers and users. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine if analysis of air samples collected from an unconditioned car cabin can be used as a quality control measure. The VOCs composition of in-vehicle air was analyzed by means of active sampling on Carbograph 1TD and Tenax TA sorbents, followed by thermal desorption and simultaneous analysis on flame ionization and mass detector (TD-GC/FID-MS). Nine newly produced cars of the same brand and model were chosen for this study. Within these, four of the vehicles were equipped with identical interior materials and five others differed in terms of upholstery and the presence of a sunroof; one car was convertible. The sampling event took place outside of the car assembly plant and the cars tested left the assembly line no later than 24 hr before the sampling took place. More than 250 compounds were present in the samples collected; the identification of more than 160 was confirmed by comparative mass spectra analysis and 80 were confirmed by both comparison with single/multiple compounds standards and mass spectra analysis. In general, aliphatic hydrocarbons represented more than 60% of the total VOCs (TVOC) determined. Depending on the vehicle, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons varied from 12% to 27% of total VOCs. The very short period between car production and sampling of the in-vehicle air permits the assumption that the entire TVOC originates from off-gassing of interior materials. The results of this study expand the knowledge of in-vehicle pollution by presenting information about car cabin air quality immediately after car production. PMID:25079635

  2. Microleakage of newly developed glass carbomer cement in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Tirali, R. Ebru; Yalcinkaya, Zeynep; Cehreli, Zafer C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Glass carbomer cement represents a new generation of dental material, which mineralizes gradually into fluorapatite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage and marginal integrity of newly developed glass carbomer cement with and without protective surface coating (SC) in primary molars. Methods: Standardized cavities were prepared on extracted human primary molars, and the teeth were randomly assigned into the following groups (n = 10/each): (1) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) without SC; (2) GIC with SC; (3) glass carbomer cement without SC; (4) glass carbomer cement with SC; and (5) compomer without SC. Following thermocycling (5 ± 2°C–55 ± 2°C, dwell time 15 s, 2000×), the specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution, sectioned, and digitally photographed. Microleakage was evaluated quantitatively by using open-source image analysis toolkit (ImageJ), and the data were analyzed statistically by using Kruskal-Wallis and Conover’s Multiple Comparison tests (P=.05). Results: The greatest amount of dye leakage was observed in the uncoated glass carbomer specimens, followed by the uncoated glass ionomer group (P<.05). There was no significant difference between the microleakage values of coated glass ionomer, coated glass carbomer, and the compomer (P>.05). The following statistical ranking was observed among microleakage of the test materials: uncoated glass carbomer > uncoated glass ionomer > coated glass ionomer ≈ coated glass carbomer ≈ compomer. Uncoated glass carbomer exhibited severe internal ice crack-like lines. Conclusion: The use of the new glass carbomer cement without SC results in severe microleakage and catastrophic internal cracks. PMID:23408469

  3. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve. The meteors assigned to the various showers are identified in the CAMS Meteoroid Orbit Database 2.0 submitted to the IAU Meteor Data Center, and can be accessed also at

  4. Health status of newly arrived refugees in Toronto, Ont

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among newly arrived refugee patients and whether there is variation by key demographic factors. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Primary care clinic for refugee patients in Toronto, Ont. Participants A total of 1063 refugee patients rostered at the clinic from December 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Demographic information (age, sex, and region of birth); prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Strongyloides, Schistosoma, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis infections; and varicella immune status. Results The median age of patients was 29 years and 56% were female. Refugees were born in 87 different countries. Approximately 33% of patients were from Africa, 28% were from Europe, 14% were from the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 14% were from Asia, and 8% were from the Americas (excluding 4% born in Canada or the United States). The overall rate of HIV infection was 2%. The prevalence of hepatitis B infection was 4%, with a higher rate among refugees from Asia (12%, P < .001). Hepatitis B immunity was 39%, with higher rates among Asian refugees (64%, P < .001) and children younger than 5 years (68%, P < .001). The rate of hepatitis C infection was less than 1%. Strongyloides infection was found in 3% of tested patients, with higher rates among refugees from Africa (6%, P = .003). Schistosoma infection was identified in 15% of patients from Africa. Intestinal parasites were identified in 16% of patients who submitted stool samples. Approximately 8% of patients were varicella nonimmune, with higher rates in patients from the Americas (21%, P < .001). Conclusion This study highlights the importance of screening for infectious diseases among refugee patients to provide timely preventive and curative care. Our data also point to possible policy and clinical implications, such as targeted screening approaches and improved access to vaccinations and

  5. Immigration enhances fast growth of a newly established source population.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Simone; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. Immigration and local recruitment play a central role in determining the growth rate of breeding populations. Unraveling these processes in newly established pop- ulations is of great importance to increase our understanding of how species change their distributions in response to global change. We studied the largest colony of glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in Western Europe (established in 1996 in Doñana, SW-Spain) by using capture-recapture methods, count estimates, and projection matrix modeling to: (1) test the effect of resource availability and competition on local recruitment dynamics, (2) investigate the contribution of local recruitment vs. immigration on population growth, and (3) assess the role of this population in source/sink dynamics. We found different dynamics before and after the establishment of satellite colonies in Doñana in 2004. Between 1996 and 2003, the population increased rapidly, fueled by immigrants (≈ 58 breeding females/ yr). Between 2003 and 2007, however, both colony size increase and immigration were negligible. Immigration played a major role in colony growth, but simultaneously this colony was a source population driving expansion of the species range as suggested by (1) absolute and relative estimates of the observed growth rate relative to that predicted by self-recruitment, and (2) numerous observations of Doñana-born individuals breeding elsewhere. Local recruitment, which was particularly high for first-year individuals (probability > 0.8 for the early study years), was not directly related to resource availability or previous-year breeding success. Local recruitment decreased rapidly at a threshold population size, however, when other satellite colonies became established at Dofiana. Our study suggests that even when recruitment at an early age and high productivity are observed, immigration can still play a pivotal role in promoting the fast growth of new populations at the edge of a species range, at

  6. Pharmacotherapy of epilepsy: newly approved and developmental agents.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Linda J; Brodie, Martin J

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses seven newly available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and agents in phase III development. Lacosamide, licensed as an adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures, primarily acts by enhancing sodium channel slow inactivation. At daily doses of 200-600 mg, the drug significantly reduced partial-onset seizures in adults with refractory epilepsy. The most common adverse effects are CNS related. Rufinamide, available as adjunctive treatment for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, has an unclear mechanism of action, although it does block voltage-dependent sodium channels. Coadministration of valproic acid significantly increases rufinamide circulating concentrations. The drug has been shown to have efficacy for partial-onset, primary generalized tonic-clonic, tonic-atonic, absence and atypical absence seizures. Adverse effects are mainly somnolence, nausea and vomiting. Eslicarbazepine acetate, a carbamazepine analogue, was recently licensed as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures. Eslicarbazepine acetate acts at voltage-gated sodium channels, although the precise mechanism of action is unclear. The drug had efficacy for partial-onset seizures in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, using 400, 800 or 1200 mg/day. Adverse effects include dizziness and somnolence. Retigabine (ezogabine) exerts its anticonvulsant effect through the opening of neuronal voltage-gated potassium channels. Following significant seizure reduction rates at dosages of 600, 900 and 1200 mg/day, license applications have been submitted for its use as adjunctive treatment for patients with partial-onset seizures. Dose-related adverse effects include somnolence, confusion and dizziness. Brivaracetam is the n-propyl analogue of levetiracetam. Mixed results have been obtained in phase III studies in patients with partial-onset seizures, and further trials in children, patients with photosensitive epilepsy and patients with partial

  7. Geomorphological evolution of a newly restored upland temporary stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, Baptiste; Batalla, Ramon J.; Gibbins, Chris N.; Green, David R.; Vericat, Damià

    2015-04-01

    The river Ehen, NW England, has been designated as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) as it hosts England's largest population of freshwater pearl mussels (M. margaritifera). One of the Ehen's main headwater tributary, Ben Gill, was diverted to Ennerdale Lake in the 1970s to help increase the volume of water available for abstraction. Concerns over this diversion on the hydrology and sediment dynamics of the Ehen has led to the reconnection of this temporary stream as part of a project designed to improve habitat conditions for mussels in the Ehen. The reconnection has involved the construction of a new section of channel, following the natural (pre-diversion) course of Ben Gill. This paper presents findings of research designed to track the morphological evolution of the newly created Ben Gill channel. The work follows a previous research in which fluvial dynamics in the Ehen were studied before the reconnection of Ben Gill. Morpho-sedimentary dynamics are analysed at multiple scales: from the movement of individual particles, to changes on channel morphology following competent flow events. Changes in the channel's grain size distributions have been investigated in different sections, while bed mobility has been assessed using a combination of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags inserted into representative particles and painted bed patches. Additionally, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the entire new channel have been constructed by means of automatic digital photogrammetry using high resolution aerial photography taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). DEMs of difference (DoD) between major flow events have been used to track lateral and longitudinal changes in the channel at a spatial resolution of less than 5cm. Finally, in order to link sedimentological changes in the new channel to its impact on the main stem Ehen, morpho-sedimentary changes of a gravel bar at the confluence have been monitored combining tracers (i.e. RFID) and repeated

  8. 40 CFR 148.17 - Waste specific prohibitions; newly listed wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions; newly listed wastes. 148.17 Section 148.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.17 Waste specific prohibitions; newly...

  9. 5 CFR 531.211 - Setting pay for a newly appointed employee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay for a newly appointed... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Determining Rate of Basic Pay Setting Pay When Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.211 Setting pay for a newly appointed employee. (a) First appointment. An...

  10. A national surveillance system for newly acquired HIV infection in Australia. National HIV Surveillance Committee.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A M; Gertig, D M; Crofts, N; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of a national surveillance system for newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and present the first 3 years' results. METHODS. All new cases of diagnosed HIV infection were reported to the national HIV surveillance center through state and territory health authorities. Information sought on each case included evidence of whether the infection had been newly acquired, defined by the diagnosis of HIV seroconversion illness or by the report of a negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result occurring within the 12 months prior to diagnosis of infection. RESULTS. Of 3602 reported cases of HIV infection in adults and adolescents newly diagnosed in Australia between 1991 and 1993, 11.4% were identified as newly acquired. The majority (85%) of cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection occurred among men who reported homosexual contact, and 15% of these cases were identified as newly acquired. Average age at diagnosis was 31 years for cases of newly acquired infection and 34 years for other cases. CONCLUSIONS. Surveillance for newly acquired HIV infection has been established at a national level in Australia and provides valuable information for planning primary HIV prevention programs. PMID:7998631

  11. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Certification Procedures to Become A Cdc § 120.812 Probationary period for newly certified CDCs....

  12. Plurilinguism in Teachers' Professionalization: Views of Newly Qualified Pedagogues of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinskis, Mihails; Aleksejeva, Ludmila; Zascerinska, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' professionalization is promoted by language education that includes mother tongue across the curriculum, foreign languages and professional language. Aim of the research is to analyze views of newly qualified pedagogues of social work on languages of professionalization. The object of the present research is views of newly qualified…

  13. PROGRESS REPORT ON THE DSSTOX DATABASE NETWORK: NEWLY LAUNCHED WEBSITE, APPLICATIONS, FUTURE PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Progress Report on the DSSTox Database Network: Newly Launched Website, Applications, Future Plans

    Progress will be reported on development of the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network and the newly launched public website that coordinates and...

  14. Prospective Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Parents of Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Laimbacher, Joseph; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Method: Forty-nine mothers and 48 fathers of 52 children (response rate 65%) with newly diagnosed diabetes (age 6.5-15 years) were assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12…

  15. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  16. Newly Discovered Clouds Found Floating High Above Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    GREEN BANK, WV -- New studies with the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have revealed a previously unknown population of discrete hydrogen clouds in the gaseous halo that surrounds the Milky Way Galaxy. These clouds were discovered in the transition zone between the Milky Way and intergalactic space, and provide tantalizing evidence that supernova-powered "galactic fountains" continually blast superheated hydrogen gas into our Galactic suburbs. Hydrogen Clouds Graphic Artist's Rendering of the Milky Way (background) with insert showing GBT image of newly-discovered clouds of Hydrogen gas above the plane of the Galaxy. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. Extending far above the star-filled disk of the Milky Way is an atmosphere, or halo, of hydrogen gas. "By studying this halo, we can learn a great deal about the processes that are going on inside our Galaxy as well as beyond its borders," said Jay Lockman, an astronomer with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. "It has remained a mystery, however, how this halo formed and what has prevented gravitational forces from collapsing the gas into a thin layer long ago." Some astronomers have speculated that this gas is distributed as a diffuse mist held up by either magnetic fields or cosmic rays streaming out of the plane of the Milky Way. Others believed that it is made of innumerable long-lived hydrogen clouds bobbing up and down like balls tossed by a juggler. Early observations with other telescopes discovered that there was some neutral hydrogen gas floating far above the Galaxy's plane, but these instruments were not sensitive enough to reveal any structure or resolve questions about its origin. Lockman's studies for the first time show a clear picture of the structure of the gas. Rather than a mist, the halo is in fact full of discrete clouds, each containing 50-to-100 solar masses of hydrogen and averaging about 100

  17. Indothrix Krombein, 1957 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae) newly recorded genus from China, with description of one new species.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Shuang; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The genus Indothrix Krombein, 1957 is newly recorded from China. Indothrix brevicornis Li & Xu, sp. nov. (China: Zhejiang) is described and illustrated. Key to the three world species of the genus is given. PMID:27515605

  18. Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

  19. Tentative identification of a newly discovered class of material on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.

    1991-01-01

    A newly discovered absorption feature in Io's spectrum at 2.1253 microns promises to reveal significant insights in the nature of the interaction among Io's surface, atmosphere, and volcanoes. The most likely candidate for this feature appears to be clusters of CO2 molecules. Observations are underway on a current series of occultations and eclipses of Io by other Galilean satellites in order to locate the source of this newly discovered material on Io, which should provide further clues to its origin.

  20. The stereoconfiguration of newly formed molecules of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate in BHK cells.

    PubMed

    Joutti, A

    1979-10-26

    Newly formed molecules of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (known also as lysobisphosphatidic acid), which were labeled with 32Pi in cultured BHK cells during relatively short pulses, were subjected to stereoanalysis. In contrast to the high proportion of sn-1-glycerophosphate residues in the bulk of the bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate molecules, the newly formed molecules were rich in sn-3-glycerophosphate residues. PMID:508774

  1. How Will This Help Me? Evaluating an Accredited Programme to Enhance the Early Professional Development of Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Christopher; Nevill, Alan; Allan, Jo

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of an accredited programme to enhance the early professional development of newly qualified teachers within the Black Country region of the English West Midlands. Newly qualified teachers participating in the accredited programme, their induction tutors, newly qualified teachers not participating in the…

  2. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  3. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  4. Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kauffman, M.J.; Varley, N.; Smith, D.W.; Stahler, D.R.; MacNulty, D.R.; Boyce, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Heterogeneity of newly inserted and preexisting murein in the sacculus of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro, M A; Schwarz, U

    1981-01-01

    In vivo studies of murein biosynthesis show that newly synthesized murein unexpectedly differs in its chemical composition from preexisting murein. New murein is loosely crosslinked with the preexisting sacculus; in a maturation process involving further transpeptidation, the final stage of crosslinkage in murein is achieved. Newly inserted murein initially carries pentapeptide subunits, which are the donor of the secondary transpeptidation reaction. In mutants with defective penicillin-binding protein 4 the secondary transpeptidation step is abolished. Uncoupling of the secondary transpeptidation reaction from crosslink formation during the initial insertion of new murein was also found in a mutant with a defect in lipoprotein biosynthesis. We conclude that the initial transpeptidation of murein and crosslink formation during the maturation of newly inserted murein are catalyzed by two different enzyme systems. PMID:7029548

  6. Macrobenthic diversity in protected, disturbed, and newly formed intertidal wetlands of a subtropical estuary in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Weiwei; Ma, Chang-an; Huang, Youhui; Yang, Yang; Yu, Ji; Zhang, Mingqing; Zhao, Yunlong

    2014-12-15

    In this study, intertidal macrobenthic diversity in protected, disturbed, and newly formed wetlands of Yangtze estuary was assessed using PRIMER 5.2 based on species diversity and species relatedness. We observed high diversity in nature reserves and low diversity in adjacent disturbed and newly formed wetlands. These diversity data were then integrated with historical data to detect the variation in macrobenthic diversity over the past two decades. The integrated data indicated that the intertidal macrobenthic diversity sharply decreased in heavy reclamation tidal flats whereas markedly increased in non-disturbed nature reserve and newly formed wetland. Benthic health was observed with the departure degree of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ(+)) and variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ(+)) from the simulated 95% confidence funnel. All the habitats were subjected to different levels of human interference, except Jiuduansha and Beigangbeisha. The degradation of intertidal wetland in Yangtze estuary was mainly attributed to land reclamation, overgrazing, and overfishing. PMID:25319191

  7. A retention strategy for newly graduated nurses: an integrative review of orientation programs.

    PubMed

    Park, Mihyun; Jones, Cheryl B

    2010-01-01

    To address nurse recruitment and retention issues, hospitals have increased the number of newly graduated nurses in their hiring pools and have simultaneously established orientation programs for those nurses. Structured orientation programs facilitate newly graduated nurse transition from novice to advanced beginner. The outcome of these programs is twofold: First, they promote the confidence and competency level of new nurses in providing patient care, and second, they increase nurse retention. This literature review presents the most useful interventions used in the programs that reported positive affects on new nurses. PMID:20683297

  8. Co-translational Protein Processing, Folding, Targeting, and Membrane Insertion of Newly Synthesized Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    Newly synthesized proteins leave the ribosome through the nascent polypeptide tunnel. Through the coordinated action of the ribosome associated chaperones, nascent chain processing enzymes, the signal recognition particle, and the protein insertion machinery newly synthesized proteins are brought into their native state and proper cellular localization. The interplay of these factors during ongoing synthesis requires spatial and temporal control of their interactions with the ribosome. We used electron microscopy in combination with crystallography and biochemical methods to study the structure of bacterial ribosomes and nascent chain interacting factors.

  9. Newly Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... is good news: by getting linked to HIV medical care early, starting antiretroviral therapy (ART), adhering to ...

  10. Newly Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to answer your questions. Call toll-free 1-800-539-7309 Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm ... are people living with or impacted by paralysis. Free services and downloads > Paralysis Resource Guide Our free ...

  11. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  12. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  13. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  14. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  15. 33 CFR 66.01-13 - When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When must my newly manufactured equipment comply with these rules? 66.01-13 Section 66.01-13 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other...

  16. The Control of Posture in Newly Standing Infants is Task Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Laura J.; Melzer, Dawn K.; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The postural sway patterns of newly standing infants were compared under two conditions: standing while holding a toy and standing while not holding a toy. Infants exhibited a lower magnitude of postural sway and more complex sway patterns when holding the toy. These changes suggest that infants adapt postural sway in a manner that facilitates…

  17. Learning beyond Graduation: Exploring Newly Qualified Specialists' Entrance into Daily Practice from a Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyvers, Katrien; Donche, Vincent; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The entrance of newly qualified medical specialists into daily practice is considered to be a stressful period in which curriculum support is absent. Although engaging in both personal and professional learning and development activities is recognized fundamental for lifelong professional competence, research on medical professionals' entrance…

  18. 40 CFR 148.18 - Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-newly listed and identified wastes. 148.18 Section 148.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE INJECTION RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Injection § 148.18 Waste...

  19. The Positioning of Students in Newly Qualified Secondary Teachers' Images of Their "Best Teaching"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Mavis; Kane, Ruth; Sandretto, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Asking newly qualified teachers (NQTs) to provide images of their "best teaching", and encouraging subsequent reflection on these images, has the potential to enhance their understanding of themselves as teachers as they explore their often unconsciously held assumptions about students and classrooms. This paper reports aspects of a study of 100…

  20. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  1. The Newly Qualified Teacher: A Leader and a Professional? A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimsath, Gerd; Nordvik, Grete; Bergsvik, Eli

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a Norwegian study. The focus is two-fold, including the views of both new teachers and leaders on the issue of leadership and professionalism. First, the focus is on the way newly qualified teachers describe how they function in the school and kindergarten organizations. The discussion explores how new teachers' meetings…

  2. Host stage preference, efficacy and fecundity of parasitoids attacking Drosophila suzukii in newly invaded areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive species, native to Eastern and Southeastern Asia, that has recently colonized parts of North America and Europe. The severe damage caused by D. suzukii in the newly invaded areas is largely due to the absence of specialized natur...

  3. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  4. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  5. Constructing Practical Knowledge of Teaching: Eleven Newly Qualified Language Teachers' Discursive Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruohotie-Lyhty, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the professional development of 11 newly qualified foreign language teachers. It draws on a qualitative longitudinal study conducted at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland between 2002 and 2009. The paper concentrates on the personal side of teacher development by analysing participants' discourses concerning language…

  6. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facility Security Requirements § 106.262 Security measures for newly-hired employees. (a... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is...

  7. Supporting Newly Recruited Teachers in a Unique Area, the Northwest Territories in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Rass, Rwaida

    2012-01-01

    Formal and mandatory induction programmes have been widely implemented in many countries to support newly qualified teachers as they cope with the stress and professional demands of their first year in the profession of teaching. This article presents the results of a quantitative and qualitative research study which examined the context of a…

  8. Self-Esteem: A Comparison between Hong Kong Children and Newly Arrived Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung

    2004-01-01

    The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…

  9. A Structured Group for Gay Men Newly Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Kristin A.

    2004-01-01

    The author presents a structured group model designed to help gay men newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. A facilitator's manual is included to outline the group's progression through eight sessions and to address the psychosocial concerns often ignited by an HIV or AIDS diagnosis. Suggestions for future group work are also provided.

  10. Newly Qualified Teachers' Learning Related to Their Use of Information and Communication Technology: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Sven B.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on newly qualified teachers' use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a tool for meeting the challenges of their everyday work. The overarching aim is to investigate whether they can contribute to new knowledge about learning in ICT contexts. Theoretical points of departure concern the changeable…

  11. Encouraging newly elected parliamentarians to take action on animal health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    BVA and its branches developed three manifestos ahead of the May elections in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, aiming to raise awareness of the importance of safeguarding animal health and promoting animal welfare. Public affairs manager, Helena Cotton, encourages members to use the manifestos when speaking to newly elected representatives and stakeholders. PMID:27154947

  12. 13 CFR 120.812 - Probationary period for newly certified CDCs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discretion. The CDC's Risk Rating, among other factors, will be considered in determining satisfactory SBA... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Probationary period for newly certified CDCs. 120.812 Section 120.812 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  13. How Can Online Discussion Support and Develop Newly Qualified Teachers? Research Briefing No. 51

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unwin, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated newly qualified teachers (NQTs) experiences of participating in online discussions (ODs) that were part of their Master of Teaching (MTeach) course. [The project was partially funded by the Excellence in Work-Based Learning for Education Professionals (WLE) Centre in 2009.

  14. Assessing College Students' Perceptions of a Case Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using a Newly Developed Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing professional development for college teachers has been much emphasized. However, previous research on learning environments has seldom addressed college students' perceptions of teachers' PCK. This study aimed to evaluate college students' perceptions of a physics teacher's PCK development using a newly developed instrument and workshop…

  15. PRODUCTION OF D-ARABITOL BY A NEWLY ISOLATED ZYGOSACCHAROMYCES ROUXII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated Zygosaccharomyces rouxii NRRL 27,624 produced D-arabitol as the main metabolic product from glucose. In addition, it also produced ethanol and glycerol. The optimal conditions were: temperature 30 deg C, pH 5.0, 350 rpm, and 5% inoculum. The yeast produced 83.4 ± 1.1 g D-arabito...

  16. A new species in the newly recorded genus Trachyusa (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) from China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trachyusa whartoni Yao sp. nov. from Dalian, Liaoning, China is described and illustrated. Trachyusa is a newly recorded genus in China. A key to the species of Trachyusa is provided based on the keys of Belokobylskij (1998), Papp (1967), and van Achterberg and O'Connor (1990). Type specimens of the...

  17. Colonization of a Newly Constructed Commercial Chicken Further Processing Plant with Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a pr...

  18. Identifying the Training Needs of Heads of Department in a Newly Established University in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2012-01-01

    Although middle-level academic managers really need training in order to perform their roles adequately in the very changing context of higher education, little formal training is provided, particularly in less developed countries. This paper identifies the training needs of Heads of Department in a newly established university in Vietnam as a…

  19. The newly recognised limb/pelvis-hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome: report of a Bedouin patient and review.

    PubMed Central

    Farag, T I; al-Awadi, S A; Marafie, M J; Bastaki, L; al-Othman, S A; Mohammed, F M; AlSuliman, I S; Murthy, D S

    1993-01-01

    A Bedouin infant born to consanguineous parents and grandparents is reported. She had Müllerian aplasia and the phenotypic features of the limb/pelvis-hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome (MIM 276820). Phenotypic variability of this newly recognised syndrome is briefly discussed. Images PMID:8423610

  20. A Behavioral Investigation of Preference in a Newly Designed New Zealand Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Tina M.; Sargisson, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Playgrounds with spaces that attract children increase the likelihood children will use them, the authors note, and playgrounds offer an opportunity for children to experience the risks of outdoor play. The authors used natural observation to study the children at play in a newly built New Zealand playground where such an important kind of…

  1. Using Narrative to Make Sense of Transitions: Supporting Newly Arrived Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulusi, Halit; Oland, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Immigration is currently high on the political agenda, yet there is a lack of information regarding the number of children who migrate to the UK and how their needs can be best met. There are many claims in the media that the influx of immigrants from newly endorsed EU countries is becoming a drain on resources, in terms of education and health…

  2. Diabetes education improves depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiyao; Xu, Xiuping; Lv, Xiaofeng; Yao, Lu; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xueying; Liu, Baozhu; Li, Qiang; Cui, Can

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of depression is relatively high in individuals with diabetes. However, screening and monitoring of depressive state in patients with diabetes is still neglected in developing countries and the treatment of diabetes-related depression is rarely performed in these countries. In this study, our aim was to study the role of diabetes education in the improvement of depressive state in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Dutch version of the center for epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D scale) and the problem areas in diabetes (PAID) questionnaire were used to assess depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress in 1200 newly diagnosed male adult patients with type 2 diabetes before and after a two-week diabetes education by professionally trained nurses. Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the factors related to depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Results: The incidence of depression in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes was 28%, and the rate of diabetes-specific emotional distress was 65.5%. High education levels, low income were correlated to depression in individuals with diabetes. After two weeks of diabetes education, the incidence of depression and diabetes-specific emotional distress decreased significantly to 20.5% (P < 0.05) and 11% (P < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of depression, especially diabetes-specific emotional distress, was relatively high in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. The depression state could be improved by diabetes education. PMID:24353709

  3. Polymorphic SSR markers for Plasmopara obducens (Peronosporaceae), the newly emergent downy mildew pathogen of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Plasmopara obducens, the causal agent of the newly emergent downy mildew disease of Impatiens walleriana. Methods and Results: A 151.2 Mb draft genome assembly was generated from P. obducens using Illumina technology and mined to identi...

  4. The Importance of Networks for Newly Qualified Teachers in Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engvik, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The interest in raising the competence of teachers through networks and network activities is increasing. This article is based on the voices of four newly qualified teachers who give us the opportunity to listen to experiences in authentic surroundings. The purpose of this article is to gain better insight into the type of…

  5. Newly Qualifying Teachers' Perspectives of Diversity and Inclusion: "Understanding through Visual Representations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the use of visual imagery as a strategy for gaining a greater understanding of diversity and inclusion within regular schools as perceived from the perspective of 118 newly qualifying teachers in Hong Kong. Dyads or small groups of teachers participating in a teacher education course were asked to represent their…

  6. Rapid progression to gummatous syphilitic hepatitis and neurosyphilis in a patient with newly-diagnosed HIV.

    PubMed

    Pilozzi-Edmonds, Laura; Kong, Ling Yuan; Szabo, Jason; Birnbaum, Leora M

    2015-11-01

    We review the literature on hepatic involvement in patients with HIV and syphilis co-infection and describe a case of rapid progression to neurosyphilis and presumed gummatous syphilitic hepatitis in a patient newly diagnosed with HIV. To our knowledge, this is the first case of syphilitic hepatitis with gummas described in the HIV population. PMID:25525055

  7. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer...

  8. 33 CFR 106.262 - Security measures for newly-hired employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 1572 by completing the full enrollment process, paying the user fee, and is not... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security measures for newly-hired... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer...

  9. 10 CFR 1045.18 - Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area. 1045.18 Section 1045.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data...

  10. 10 CFR 1045.18 - Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area. 1045.18 Section 1045.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data...

  11. 10 CFR 1045.18 - Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area. 1045.18 Section 1045.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data...

  12. 10 CFR 1045.18 - Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area. 1045.18 Section 1045.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data...

  13. 10 CFR 1045.18 - Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newly generated information in a previously declassified subject area. 1045.18 Section 1045.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data...

  14. EVALUATING THE ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF NEWLY DESIGNED OR RETROFITTED CHEMICAL PROCESSES: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1646 Smith*, R.L. Evaluating the Economics and Environmental Friendliness of Newly Designed or Retrofitted Chemical Processes. Clean Products and Processes (Springer-Verlag) 3:383-391 (2002). 10/22/2001 This work describes a method for using spreadsheet analyses of ...

  15. Charting the collision between a seed coat fragment and newly-designed lint cleaner grid bars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was run to determine how a seed coat fragment (SCF) reacts after colliding with newly-designed grid bars mounted on a saw-type lint cleaner simulator. A high-speed video camera recorded the action that took place. Ten experimental grid bars were tested. The included angle of the sha...

  16. Higher Education and Development: The Experience of Four Newly Industrializing Countries in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jasbir Sarjit

    1991-01-01

    Reviews developments in higher education in four Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) in east Asia. Contends that improvements have resulted from policies that strengthen and develop scientific and technological capacity. Stresses the link between effective higher education and economic well-being. (CFR)

  17. Assessment by Employers of Newly Graduated Civil Engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enshassi, Adnan; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation process is very important to identify and recognize the strengths and the weaknesses of graduated students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the newly graduated civil engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. The methodology was based on questionnaires and informal interview. The…

  18. Parent Strategies for Addressing the Needs of Their Newly Adopted Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirella, Linda G.; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Miller, Laurie C.; Bedell, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe reflections of nine American parents on the strengths, challenges, and strategies in parenting young children newly adopted from another country. Eight mothers and one father with an adopted child aged less than 3 years and home for less than 3 months completed standardized assessments measuring the…

  19. Neuraminidase-Dependent Degradation of Polysialic Acid Is Required for the Lamination of Newly Generated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sajo, Mari; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Tanii, Takashi; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji; Koyama, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal granule cells (GCs) are generated throughout the lifetime and are properly incorporated into the innermost region of the granule cell layer (GCL). Hypotheses for the well-regulated lamination of newly generated GCs suggest that polysialic acid (PSA) is present on the GC surface to modulate GC-to-GC interactions, regulating the process of GC migration; however, direct evidence of this involvement is lacking. We show that PSA facilitates the migration of newly generated GCs and that the activity of N-acetyl-α-neuraminidase 1 (NEU1, sialidase 1) cleaves PSA from immature GCs, terminating their migration in the innermost GCL. Developing a migration assay of immature GCs in vitro, we found that the pharmacological depletion of PSA prevents the migration of GCs, whereas the inhibition of PSA degradation with a neuraminidase inhibitor accelerates this migration. We found that NEU1 is highly expressed in immature GCs. The knockdown of NEU1 in newly generated GCs in vivo increased PSA presence on these cells, and attenuated the proper termination of GC migration in the innermost GCL. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel mechanism that underlies the proper lamination of newly generated GCs through the modulation of PSA presence by neuronal NEU1. PMID:26731280

  20. 42 CFR 424.570 - Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers. 424.570 Section 424.570 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE...

  1. 42 CFR 424.570 - Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers. 424.570 Section 424.570 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE...

  2. 42 CFR 424.570 - Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers. 424.570 Section 424.570 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE PAYMENT Requirements...

  3. 42 CFR 424.570 - Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Moratoria on newly enrolling Medicare providers and suppliers. 424.570 Section 424.570 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) CONDITIONS FOR MEDICARE...

  4. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) that meet the requirements of 14 CFR 25.981 in effect on December 26, 2008. (1) The fuel tank is... an Fleet Average Flammability Exposure of 7 percent must have an IMM that meets 14 CFR 25.981(d) in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel...

  5. Challenges Facing Canadian Federal Offenders Newly Released to the Community: A Concept Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jason D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the needs of newly released Canadian federal offenders as perceived by community parole supervisors. Seventy-four Canadian parole supervisors were asked to answer the following question: "What challenges do parolees face in the first 90 days after release?" The data were analyzed using multidimensional…

  6. Evaluating the Acceptability and Feasibility of Project ACCEPT: An Intervention for Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Lemos, Diana; Harper, Gary W.; Telander, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Given the potential for negative psychosocial and medical outcomes following an HIV diagnosis, Project ACCEPT, a 12-session behavioral intervention, was developed and pilot-tested for youth (aged 16-24) newly diagnosed with HIV. Fifty participants recently diagnosed with HIV were enrolled from 4 sites selected through the Adolescent Medicine…

  7. Conditions for Boundary Crossing: Social Practices of Newly Qualified Swedish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Ingrid; Andersson, Sven B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about conditions for boundary crossing between academic and vocational practices and to identify dimensions of social practice within workplaces. The data consist of 28 questionnaires and 14 in-depth interviews with newly qualified secondary school teachers in their first year of teaching. We use the…

  8. Ethics seminars: the ethical debate on practicing procedures on the newly dead.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Terri A; Abbott, Jean T; Geiderman, Joel M; Hughes, Jason A; Johnson, Catherine X; McClure, Katie B; McKay, Mary P; Razzak, Junaid A; Salo, David; Schears, Raquel M; Solomon, Robert C

    2004-09-01

    Emergency medicine and its academic teaching programs face an ethical dilemma surrounding the question of practicing procedures on the newly dead. For many years, procedures have been practiced on the newly dead, but few institutions have had policies addressing the practice. This article considers the ethical arguments both for and against practicing procedures on the newly dead without consent, reviews the empirical studies on the subject, and presents the positions of other professional societies, before concluding with the position of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM). SAEM strongly encourages all emergency medicine training programs to develop a policy and make that policy available to the institution, educators, trainees, and the public. The practice should not occur behind closed doors or on an ad hoc basis without clearly articulated guidelines. With improvements in technology, including patient simulation and virtual reality, the need for the practice may decrease, but there is no current evidence that is compelling regarding the best methods of teaching procedural skills. Given the importance of protecting trust in the profession of medicine and the existing evidence that the public would expect that consent be obtained, SAEM recommends that families be asked for consent prior to practicing procedures on the newly dead. PMID:15347547

  9. Circulation of Newly-Acquired Materials at the Juniata College Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, David H.

    Using circulation data to determine whether materials specifically acquired for the circulation collections of libraries at undergraduate institutions show heavy use, this study examined the first 3 years of shelf life of one year's book acquisitions at a small liberal arts college. Contrary to expectations of a high rate of use for newly acquired…

  10. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Newly Hired Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn E.; Boyland, Lori G.; Sriver, Shawn K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency of research-based leadership strategies utilized by newly hired school principals in the workplace. Public school superintendents in Indiana were asked to respond to two open-ended research questions. Through the use of content analysis, their comments were coded for the occurrence of effective leadership…

  11. Choosing Teachers: Exploring Agency and Structure in the Distribution of Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper theorises aspects of the distribution of newly qualified teachers in England, which is not arbitrary but patterned with differential effects upon socially distanced learners. As part of a larger project exploring the sociological strategies and stratification whereby teachers choose, and are chosen, for their first teaching post, I…

  12. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared…

  13. Newly Developed Sarcopenia as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Patients who Underwent Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ock, So Young; Xu, Weiguang; Lee, Jung-Dong; Lee, Jei Hee; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan Woo; Han, Seung Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relationship between a perioperative change in sarcopenic status and clinical outcome of liver transplantation (LT) is unknown. We investigated whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status were associated with the survival of patients. Method This retrospective study was based on a cohort of 145 patients from a single transplant center who during a mean of 1 year after LT underwent computed tomography imaging evaluation. The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle of LT patients was compared with that of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status affect post-LT survival. Results The mean age at LT of the 116 male and 29 female patients was 50.2 ± 7.9 years; the mean follow-up duration was 51.6 ± 32.9 months. All pre-LT patients with sarcopenia still had sarcopenia 1 year after LT; 14 (15%) patients had newly developed sarcopenia. The mean survival duration was 91.8 ± 4.2 months for non-sarcopenic patients and 80.0 ± 5.2 months for sarcopenic patients (log-rank test, p = 0.069). In subgroup analysis, newly developed sarcopenia was an independent negative predictor for post-LT survival (hazard ratio: 10.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.37–80.93, p = 0.024). Conclusion Sarcopenia in LT recipients did not improve in any of the previously sarcopenic patients and newly developed within 1 year in others. Newly developed sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality. Newly developed sarcopenia can be used to stratify patients with regard to the risk of post-LT mortality. PMID:26619224

  14. Depth-Variable Settlement Patterns and Predation Influence on Newly Settled Reef Fishes (Haemulon spp., Haemulidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lance K. B.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.; Spieler, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    During early demersal ontogeny, many marine fishes display complex habitat-use patterns. Grunts of the speciose genus Haemulon are among the most abundant fishes on western North Atlantic coral reefs, with most species settling to shallow habitats (≤12 m). To gain understanding into cross-shelf distributional patterns exhibited by newly settled stages of grunts (<2 cm total length), we examined: 1) depth-specific distributions of congeners at settlement among sites at 8 m, 12 m, and 21 m, and 2) depth-variable predation pressure on newly settled individuals (species pooled). Of the six species identified from collections of newly settled specimens (n = 2125), Haemulon aurolineatum (tomtate), H. flavolineatum (French grunt), and H. striatum (striped grunt) comprised 98% of the total abundance; with the first two species present at all sites. Prevalence of H. aurolineatum and H. flavolineatum decreased substantially from the 8-m site to the two deeper sites. In contrast, H. striatum was absent from the 8-m site and exhibited its highest frequency at the 21-m site. Comparison of newly settled grunt delta density for all species on caged (predator exclusion) and control artificial reefs at the shallowest site (8-m) revealed no difference, while the 12-m and 21-m sites exhibited significantly greater delta densities on the caged treatment. This result, along with significantly higher abundances of co-occurring piscivorous fishes at the deeper sites, indicated lower predation pressure at the 8-m site. This study suggests habitat-use patterns of newly settled stages of some coral reef fishes that undergo ontogenetic shifts are a function of depth-variable predation pressure while, for at least one deeper-water species, proximity to adult habitat appears to be an important factor affecting settlement distribution. PMID:23272077

  15. Utility of a Newly Designed Film Holder for Premolar Bitewing Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Yaser; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Vasegh, Zahra; Valizadeh, Solmaz; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bitewing radiography is a valuable technique for assessment of proximal caries, alveolar crest and periodontal status. Technical errors during radiography result in erroneous radiographic interpretation, misdiagnosis, possible mistreatment or unnecessary exposure of patient for taking a repeat radiograph. Aim In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a film holder modified from the conventional one and compared it with that of conventional film holder. Materials and Methods Our study population comprised of 70 patients who were referred to the Radiology Department for bilateral premolar bitewing radiographs as requested by their attending clinician. Bitewing radiographs in each patient were taken using the newly designed holder in one side and the conventional holder in the other side. The acceptability of the two holders from the perspectives of the technician and patients was determined using a 0-20 point scale. The frequency of overlap and film positioning errors was calculated for each method. Results The conventional holder had greater acceptability among patients compared to the newly designed holder (mean score of 16.59 versus 13.37). From the technicians’ point of view, the newly designed holder was superior to the conventional holder (mean score of 17.33 versus 16.44). The frequency of overlap was lower using the newly designed holder (p<0.001) and it allowed more accurate film positioning (p=0.005). Conclusion The newly designed holder may facilitate the process of radiography for technicians and may be associated with less frequency of radiographic errors compared to the conventional holder. PMID:26675339

  16. Patterns of Nonadherence to Antiepileptic Drug Therapy in Children With Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Avani C.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Glauser, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Because of epilepsy’s common occurrence, the narrow therapeutic and safety margins of antiepileptic medications, and the recognized complications of medication nonadherence in adults with epilepsy, identifying the rates, patterns, and predictors of nonadherence in children with epilepsy is imperative. The onset and evolution of antiepileptic drug nonadherence in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy remains unknown. Objectives To identify and characterize trajectories of adherence in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy over the first 6 months of therapy and to determine sociodemographic and epilepsy-specific predictors of adherence trajectories. Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective, longitudinal observational study of antiepileptic drug adherence in a consecutive cohort of 124 children (2–12 years old) with newly diagnosed epilepsy at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Patients were recruited from April 2006 through March 2009, and final data collection occurred in September 2009. Main Outcome Measure Objective adherence measured using electronic monitors. Results Fifty-eight percent of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy demonstrated persistent nonadherence during the first 6 months of therapy. Group-based trajectory models identified 5 differential adherence patterns (Bayesian information criterion=−23611.8): severe early nonadherence (13%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–20%), severe delayed nonadherence (7%; 95% CI, 3%–12%), moderate nonadherence (13%; 95% CI, 8%–20%), mild nonadherence (26%; 95% CI, 19%–34%), and near-perfect adherence (42%; 95% CI, 33%–50%). The adherence pattern of most patients was established by the first month of therapy. Socioeconomic status was the sole predictor of adherence trajectory group status (χ42=19.3 [n = 115]; P < .001; partial r2 = 0.25), with lower socioeconomic status associated with higher nonadherence. Conclusion Five trajectory patterns were identified that captured the

  17. Encystment and excystment of kinetoplastid Azumiobodo hoyamushi, causal agent of soft tunic syndrome in ascidian aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Nawata, Akatsuki; Hirose, Euichi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Kumagai, Akira

    2015-08-20

    Soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi is caused by the kinetoplastid flagellate Azumiobodo hoyamushi, which was found to assume a fusiform cell form with 2 flagella in axenic, pure culture. When the flagellate form was incubated in sterilized artificial seawater (pH 8.4), some of the cells became cyst-like and adhered to the bottom of the culture plate. The cyst-like forms were spherical or cuboidal, and each had 2 flagella encapsulated in its cytoplasm. Encystment was also induced in culture medium alkalified to the pH of seawater (8.4) but not in unmodified (pH 7.2) or acidified media (pH 6.4). More than 95% of the cyst-like cells converted to the flagellate form within 1 d following transfer to seawater containing ascidian tunic extracts from host ascidians. The cyst-like cells were able to survive in seawater with no added nutrients for up to 2 wk at 20°C and for a few months at 5 to 15°C. The survival period in seawater depended on temperature: some cyst-like cells survived 3 mo at 10°C, and ca. 95% of these converted to flagellate forms in seawater containing tunic extracts. Thus, A. hoyamushi is able to persist under adverse conditions in a cyst-like form able to adhere to organic and inorganic substrata for protracted periods of time. PMID:26290510

  18. "Welcome to Sweden...": Newly Arrived Students' Experiences of Pedagogical and Social Provision in Introductory and Regular Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Jenny; Axelsson, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Education for newly arrived students in Sweden is commonly organised in introductory classes, providing a basis for transition to the mainstream system. Focusing on the hitherto underinvestigated question of how newly arrived students experience the time in and transition between introductory and regular classes, we analyse the social and…

  19. 25 CFR 292.5 - When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a settlement of a land claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When can gaming occur on newly acquired lands under a... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES GAMING ON TRUST LANDS ACQUIRED AFTER OCTOBER 17, 1988 Exceptions to Prohibitions on Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands Settlement of A Land Claimâ Exception § 292.5 When can gaming occur...

  20. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country According to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, J. Marinda; Els, Christoffel Johannes; Blignaut, Anita Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL) provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives…

  1. How young people can learn about newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2016-04-11

    This article describes a small-scale study of children's experiences of using a tablet computer with pre-installed apps designed to support individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. A total of 15 children (seven boys and eight girls), aged from 6.5 to 16, chose to use a tablet during their stay in hospital, and were then interviewed by telephone within two weeks after discharge. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, and subcategories were abstracted to categories. The results consisted of three categories and seven subcategories. The children found it helpful to use a range of different styles of learning about diabetes. A combination of educational tools and learning strategies, including conversations with nurses who are diabetes specialists, and the use of tablet-based apps, helps to support newly diagnosed children's learning about type 1 diabetes and its management. PMID:27063051

  2. Newly formed minerals of the Fe-P-S system in Kolyma fulgurite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyashkevich, A. A.; Minyuk, P. S.; Subbotnikova, T. V.; Alshevsky, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Newly obtained data from microscopic, geochemical, and thermomagnetic studies of the large Kolyma fulgurite are presented here: the fulgurite was formed in the Holocene as a result of lightning affected black shale alluvium. The composition is very close to that of glass formed from a melt. The glass has elevated concentrations of Y, Zr, Nb, and REEs. The newly formed mineral phases have been identified: those are Al-Si glass, α-cristobalite, moissanite, native iron with a phosphorus admixture, nickel-less shreibersite (?), troilite, and possibly cohenite. The formation of these minerals is related to the melt fractionation and the effects of element concentration and segregation of ore components under conditions of the rock melting caused by the effect of high-energy plasma (lightning strike).

  3. Visualization of the Newly Designed Jig and Fixture for Computer-Assisted Knee Replacement Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Intan Syaherra; Arshad, Haslina; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Mohd. Yahaya, Nor Hamdan; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    Surgical training systems based on virtual reality (VR) are highly desired as they offer a cost effective and efficient alternative compared to traditional training methods. Traditional surgical training methods require cadavers or plastic models which are costly. Cadavers cannot be used repeatedly and training with plastic models cannot provide the realistic experience. This paper describes a visualization to show the use of newly design jig and fixture for computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons found it difficult to align the existing jig with the computer-assisted device during the operation and it is time consuming to place it at the right position. A newly design jig and fixture has been proposed to solve this problem. Visualization is needed to show the surgeons on how it will be used in the computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Virtual models used in this visualization are constructed from the actual equipment and real human dataset.

  4. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexadecane.

    PubMed

    Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Galabova, Danka; Stoimenova, Emilia; Lalchev, Zdravko

    2006-01-01

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g l(-1)) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/ water interface by 35 mN m(-1) and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg l(-1), which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. PMID:16989316

  5. A proposal: Evolution of PCNA's role as a marker of newly replicated DNA

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Roxana; Langston, Lance; O'Donnell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Processivity clamps that hold DNA polymerases to DNA for processivity were the first proteins known to encircle the DNA duplex. At the time, polymerase processivity was thought to be the only function of ring shaped processivity clamps. But studies from many laboratories have identified numerous proteins that bind and function with sliding clamps. Among these processes are mismatch repair and nucleosome assembly. Interestingly, there exist polymerases that are highly processive and do not require clamps. Hence, DNA polymerase processivity does not intrinsically require that sliding clamps evolved for this purpose. We propose that polymerases evolved to require clamps as a way of ensuring that clamps are deposited on newly replicated DNA. These clamps are then used on the newly replicated daughter strands, for processes important to genomic integrity, such as mismatch repair and the assembly of nucleosomes to maintain epigenetic states of replicating cells during development. PMID:25704660

  6. A proposal: Evolution of PCNA's role as a marker of newly replicated DNA.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Roxana; Langston, Lance; O'Donnell, Mike

    2015-05-01

    Processivity clamps that hold DNA polymerases to DNA for processivity were the first proteins known to encircle the DNA duplex. At the time, polymerase processivity was thought to be the only function of ring shaped processivity clamps. But studies from many laboratories have identified numerous proteins that bind and function with sliding clamps. Among these processes are mismatch repair and nucleosome assembly. Interestingly, there exist polymerases that are highly processive and do not require clamps. Hence, DNA polymerase processivity does not intrinsically require that sliding clamps evolved for this purpose. We propose that polymerases evolved to require clamps as a way of ensuring that clamps are deposited on newly replicated DNA. These clamps are then used on the newly replicated daughter strands, for processes important to genomic integrity, such as mismatch repair and the assembly of nucleosomes to maintain epigenetic states of replicating cells during development. PMID:25704660

  7. Phylogenetic and antigenic characterization of newly isolated porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Taimur; Kubota, Tomoe; Ujike, Makoto; Yahara, Yoshiriro; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2016-08-15

    To evaluate the mechanism by which a large outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) occurred in Japan, where the majority of sows are vaccinated, we isolated two new strains of PED virus (PEDV) from the intestines of piglets and found that they showed greater similarity to US isolates (group II PEDV) than to the Japanese vaccine strain (group I PEDV). We compared the antigenicity of the vaccine type strain and newly isolated strains by means of a neutralization test using sera from a number of pigs from various farms; the results revealed that they are antigenically similar. This is the first report of the similarity of group I and II viruses using sera from individual pigs vaccinated with group I virus. These data suggest that the large outbreak of PED in Japan cannot be attributed to inefficient vaccination but may be due to the extremely high virulence of the newly appearing viruses. PMID:27292080

  8. Evaluation of the MALDI-TOF MS profiling for identification of newly described Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Vávrová, Andrea; Balážová, Tereza; Sedláček, Ivo; Tvrzová, Ludmila; Šedo, Ondrej

    2015-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises primarily aquatic bacteria and also serious human and animal pathogens with the occurrence in clinical material, drinking water, and food. Aeromonads are typical for their complex taxonomy and nomenclature and for limited possibilities of identification to the species level. According to studies describing the use of MALDI-TOF MS in diagnostics of aeromonads, this modern chemotaxonomical approach reveals quite high percentage of correctly identified isolates. We analyzed 64 Aeromonas reference strains from the set of 27 species. After extending the range of analyzed Aeromonas species by newly described ones, we proved that MALDI-TOF MS procedure accompanied by Biotyper tool is not a reliable diagnostic technique for aeromonads. We obtained quite high percentage of false-positive, incorrect, and uncertain results. The identification of newly described species is accompanied with misidentifications that were observed also in the case of pathogenic aeromonads. PMID:25520239

  9. Diabetic euglycemic ketoacidosis in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus during Ramadan fasting.

    PubMed

    Baş, Veysel Nijat; Uytun, Salih; Torun, Yasemin Altuner

    2015-03-01

    Real euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA; blood glucose <200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L)] is rare, and long-lasting starvation conditions due to intervening diseases in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients may also cause it. Euglycemic DKA is also reported in insulin-dependent diabetics with depression, alcoholics, glycogen storage diseases, and chronic liver disease apart from pregnant cases. This case report is presented to emphasize the importance of evaluation of acid-base state, urine glucose, and ketone values at the application in all newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients with normal glucose levels by defining euglycemic DKA that resulted from long-lasting starvation during Ramadan fasting in a newly diagnosed 14-year-old male patient. PMID:25423670

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Chronic Health Conditions of Inmates Newly Admitted to Maximum Security Prisons.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jennifer R; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V; Lowy, Franklin D; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services. PMID:26084947

  11. Idiopathic Hyperammonemia That Developed During Initial Treatment With Steroid in a Patient With Newly Diagnosed Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shogo; Ito, Masaki; Sano, Hideki; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Akaihata, Mitsuko; Waragai, Tomoko; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Kikuta, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic hyperammonemia (IHA) has been described as a complication of intensive chemotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy but has subsequently been found in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation and in those with solid tumors treated with 5-fluorouracil. Although IHA is a rare complication, it is sometimes associated with high mortality in hematologic malignancies. Here we report the case of a 15-year-old boy in whom hyperammonemia developed during the initial treatment with prednisolone for newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and who survived after early detection and oral lactulose therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of IHA that was not induced by intensive chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or asparaginase therapy in a patient with newly diagnosed leukemia, but developed during an initial treatment with a steroid. Early detection of IHA by measuring the plasma ammonia level in patients with neurological symptoms may improve the outcome. PMID:25222063

  12. A trend towards increasing viral load in newly diagnosed HIV-infected inpatients in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Wang, Z; Huang, A; Yuan, J; Wei, D; Ye, H

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral blood viral load is an important indicator of viral production and clearance. Previous studies have suggested that viral load might predict the rate of decrease in CD4+ cell count and progression to AIDS and death. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the trends in HIV-1 viral load in southeast China. Among inpatients newly diagnosed with HIV infection, we found that viral load has increased over the past decade from 4·20 log10 copies/ml in 2002 to 6·61 log10 copies/ml in 2014, with a mean increase of 0·19 log10 copies/ml each year. However, the CD4+ cell count was stable and insensitive to changes in viral load. Thus, increasing viral load appears to be an emerging trend in newly diagnosed HIV-infected inpatients. PMID:26732896

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Chronic Health Conditions of Inmates Newly Admitted to Maximum Security Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jennifer R.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Lowy, Franklin D.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic medical conditions and risk predictors of 759 newly admitted inmates in two New York State maximum-security prisons. The most prevalent conditions were respiratory (34.1%), cardiovascular (17.4%), and sexually transmitted diseases (STD; 16.1%); least prevalent were HIV (3.6%), cancer (1.7%), and kidney disease (1.7%). Results of the multivariable logistic regression showed that females had higher risk for all conditions except cardiovascular and liver disease; individuals aged 40 years and older had significantly higher risk for all conditions except asthma and STD; non-Hispanic Black inmates had higher risk for respiratory disease and STD; cigarette smoking was associated with asthma; and obesity was significantly associated with diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular conditions. These findings highlight the heavy burden of chronic illnesses among newly admitted inmates and the need to address adequate screening, prevention, and treatment services. PMID:26084947

  14. Reaction-sintered silicon carbide: newly developed material for lightweight mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, Katsuhiko; Irikado, Hiroshi; Hamada, Kazuo; Kazuhiko, Ohno; Ishida, Juro; Suyama, Shoko; Itoh, Yoshiyasu; Ebizuka, Noboru; Eto, Hiroaki; Dai, Yutang

    2004-06-01

    Newly developed high-strength reaction-sintered silicon carbide is an attractive material for lightweight optical mirror with two times higher bending strength than other SiC materials. The polished surface has no pore and is suited to visible region as well as infrared without CVD SiC coating. The fabrication process, with low temperature and small shrinkage, is also suited to develop large scale objects.

  15. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Effects of Environment on Newly-Developed Near Infrared Emitting Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Louis E.; Liyanage, Nalaka; Delcamp, Jared; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of environment on the photophysical properties of a series of newly-developed near infrared emitting dyes was studied spectroscopically. Properties of interest include fluorescence emission, fluorescence lifetime, and quantum yield. Tracking how the photophysics of these compounds are affected in the solid phase, in thin films, in solution, and at the single molecule level with changing environment will provide a deeper insight into how dye structure affects their function.

  16. An Automated Clinical Alert System for Newly-Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Enders, Felicity; Caraballo, Pedro J.; Nishimura, Rick A.; Lloyd, Farrell J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical decision support systems that notify providers of abnormal test results have produced mixed results. We sought to develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of a computer-based clinical alert system intended to improve atrial fibrillation stroke prophylaxis, and identify reasons providers do not implement a guideline-concordant response. Materials and Methods We conducted a cohort study with historical controls among patients at a tertiary care hospital. We developed a decision rule to identify newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation, automatically notify providers, and direct them to online evidence-based management guidelines. We tracked all notifications from December 2009 to February 2010 (notification period) and applied the same decision rule to all patients from December 2008 to February 2009 (control period). Primary outcomes were accuracy of notification (confirmed through chart review) and prescription of warfarin within 30 days. Results During the notification period 604 notifications were triggered, of which 268 (44%) were confirmed as newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation. The notifications not confirmed as newly-diagnosed involved patients with no recent electrocardiogram at our institution. Thirty-four of 125 high-risk patients (27%) received warfarin in the notification period, compared with 34 of 94 (36%) in the control period (odds ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.37–1.17]; p = 0.16). Common reasons to not prescribe warfarin (identified from chart review of 151 patients) included upcoming surgical procedure, choice to use aspirin, and discrepancy between clinical notes and the medication record. Conclusions An automated system to identify newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation, notify providers, and encourage access to management guidelines did not change provider behaviors. PMID:25849969

  17. MGMT inactivation and clinical response in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Burger, Peter; Soudry, Ethan; Tyler, Betty; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Weingart, Jon; Olivi, Alessandro; Gallia, Gary L; Sidransky, David; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ye, Xiaobu; Brem, Henry

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between the O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status and clinical outcomes in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who were treated with Gliadel wafers (Eisai, Tokyo, Japan). MGMT promoter methylation has been associated with increased survival among patients with GBM who are treated with various alkylating agents. MGMT promoter methylation, in DNA from 122 of 160 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, was determined by a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The MGMT promoter was methylated in 40 (32.7%) of 122 patients. The median OS was 13.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.0-14.5) and RFS was 9.4 months (95% CI 7.8-10.2). After adjusting for age, Karnofsky performance score, extent of resection, temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), the newly diagnosed GBM patients with MGMT methylation had a 15% reduced mortality risk, compared to patients with unmethylated MGMT (hazard ratio 0.85; 95% CI 0.56-1.31; p=0.46). The patients aged over 70 years with MGMT methylation had a significantly longer median OS of 13.5 months, compared to 7.6 months in patients with unmethylated MGMT (p=0.027). A significant difference was also found in older patients, with a median RFS of 13.1 versus 7.6 months for methylated and unmethylated MGMT groups, respectively (p=0.01). Methylation of the MGMT promoter in newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with Gliadel, RT and TMZ, was associated with significantly improved OS compared to the unmethylated population. In elderly patients, methylation of the MGMT promoter was associated with significantly better OS and RFS. PMID:26249244

  18. Time perspective and weight management behaviors in newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes: a mediational analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cheng, Alice Y

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to examine the extent to which domain-specific time perspective predicts weight management behaviors (dietary behavior and physical activity) among those newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. A secondary objective was to test potential mediators of the hypothesized effect (behavioral intention, self-efficacy and control beliefs). A total of 204 adults newly diagnosed (≤6 months) with Type 2 diabetes participated in the study, which included a baseline assessment of domain-general and domain-specific time perspective, as well as strength of intention to perform two weight-management behaviors (dietary choice and physical activity); both weight-management behaviors were assessed again at 6 month follow-up. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed a prospective association between domain-specific time perspective and uptake of weight management behaviors. Individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM possessing a future-oriented time perspective reported making less frequent fatty food choices and greater increases in physical activity over the 6-month follow-up interval. These effects were selectively mediated by intention strength, and not competing social cognitive variables. For both behaviors, the total effects and meditational models were robust to adjustments for demographics, body composition and disease variables. A future-oriented time perspective is prospectively associated with superior uptake of weight management behaviors among those with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. The facilitating effect of future-oriented thinking appears to occur via enhanced strength of intentions to perform weight management behaviors. PMID:22105339

  19. Disclosure obligations of the newly public healthcare company: practical strategies for the company and its counsel.

    PubMed

    Horton, W W; McFadden, F H

    1999-01-01

    Founders of healthcare companies, like entrepreneurs in general, dream of the opportunity to take their companies public. The benefits flowing from access to the public markets, however, carry with them additional responsibilities that are enforceable both by the regulatory authorities and the well-organized plaintiffs' securities bar. The authors of this Article provide the newly public company and its counsel extensive guidance for the navigation of this regulatory maze. PMID:10569844

  20. Two new and one newly recorded species of Gracillariidae from China (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Haiyan; Xu, Jiasheng; Dai, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents four Chinese species belonging to the genera Metriochroa Busck, Eumetriochroa Kumata, and Gibbovalva Kumata & Kuroko (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), including two new species: Metriochroa alboannulata Bai, sp. n. and Gibbovalva clavata Bai, sp. n. Eumetriochroa hiranoi Kumata, 1998, is newly recorded from China. Photographs of adults and figures of the genital structures are provided, along with keys to the Chinese species of Metriochroa, Eumetriochroa, and Gibbovalva. PMID:27006609

  1. Prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen in newly presenting adult onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wilde, C; Lakshmanan, A; Patel, M; Morales, M U; Dhar-Munshi, S; Amoaku, W M K

    2016-06-01

    PurposeTo report the association and prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) in eyes with newly presenting adult onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AFVD). To compare the strength of association with other pathologies resulting from dysfunction of the choroid-Bruch's membrane-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) complex, including eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) and angioid streaks.MethodsRetrospective single-centre review of all consecutive newly presenting AFVD. Multimodal imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fundus photographs, red-free/blue light images, and fundus fluorescein angiograms were graded for the presence of RPD. For comparison, all consecutive newly presenting cases of GA and eyes with angioid streaks were studied.ResultsFifteen (15) patients were identified with AFVD (mean age of 77.3 years; 73.3% female). Mean age of patients with AFVD and RPD was 80.5 years (SD 3.7), whereas that of patients with AFVD without RPD was 75.1 years (SD 7.0). This age difference did not reach statistical significance, P=0.1. Six (40%) had identifiable RPD; being a bilateral finding in 100% of patients. No males with AFVD and RPD were identified. A total of 92 eyes presented with GA. Twenty-three (23) of these (25.0%) had RPD. Twelve (12) patients presented with identifiable angioid streaks, with 4 (36.4%) having RPD.ConclusionRPD are a frequent finding in eyes with newly presenting AFVD; not being restricted to AMD, but a finding common among diseases where pathophysiological mechanisms involve damage to Bruch's membrane and the RPE, whether genetic or degenerative. Our study supports the concept that they occur with high but variable frequencies in eyes with various pathologies. PMID:27034200

  2. Prevalence of Microvascular Complications in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Alia; Iqbal, Farrukh; Taj, Azeem; Iqbal, Zafar; Amin, Muhammad Joher; Iqbal, Qasim Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: Microvascular complications are the major outcome of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus progression, which reduce the quality of life, incur heavy economic burdens to the health care system and increase diabetic mortality. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of microvascular complications among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients and to analyze the association between these complications and poor glycemic control. Methods: This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out in Diabetic Clinic of Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2011 to November 2012 among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Relevant information of all patients was recorded with the help of a proforma. They were investigated for retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Results: We have divided the patients into two groups: Group I with good glycemic control (HbA1c <6.5) and group II with poor glycemic control (HbA1c >6.5). In group II microvascular complications were 89.8%. Neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy were present in 68.5%, 56.2% and 31.4% respectively. These similar percentages in Group I were 50%, 0% and 31% respectively and are significantly lower. Conclusion: The study showed that even in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients who had poor glycemic control, frequency of microvascular complications is much higher as compared to those who had average glycemic control. Thus tight glycemic control does count even in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics to prevent and minimize the occurrence of complications. PMID:24353655

  3. Frequency of hypovitaminosis D and its associated risk factors in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Fahad; Shaheen, Abida; Arshad, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of hypovitaminosis D and its associated risk factors in newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients prior to administration of standard anti tuberculosis therapy. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases-DUHS. After approval from BASR and following written informed consent eighty newly diagnosed, as per WHO criteria, tuberculosis patients were enrolled. Prior to the initiation of anti tuberculosis therapy, the serum vitamin D level was determined by 25-OH Vitamin D kit using the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method. A cut off value of >30 ng/mL of serum vitamin D was taken as normal whereas a range between 10-30 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL were considered insufficient and deficient respectively. Frequency of socio-demographic associated risk factors of hypovitaminosis D was also determined. Results: Out of eighty newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients 33 (41.25%) were males and 47(58.75%) were females with their ages ranging from 18-50 years. 54 patients (26 male and 28 female patients) were smokers. BMI of all the patients was found to be less than the normal ranges. Hypovitaminosis was present in all the cases. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 49 participants (20 male and 29 female) whereas 31 patients (13 male and 18 female) were found to be vitamin D deficient. Conclusion: Prevalence of serum vitamin D level derangement is very high in newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in our local setting which necessitates administration of adjuvant vitamin D along with standard anti tuberculosis therapy. PMID:27182266

  4. Gene expression pattern of glucose transporters in the skeletal muscles of newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Saki; Ijiri, Daichi; Kawaguchi, Mana; Nakashima, Kazuki; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-07-01

    The gene expression pattern of the glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT8, and GLUT12) among pectoralis major and minor, biceps femoris, and sartorius muscles from newly hatched chicks was examined. GLUT1 mRNA level was higher in pectoralis major muscle than in the other muscles. Phosphorylated AKT level was also high in the same muscle, suggesting a relationship between AKT and GLUT1 expression. PMID:27008100

  5. Newly qualified Project 2000 staff nurses in Scottish nursing homes: issues for education.

    PubMed

    Runciman, Phyllis; Dewar, Belinda; Goulbourne, Alison

    2002-10-01

    The contribution of nursing homes to nurse education in the UK is growing. This article presents educational issues raised by nine senior Nurse Managers from nursing homes in one Scottish health board. The Managers were interviewed as part of a larger Scottish study of employers' views of the skills of newly qualified Project 2000 staff nurses. Perceptions of the adequacy of the skills of newly qualified diplomates in first staff nurse posts in nursing homes following registration were explored. Impressions were mixed but generally favourable. The perceived strengths - confidence, knowledge and a questioning approach, and perceived limitations - in practical and organisational skills, matched closely those of senior Nurse Managers in the NHS sector. Managers noted the significance for learning of the business and customer care ethos of nursing home care and of the exacting skill requirements of specialist and increasingly acute care demands within this sector. There was uncertainty about and concern to strengthen preceptorship support. Matters for debate include the adequacy of telephone support versus in person on-site support for newly qualified nurses, whether expectations of initial performance are realistic and whether skill requirements differ between independent and NHS sectors. The potential value of NHS and independent health care inter-sectoral dialogue and networking is suggested. PMID:12384041

  6. Assessment of the Framingham risk factors among ED patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Storrow, Alan B.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Harrell, Frank E.; Amdahl, John; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M.; Darbar, Dawood

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often first diagnosed in the emergency department (ED) and accounts for nearly 1% of all ED visits. Our objective was to assess the Framingham Heart Study risk score for AF development in ED patients with newly diagnosed AF. Methods We systematically reviewed the electronic medical records of ED patients with newly diagnosed AF between August 2005 and July 2008. We measured the frequency of the Framingham Heart Study predictors and calculated each patient's risk score. Results During the 3-year study period, 914 patients had 1228 ED visits. New AF was diagnosed in 296 (32%) patients. Among these patients, 107 (36%) were female, 127 (43%) had prior ED visits since 2003, 189 (64%) were taking hypertension medications and 170 (57.4%) had previous electrocardiograms with measurable PR intervals. The median PR interval was 166 ms (151 to 180) and 60% of available PR intervals were ≥160 ms. The median (Interquartile range) age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure were 66 years (53 to 77), 27 (23 to 31), and 134 mm Hg (118 to 151), respectively. Median risk score was 7 (3 to 9) indicating high predicted risk. Heart failure and cardiac murmurs were previously diagnosed in 45 (15%) and 32 (11%) of these patients, respectively. Conclusions The Framingham risk factors for AF are commonly encountered among ED patients with newly diagnosed AF. The ED might provide an opportunity to identify patients at high risk for AF and refer them for primary prevention interventions. PMID:21208770

  7. Newly qualified doctors' perceptions of informal learning from nurses: implications for interprofessional education and practice.

    PubMed

    Burford, Bryan; Morrow, Gill; Morrison, Jill; Baldauf, Beate; Spencer, John; Johnson, Neil; Rothwell, Charlotte; Peile, Ed; Davies, Carol; Allen, Maggie; Illing, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Newly qualified doctors spend much of their time with nurses, but little research has considered informal learning during that formative contact. This article reports findings from a multiple case study that explored what newly qualified doctors felt they learned from nurses in the workplace. Analysis of interviews conducted with UK doctors in their first year of practice identified four overarching themes: attitudes towards working with nurses, learning about roles, professional hierarchies and learning skills. Informal learning was found to contribute to the newly qualified doctors' knowledge of their own and others' roles. A dynamic hierarchy was identified: one in which a "pragmatic hierarchy" recognising nurses' expertise was superseded by a "normative structural hierarchy" that reinforced the notion of medical dominance. Alongside the implicit learning of roles, nurses contributed to the explicit learning of skills and captured doctors' errors, with implications for patient safety. The findings are discussed in relation to professional socialisation. Issues of power between the professions are also considered. It is concluded that increasing both medical and nursing professions' awareness of informal workplace learning may improve the efficiency of education in restricted working hours. A culture in which informal learning is embedded may also have benefits for patient safety. PMID:23659622

  8. Shared decision making in the management of children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Carolyn E; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Blanchette, Victor S; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Birken, Catherine S; Breakey, Vicky R; Parkin, Patricia C

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the treatment decision-making process for children hospitalized with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Using focus groups, we studied children with ITP, parents of children with ITP, and health care professionals, inquiring about participants' experience with decision support and decision making in newly diagnosed ITP. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Themes that emerged from children were feelings of "anxiety, fear, and confusion"; the need to "understand information"; and "treatment choice," the experience of which was age dependent. For parents, "anxiety, fear, and confusion" was a dominant theme; "treatment choice" revealed that participants felt directed toward intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) for initial treatment. For health care professionals, "comfort level" highlighted factors contributing to professionals' comfort with offering options; "assumptions" were made about parental desire for participation in shared decision making (SDM) and parental acceptance of treatment options; "providing information" was informative regarding modes of facilitating SDM; and "treatment choice" revealed a discrepancy between current practice (directed toward IVIG) and the ideal of SDM. At our center, families of children with newly diagnosed ITP are not experiencing SDM. Our findings support the implementation of SDM to facilitate patient-centered care for the management of pediatric ITP. PMID:24577546

  9. Identification of Newly Emerging Influenza Viruses by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-young; Nam, Jung-soo; Yang, Se-eun; Shin, Hyunku; Jang, Yoon-ha; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kang, Taewook; Lim, Kwang-il; Choi, Yeonho

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate in situ virus identification based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We hypothesized that newly emerging influenza viruses possess surface proteins and lipids that can generate distinctive Raman signals. To test this hypothesis, SERS signals were measured from the surface of a noninfluenza virus, two different influenza viruses, and a genetically shuffled influenza virus. To ensure the safety for experimenters we constructed nonreplicating pseudotyped viruses that display main influenza virus surface components. Pseudotype with influenza virus components produced enhanced Raman peaks, on gold nanoparticles, that are easily distinguishable from those of pseudotype with a noninfluenza virus component, vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG). Furthermore, virus with the surface components of a newly emerging influenza strain, A/California/04/2009 (H1N1), generated Raman peaks different from those of viruses with components of the conventional laboratory-adapted influenza strain, A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Interestingly, the virus simultaneously displaying surface components of both influenza strains, a model mutant with genome reassortment, also produced a Raman signal pattern that is clearly distinguishable from those of each strain. This work highlights that SERS can provide a powerful label-free strategy to quickly identify newly emerging and potentially fatal influenza viruses. PMID:26528878

  10. Fractal features of soil particle size distribution in newly formed wetlands in the Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junbao; Lv, Xiaofei; Bin, Ma; Wu, Huifeng; Du, Siyao; Zhou, Mo; Yang, Yanming; Han, Guangxuan

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of particle size distribution (PSD) in the newly formed wetlands in coast has seldom been studied. We applied fractal-scaling theory in assessing soil particle size distribution (PSD) features of newly formed wetlands in the Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. The singular fractal dimensions (D) values ranged from 1.82 to 1.90, the capacity dimension (D0) values ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, and the entropy dimension (D1) values ranged from 0.66 to 0.84. Constrained corresponding analysis revealed that 43.5% of the variance in soil PSD can be explained by environmental factors, including 14.7% by seasonal variation, 8.6% by soil depth, and 8.0% by vegetation type. The fractal dimensions D and D1 were sensitive with fine particles with size ranging less than 126 μm, and D0 was sensitive with coarse particles with size ranging between 126 μm to 2000 μm. Fractal analysis makes full use of soil PSD information, and offers a useful approach to quantify and assess the soil physical attributes in the newly formed wetland. PMID:26014107

  11. Eltrombopag therapy in newly diagnosed steroid non-responsive ITP patients.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Ayush; Mishra, Sanjay; Yadav, Yogendra Singh; Yadav, Deependra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterised by isolated thrombocytopenia (peripheral blood platelet count <100 × 10(9)/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia. The upfront treatment in newly diagnosed ITP patients is steroids; however, about one-third patients do not respond, and require other treatment, including IVIg, anti-D, or splenectomy. Previous studies have shown decreased platelet production in some ITP patients, aside from the evidence of enhanced platelet destruction. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RA), such as eltrombopag have been shown to provide good response in steroid non-responsive chronic ITP patients. We have studied response to eltrombopag in 25 newly diagnosed steroid non-responsive ITP patients; 80 % patients showed response at the end of 1 month, and 76 % sustained response at the end of 3 months. The platelet count rose from a mean value of 17.5 ± 3.6-152.5 ± 107.9 × 10(9)/L at the end of 1 month. Our results suggest a possible role of eltrombopag in newly diagnosed steroid non-responsive ITP patients. However, our study is limited in that it is a single-centre study, with a small sample size, and lacks a long-term safety profile. Our findings highlight the potential value of a larger prospective study on the upfront use of TPO-RA in patients of ITP. PMID:24526570

  12. Selective determination of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine in environmental samples by newly developed sorbent materials.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Sewage epidemiology, as compared to crime statistics, health, medical reports or population surveys, is becoming the most objective and realistic approach to estimate drug consumption and trends in local communities. In this study we proposed newly synthesized sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from wastewater samples. The molecular modeling calculations were conducted to provide the choice of proper template and functional monomer for synthesis of extraction materials. The physicochemical properties of synthesized sorbents were studied using various techniques. The newly developed sorbent materials were applied for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from wastewater samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants in Poland. The obtained recoveries values in wastewater samples were 83.6(±7.1)% and 72.1(±4.8)%, for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively. The newly developed sorbents comprise an alternative to conventional ones, which are not entirely suitable for highly efficient purification of environmental samples due to the presence of contaminants. PMID:26695282

  13. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson's disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07-1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46-2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk. PMID:27412825

  14. Genetic Methods to Identify and Manipulate Newly Born Neurons in the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Imayoshi, Itaru; Sakamoto, Masayuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian neurogenesis is mostly completed by the perinatal period, new neurons are continuously generated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, many extensive studies have been performed on various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including proliferation and fate-specification of adult neural stem cells, and the migration, maturation and synaptic integration of newly born neurons. Furthermore, recent research has shed light on the intensive contribution of adult neurogenesis to olfactory-related and hippocampus-mediated brain functions. The field of adult neurogenesis progressed tremendously thanks to technical advances that facilitate the identification and selective manipulation of newly born neurons among billions of pre-existing neurons in the adult central nervous system. In this review, we introduce recent advances in the methodologies for visualizing newly generated neurons and manipulating neurogenesis in the adult brain. Particularly, the application of site-specific recombinases and Tet inducible system in combination with transgenic or gene targeting strategy is discussed in further detail. PMID:21562606

  15. Brief report: the length of newly diagnosed Barrett's esophagus may be decreasing.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T; Alsarraj, A; El-Serag, H B

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the temporal trends of length in newly diagnosed Barrett's esophagus (BE) and arrived at conflicting results. The aim of this study was to identify whether there has been a change over time in the length of BE at the time of diagnosis. This is a retrospective, single-center, observational study from Houston, Texas on newly diagnosed BE between 2008 and 2013. All cases were defined by the presence of endoscopically visible BE and histologic confirmation of intestinalized columnar epithelium with goblet cells. The length of BE was measured using the Prague classification. We examined temporal changes in 1-year intervals in the length of BE at the time of diagnosis. Both the frequency and mean length of BE at diagnosis seemed to decrease over time from February 2008 to July 2013. The proportion of patients diagnosed with BE ≥3 cm per year declined during the study period, while the proportion of patients with BE ≥1 and <3 cm increased, and those with <1 cm remained stable. The mean age and the gender of patients diagnosed with BE ≥3 cm did not differ significantly by BE length or year of diagnosis. The mean length of newly diagnosed BE may be decreasing as a result of a decline in BE ≥3 cm. These observations cannot be explained by changes in age and gender. PMID:24708395

  16. Short-term heart rate variability in older patients with newly diagnosed depression.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jee Hyun; Park, Soyeon; Yoon, Daehyun; Kim, Byungsu

    2015-04-30

    Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system has been considered to be a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term heart rate variability (HRV) in elderly patients with newly diagnosed MDD. Thirty MDD patients over 60 years old newly diagnosed by a structured interview were enrolled, free from antidepressants. Socio-demographic data, blood tests, and heart rate variability (HRV) obtained from 5-min ECG were gathered. The MDD group showed significantly lower very low frequency power, low frequency power, high frequency power, and total power in frequency domain. In time domain analysis, the MDD group showed a significantly smaller standard deviation of the NN, root mean square of the differences of the successive NN, and NN50/total number of all NNs. These findings demonstrated a lower HRV in older patients who were newly diagnosed with depression without a history of CVD and antidepressants effect, compared with the control subjects. Low HRV may be an important predictor of both MDD and CVD in elderly. The use of HRV in elderly depressive patients could be a meaningful screening method for risk of CVD. PMID:25747680

  17. Preceptors, Interns, and Newly Registered Pharmacists' Perceptions of New Zealand Pharmacy Graduates' Preparedness to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Christy; Shaw, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the perceptions of pharmacy interns and newly registered pharmacists and preceptors regarding the preparedness of graduates to enter professional practice. Methods A questionnaire was developed from the New Zealand Competence Standards for the Pharmacy Profession (pharmacist level), with additional questions on communication skills included. The instrument contained 16 items and was mailed to preceptors (n=141), interns (n=72), and newly-registered pharmacists (n=101). Microsoft Excel (pivot tables) was used to analyse the quantitative responses. The final question asked respondents to provide free-text comments about the questionnaire, graduates and the program and responses were analyzed quantitatively and thematically. Results The response rates were 54.6% (n = 77) for preceptors, 100% (n = 72) for interns and 45.5% (n = 46), for newly registered pharmacists. The majority of responses (87.6%; n=2,562) were in agreement that the degree had prepared graduates for practice. Overall, preceptor perceptions of graduates' preparedness for practice were less favorable than graduates' self-perceptions of their preparedness. Four themes were identified from the free-text comments: the need for improved skills, more professional attitudes, better English communication, and additional training in extemporaneous compounding. Conclusion Feedback elicited from graduates and preceptors was helpful in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of a new bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) program and proved useful in both the accreditation and curriculum revision processes. PMID:21045950

  18. Impact of ice temperature on microwave emissivity of thin newly formed sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Byong Jun; Ehn, Jens K.; Barber, David G.

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the impact of ice temperature on microwave emissivity over thin, newly formed sea ice at 6, 19, and 37 GHz during October 2003 in the southern Beaufort Sea, where the physical properties of newly formed sea ice were coincidently measured with microwave emissions. Six ice stations with distinct properties were selected and divided according to ice surface temperature into warm (above -3°C) or cold (below -3°C) stations. The warm stations had a lower emissivity at the vertical polarization by 0.1 than the cold stations and a corresponding difference in brine volume and dielectric properties. Significant correlations were observed between brine volume and ice emissivity (R2 = 0.8, p value < 0.05). A sensitivity study showed that decreasing ice temperatures from -2.1° to -5.0°C explained the observed difference of 0.1 in ice emissivity between warm and cold stations. The results suggest that the temperature of thin bare ice could be the critical factor in determining ice emissivity near the melting point (about -2°C). Furthermore, a slight decrease in ice temperature (i.e., from -2° to -5°C) significantly reduces the brine volume, thus resulting in high ice emissivity. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of newly formed ice to cause errors in estimating sea ice concentrations using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E data.

  19. Fasciola hepatica: antibody coating of juvenile flukes in the intestinal lumen of resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Burden, D J; Hughes, D L; Hammet, N C

    1982-01-01

    Newly excysted juvenile Fasciola hepatica, when placed in isolated loops of intestine prepared in previously infected rats, acquired a surface covering of rat immunoglobulin. IgG, IgA, IgE and IgM were all involved. This immunoglobulin coating was sloughed off when the flukes were maintained in vitro for three hours. PMID:7045997

  20. Initial Treatment of Men With Newly Diagnosed Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Bradley A.; Lu, Xin; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kreder, Karl J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Cram, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine initial treatments given to men with newly diagnosed lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) within a large integrated health care system in the United States. METHODS We used data from 2003 to 2009 from the Veteran's Health Administration to identify newly diagnosed cases of LUTD using established ICD-9CM codes. Our primary outcome was initial LUTD treatment (3 months), categorized as watchful waiting (WW), medical therapy (MT), or surgical therapy (ST); our secondary outcome was pharmacotherapy class received. We used logistic regression models to examine patient, provider, and health system factors associated with receiving MT or ST when compared with WW. RESULTS There were 393,901 incident cases of LUTD, of which 58.0% initially received WW, 41.8% MT, and 0.2% ST. Of the MT men, 79.8% received an alpha-blocker, 7.7% a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 3.3% an anticholinergic, and 7.3% combined therapy (alpha-blocker and 5-alpha reductase inhibitor). In our regression models, we found that age (higher), race (white/black), income (low), region (northeast/south), comorbidities (greater), prostate-specific antigen (lower), and provider (nonurologist) were associated with an increased odds of receiving MT. We found that age (higher), race (white), income (low), region (northeast/south), initial provider (urologist), and prostate-specific antigen (higher) increased the odds of receiving ST. CONCLUSION Most men with newly diagnosed LUTD in the Veteran's Health Administration receive WW, and initial surgical treatment is rare. A large number of men receiving MT were treated with monotherapy, despite evidence that combination therapy is potentially more effective in the long-term, suggesting opportunities for improvement in initial LUTD management within this population. PMID:24286603

  1. Constipation-related direct medical costs in 16 887 patients newly diagnosed with chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Joseph, Alain; Hodgkins, Paul; Smeets, Hugo M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic constipation is a common condition, but the exact impact on healthcare budgets in Western Europe is poorly documented. Objectives The aim of this study was to (a) investigate chronic constipation-related direct medical costs in patients with newly diagnosed chronic constipation and (b) study differences in costs according to natural history. Patients and methods We identified 16 887 patients newly diagnosed with chronic constipation in a Dutch health insurance database (∼1.3 million patients) in 2006–2009. Individuals with chronic constipation were selected on the basis of chronic laxative use (≥90 days/year) and diagnostic related groups for chronic constipation. On the basis of the episodes of laxative use and diagnostic related groups, individuals were categorized as having persistent, episodic, and nonrecurrent disease. Unadjusted costs for laxatives and hospital care for chronic constipation and constipation-related comorbidities were assessed and compared between patients with nonrecurrent, episodic, and persistent disease. Factors associated with costs were identified using Cox regression analyses. Results The mean total chronic constipation-related direct medical costs in the first year after diagnosis were €310±845 and consisted of laxatives (45%) and hospital care for chronic constipation (26%) as well as constipation-related comorbidities (29%). Costs were highest in patients with persistent disease (€367±882) compared with patients with episodic (€292±808) and nonrecurrent (€263±613) disease (P<0.01). Male sex was associated with higher costs, whereas increasing age, diabetes, and use of opioids were associated with lower costs. Conclusion Pharmacy costs and hospital care costs for chronic constipation-related comorbidities were the largest cost drivers for total constipation-related direct medical costs in patients with newly diagnosed chronic constipation. Direct medical costs differed according to patient

  2. NI-20ADC HISTOGRAM ANALYSIS FOLLOWING RADIOTHERAPY PREDICTS RESPONSE TO ADJUVANT TEMOZOLOMIDE IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED GBM

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Benjamin; Chang, Warren; Harris, Robert; Mody, Reema; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh; Cloughesy, Timothy; Pope, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The current standard of care for newly diagnosed GBM consists of concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ) plus adjuvant TMZ. We hypothesize there is a subset of patients that will have a significant benefit from this adjuvant therapy. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to identify a diffusion imaging phenotype for patients with newly diagnosed GBM that will benefit from adjuvant TMZ following concurrent radiotherapy and TMZ. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with: 1) histologically confirmed glioblastoma, 2) treated with concurrent radiotherapy and TMZ followed by adjuvant TMZ; and 3) high quality diffusion MR data were included in the current study. Diffusion and standard structural MRI were performed approximately 10 weeks after the start of radiotherapy and concurrent TMZ. ADC histogram analysis was performed by fitting a double Gaussian mixed model to ADC data extracted from contrast enhancement tumor. ADCL was defined as the mean ADC of the lower Gaussian distribution. We hypothesize that patients with a high ADCL have a lower tumor burden and thus favorable response to adjuvant TMZ in terms of TTP and OS. RESULTS: Results demonstrate that patients with an ADCL lower than 1 um2/ms has a significantly shorter PFS compared with patients having a higher ADCL (Log-rank, P < 0.0001), showing almost twice the median PFS (297 days vs. 156 days). Additionally, patients with a high ADCL had a significantly longer OS (Log-rank, P = 0.0049). Patients with a high ADCL had a median OS of 648 days while patients with a low ADCL had a median OS of only 407 days from the start of adjuvant TMZ. CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed GBM patients with elevated tumor diffusivity after completion of radiotherapy and concurrent TMZ have a favorable prognosis.

  3. Preclinical research strategies for newly approved drugs as reflected in early publication patterns.

    PubMed

    Köster, Ursula; Nolte, Ingo; Michel, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore early publication patterns (i.e. up to 1 year after obtaining regulatory approval) for newly registered drugs. From the website of the US Food and Drug Administration, all newly approved drugs for 6 calendar years between 1991 and 2011 were identified. Non-clinical original publications for these compounds were retrieved from PubMed and their abstracts analysed for type of study and reported data. This yielded 170 compounds for which 1954 original non-clinical publications were identified, i.e. a median/mean of 5/11.5 publications per compound; however, number of publications per compound varied widely (0-90) and this variation exhibited a non-Gaussian distribution. The earliest non-clinical publication typically was published less than 5 years before regulatory approval and more than 5 years after filing of the primary patent, but some compounds exhibited notable deviations from this pattern. Publications most often reported on efficacy related to the target indication and on potential future indications, with fewer studies addressing mechanisms of action, potency, selectivity, pharmacokinetics and toxic effects. For most compounds, data at the cellular and in vivo level were published, with fewer reports on effects on isolated tissues and even fewer at the molecular level. The preferred species for cellular studies was human, whereas for in vivo studies, it was rats and mice. In 75 % of cases, the lead author of the publication came from an academic institution, and most studies were published in classic pharmacology journals. We conclude that number, timing and scope of early non-clinical publications on newly approved drugs exhibit major variance. Factors potentially associated with such variance are explored in a companion paper. PMID:26612507

  4. Validation of a multigenic model to predict seizure control in newly treated epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shazadi, Kanvel; Petrovski, Slavé; Roten, Annie; Miller, Hugh; Huggins, Richard M; Brodie, Martin J; Pirmohamed, Munir; Johnson, Michael R; Marson, Anthony G; O'Brien, Terence J; Sills, Graeme J

    2014-12-01

    A multigenic classifier based on five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was previously reported to predict treatment response in an Australian newly-diagnosed epilepsy cohort using a k-nearest neighbour (kNN) algorithm. We assessed the validity of this classifier in predicting response to initial antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in two UK cohorts of newly-diagnosed epilepsy and investigated the utility of these five SNPs in predicting seizure control in general. The original Australian cohort constituted the training set for the classifier and was used to predict response to the first well-tolerated AED monotherapy in independently recruited UK cohorts (Glasgow, n=281; SANAD, n=491). A "leave-one-out" cross-validation was also employed, with training sets derived internally from the UK datasets. The multigenic classifier using the Australian cohort as the training set was unable to predict treatment response in either UK cohort. In the "leave-one-out" analysis, the five SNPs collectively predicted treatment response in both Glasgow and SANAD patients prescribed either carbamazepine or valproate (Glasgow OR=3.1, 95% CI=1.4-6.6, p=0.018; SANAD OR=2.8, 95% CI=1.3-6.1, p=0.048), but not those receiving lamotrigine (Glasgow OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.6-2.8, p=1.0; SANAD OR=2.2, 95% CI=0.9-5.4, p=0.36) or other AEDs (Glasgow OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.2-2.0, p=1.0; SANAD OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.9-4.2, p=0.36). The Australian-based multigenic kNN model is not predictive of initial treatment response in UK cohorts of newly-diagnosed epilepsy. However, the five SNPs identified in the original Australian study appear to collectively have a predictive influence in UK patients prescribed either carbamazepine or valproate. PMID:25282706

  5. High-dose methotrexate with or without rituximab in newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ambady, Prakash; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Sarai, Guneet; Bonekamp, David; Blakeley, Jaishri; Grossman, Stuart A.; Ye, Xiaobu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of rituximab (R) when added to high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) in patients with newly diagnosed immunocompetent primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSLs). Methods: Immunocompetent adults with newly diagnosed PCNSL treated at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1995 and 2012 were investigated. From 1995 to 2008, patients received HD-MTX monotherapy (8 g/m2 initially every 2 weeks and after complete response [CR] monthly to complete 12 months of therapy). From 2008 to 2012, patients received the same HD-MTX with rituximab (375 mg/m2) with each HD-MTX treatment. CR rates and median overall and progression-free survival were analyzed for each patient cohort in this single-institution, retrospective study. Results: A total of 81 patients were identified: 54 received HD-MTX (median age 66 years) while 27 received HD-MTX/R (median age 65 years). CR rates were 36% in the HD-MTX cohort and 73% in the HD-MTX/R cohort (p = 0.0145). Median progression-free survival was 4.5 months in the HD-MTX cohort and 26.7 months in the HD-MTX/R cohort (p = 0.003). Median overall survival was 16.3 months in the HD-MTX cohort and has not yet been reached in the HD-MTX/R cohort (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The addition of rituximab to HD-MTX appears to improve CR rates as well as overall and progression-free survival in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL. Comparisons of long-term survival in the 2 cohorts await further maturation of the data. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that in immunocompetent patients with PCNSL, HD-MTX plus rituximab compared with HD-MTX alone improves CR and overall survival rates. PMID:24928128

  6. PROPERTIES OF NEWLY FORMED DUST GRAINS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Nozawa, T.; Folatelli, G.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Bersten, M.; Quimby, R.; Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Minowa, Y.; Pyo, T.-S.; Motohara, K.; Kitagawa, Y.; Ueno, I.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M.; Kozasa, T.; Iye, M.

    2013-10-10

    Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the universe. However, our knowledge of their importance to dust production is limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova 2010jl around one and a half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ∼1350-1450 K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ∼(7.5-8.5) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate of the typical size of the newly formed dust grains (∼< 0.1 μm, and most likely ∼< 0.01 μm). We believe the dust grains were formed in a dense cooling shell as a result of a strong SN-circumstellar media (CSM) interaction. The dust grains occupy ∼10% of the emitting volume, suggesting an inhomogeneous, clumpy structure. The average CSM density must be ∼> 3 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, corresponding to a mass loss rate of ∼> 0.02 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a mass loss wind velocity of ∼100 km s{sup –1}). This strongly supports a scenario in which SN 2010jl and probably other luminous SNe IIn are powered by strong interactions within very dense CSM, perhaps created by Luminous-Blue-Variable-like eruptions within the last century before the explosion.

  7. Prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Oguche, Stephen; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Agbaji, Oche O.; Shehu, Nathan Y.; Abah, Isaac O.; Sagay, Atiene S.; Ugoagwu, Placid O.; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Idoko, John A.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and in Nigeria there is paucity of reported data. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary TB (PTB) in newly diagnosed (treatment-naïve) HIV-1 infected children at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 876 children, aged 2 months – 13 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between July 2005 and December 2012, of which 286 were diagnosed with PTB at presentation after TB screening. The study site was the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported Pediatric HIV clinic at JUTH, Jos. A multivariate forward logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection. Results The prevalence of PTB-HIV co-infection was 32% (286/876). Severe immunosuppression (SI) and World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical stage 3/4 were identified as independent risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection in HIV infected children. The odds of PTB-HIV co-infection was increased two-fold in HIV-infected children with WHO clinical stage 3/4 compared to those with stage 1/2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 [1.31-2.37], p<0.001) and 1.5-fold in children with SI compared to those without SI (AOR 1.52 [1.12-2.06], p=0.007). Conclusion In our setting, the burden of PTB was high among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, and late WHO HIV clinical stage and severe immunosuppression were associated with PTB-HIV co-infection. Therefore there is a clear need to improve strategies for early diagnosis of both HIV and PTB to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:27019829

  8. Composition of Gut Microbiota Influences Resistance of Newly Hatched Chickens to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection.

    PubMed

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Sebkova, Alena; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S. Enteritidis. The experiment was terminated 4 days later. In the second experiment, groups of newly hatched chickens were inoculated with cecal extracts of 35-week-old hens either on day 1 of life followed by S. Enteritidis infection on day 2 or were infected with S. Enteritidis infection on day 1 followed by therapeutic administration of the cecal extract on day 2 or were inoculated on day 1 of life with a mixture of the cecal extract and S. Enteritidis. This experiment was terminated when the chickens were 5 days old. Both Salmonella culture and chicken gene expression confirmed that inoculation of newly hatched chickens with microbiota from 3-week-old or older chickens protected them against S. Enteritidis challenge. On the other hand, microbiota from 1-week-old donors failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis challenge. Microbiota from 35-week-old hens protected chickens even 24 h after administration. However, simultaneous or therapeutic microbiota administration failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis infection. Gut microbiota can be used as a preventive measure against S. Enteritidis infection but its composition and early administration is critical for its efficacy. PMID:27379083

  9. Air pollution and newly diagnostic autism spectrum disorders: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chau-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2013-01-01

    There is limited evidence that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of childhood autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and newly diagnostic ASD in Taiwan. We conducted a population-based cohort of 49,073 children age less than 3 years in 2000 that were retrieved from Taiwan National Insurance Research Database and followed up from 2000 through 2010. Inverse distance weighting method was used to form exposure parameter for ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10). Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards (PH) model was performed to evaluate the relationship between yearly average exposure air pollutants of preceding years and newly diagnostic ASD. The risk of newly diagnostic ASD increased according to increasing O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 levels. The effect estimate indicating an approximately 59% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in O3 level (95% CI 1.42-1.79), 37% risk increase per 10 ppb in CO (95% CI 1.31-1.44), 340% risk increase per 10 ppb increase in NO2 level (95% CI 3.31-5.85), and 17% risk increase per 1 ppb in SO2 level (95% CI 1.09-1.27) was stable with different combinations of air pollutants in the multi-pollutant models. Our results provide evident that children exposure to O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 in the preceding 1 year to 4 years may increase the risk of ASD diagnosis. PMID:24086549

  10. Direct medical cost of newly diagnosed stable coronary artery disease in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian W Y; Lam, Yat Yin; Yuen, Amy C M; Cheung, Shuk Yan; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Yan, Bryan P Y

    2013-01-01

    Background Stable coronary artery disease (CAD) affects approximately 7% of the population of Hong Kong and is associated with substantial healthcare costs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the first-year direct medical cost for a patient with newly diagnosed stable CAD at a tertiary care public hospital in Hong Kong and to identify CAD-related resource consumption pattern among different patient subgroups. Methods 89 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stable CAD at our institution from January 2007 to December 2009 were retrospectively analysed. Direct medical costs including hospitalisation, clinic visits, diagnostic tests, laboratory tests, invasive procedures and medications were calculated for 1 year after diagnosis. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare median costs in patients with and without hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia, and in patients undergoing coronary intervention and those who were not. Results The mean first-year total direct medical cost of newly diagnosed stable CAD per patient was US$11 477. Hospitalisation was the dominant cost item accounting for 29.2% of the total cost. The total cost for patients who underwent invasive coronary procedure was higher than those treated medically alone (US$14 787 vs US$6121, p<0.001). Hyperlipidaemia was associated with higher incremental costs than hypertension and diabetes mellitus (p<0.001). (1US$=7.8HK$). Conclusions Huge healthcare expenses are incurred in the first year of stable CAD diagnosis from the perspective of the local public healthcare system. Healthcare costs are highest among patients with hyperlipidaemia and those undergoing invasive coronary procedures (even discounting costs for procedural consumables). Strategies for cost saving and preventive measures should be implemented to lower healthcare expenditure associated with CAD. PMID:27326062

  11. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson’s disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24–1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07–1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46–2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk. PMID:27412825

  12. Studies on the hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycans purified from articular chondrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandy, J.D.; Plaas, A.H.

    1989-06-01

    Primary cultures of rabbit articular chondrocytes have been maintained for 10 days and labeled with (35S)sulfate, (3H)leucine, and (35S)cysteine in pulse-chase protocols to study the structure and hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycan monomers. Radiolabeled monomers were purified from medium and cell-layer fractions by dissociative CsCl gradient centrifugation with bovine carrier monomer, and analyzed for hyaluronate binding affinity on Sepharose CL-2B in 0.5 M Na acetate, 0.1% Triton X-100, pH 6.8. Detergent was necessary to prevent self-association of newly synthesized monomers during chromatography. Monomers secreted during a 30-min pulse labeling with (35S)sulfate had a low affinity relative to carrier. Those molecules released into the medium during the first 12 h of chase remained in the low affinity form whereas those retained by the cell layer rapidly acquired high affinity. In cultures where more than 90% of the preformed cell-layer proteoglycan was removed by hyaluronidase digestion before radiolabeling the newly synthesized low affinity monomers also rapidly acquired high affinity if retained in the cell layer. Cultures labeled with amino acid precursors were used to establish the purity of monomer preparations and to isolate core proteins for study. Leucine- or cysteine-labeled core proteins derived from either low or high affinity monomer preparations migrated as a single major species on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with electrophoretic mobility very similar to that of core protein derived from extracted proteoglycan monomer. Purified low affinity monomers were converted to the high affinity form by treatment at pH 8.6; however, this change was prevented by guanidinium-HCl at concentrations above 0.8 M.

  13. Composition of Gut Microbiota Influences Resistance of Newly Hatched Chickens to Salmonella Enteritidis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Varmuzova, Karolina; Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Sisak, Frantisek; Havlickova, Hana; Sebkova, Alena; Faldynova, Marcela; Rychlik, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Since poultry is a very common source of non-typhoid Salmonella for humans, different interventions aimed at decreasing the prevalence of Salmonella in chickens are understood as an effective measure for decreasing the incidence of human salmonellosis. One such intervention is the use of probiotic or competitive exclusion products. In this study we tested whether microbiota from donor hens of different age will equally protect chickens against Salmonella Enteritidis infection. Newly hatched chickens were therefore orally inoculated with cecal extracts from 1-, 3-, 16-, 28-, and 42-week-old donors and 7 days later, the chickens were infected with S. Enteritidis. The experiment was terminated 4 days later. In the second experiment, groups of newly hatched chickens were inoculated with cecal extracts of 35-week-old hens either on day 1 of life followed by S. Enteritidis infection on day 2 or were infected with S. Enteritidis infection on day 1 followed by therapeutic administration of the cecal extract on day 2 or were inoculated on day 1 of life with a mixture of the cecal extract and S. Enteritidis. This experiment was terminated when the chickens were 5 days old. Both Salmonella culture and chicken gene expression confirmed that inoculation of newly hatched chickens with microbiota from 3-week-old or older chickens protected them against S. Enteritidis challenge. On the other hand, microbiota from 1-week-old donors failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis challenge. Microbiota from 35-week-old hens protected chickens even 24 h after administration. However, simultaneous or therapeutic microbiota administration failed to protect chickens against S. Enteritidis infection. Gut microbiota can be used as a preventive measure against S. Enteritidis infection but its composition and early administration is critical for its efficacy. PMID:27379083

  14. Laboratory markers slightly overestimate retention in HIV care among newly diagnosed individuals.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jason; Bean, Madelyne C; Richey, Lauren E

    2016-09-01

    Patients who are retained in HIV care have a higher likelihood of viral suppression and increased survival. Lab markers have been used as surrogate markers for clinical visits to estimate retention, but the accuracy of these markers at predicting retention in care has not been validated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using patients newly diagnosed with HIV in the Emergency Department of Interim Louisiana Public Hospital (ILPH). Retention in care was defined as two clinical visits to an HIV provider separated by at least three months within a one-year period as per the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) definition. Retention by lab markers was defined as two documented labs, either a CD4 count or an HIV viral load, separated by at least three months within the same one-year period. Ninety-nine patients were newly diagnosed with HIV; 36 patients (36%) were retained at 1 year using the HRSA definition and 40 patients (40%) using lab markers. The sensitivity and specificity of using lab markers among the newly diagnosed were 100% and 93.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 90% and 100%, respectively. Among the 99 patients, 56 were linked to the HIV clinic associated with our hospital, of which 63% (36) were retained at year 1 using the HRSA definition and 70% (39) using lab markers. The sensitivity and specificity of using lab markers among linked patients were 100% and 85%, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 92% and 100%, respectively. Lab markers slightly overestimate currently accepted definitions of retention. While lab markers may be the easiest way to estimate retention at the population level, further study should be done before lab markers are accepted as the gold standard surrogate measure for retention. PMID:27010972

  15. Immune Regulatory Effect of Newly Isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii from Indian Traditional Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Jang, Soojin; Chung, Dae Kyun; Kim, Hangeun

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits. Here, we isolated LAB from Indian fermented foods, such as traditional Yogurt and Dosa. LAB from Yogurt most significantly induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, whereas LAB from Dosa induced mild cytokine production. After 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, a Yogurt-borne lactic acid bacterium was identified and classified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and it was renamed L. delbrueckii K552 for the further studies. Our data suggest that the newly isolated L. delbrueckii can be used for the treatment of immune deficiency disorders. PMID:25839333

  16. [Clinical comparison of newly introduced toothbrush with two presently available toothbrushes].

    PubMed

    Klimek, J; Hellwig, E

    1989-12-01

    The cleansing effect of a newly introduced toothbrush, which is characterized by a thin, permanently elastic neck for reduction of abrasion pressure and an especially flat brush head, was clinically compared with two tested toothbrushes. Under identical experimental conditions, 30 subjects tested all three toothbrushes. Plaque was determined by the plaque index for toothbrush studies. On the whole, no significant differences were demonstrable with regard to the cleansing effect among the toothbrushes. Reduction of abrasion pressure, therefore, does not have a negative effect on the cleansing effect of these toothbrushes. PMID:2639722

  17. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  18. Association of copeptin and cortisol in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Kochanowski, Jan; Uchman, Dorota; Litwiniuk, Anna; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Baranowska, Boguslawa; Bik, Wojciech

    2015-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Obesity may increase the risk of developing MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate copeptin and cortisol plasma levels in newly diagnosed untreated MS patients and to determine whether copeptin and cortisol are related to the patients' clinical statuses. We report that copeptin and cortisol were higher in overweight/obese MS patients. Positive correlations were observed between the two parameters. We conclude that alterations of copeptin and cortisol levels in multiple sclerosis patients may be related to adiposity. An increase in cortisol may also be associated with copeptin secretion. PMID:25903724

  19. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Effects of Environment on Newly Developed Emissive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Louis E.; Hammer, Nathan I.; Rathnayake, Hemali; Hollis, Kieth; Delcamp, Jared

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis of recently synthesized novel emissive materials, such as perylene diimide nanostructures, pincer complexes, and newly developed dyes, provides insight into how to modify these materials to be better suited for applications in photovoltaics and photodiodes. Properties of interest in this study include fluorescence emission, fluorescence lifetime, and quantum yield. Tracking how the photophysics of a compound change as different environments are introduced to the system helps to develop a better understanding of the fundamental photophysical properties of the material. Both solid phase and samples in solution are examined on the bulk and single molecule level.

  20. The Hospital Work Environment And Job Satisfaction of Newly Licensed Registered Nurses.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    In prior studies, newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) described their job as being stressful. Little is known about how the hospital work environment affects their job satisfaction. A random sample of NLRNs were surveyed to assess the influence of hospital work environment on job satisfaction. Perceptions of greater job difficulty, job demands, and patient load were significantly related to lower job satisfaction. In contrast, being White, working 12-hour shifts, working more hours, and having more job control, greater professional tenure, and a perception of a better initial orientation were significantly related to higher job satisfaction. PMID:26267960

  1. Enhanced optical oxygen sensing using a newly synthesized ruthenium complex together with oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Kadriye; Kocak, Suleyman; Sabih Ozer, M; Aycan, Sule; Cetinkaya, Bekir

    2003-11-12

    In this article, an emission based, simple and fast method is proposed for the determination of gaseous oxygen. A newly synthesized fluorophore, dichloro-{2,6-bis[1-(4-dimethylamino-phenylimino) ethyl]pyridine}ruthenium(II) has been used for oxygen sensing together with oxygen carrier perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in silicon matrix. It should be noted that the solubility of oxygen in fluorocarbons is about three to ten times large as that observed in the parent hydrocarbons or in water, respectively. Employed PFCs are chemically and biochemically inert, have high dissolution capacities for oxygen, and, once doped into sensing film, considerably enhance the response of sensing agent. PMID:18969220

  2. Initial choice of therapy among plenty for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Marin, David

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib has been the preferred initial therapy for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia patients for the past 10 years. Recently, other, possibly better, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been licensed for first-line use based on the early results of 2 large, randomized clinical trials. The pros and cons of the various alternatives to imatinib are analyzed herein, and I try to answer the question of are we ready to abandon imatinib and, if yes, then what treatment should a patient diagnosed today receive. PMID:23233569

  3. Siberian subtype tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus in a newly emerged focus, Finland.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Anu; Tonteri, Elina; Pieninkeroinen, Ilkka; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Kuusi, Markku; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-02-01

    The first tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases in Kotka, Finland appeared in 2010. Altogether ten human cases have been diagnosed by 2014. Four had long-lasting sequelae. We collected 195 Ixodes ricinus ticks, nine rodents, and eleven shrews from the archipelago of Kotka in 2011. Three Siberian subtype TBE virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from the ticks and three mammals were positive for TBEV antibodies. The archipelago of Kotka is a newly emerged TBE focus of Siberian subtype TBEV circulating notably in I. ricinus. The patients had on average longer hospitalization than reported for the European subtype infection. PMID:26548609

  4. Conservation and de novo acquisition of dosage compensation on newly evolved sex chromosomes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; Ellison, Christopher E.; Gorchakov, Andrey A.; Zhou, Qi; Kaiser, Vera B.; Toda, Nick; Walton, Zaak; Peng, Shouyong; Park, Peter J.; Bachtrog, Doris; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2013-01-01

    Dosage compensation has arisen in response to the evolution of distinct male (XY) and female (XX) karyotypes. In Drosophila melanogaster, the MSL complex increases male X transcription approximately twofold. X-specific targeting is thought to occur through sequence-dependent binding to chromatin entry sites (CESs), followed by spreading in cis to active genes. We tested this model by asking how newly evolving sex chromosome arms in Drosophila miranda acquired dosage compensation. We found evidence for the creation of new CESs, with the analogous sequence and spacing as in D. melanogaster, providing strong support for the spreading model in the establishment of dosage compensation. PMID:23630075

  5. The newly expanded KSC Visitors Complex features a new ticket plaza, information center, exhibits an

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the grand opening of the newly expanded KSC Visitor Complex, Center Director Roy Bridges addresses guests and the media. The $13 million addition to the Visitor Complex includes an International Space Station-themed ticket plaza, featuring a structure of overhanging solar panels and astronauts performing assembly tasks, a new information center, films, and exhibits. The KSC Visitor Complex was inaugurated three decades ago and is now one of the top five tourist attractions in Florida. It is located on S.R. 407, east of I-95, within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  6. Is the newly reported X (5568 ) a B K ¯ molecular state?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we perform a dynamical study of the B(*) and K ¯ interaction and show that the newly reported X (5568 ) or X (5616 ) cannot be assigned to be an isovector B K ¯ or B*K ¯ molecular state. We continue to investigate the isoscalar B(*)K ¯ systems, and the B(*)K ¯ systems with isospin I =0 , 1, and predict the existence of several isoscalar B(*)K¯(*) molecular states. A new task of exploring open-bottom molecular states will be created for future experiments.

  7. Assessment of the Quality of Newly Formed Bone around Titanium Alloy Implants by Using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Hiroshi; Sakae, Toshiro; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Teranishi, Mari; Kato, Takao; Watanabe, Takehiro; Saeki, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Legeros, Racquel Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in bones quality between newly formed bone and cortical bone formed around titanium alloy implants by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result of narrow scan measurement at 4 weeks, the newly formed bone of C1s, P2p, O1s, and Ca2p were observed at a different peak range and strength compared with a cortical bone. At 8 weeks, the peak range and strength of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at C1s, P2p, and Ca2p, but not O1s. The results from this analysis indicate that the peaks and quantities of each element of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at 8 weeks, suggestive of a strong physicochemical resemblance. PMID:22778740

  8. A first principles study on newly proposed (Ca/Sr/Ba)Fe2Bi2 compounds with their parent compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswari, M.; Jayalakshmi, D. S.; Viswanathan, E.

    2016-02-01

    The structural, electronic, bonding and magnetic properties of newly proposed iron-based compounds viz., CaFe2Bi2, SrFe2Bi2, BaFe2Bi2 with their Fermi surface topology are reported here for the first time by means of first principles calculation. All these properties of newly proposed compounds are compared and analysed along with their respective parent compounds namely (Ca,Sr,Ba)Fe2As2.

  9. Learning beyond graduation: exploring newly qualified specialists' entrance into daily practice from a learning perspective.

    PubMed

    Cuyvers, Katrien; Donche, Vincent; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2016-05-01

    The entrance of newly qualified medical specialists into daily practice is considered to be a stressful period in which curriculum support is absent. Although engaging in both personal and professional learning and development activities is recognized fundamental for lifelong professional competence, research on medical professionals' entrance into practice is scarce. This research aims to contribute to the framework of medical professionals' informal learning and outlines the results of an exploratory study on the nature of learning in daily practice beyond postgraduate training. Eleven newly qualified physicians from different specialized backgrounds participated in a phenomenographic study, using a critical incident method and a grounded theory approach. Results demonstrated that learning in the workplace is, to a large extent, informal and associated with a variety of learning experiences. Analysis shows that experiences related to diagnostics and treatments are important sources for learning. Furthermore, incidents related to communication, changing roles, policy and organization offer learning opportunities, and therefore categorized as learning experiences. A broad range of learning activities are identified in dealing with these learning experiences. More specifically, actively engaging in actions and interactions, especially with colleagues of the same specialty, are the most mentioned. Observing others, consulting written sources, and recognizing uncertainties, are also referred to as learning activities. In the study, interaction, solely or combined with other learning activities, are deemed as very important by specialists in the initial entrance into practice. These insights can be used to develop workplace structures to support the entrance into practice following postgraduate training. PMID:26395113

  10. Newly-born Pulsars as Sources of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Olinto, Angela

    2012-03-01

    Newly-born pulsars are good candidate sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR). Young pulsars can strip heavy nuclei from the star surface, and further accelerate them to ultrahigh energies by unipolar induction in the pulsar wind. Once accelerated, nuclei have to escape from the dense supernova envelope surrounding the pulsar. We examine this escape analytically and numerically. Our results show that, protons with energy above 10^20,eV can hardly survive from interactions with the young supernova shell. In contrast, as a result of their higher charge, iron-peaked nuclei at the highest observed energies are able to escape newly-born pulsars with millisecond periods and dipole magnetic fields of ˜10^12-13,Gauss, embedded in core-collapse supernova. The escaped spectrum presents a transition of composition from light to heavy elements at a few EeV as observed by the Auger Observatory, due to the production of secondary nucleons. The interactions also help to soften the spectral slope, which allows a good fit to the observation. We conclude that the acceleration of heavy nuclei in a reasonably small fraction (<=0.01%) of extragalactic young pulsars would reproduce consistently the current UHECR data.

  11. Prevalence effects in newly trained airport checkpoint screeners: Trained observers miss rare targets, too

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Brunelli, David N.; Rubinstein, Joshua; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2013-01-01

    Many socially important search tasks are characterized by low target prevalence, meaning that targets are rarely encountered. For example, transportation security officers (TSOs) at airport checkpoints encounter very few actual threats in carry-on bags. In laboratory-based visual search experiments, low prevalence reduces the probability of detecting targets (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005). In the lab, this “prevalence effect” is caused by changes in decision and response criteria (Wolfe & Van Wert, 2010) and can be mitigated by presenting a burst of high-prevalence search with feedback (Wolfe et al., 2007). The goal of this study was to see if these effects could be replicated in the field with TSOs. A total of 125 newly trained TSOs participated in one of two experiments as part of their final evaluation following training. They searched for threats in simulated bags across five blocks. The first three blocks were low prevalence (target prevalence ≤ .05) with no feedback; the fourth block was high prevalence (.50) with full feedback; and the final block was, again, low prevalence. We found that newly trained TSOs were better at detecting targets at high compared to low prevalence, replicating the prevalence effect. Furthermore, performance was better (and response criterion was more “liberal”) in the low-prevalence block that took place after the high-prevalence block than in the initial three low-prevalence blocks, suggesting that a burst of high-prevalence trials may help alleviate the prevalence effect in the field. PMID:24297778

  12. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients. PMID:26813963

  13. Evidence for Newly Initiated Reconnection in the Solar Wind at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wong, Hon-Cheng; Ma, Yonghui; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Meng; Zuo, Pingbing; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Deng, Xiaohua

    2015-08-01

    We report the first evidence for a large-scale reconnection exhaust newly initiated in the solar wind using observations from three spacecraft: ACE, Wind, and ARTEMIS P2. We identified a well-structured X-line exhaust using measurements from ARTEMIS P2 in the downstream solar wind. However, in the upstream solar wind, ACE detected the same current sheet that corresponds to the exhaust identified by ARTEMIS P2 data without showing any reconnection signals. We cannot find any reconnection signals from Wind located between ACE and ARTEMIS P2. Within the exhaust, a magnetic island is identified, which is not consistent with the quasi-steady feature as previously reported and provides further evidence that the reconnection is newly initiated. Our observations show that the entering of energetic particles, probably from Earth's bow shock, makes the crucial difference between the non-reconnecting current sheet and the exhaust. Since no obvious driving factors are responsible for the reconnection initiation, we infer that these energetic particles probably play an important role in the reconnection initiation. Theoretical analysis also shows support for this potential mechanism.

  14. Prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers in newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Sinharay, Keshab; Paul, Uttam Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Anup Kumar; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Foot ulcer is one of the most common and dreadest complication of diabetes mellitus.This is also a frequent cause of hospitalisation and disability. Most of the patients with diabetic foot ulcers living in developing countries present to healthcare facilities fairly late with advanced foot ulcers because of poor economic status, inadequate knowledge of self-care, sociocultural reasons and poor and inadequate diabetes healthcare. To determine the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers amongst the newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients (n = 1674) a cross-sectional study was carried out during the period January 2010 to January 2011 in the department of medicine, NRS Medical College, Kolkata. Diabetic foot ulcers were found in 4.54% newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients. Neuropathic type of foot ulcer was present in 46.06% of patients (52.5% in male and 38.88% in female). Ischaemic type of foot ulcer was present in 19.74% of patients (22.5% in male and in 16.66% females). Neuroischaemic type of foot ulcer was present in 34.2% of patients (25% in males and 44.44% in females). Neuropathy occurred most frequently either singly or with peripheral vascular disease. General awareness about the disease, early diagnosis and proper management will prevent this dreaded complication. PMID:23741832

  15. Dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes colonisation in a newly-opened meat processing facility.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Borda, Daniela; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Stessl, Beatrix; Gurgu, Leontina; Wagner, Martin; Jordan, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    This study determined the colonisation scenario of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly-opened ready-to-eat meat processing facility using a combination of classical microbiology and molecular biology techniques. Samples (n=183), including food contact surfaces, non-food contact surfaces, raw materials and food samples, collected on four sampling occasions, were analysed for L. monocytogenes by the ISO 11290:1996 standard method and by real-time PCR applied to the second enrichment broth from the ISO method. No L. monocytogenes were detected on the first sampling occasion, but by the second sampling occasion a persistent clone had colonised the facility. Analysis of the second enrichment of the ISO method by real-time PCR was more sensitive for the detection of L. monocytogenes than the ISO method alone. In order to reduce the risk of cross contamination and the public health risk, awareness and proactive measures are required to control L. monocytogenes from the first days of production in a newly opened meat processing facility. PMID:26599913

  16. Hypertension associated with venous thromboembolism in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhui; Yang, Yuanhua; Chen, Wenhui; Liang, Lirong; Zhai, Zhenguo; Guo, Lijuan; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Li; Xu, Qixia; Jiang, Luning; Zhang, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with lung cancer that might help estimate an individual’s risk for VTE. A total of 632 unselected patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer were investigated for VTE within the three months prior to recruitment, and their major CVD risk factors were assessed at the baseline examination. Eighty-six of the 632 (13.6%) developed a VTE event. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and white blood cell count, found that hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.3) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.8) were significantly associated with VTE in different tumor histology models and that hypertension (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1–3.4) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5–4.7) were also significantly associated with VTE in different tumor stage models. Leukocytosis was linearly associated with hypertension and VTE (P for trend = 0.006), and the ORs for VTE increased with leukocytosis (all P for trend <0.05). In conclusion, hypertension increased the risk of VTE in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, which may be mediated by the presence of inflammation. PMID:26797411

  17. The Initial Assessment of Daily Insulin Dose in Chinese Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Xie; Teng, Xiangyu; Liu, Qianjing; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been well accepted that insulin therapy is the ideal treatment for newly diagnosed diabetic patients. However, there was no study about assessment of the initial insulin dosage in new onset Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Methods. 65 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (39 males/26 females; HbA1c ≥ 11.80 ± 0.22%) were investigated. All patients had random hyperglycaemia (at 21.8 ± 3.9 mmol/L) on the first day of admission and received insulin infusion intravenously (5 U/per hour). When the blood glucose level dropped to around 10 mmol/L, patients were then transferred to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). The reduction of blood glucose levels in response to per unit of insulin (RBG/RI) was recorded. The target glucose level was achieved in about 3 days. The total daily insulin dose (TDD) and basal insulin dose (TBD) were calculated. Results. TDD was 45.97 ± 1.28 units and TBD was 19.00 ± 0.54 units. TBD was about 40% of the total daily insulin requirement. There was a negative correlation between the ratio of RBG/RI and TDD. Conclusions. TDD was correlated with blood glucose reduction in response to intravenous insulin infusion in Chinese new onset patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26697503

  18. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  19. Newly Recognized Herpesvirus Causing Malignant Catarrhal Fever in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Dyer, Neil; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2000-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed by clinical signs and lesions in five out of six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in a North American zoo. The clinical signs and histopathological lesions in these deer were typical of MCF. Antibody to an epitope conserved among the MCF viruses was detected in the sera collected from the deer. PCR failed to amplify viral sequences from DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and/or spleens of the deer with primers specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) or specific for alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1). By using degenerate primers targeting a conserved region of a herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, a DNA fragment was amplified from the PBL or spleens of all six deer and sequenced. Alignment of the sequences demonstrated that the virus in the deer belongs to the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily, exhibiting 82% identity to OHV-2, 71% to AHV-1, and 60% to a newly identified bovine lymphotropic herpesvirus. This virus, which causes classical MCF in white-tailed deer, is a newly recognized agent belonging to the MCF group of gammaherpesviruses. It is the third reported pathogenic MCF virus, genetically distinct but closely related to OHV-2 and AHV-1. The reservoir for the virus has not been identified. PMID:10747100

  20. Leucocyte Telomere Shortening in relation to Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhelong; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Yuping; Li, Yongsheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and telomere length shortening in the comorbid depression and diabetes. Therefore, 71 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 52 subjects with normal glycemic level (control, Ctrl) were enrolled. Depressive status was identified with the Depression Subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Leukocyte telomere length ratio (T/S ratio) was determined with quantitative PCR. Oxidative stress status was evaluated with 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) assay kit. Some other biochemical blood testing was also performed. The data showed that T2D patients had higher proportion of depression evaluated by the HADS-D (x2 = 4.196, P = 0.041). T/S ratio was significantly negatively correlated with 8-OHdG, HADS-D, age, HbA1c, FPG, and HOMA-IR. In addition, HADS-D was significantly positively correlated with HbA1c, FPG, HOMA-IR, and 8-OHdG. Both HADS-D and 8-OHdG were the major independent predictors for T/S ratio. This study indicates that oxidative stress contributes to both telomere length shortening and depression development in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients, while in depression status, some other mechanisms besides oxidative stress may also affect the telomere length. PMID:24868316

  1. Identifying the educational needs and concerns of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer after surgery.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Patrice A; Osowski, Maryjo; Fidale, Mary Sue; Spagnoli, Cathy

    2008-04-01

    Many factors may interfere with the ability of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer to cope with treatment. Nurses should be aware of patients' needs during this critical time. The purpose of this study was to identify the educational needs and concerns of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer after surgery. A phone interview with patients was conducted approximately one week after breast cancer surgery. A convenience sample of 200 patients was recruited from four hospitals within a large midwestern healthcare system. The subjects were interviewed by breast health specialists and navigators involved in their education and support and were asked to participate in a short interview during a surgical follow-up phone call. Study results indicate that fear of recurrence and anxiety regarding postoperative treatments accounted for more than 65% of the responses to the question "What concerns you most about your new diagnosis?" Emotional, social, and physical limitations were identified as most important in dealing with a breast cancer diagnosis. As breast health specialists and navigators, nurses can improve the quality of care for women with breast cancer and their families by providing additional support services and post-treatment information during the initial education and follow-up call. PMID:18390461

  2. Possible identifications of newly observed magnetar quasi-periodic oscillations as crustal shear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) discovered in soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs) are expected to help us to study the properties of matter in neutron stars. In earlier investigations, we identified the QPOs of frequencies below ˜100 Hz observed in giant flares of SGR 1806 -20 and SGR 1900+14 as the crustal torsional oscillations. For this purpose, we calculated the frequencies of the fundamental torsional oscillations with various angular indices ℓ, by changing the stellar mass and radius. In this work, we try to explain the additional QPO frequencies recently reported by Huppenkothen et al. (2014a, 2014b) within the same framework as before except that we newly take into account the effect of electron screening, which acts to decrease the frequencies by a small amount. Those QPOs were discovered in two different SGRs, i.e., SGR 1806 -20 and SGR J1550 -5418. Then, we find that the newly observed QPO frequency in SGR 1806 -20 can be still identified as one of the frequencies of the fundamental torsional oscillations, while those in SGR J1550 -5418 can also be explained in terms of the torsional oscillations although the relevant angular indices are difficult to identify.

  3. Revisiting the emissions-energy-trade nexus: evidence from the newly industrializing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khalid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Kyophilavong, Phouphet

    2016-04-01

    This paper applies Pedroni's panel cointegration approach to explore the causal relationship between trade openness, carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth for the panel of newly industrialized economies (i.e., Brazil, India, China, and South Africa) over the period of 1970-2013. Our panel cointegration estimation results found majority of the variables cointegrated and confirm the long-run association among the variables. The Granger causality test indicates bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. A unidirectional causality is found running from trade openness to carbon dioxide emission and energy consumption and economic growth to carbon dioxide emissions. The results of causality analysis suggest that the trade liberalization in newly industrialized economies induces higher energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Furthermore, the causality results are checked using an innovative accounting approach which includes forecast-error variance decomposition test and impulse response function. The long-run coefficients are estimated using fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) method, and results conclude that the trade openness and economic growth reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the long run. The results of FMOLS test sound the existence of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. It means that trade liberalization induces carbon dioxide emission with increased national output, but it offsets that impact in the long run with reduced level of carbon dioxide emissions. PMID:26743648

  4. The Stingray nebula: watching the rapid evolution of a newly born planetary nebula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowsky, M.; Sahu, K. C.; Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, Pedro

    The formation and early evolution of planetary nebulae represent one of the most poorly understood phases of stellar evolution ( Kwok, 1987; Maddox, 1995). One of the youngest, the Stingray Nebula (He3-1357) ( Henize, 1967; Henize, 1976), shows all the tell-tale signs of a newly born planetary nebula: it has become ionized only within the past few decades ( Parthasarathy et al., 1993); the mass-loss from the central star has ceased within the past few years; and the central star is becoming hotter and fainter as expected from a star on its way to becoming a DA white dwarf ( Parthasarathy et al., 1995). The Stingray Nebula thus provides the ideal laboratory for examining the early structure and evolution of this class of objects. Images of the Stingray Nebula, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, show for the first time that its multiple expulsions of matter are focused by an equatorial ring and bubbles of gas located on opposite sides of the ring ( Bobrowsky et al., 1995). The position angle of the outflows has changed, possibly as a result of precessional motion induced by the presence of a companion star. This is consistent with the precessing jet model by Livio & Pringle (1996). Indeed, we have reported the discovery of a companion star in the Stingray Nebula ( Bobrowsky et al., 1998). Finally, we present evidence of the companion star dynamically distorting the gas in this newly-born planetary nebula.

  5. Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan; Wu, Xiafang; Wu, Ruirui; Sun, Xiance; Yang, Boyi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Changes in profile of lipids and adipokines have been reported in patients with thyroid dysfunction. But the evidence is controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationships between thyroid function and the profile of lipids and adipokines. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 197 newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients, 230 newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and 355 control subjects. Hypothyroid patients presented with significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), fasting insulin, resistin and leptin than control (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroid patients presented with significantly lower serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC and leptin, as well as higher levels of fasting insulin, resistin, adiponectin and homeostasis model insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than control (p < 0.05). Nonlinear regression and multivariable linear regression models all showed significant associations of resistin or adiponectin with free thyroxine and association of leptin with thyroid-stimulating hormone (p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlation between resistin and HOMA-IR was observed in the patients (p < 0.001). Thus, thyroid dysfunction affects the profile of lipids and adipokines. Resistin may serve as a link between thyroid dysfunction and insulin resistance. PMID:27193069

  6. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan Wong, Eric T.; Schiff, David; Kesari, Santosh; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Doherty, Lisa; LaFrankie, Debra Conrad

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered.

  7. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  8. Hypertension associated with venous thromboembolism in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhui; Yang, Yuanhua; Chen, Wenhui; Liang, Lirong; Zhai, Zhenguo; Guo, Lijuan; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with lung cancer that might help estimate an individual's risk for VTE. A total of 632 unselected patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer were investigated for VTE within the three months prior to recruitment, and their major CVD risk factors were assessed at the baseline examination. Eighty-six of the 632 (13.6%) developed a VTE event. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, including age, sex, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and white blood cell count, found that hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.3) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.8) were significantly associated with VTE in different tumor histology models and that hypertension (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.4) and leukocytosis (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5-4.7) were also significantly associated with VTE in different tumor stage models. Leukocytosis was linearly associated with hypertension and VTE (P for trend = 0.006), and the ORs for VTE increased with leukocytosis (all P for trend <0.05). In conclusion, hypertension increased the risk of VTE in patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, which may be mediated by the presence of inflammation. PMID:26797411

  9. Increased airway vascularity in newly diagnosed asthma using a high-magnification bronchovideoscope.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Gen; Saikai, Toyohiro; Hashimoto, Midori; Tanaka, Shintaro; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Fujii, Masaru; Takahashi, Hiroki; Abe, Shosaku

    2003-12-15

    Hypervascularity in the bronchial wall is part of airway remodeling, but has remained an ill-defined process in asthma pathogenesis. Previous morphologic assessment has been limited to biopsy specimens, and therefore a high-magnification bronchovideoscope (side-viewing type) was developed for less invasive examination of subepithelial vessels. We evaluated vascularity in the lower trachea, using this novel scope in 12 normal control subjects, 13 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 24 subjects with stable asthma; 8 were steroid naive with newly diagnosed asthma (Group A) and 16 had been treated with inhaled corticosteroids for more than 5 years (Group B). The redness of bronchial mucosa in patients with asthma observed by conventional fiberoptic bronchoscopy proved to be due to a fine vascular network. Morphometric measurements of subepithelial vessels showed that both vessel area density and vessel length density were significantly (p<0.0001) increased in subjects with asthma as compared with control subjects and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The degree of increase in vessels did not differ between Group A and Group B. The increase in subepithelial vessels of the airway is present even in newly diagnosed asthma. This novel bronchovideoscope is useful for assessment of vessel network in the surface of the airway lumen in vivo. PMID:14512267

  10. A Newly Designed Stent for Management of Malignant Distal Duodenal Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei-Zhong Yang, Zheng-Qiang Liu, Sheng Zhou, Chun-Gao Xia, Jin-Guo Zhao, Lin-Bo Shi, Hai-Bin

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a newly designed stent for the treatment of malignant distal duodenal stenosis.MethodsFrom March 2011 to May 2013, six patients with malignant duodenal stenosis underwent fluoroscopically guided placement of the new duodenal stent consisting of braided, nested stent wires, and a delivery system with a metallic mesh inner layer. Primary diseases were pancreatic cancer in three patients, gastric cancer in two patients, and endometrial stromal sarcoma in one patient. Duodenal obstructions were located in the horizontal part in two patients, the ascending part in two patients, and the duodenojejunal flexure in two patients. Technical success, defined as the successful stent deployment, clinical symptoms before and after the procedure, and complications were evaluated.ResultsTechnical success was achieved in all patients. No major complications were observed. Before treatment, two patients could not take any food and the gastric outlet obstruction scoring system (GOOSS) score was 0; the other four patients could take only liquids orally (GOOSS score = 1). After treatment, five patients could take soft food (GOOSS score = 2) and one patient could take a full diet (GOOSS score = 3). The mean duration of primary stent patency was 115.7 days.ConclusionsThe newly designed stent is associated with a high degree of technical success and good clinical outcome and may be clinically effective in the management of malignant distal duodenal obstruction.

  11. Transfer of newly synthesized proteins from Schwann cells to the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Lasek, R J; Gainer, H; Przybylski, R J

    1974-04-01

    The squid giant axon is presented as a model for the study of macromolecular interaction between cells in the nervous system. When the isolated giant axon was incubated in sea water containing [(3)H]leucine for 0.5-5 hr, newly synthesized proteins appeared in the sheath and axoplasm as demonstrated by: (i) radioautography, (ii) separation of the sheath and axoplasm by extrusion, and (iii) perfusion of electrically excitable axons. The absence of ribosomal RNA in the axoplasm [Lasek, R. J. et al. (1973) Nature 244, 162-165] coupled with other evidence indicates that the labeled proteins that are found in the axoplasm originate in the Schwann cells surrounding the axon. Approximately 50% of the newly synthesized Schwann cell proteins are transferred to the giant axon. These transferred proteins are soluble for the most part and range in molecular size from 12,000 to greater than 200,000 daltons. It is suggested that proteins transferred from the Schwann cell to the axon have a regulatory role in neuronal function. PMID:4524631

  12. Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, D; Mayer, P; Gries, F A

    1988-01-01

    Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain perception thresholds (thenar eminence) were significantly elevated in the patients as compared with the controls (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001). No significant differences in thermal discrimination (thenar), heat and cold pain perception (foot), and metacarpal as well as malleolar vibration perception thresholds were noted between the groups. The rates of abnormalities among the individual tests ranged from 0% to 27.5%, being lowest for vibration perception and highest for thermal perception thresholds after cold stimuli. The results in nine of 12 tests correlated significantly with age, but only two were related to HbA1c. Thus, sensory neural functions transmitted by small fibres, but not those transmitted by large fibres, were impaired in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetics after the correction of initial ketosis and hyperglycaemia. Cooling perception tests were most sensitive in detecting abnormality. An age-related involvement of different small fibre functions was present in these patients. PMID:3236020

  13. A newly discovered stellar type: dusty post-red giant branch stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, D.; Wood, P. R.; Van Winckel, H.; Nie, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Context. We present a newly discovered class of low-luminosity, dusty, evolved objects in the Magellanic Clouds. These objects have dust excesses, stellar parameters, and spectral energy distributions similar to those of dusty post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. However, they have lower luminosities and hence lower masses. We suggest that they have evolved off the red giant branch (RGB) instead of the AGB as a result of binary interaction. Aims: In this study we aim to place these objects in an evolutionary context and establish an evolutionary connection between RGB binaries (such as the sequence E variables) and our new sample of objects. Methods: We compared the theoretically predicted birthrates of the progeny of RGB binaries to the observational birthrates of the new sample of objects. Results: We find that there is order-of-magnitude agreement between the observed and predicted birthrates of post-RGB stars. The sources of uncertainty in the birthrates are discussed; the most important sources are probably the observational incompleteness factor and the post-RGB evolution rates. We also note that mergers are relatively common low on the RGB and that stars low on the RGB with mid-IR excesses may recently have undergone a merger. Conclusions: Our sample of dusty post-RGB stars most likely provides the first observational evidence for a newly discovered phase in binary evolution: post-RGB binaries with circumstellar dust.

  14. Chromosome 1 abnormalities in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with novel therapies.

    PubMed

    Caltagirone, Simona; Ruggeri, Marina; Aschero, Simona; Gilestro, Milena; Oddolo, Daniela; Gay, Francesca; Bringhen, Sara; Musolino, Caterina; Baldini, Luca; Musto, Pellegrino; Petrucci, Maria T; Gaidano, Gianluca; Passera, Roberto; Bruno, Benedetto; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Omedè, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder characterized by malignant plasma cell infiltration in the bone marrow, serum and/or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chromosome 1 abnormalities in a group of elderly patients (>65 years) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma enrolled in the GIMEMA-MM-03-05 trial and treated with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone or bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide followed by bortezomib and thalidomide maintenance. We also evaluated the link between chromosome 1 abnormalities and other clinical, genetic and immunophenotypic features by a multivariate logistic regression model. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on immunomagnetically purified plasma cells and bone marrow multiparameter flow cytometry were employed. A multivariate Cox model showed that chromosome 1 abnormalities, age >75 years and a CD19(+)/CD117(-) immunophenotype of bone marrow plasma cells were independent risk factors for overall survival in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Moreover, a detrimental effect of thalidomide, even when administered in association with bortezomib, was observed in patients with abnormal chromosome 1 as well as in those with 17p deletion, while the benefit of adding thalidomide to the bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone regimen was noted in patients carrying an aggressive CD19(+)/CD117(-) bone marrow plasma cell immunophenotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltri-als.gov as #NCT01063179. PMID:25015938

  15. Longitudinal trends and subgroup analysis in publication patterns for preclinical data of newly approved drugs.

    PubMed

    Köster, Ursula; Nolte, Ingo; Michel, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    Having observed a large variation in the number and type of original preclinical publications for newly registered drugs, we have explored whether longitudinal trends and/or factors specific for certain drugs or their manufacturers may explain such variation. Our analysis is based on 1954 articles related to 170 newly approved drugs. The number of preclinical publications per compound declined from a median of 10.5 in 1991 to 3 in 2011. A similar trend was observed for the number of in vivo studies in general, but not in the subset of in vivo studies in animal models of disease. The percentage of compounds with studies using isolated human cells or cell lines almost doubled over time from 37 to 72%. Number of publications did not exhibit major differences between compounds intended for human versus veterinary use, therapeutic areas, small molecules versus biologicals, or innovator versus follow-up compounds; however, some companies may publish fewer studies per compound than others. However, there were qualitative differences in the types of models being used depending on the therapeutic area; specifically, compounds for use in oncology very often used isolated cells and cell lines, often from human origin. We conclude that the large variation in number and type of reported preclinical data is not easily explained. We propose that pharmaceutical companies should consistently provide a comprehensive documentation of the preclinical data they generate as part of their development programs in the public domain to enable a better understanding of the drugs they intend to market. PMID:26612506

  16. Selecting the best strategy of treatment in newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina; Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Poveda, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Although it is assumed that the combination of chemotherapy and radical surgery should be indicated in all newly diagnosed advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients, one of the main raised questions is how to select the best strategy of initial treatment in this group of patients, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery or primary debulking surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The selection criteria to offer one strategy over the other as well as a stepwise patient selection for initial treatment are described. Selecting the best strategy of treatment in newly diagnosed advanced stage ovarian cancer patients is a multifactorial and multidisciplinary decision. Several factors should be taken into consideration: (1) the disease factor, related to the extension and localization of the disease as well as tumor biology; (2) the patient factor, associated with patient age, poor performance status, and co-morbidities; and (3) institutional infrastructure factor, related to the lack of prolonged operative time, an appropriate surgical armamentarium, as well as well-equipped intensive care units with well-trained personnel. PMID:26713279

  17. Prevalence effects in newly trained airport checkpoint screeners: trained observers miss rare targets, too.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Brunelli, David N; Rubinstein, Joshua; Horowitz, Todd S

    2013-01-01

    Many socially important search tasks are characterized by low target prevalence, meaning that targets are rarely encountered. For example, transportation security officers (TSOs) at airport checkpoints encounter very few actual threats in carry-on bags. In laboratory-based visual search experiments, low prevalence reduces the probability of detecting targets (Wolfe, Horowitz, & Kenner, 2005). In the lab, this "prevalence effect" is caused by changes in decision and response criteria (Wolfe & Van Wert, 2010) and can be mitigated by presenting a burst of high-prevalence search with feedback (Wolfe et al., 2007). The goal of this study was to see if these effects could be replicated in the field with TSOs. A total of 125 newly trained TSOs participated in one of two experiments as part of their final evaluation following training. They searched for threats in simulated bags across five blocks. The first three blocks were low prevalence (target prevalence ≤ .05) with no feedback; the fourth block was high prevalence (.50) with full feedback; and the final block was, again, low prevalence. We found that newly trained TSOs were better at detecting targets at high compared to low prevalence, replicating the prevalence effect. Furthermore, performance was better (and response criterion was more "liberal") in the low-prevalence block that took place after the high-prevalence block than in the initial three low-prevalence blocks, suggesting that a burst of high-prevalence trials may help alleviate the prevalence effect in the field. PMID:24297778

  18. Executive onboarding: ensuring the success of the newly hired department chair.

    PubMed

    Ross, Warren E; Huang, Karen H C; Jones, Greg H

    2014-05-01

    The success of newly recruited medical school department chairs has become increasingly important for achievement of organizational goals. An effective onboarding program for these chairs can greatly facilitate early success, as well as satisfaction of the new hire with the position and the school. Onboarding programs can include traditional orientation items such as payroll signup and parking details, but should focus heavily on sharing organizational structure, culture, and how things get done. The goals of onboarding will be well served by implementation of three roles in the process. An Orientation Navigator can assist the new chair in the orientation phase, completing new employee documents and navigating the day-to-day challenges of working at the location. A Peer Mentor, generally a sitting chair, serves as both "buddy" and mentor, providing moral support as well as ensuring that the new chair gains an understanding of the people and processes important for getting things done. A Transition Mentor serves over a longer term as a sounding board and coach outside the peer group, assisting in a variety of ways to promote the chair's growth, development, and success as a leader. Finally, any onboarding process is significantly compromised without the active participation of the dean, meeting regularly with the chair to clarify expectations, promote assimilation, and solve problems. Successful onboarding begins with a mindfulness of the needs of the newly hired chair, and a well-designed and well-implemented plan will have wide-ranging benefits for the chair and the organization. PMID:24667516

  19. Translocation of radiocesium from stems and leaves of plants and the effect on radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kagiya, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    An accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011 at which time large amounts of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere and the sea. In early May 2011, it was found that newly emerged tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves contained radiocesium, both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in some areas more than 300 km away from the Fukushima plant. To understand the mechanisms of radiocesium transfer to newly emerged tissues (shoots, leaves and fruits) of other plants in the future, radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged leaves of 14 plant species collected from the sampling areas in and near National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. The studied plant types were: (1) herbaceous plants, (2) woody plants with no old leaves at the time of the March accident, and (3) woody plants with old leaves out before the accident. About 40-50 d after the start of the accident, newly emerged leaves from woody plant with old leaves tended to show higher values than other woody or herbaceous plants. Concentrations of radiocesium in newly emerged tissues of trees decreased with time, but they did not decrease to the level of herbaceous plants. The type of the plant and presence of old leaves at the time of the heavy deposition period affected the radiocesium concentrations in newly emerged tissues. PMID:22027214

  20. Studies on the hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycans purified from articular chondrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Sandy, J D; Plaas, A H

    1989-06-01

    Primary cultures of rabbit articular chondrocytes have been maintained for 10 days and labeled with [35S]sulfate, [3H]leucine, and [35S]cysteine in pulse-chase protocols to study the structure and hyaluronate binding properties of newly synthesized proteoglycan monomers. Radiolabeled monomers were purified from medium and cell-layer fractions by dissociative CsCl gradient centrifugation with bovine carrier monomer, and analyzed for hyaluronate binding affinity on Sepharose CL-2B in 0.5 M Na acetate, 0.1% Triton X-100, pH 6.8. Detergent was necessary to prevent self-association of newly synthesized monomers during chromatography. Monomers secreted during a 30-min pulse labeling with [35S]sulfate had a low affinity relative to carrier. Those molecules released into the medium during the first 12 h of chase (about 40% of the total) remained in the low affinity form whereas those retained by the cell layer rapidly acquired high affinity. In cultures where more than 90% of the preformed cell-layer proteoglycan was removed by hyaluronidase digestion before radiolabeling the newly synthesized low affinity monomers also rapidly acquired high affinity if retained in the cell layer. Cultures labeled with amino acid precursors were used to establish the purity of monomer preparations and to isolate core proteins for study. Leucine- or cysteine-labeled core proteins derived from either low or high affinity monomer preparations migrated as a single major species on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with electrophoretic mobility very similar to that of core protein derived from extracted proteoglycan monomer. Purified low affinity monomers were converted to the high affinity form by treatment at pH 8.6; however, this change was prevented by guanidinium-HCl at concentrations above 0.8 M. Conversion to high affinity was also achieved by incubation of monomers in aggregate with hyaluronic acid (HA) at pH 6.8 followed by dissociative reisolation of monomer

  1. [Comprehensive evaluation of improving effects of different organic wastes on a newly reclaimed cultivated land].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu-tong; Kong, Zhang-liang; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2016-02-01

    There are many problems such as low soil organic matter, available nutrients and microbial activity, compaction, and poor tillage properties for a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and the establishment of a fast, effective measure for improving soil fertility quality is of importance to enhance the quality and production performance of the newly cultivated land. A field experiment was carried out to observe the effect of organic wastes on soil fertility of a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and compared the differences of different types of urban organic wastes. The field experiment included nine treatments, i.e., pig manure, chicken manure, rice straw, vegetable harvest residue, urban sludge, biogas residue, manure+rice straw compost, garbage compost and control without organic fertilizer at annual application rate of 30 t . hm-2, and ran for three consecutive years. The results showed that the application of each type of the eight organic wastes had obvious effects on improving soil fertility. Among them, pig manure, chicken manure, pig manure+rice straw compost, rice straw and biogas residue were the most effective to enhance the carbon pool management index of soil. The addition of pig manure+rice straw compost and biogas residue had the best effect on increasing the soil water stable aggregates and decreasing soil bulk density. Sewage sludge, pig manure+rice straw compost and garbage compost could enhance soil water holding capacity. Pig manure, chicken manure and pig manure+rice straw compost had most obvious effect on increasing soil available nutrients. All kinds of organic wastes increased the number of soil microorganisms and the activity of enzymes. There were some risk of soil heavy metals pollution.for the long-term application of sludge, garbage compost and manure. However, the impact of short-term application of the wastes on soil environmental quality was not obvious. Overall, effects of organic wastes on soil fertility decreased in the order of pig

  2. Newly generated neurons at 2 months post-status epilepticus are functionally integrated into neuronal circuitry in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Zhu, Kun; Chen, Xin-Lin; Zhang, Yao-Jie; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Xiao, Xin-Li; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence has linked chronic temporal lobe epilepsy to dramatically reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, the profile of different components of neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus is still unclear, especially the incorporation of newly generated cells. To address the issue, newly generated cells in the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) or retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. The newly generated neurons that extended axons to CA3 area or integrated into memory circuits were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing, and detecting activation of BrdU(+) cells following a recall of spatial memory test at the chronic stage of TLE. We found that the microenvironment was still able to sustain significant neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells at 2 months post-status epilepticus time-point, and newly added neurons into granular cell layer were still able to integrate into neuronal circuitry, both anatomically and functionally. Quantified analyses of BrdU(+) or Ki-67(+) cells demonstrated that there was a reduced proliferation of progenitor cells and diminished survival of newly generated cells in the epileptic hippocampus. Both decreased levels of neurotrophic factors in the surrounding milieu and cell loss in the CA3 area might contribute the decreased production of new cells and their survival following chronic epilepsy. These results suggest that decreased neurogenesis in the chronically epileptic hippocampus 2 months post status epilepticus is not associated with altered integration of newly generated neurons, and that developing strategies to augment hippocampal neurogenesis in chronic epilepsy might be protective. PMID:26384773

  3. Newly synthesized anticancer drug HUHS1015 is effective on malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Nagaya, Hisao; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Gotoh, Akinobu; Tanaka, Akito; Shimizu, Tadashi; Nakao, Syuhei; Tabata, Chiharu; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The newly synthesized naftopidil analogue HUHS1015 reduced cell viability in malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines MSTO-211H, NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, and NCI-H2452, with the potential greater than that for the anticancer drugs paclitaxel or cisplatin at concentrations higher than 30 μM. HUHS1015 induced both necrosis and apoptosis of MSTO-211H and NCI-H2052 cells. HUHS1015 upregulated expression of mRNAs for Puma, Hrk, and Noxa in MSTO-211H and NCI-H2052 cells, suggesting HUHS1015-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. HUHS1015 clearly suppressed tumor growth in mice inoculated with NCI-H2052 cells. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that HUHS1015 could be developed as an effective anticancer drug for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. PMID:24754309

  4. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy in newly diagnosed pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bala, Asif; Ali, Butool; Khan, Husna; Bracamonte, Erika; Sussman, Amy

    2016-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy can occur due to primary hyperoxaluria and secondary hyperoxaluria. The primary hyperoxalurias are a group of autosomal recessive disorders of endogenous oxalate overproduction. Secondary hyperoxaluria may occur as a result of excess dietary intake, poisoning with oxalate precursors (ethylene glycol), or enteric hyperoxaluria. The differential diagnosis of enteric hyperoxaluria includes inflammatory bowel disease, short bowel syndrome, bariatric surgery (with jejunoileal bypass or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), celiac disease, partial colectomy, and chronic pancreatitis. The common etiology in all these processes is fat malabsorption, steatorrhea, saponification of calcium, and absorption of free oxalate. Hyperoxaluria causes increased urinary oxalate excretion, urolithiasis (promoted by hypovolemia, decreased urinary pH caused by metabolic acidosis, and decreased citrate and magnesium concentrations in urine), tubulointerstitial oxalate deposits, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. We report a rare case of acute oxalate nephropathy due to pancreatic atrophy and exocrine insufficiency caused by newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer. PMID:26614399

  5. Exploring the mental health effects of political trauma with newly arrived refugees.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Patricia J; Wieling, Elizabeth; McCleary, Jennifer Simmelink; Becher, Emily

    2015-04-01

    We explored the mental health effects of war trauma and torture as described by 111 refugees newly arrived in the United States. We used ethnocultural methodologies to inform 13 culture-specific focus groups with refugees from Bhutan (34), Burma (23), Ethiopia (27), and Somalia (27). Contrary to the belief that stigma prevents refugees from discussing mental health distress, participants readily described complex conceptualizations of degrees of mental health distress informed by political context, observation of symptoms, cultural idioms, and functional impairment. Recommendations for health care providers include assessment processes that inquire about symptoms in their political context, the degree of distress as it is culturally conceptualized, and its effect on functioning. Findings confirm the cross-cultural recognition of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder; however, refugees described significant cultural variation in expressions of distress, indicating the need for more research on culture-bound disorders and idioms of distress. PMID:25185161

  6. The Effect of Structural Modifications on Ionic Conductivity in Newly-Designed Polyester Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesko, Danielle; Jung, Yuki; Coates, Geoff; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Gaining a fundamental understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes is an essential step toward designing next generation materials for battery applications. In this study, we use a systematic set of newly-designed polyesters with varying side-chain lengths and oxygen functional groups to elucidate the effects of structural modifications on the conductive properties of the corresponding electrolytes. Mixtures of polyesters and lithium bis(trifluromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) were characterized using ac impedance spectroscopy to measure the ionic conductivity at various temperatures and salt concentrations. The relative conductivities of these electrolytes in the dilute limit are directly comparable to results of molecular dynamics simulations performed using the same polymers. The simulations correspond well with the experimental results, and provide molecular level insight about the solvation environment of the lithium ions and how the ions transport through these polyesters.

  7. Educational technology transfer in newly independent states: developing a medical multimedia laboratory in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Maskaliunas, R; Jankauskas, R; Ramanauskas, J; Locatis, C

    1995-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of an interactive multimedia computer laboratory within the Vilnius University Medical Faculty involving transfer of hardware and courseware developed in the USA. The contexts in which the laboratory was developed are described and factors helping and hindering successful technology transfer are identified. The future of the laboratory and its potential role in international distance education and information access are discussed. While this paper does not focus on international distance education in the traditional sense of offering courses or training from one or more source institutions to individuals off-site, it has implications for providing education internationally, especially in the Baltic and other newly independent states of the former USSR. PMID:7560767

  8. A Multidimensional Analysis of Body Image Concerns Among Newly Diagnosed Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J.; Reece, Gregory P.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Body image is a critical psychosocial issue for patients facing treatment for oral cancer yet there is limited research conducted in this area. This study utilizes a multidimensional approach to body image assessment and evaluates relationships between body image, demographic, health, and psychosocial variables. Methods Newly diagnosed patients with oral cancer completed self-report questionnaires and a structured clinical interview. Results Most participants identified current and/or future body image concerns primarily related to impending surgery. Adequate psychometric properties were demonstrated on a range of body image measures. Depression was the strongest and most consistent predictor of body image outcomes. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports the importance of evaluating body image concerns in oral cancer patients prior to surgical intervention. Our findings have implications for developing validated body image tools and can be used to guide psychosocial interventions targeting body image disturbance. PMID:19626634

  9. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff

    PubMed Central

    Langhan, Melissa L.; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C.; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practise. We elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. Methods A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within ten emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Results Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practise, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use, and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff, and user friendliness were facilitators. Conclusions This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

  10. Hypogammaglobulinemia in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a predictor of early death.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael Asger; Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Andersen, Mette Klarskov; Brown, Peter de Nully; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Weis Bjerrum, Ole; Niemann, Carsten Utoft

    2016-07-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia is the most common immune deficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the prognostic significance in terms of morbidity and mortality remains controversial. We here evaluate the significance of hypogammaglobulinemia in terms of infections, treatment-free survival (TFS), and overall survival (OS). A total of 159 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients were included for analysis. Twenty-five patients (16%) had a moderate or severe infection within one year of diagnosis, but no associations were found between low immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and infections. In multivariate analysis, we found age (>65), high Binet stage, high β2-microglobulin, and Ig deficiency to be associated with shorter OS. Decreased levels of IgM, deletion of chromosome 17p and unmutated IGHV status had independent negative impact on TFS. Thus, patients with hypogammaglobulinemia did not suffer more from infections early in the disease course, and decreased Ig had independent negative prognostic impact in CLL. PMID:26850493

  11. Prototypes of Newly Conceived Inorganic and Biological Sensors for Health and Environmental Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Claudio; Adami, Manuela; Sartore, Marco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bavastrello, Valter; Spera, Rosanna; Pechkova, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the optimal implementation of three newly conceived sensors for both health and environmental applications, utilizing a wide range of detection methods and complex nanocomposites. The first one is inorganic and based on matrices of calcium oxide, the second is based on protein arrays and a third one is based on Langmuir-Blodgett laccase multi-layers. Special attention was paid to detecting substances significant to the environment (such as carbon dioxide) and medicine (drug administration, cancer diagnosis and prognosis) by means of amperometric, quartz crystal microbalance with frequency (QCM_F) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM_D) technologies. The resulting three implemented nanosensors are described here along with proofs of principle and their corresponding applications. PMID:23235450

  12. Production of β-Glucosidase from a Newly Isolated Aspergillus Species Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Songpim, Molnapat; Malapant, Taweesiri; Kosugi, Akihiko; Thanapase, Warunee; Mori, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    A newly isolated fungus Aspergillus niger SOI017 was shown to be a good producer of β-glucosidase from all isolated fungal strains. Fermentation condition (pH, cellobiose concentration, yeast extract concentration, and ammonium sulfate concentration) was optimized for producing the enzyme in shake flask cultures. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of 4 fermentation parameters (yeast extract concentration, cellobiose concentration, ammonium sulfate concentration, and pH) on β-glucosidase enzyme production. Production of β-glucosidase was most sensitive to the culture medium, especially the nitrogen source yeast extract. The optimized medium for producing maximum β-glucosidase specific activity consisted of 0.275% yeast extract, 1.125% cellobiose, and 2.6% ammonium sulfate at a pH value of 3. PMID:21716658

  13. Correlation of Mechanical Properties with Fracture Surface Features in a Newly Developed Dual-Phase Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Y.; Saeidi, N.; Kermanpur, A.; Najafizadeh, A.

    2015-04-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels were produced by a newly developed method utilizing simple cold-rolling and subsequent short intercritical annealing of a martensite-ferrite duplex starting structure. Tensile testing revealed an excellent strength-elongation balance (UTS × UE ≈ 110-150 J/cm3) for the DP steels in comparison with the commercially used high strength steels. Fracture surfaces of the tensile specimens were studied by scanning electron microscopy analysis and image processing. Mechanical properties were correlated with fracture surface features. It was found that the variation of the total elongation and strength-elongation balance with the martensite volume fraction could be well correlated with the variation of the average dimple area. The variation of the yield strength and dimple areal density with the martensite volume fraction followed the same trend.

  14. The effect of old coal working on the deformation of newly constructed structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, T.; Aoki, K.; Esaki, T.; Kameda, N.

    1982-09-01

    Subsidence due to mining caused various kinds of damage to the surface structures, and actually great deal of mining damage becomes the severe social problem at some time in many coal fields, but the most of mining damage has been restored. Recently, the effect of old coal working on the deformation of newly constructed structures has come into question because of planning many engineering structures in old mining areas due to the shortage of adequate construction sites and the difficulty of getting location. Buildings, dams, bridges for railroads and highway, power plants, tunnels, storage tanks and so, have to be built on the ground which has old coal working. Under these circumstances, the ground with the old coal working is affected by the weight of structures and may have further subsidence, cavein and the decrease of the bearing capacity.

  15. Notexin preferentially inhibits the release of newly synthesized acetylcholine from rat brain synaptosomal fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Gundersen, C.B.; Jenden, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effects of the snake venom neurotoxin, notexin, on acetylcholine turnover in rat brain P2 fractions using a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric assay for acetylcholine and choline. In contrast to earlier reports, we found a stimulation of the uptake and acetylation of labeled choline by toxin-treated P2 fractions. More significantly, notexin inhibited the release of this newly synthesized transmitter. These effects were found to be dependent on the dose of the toxin and the time of exposure of the P2 fraction to notexin. Longer exposure to notexin or experiments involving resuspension of notexin-treated P2 fractions appeared to result in considerable lysis of the transmitter-containing particles. Thus, notexin may alter acetylcholine compartmentation in the nerve ending and thereby affect acetylcholine synthesis.

  16. ASCA and Bepposax Observations of the Newly Discovered SNR RX J0852-4622

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Slane, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Grant supported analysis of X-ray data from the supernova remnant (SNR) G266.2-1.2, a newly discovered SNR in the direction of Vela. Our observations reveal that the X-ray emission from this remnant is nonthermal, making this the third shell-type SNR for which the X-ray emission is dominated by synchrotron processes. The interpretation is that the SNR is an efficient accelerator of cosmic rays, with direct evidence of electrons at energies approaching 100 TeV. Our spectral analysis indicates a higher absorption than for the Vela SNR, indicating that G266.2-1.2 is more distant. However, we conclude that the lack of high amounts of absorption place the remnant closer than the Vela molecular ridge at a distance of 1-2 kpc. We observe a compact X-ray source at the remnant center, surrounded by diffuse emission, which may be an associated neutron star.

  17. The Effect of Chlortetracycline Meditation on the Coliform Microflora of Newly Hatched Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, S. L.; Blackwood, A. C.; Dale, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Newly hatched chicks were medicated with chlortetracycline at levels of 0, 400, 800 and 1200 mg. per imperial gallon of drinking water, for the first 5 days in the brooders. Coliform microflora of the ceca were counted when the chicks were first removed from the incubator and at 2 and 5 days of age. The numbers of coliforms decreased with increasing levels of the antibiotic and with increasing age. Sixtyfour per cent of the coliforms were E. coli and of these a large proportion were resistant to chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in vitro. There was a trend towards increasing incidence of isolation of other resistant gram negative rods with increasing levels of chlortetracycline medication. PMID:17649431

  18. Newly Standing Infants Increase Postural Stability When Performing a Supra-Postural Task

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Laura J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Ponto, Katelyn; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Newcomer, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    Independent stance is one of the most difficult motor milestones to achieve. Newly standing infants exhibit exaggerated body movements and can only stand for a brief amount of time. Given the difficult nature of bipedal stance, these unstable characteristics are slow to improve. However, we demonstrate that infants can increase their stability when engaged in a standing goal-directed task. Infants' balance was measured while standing and while standing and holding a visually attractive toy. When holding the toy, infants stood for a longer period of time, exhibited less body sway, and more mature postural dynamics. These results demonstrate that even with limited standing experience, infants can stabilize posture to facilitate performance of a concurrent task. PMID:23940736

  19. Rapid discrimination of newly isolated Bacillales with industrial applications using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, A. H.; Sun, Z. P.; Zhang, G. Q.; Wu, J.; Wen, T. Y.

    2012-09-01

    Members of the bacterial order Bacillales have been of great interest for agricultural, horticultural, industrial and medical applications because of their capacity to produce various extracellular enzymes. One of the challenges for Bacillales study is to rapidly and effectively identify and characterize newly isolated strains. In the present study, Raman spectroscopy was performed to identify 14 Bacillales strains isolated from Tibet, China. The biochemical properties of each isolate were characterized, and several Raman bands corresponding to nucleic acids, proteins or saccharides were different between isolates. Multivariate analysis of 112 Raman spectra clearly revealed that all 14 isolates were clustered into 3 groups, which was in accordance with the phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopy is an effective and promising approach that could quickly discriminate different phylogenetic groups of Bacillales.

  20. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-02-15

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  1. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A

    2012-02-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. PMID:22380336

  2. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes. PMID:25615674

  3. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-04-01

    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  4. Job and Professional Leaving Among Newly Licensed RNs: A Structural Equation Model.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Chisolm, Latarsha

    2016-01-01

    With more than 50% of the nursing workforce close to retirement, it is especially important to keep younger nurses in nursing jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a structural equation model of registered nurse (RN) intent to leave the job and profession using data from a survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Job demands, difficulties and control, intent to leave the job, and intent to leave the profession were latent variables. A number of direct, indirect, and mediating relationships were modeled. Measurement models for all latent variables and the structural model had good fit. The final model showed a path from job demands, difficulties, and control to job satisfaction to intent to leave the job to intent to leave the profession. The results suggest that the process of an NLRN intending to leave the job and profession involves a number of mediators between the work environment and this intent. PMID:25433000

  5. Characteristics of Newly Enrolled Members of an Integrated Delivery System after the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Ellis, Jennifer L; Strobel, Mary Jo; Mcquillan, Deanna B; Petsche, Irena B; Barrow, Jennifer C; Beck, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Of 89,289 newly enrolled non-Medicare members, 25.3% completed the Brief Health Questionnaire between 1/1/2014, and 8/31/2014. Of these, 3593 respondents were insured through Medicaid, 9434 through the individual health exchange, and 9521 through primarily commercial plans. Of Medicaid, exchange, and commercial members, 19.5%, 7.1%, and 5.3%, respectively, self-reported fair or poor health; 12.9%, 2.0%, and 3.3% of each group self-reported 2 or more Emergency Department visits during the previous year; and 8.1%, 4.3%, and 4.4% self-reported an inpatient admission during the previous year. PMID:26057681

  6. Implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings: a qualitative analysis of clinical staff.

    PubMed

    Langhan, Melissa L; Riera, Antonio; Kurtz, Jordan C; Schaeffer, Paula; Asnes, Andrea G

    2015-01-01

    Technologies are not always successfully implemented into practice. This study elicited experiences of acute care providers with the introduction of technology and identified barriers and facilitators in the implementation process. A qualitative study using one-on-one interviews among a purposeful sample of 19 physicians and nurses within 10 emergency departments and intensive care units was performed. Grounded theory, iterative data analysis and the constant comparative method were used to inductively generate ideas and build theories. Five major categories emerged: decision-making factors, the impact on practice, technology's perceived value, facilitators and barriers to implementation. Barriers included negative experiences, age, infrequent use and access difficulties. A positive outlook, sufficient training, support staff and user friendliness were facilitators. This study describes strategies implicated in the successful implementation of newly adopted technology in acute care settings. Improved implementation methods and evaluation of implementation processes are necessary for successful adoption of new technology. PMID:25367721

  7. P300 in newly diagnosed non-dementing Parkinson's disease: effect of dopaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, S; Syal, P; Srivastava, T

    2000-09-01

    Changes in cognitive function are an integral part of the clinical presentation of Parkinson's Disease (PD). P300 potential studies in early stages of Parkinson's disease are lacking and effect of L-dopa therapy on these potentials is controversial. In this study, changes in P300 potentials in early stages of PD and effects of dopaminergic therapy were investigated. P300 waves were elicited by standard auditory 'odd ball' paradigm and were recorded before the start of therapy and 15 days, 3 and 6 months after the start of L-dopa therapy in 25 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD. All patients were classified according to Hoehn and Yahr scale. Minimental status examination (MMSE) was done in all. Control group had 20 normal subjects. The P300 latency was not significantly increased in early Parkinson's disease. This latency was reduced with dopaminergic therapy on 15th day, but increased later. Implications of the data are discussed. PMID:11025627

  8. The effects of novel and newly approved antipsychotics on serum prolactin levels: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Peuskens, J; Pani, L; Detraux, J; De Hert, M

    2014-05-01

    Since the 1970s, clinicians have increasingly become more familiar with hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) as a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication, which remains the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment for patients with schizophrenia. Although treatment with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) as a group is, compared with use of the first-generation antipsychotics, associated with lower prolactin (PRL) plasma levels, the detailed effects on plasma PRL levels for each of these compounds in reports often remain incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, at this moment, no review has been published about the effect of the newly approved antipsychotics asenapine, iloperidone and lurasidone on PRL levels. The objective of this review is to describe PRL physiology; PRL measurement; diagnosis, causes, consequences and mechanisms of HPRL; incidence figures of (new-onset) HPRL with SGAs and newly approved antipsychotics in adolescent and adult patients; and revisit lingering questions regarding this hormone. A literature search, using the MEDLINE database (1966-December 2013), was conducted to identify relevant publications to report on the state of the art of HPRL and to summarize the available evidence with respect to the propensity of the SGAs and the newly approved antipsychotics to elevate PRL levels. Our review shows that although HPRL usually is defined as a sustained level of PRL above the laboratory upper limit of normal, limit values show some degree of variability in clinical reports, making the interpretation and comparison of data across studies difficult. Moreover, many reports do not provide much or any data detailing the measurement of PRL. Although the highest rates of HPRL are consistently reported in association with amisulpride, risperidone and paliperidone, while aripiprazole and quetiapine have the most favorable profile with respect to this outcome, all SGAs can induce PRL elevations, especially at the beginning of treatment, and have the

  9. How are pronunciation variants of spoken words recognized? A test of generalization to newly learned words

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> “senner” or “sennah”) are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments (Gaskell & Marslen-Wilson, 1998). The present study tests the limits of this phonological inference account by examining how listeners process for the first time a pronunciation variant of a newly learned word. Recognition of such a variant should occur as long as it possesses the phonological structure that legitimizes the variation. Experiments 1 and 2 identify a phonological environment that satisfies the conditions necessary for a phonological inference mechanism to be operational. Using a word-learning paradigm, Experiments 3 through 5 show that inference alone is not sufficient for generalization but could facilitate it, and that one condition that leads to generalization is meaningful exposure to the variant in an overheard conversation, demonstrating that lexical processing is necessary for variant recognition. PMID:20161243

  10. Newly Licensed RNs Describe What They Like Best about Being a Nurse

    PubMed Central

    Djukic, Maja; Pellico, Linda H.; Kovner, Christine T.; Brewer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    About 25% of newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs) leave their first job within two years, but only 2% leave the nursing profession in this same timeframe. Therefore, the researchers sought to discover what new nurses like best about being a nurse, in hopes of gaining information that might help facilities to reduce turnover rates. Data were collected between January and March 2009 from 1,152 NLRNs licensed in 15 US states. Krippendorff's method was used to analyze survey responses. Five themes emerged: “providing holistic patient care,” “having an autonomous and collaborative practice,” “using diverse knowledge and skills to impact patient outcomes,” “receiving recognition,” and “having a job that is secure and stimulating.” Strategies are discussed that organizations might employ in helping NLRNs to realize what they best like about their work, which might lead to improved retention rates. PMID:22135734

  11. Spontaneous discrimination of possible and impossible objects by newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Regolin, Lucia; Rugani, Rosa; Stancher, Gionata; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-10-23

    Four-month-old infants can integrate local cues provided by two-dimensional pictures and interpret global inconsistencies in structural information to discriminate between possible and impossible objects. This leaves unanswered the issue of the relative contribution of maturation of biologically predisposed mechanisms and of experience with real objects, to the development of this capability. Here we show that, after exposure to objects in which junctions providing cues to global structure were occluded, day-old chicks selectively approach the two-dimensional image that depicted the possible rather than the impossible version of a three-dimensional object, after restoration of the junctions. Even more impressively, completely naive newly hatched chicks showed spontaneous preferences towards approaching two-dimensional depictions of structurally possible rather than impossible objects. These findings suggest that the vertebrate brain can be biologically predisposed towards approaching a two-dimensional image representing a view of a structurally possible three-dimensional object. PMID:21429912

  12. Potent anti-calmodulin activity of cyclotetradepsipeptides isolated from Isaria fumosorosea using a newly designed biosensor.

    PubMed

    Madariaga-Mazón, Abraham; González-Andradeb, Martín; Toriello, Conchita; Navarro-Barranco, Hortensia; Mata, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Seven cyclotetradepsipeptides, namely beauverolides C (1), F (2), I (3), Ja (4), L (5), M (6), and N (7), were isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea. The beauverolides were evaluated as potential calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors using the newly designed CaM biosensor hCaM M124C-AF350; these peptides displayed high affinity to the protein with dissociation constants (Kd) ranging from 0.078 μM to 3.44 μM. Beauverolide Ja, the only one containing a tryptophan residue in its structure, showed the highest affinity. The docking study predicted that beauverolides could bind to CaM in the same site of interaction as chlorpromazine, a well-known calmodulin ligand. PMID:25920232

  13. Nonlinear fluorescence quenching of newly synthesized coumarin derivative by aniline in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hanagodimath, S M; Evale, Basavaraj G; Manohara, S R

    2009-11-01

    The fluorescence quenching of newly synthesized coumarin (chromen-2-one) derivative, 4-(5-methyl-3-phenyl-benzofuran-2-yl)-6-chloro-chromen-2-one (MPBClC) by aniline in different binary solvent mixtures of benzene and acetonitrile have been reported by steady state fluorescence measurements. All the measurements were carried out at room temperature (296K). A positive curvature from linearity was observed in the Stern-Volmer (S-V) plot in all the solvent mixtures. Various rate parameters for the fluorescence quenching have been determined by sphere of action static quenching model and finite sink approximation model. The results show that the positive curvature in the S-V plot is due to both static and dynamic quenching processes. Further, with the use of finite sink approximation model, it is concluded that these bimolecular reactions are diffusion-limited. PMID:19766529

  14. Correlation of idiopathic scoliosis assessments between newly developed Milwaukee Topographic Scanner and Quantec.

    PubMed

    Lim, C H; Tassone, C; Liu, X C; Thometz, J G; Lyon, R

    2012-01-01

    The Milwaukee Topographic Scanner (MTS) is a newly developed system, which utilizes laser technology to obtain three-dimensional topographic evaluation of the spine. The goal of this study was to determine the correlation of topographic measurements between MTS and Quantec Spinal Imaging System. Twelve parameters generated by the MTS and Quantec Spinal Imaging System was compared to each other using the Pearson Coefficient. Twenty patients between the ages 16-18 with scoliosis were evaluated with the MTS and Quantec. There were several parameters, which showed high correlations especially back height (0.972), coronal curve (0.952), and left trunk volume (0.905). MTS is a reliable three-dimensional topographic alternative to radiographs without the exposure to radiation. PMID:22744503

  15. Dwarf Novae with Newly Determined Parallaxes: Model Analyses of VY Aquarii, RU Pegasi, and T Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, R. T.; Sion, E. M.

    2004-10-01

    Using newly determined parallaxes for dwarf novae, we have derived outburst accretion rates for VY Aqr, RU Peg, and T Leo, and for T Leo during quiescence. The two short-period dwarf novae, VY Aqr and T Leo, show good agreement with optically thick steady-state accretion disks in outburst, whereas RU Peg shows a significant departure from a steady-state disk. We have determined that the white dwarf in T Leo has Teff=16,000+/-1000 K, a value consistent with long-term compressional heating when gravitational-wave emission drives mass transfer. The white dwarf in T Leo has a temperature in the same narrow range as other WZ Sge-like dwarf novae.

  16. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. PMID:27132285

  17. Newly Recognized Occupational and Environmental Causes of Chronic Terminal Airways and Parenchymal Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sauler, Maor; Gulati, Mridu

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis With the introduction of new materials and changes in manufacturing practices, occupational health investigators continue to uncover associations between novel exposures and chronic forms of diffuse parenchymal lung disease and terminal airways disease. In order to discern exposure disease relationships, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for the potential toxicity of occupational and environmental exposures. This article details several newly recognized chronic parenchymal and terminal airways. Diseases related to exposure to Indium, Nylon Flock, Diacetyl used in the flavorings industry, nanoparticles, and the World Trade Center disaster are reviewed. Additionally, this article will review methods in worker surveillance as well as the potential use of biomarkers in the evaluation of exposure disease relationships. PMID:23153608

  18. Findings from mental health screening of newly arrived refugees in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Savin, Daniel; Seymour, Deborah J; Littleford, Linh Nguyen; Bettridge, Juli; Giese, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    States are required to provide a public health screening for all newly arrived refugees in the United States. In 1997, a comprehensive program was created to include both a physical examination and a mental health screening. This article provides a complete description of the mental health screening process, including two illustrative cases, and reports information about the refugees who participated in the program. Ten percent of screened refugees were offered mental health referrals; of those, 37% followed up. Refugees who presented for treatment reported a higher number of symptoms upon screening compared with those who were offered referrals but did not follow up. Psychiatric evaluation confirmed that those who screened positive and presented for treatment were experiencing a high level of suffering and qualified for mental health diagnoses. The findings support inclusion of a mental health screening as part of the public health screening. PMID:16134561

  19. The presence of lysylpyridinoline in the hypertrophic cartilage of newly hatched chicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, M. W.; Martinez, D. A.; Cook, M. E.; Vailas, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of lysylpyridinoline (LP) as a nonreducible cross-link in appreciable quantities has primarily been limited to the mineralized tissues, bone and dentin. However, the results reported here show that LP is not only present in the hypertrophic cartilage of the tibiotarsus isolated from newly hatched broiler chicks, but it is approx. 4-fold as concentrated as hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP). Bone and articular cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic cartilage do not contain measurable quantities of LP. Purified LP has a fluorescent scan similar to purified HP and literature values, confirming that we indeed were measuring LP. Also, the cartilage lesion produced by immature chondrocytes from birds with tibial dyschondroplasia had LP but the HP:LP ratio was > 1. Thus, the low HP:LP ratio could be a marker for hypertrophic cartilage in avians.

  20. Spectroscopic and biological studies on newly synthesized nickel(II) complexes of semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2005-12-01

    Nickel(II) complexes, having the general composition Ni(L) 2X 2, have been synthesized [where L: isopropyl methyl ketone semicarbazone (LLA), isopropyl methyl ketone thiosemicarbazone (LLB), 4-aminoacetophenone semicarbazone (LLC) and 4-aminoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (LLD) and X = Cl -, 1/2SO 42-]. All the Ni(II) complexes reported here have been characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, IR, electronic and mass spectral studies. All the complexes were found to have magnetic moments corresponding to two unpaired electrons. The possible geometries of the complexes were assigned on the basis of electronic and infrared spectral studies. Newly synthesized ligand and its nickel(II) complexes have been screened against different bacterial and fungal growth.

  1. Annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet interpolated from historical and newly compiled observation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Dayong; Liu, Yuling; Huang, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of ice/snow accumulation is of great significance in quantifying the mass balance of ice sheets and variation in water resources. Improving the accuracy and reducing uncertainty has been a challenge for the estimation of annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet. In this study, we kriged and analyzed the spatial pattern of accumulation based on an observation data series including 315 points used in a recent research, plus 101 ice cores and snow pits and newly compiled 23 coastal weather station data. The estimated annual accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet is 31.2 g cm−2 yr−1, with a standard error of 0.9 g cm−2 yr−1. The main differences between the improved map developed in this study and the recently published accumulation maps are in the coastal areas, especially southeast and southwest regions. The analysis of accumulations versus elevation reveals the distribution patterns of accumulation over the Greenland ice sheet.

  2. Analysis of Inflammatory Mediators in Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wen-Ming; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the inflammatory markers in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammatory markers levels were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance and the association with prediabetes or T2DM risks was examined by logistic regression models. Our data showed increased levels of hypersensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL-4), IL-10, and tryptase in prediabetes subjects and hs-CRP, immunoglobulin E (IgE), IL-4, and IL-10 in T2DM subjects. We concluded that Hs-CRP, IgE, IL-4, IL-10, and tryptase were positively associated with prediabetes or T2DM. Further large prospective studies are warranted to assess a temporal relation between inflammatory biomarkers and incidence of prediabetes or T2DM and its associated chronic diseases. PMID:27478850

  3. A newly designed radiation port for medulloblastoma to prevent metastasis to the cribriform plate region.

    PubMed

    Uozumi, A; Yamaura, A; Makino, H; Miyoshi, T; Arimizu, N

    1990-12-01

    Nine children with medulloblastoma were treated at Chiba University Hospital from 1977 to 1983. Of these cases, metastases to the cribriform plate region were found in two cases. Portal film showed that cribriform-plate region was not included in a conventional whole-brain radiation port to shield the eyes. Since 1983, we have applied a newly designed radiation port to treat childhood medulloblastoma. The new method consists of two parallel, opposed, lateral ports including the cribriform plate and the first two cervical vertebrae, similar to Pinkel's method. It has been confirmed that this method covers completely the whole brain and is safe for the lens. A characteristic of our method is that the landmark of the lower margin of the radiation port can be easily delineated on the patient's face. We believe that this method contributes to the treatment of medulloblastoma. PMID:2095305

  4. Uncultivated Phylotypes and Newly Named Species Associated with Primary and Persistent Endodontic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, J. F.; Rôças, I. N.

    2005-01-01

    Endodontic infections have been traditionally studied by culture methods, but recent reports showing that over 50% of the oral microbiota is still uncultivable (B. J. Paster et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:3770-3783, 2001) raise the possibility that many endodontic pathogens remain unknown. This study intended to investigate the prevalence of several uncultivated oral phylotypes, as well as newly named species in primary or persistent endodontic infections associated with chronic periradicular diseases. Samples were taken from the root canals of 21 untreated teeth and 22 root-filled teeth, all of them with radiographic evidence of periradicular bone destruction. Genomic DNA was isolated directly from each sample, and 16S rRNA gene-based nested or heminested PCR assays were used to determine the presence of 13 species or phylotypes of bacteria. Species-specific primers had already been validated in the literature or were developed by aligning closely related 16S rRNA gene sequences. Species specificity for each primer pair was confirmed by running PCRs against a panel of several oral bacteria and by sequencing DNA from representative positive samples. All species or phylotypes were detected in at least one case of primary infections. The most prevalent species or phylotypes found in primary infections were Dialister invisus (81%), Synergistes oral clone BA121 (33%), and Olsenella uli (33%). Of the target bacteria, only these three species were detected in persistent infections. Detection of uncultivated phylotypes and newly named species in infected root canals suggests that there are previously unrecognized bacteria that may play a role in the pathogenesis of periradicular diseases. PMID:16000454

  5. Biomarkers predictive of venous thromboembolism in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Johannes; Ay, Cihan; Kaider, Alexandra; Reitter, Eva-Maria; Haselböck, Johanna; Mannhalter, Christine; Zielinski, Christoph; Marosi, Christine; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are among the most prothrombotic of malignancies. Methods We performed a prospective study to investigate 11 potential biomarkers for prediction of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in newly diagnosed HGG patients who had undergone a neurosurgical intervention. In addition, we tested 2 VTE risk assessment models (RAMs). The strongest predictors of VTE, which were identified by statistical forward selection, were used for the first RAM. The parameters used for the second RAM were both predictive of VTE and available in routine clinical practice. Results One hundred forty-one HGG patients were included in this study, and 24 (17%) of them developed VTE during follow-up. An association with the risk of future VTE was found for the following parameters: leukocyte count, platelet count, sP-selectin, prothrombin-fragment 1 + 2, FVIII activity, and D-dimer. The first RAM included low platelet count (<25th percentile of the study population) and elevated sP-selectin (≥75th percentile). The cumulative VTE probability after 12 months was 9.7% for score 0 (n = 76), 18.9% for score 1 (n = 59), and 83.3% for score 2 (n = 6). The second RAM included low platelet count (<25th percentile), elevated leukocyte count, and elevated D-dimer (≥75th percentile). The probability of VTE was 3.3% for score 0 (n = 63), 23.0% for score 1 (n = 53), and 37.7% for score 2 (n = 22) or score 3 (n = 3). Conclusions We identified biomarkers suitable for assessing the VTE risk in newly diagnosed HGG patients. The application of 2 RAMs allowed identification of patients at high risk of developing VTE. We could also define patients at low risk of VTE, who would most probably not benefit from extended primary thromboprophylaxis. PMID:24987133

  6. Quantitative PCR for detection of Nosema bombycis in single silkworm eggs and newly hatched larvae.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhangwuke; He, Xiangkang; Cai, Shunfeng; Liu, Han; He, Xinyi; Li, Mingqian; Lu, Xingmeng

    2016-01-01

    Pebrine disease is the only mandatory quarantine item in sericultural production due to its destructive consequences. So far, the mother moth microscopic examination method established by Pasteur (1870) remains the only detection method for screening for the causative agent Nosema bombycis (N. bombycis). Because pebrine is a horizontal and vertical transmission disease, it is better to inspect silkworm eggs and newly hatched larvae to investigate the infection rate, vertical transmission rate and spore load of the progenies. There is a rising demand for a more direct, effective and accurate detection approach in the sericultural industry. Here, we developed a molecular detection approach based on real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for pebrine inspection in single silkworm eggs and newly hatched larvae. Targeting the small-subunit rRNA gene of N. bombycis, this assay showed high sensitivity and reproducibility. Ten spores in a whole sample or 0.1 spore DNA (1 spore DNA represents the DNA content of one N. bombycis spore) in a reaction system was estimated as the detection limit of the isolation and real-time qPCR procedure. Silkworm egg tissues impact the detection sensitivity but are not significant in single silkworm egg detection. Of 400 samples produced by infected moths, 167 and 195 were scored positive by light microscopy and real-time qPCR analysis, respectively. With higher accuracy and the potential capability of high-throughput screening, this method is anticipated to be adaptable for pebrine inspection and surveillance in the sericultural industry. In addition, this method can be applied to ecology studies of N. bombycis-silkworm interactions due to its quantitative function. PMID:26658327

  7. Perceived social support among HIV patients newly enrolled in care in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lifson, Alan R; Workneh, Sale; Hailemichael, Abera; Demissie, Workneh; Slater, Lucy; Shenie, Tibebe

    2015-01-01

    Social support significantly enhances physical and mental health for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We surveyed 142 rural Ethiopian HIV patients newly enrolled in care for perceived social support and factors associated with low support levels. Using the Social Provisions Scale (SPS), the mean summary score was 19.1 (possible scores = 0-48). On six SPS subscales, mean scores (possible scores = 0-8), were: Reliable Alliance (others can be counted on for tangible assistance) = 2.8, Attachment (emotional closeness providing sense of security) = 2.9, Reassurance of Worth (recognition of competence and value by others) = 3.2, Guidance (provision of advice or information by others) = 3.2, Social Integration (belonging to a group with similar interests and concerns) = 3.5, and Nurturance (belief that others rely on one for their well-being) = 3.6. In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with lower social support scores were: lower education level (did not complete primary school) (p = .019), lower total score on knowledge items about HIV care/treatment (p = .038), and greater number of external stigma experiences in past three months (p < .001); greater number of chronic disease symptoms was of borderline significance (p = .098). Among rural Ethiopian patients newly entering HIV care, we found moderate and varying levels of perceived social support, with lowest scores for subscales reflecting emotional closeness and reliance on others for tangible assistance. Given that patients who have recently learned their diagnosis and entered care may be an especially vulnerable group, programs to help identify and address social support needs can provide multiple benefits in facilitating the best possible physical, emotional and functional quality of life for people living with HIV. PMID:26679266

  8. Adherence to antihypertensive medications and health outcomes among newly treated hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Esposti, Luca Degli; Saragoni, Stefania; Benemei, Silvia; Batacchi, Paolo; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Di Bari, Mauro; Marchionni, Niccolò; Sturani, Alessandra; Buda, Stefano; Esposti, Ezio Degli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate adherence to antihypertensive therapy (AHT) and the association between adherence to AHT, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity in a large cohort of patients newly treated with antihypertensives in a clinical practice setting. Methods: An administrative database kept by the Local Health Unit of Florence (Italy) listing patient baseline characteristics, drug prescription, and hospital admission information was used to perform a population-based retrospective study including patients newly treated with antihypertensives, ≥18 years of age, with a first prescription between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006. Patients using antihypertensives for secondary prevention of CV disease, occasional spot users, and patients with early CV events, were excluded from the study cohort. Adherence to AHT was calculated and classified as poor, moderate, good, and excellent. A Cox regression model was conducted to determine the association among adherence to AHT and risk of all-cause mortality, stroke, or acute myocardial infarction. Results: A total of 31,306 patients, 15,031 men (48.0%), and 16,275 women (52.0%), with a mean age of 60.2 ± 14.5 years was included in the study. Adherence to AHT was poor in 8038 patients (25.7% of included patients), moderate in 4640 (14.8%), good in 5651 (18.1%), and excellent in 12,977 (41.5%). Compared with patients with poor adherence (hazard ratio [HR] = 1), the risk of all-cause death, stroke, or acute myocardial infarction was significantly lower in patients with good (HR = 0.69, P < 0.001) and excellent adherence (HR = 0.53, P < 0.001). Conclusions: These findings indicate that suboptimal adherence to AHT occurs in a substantial proportion of patients and is associated with poor health outcomes already in primary prevention of CV diseases. For health authorities, this preliminary evidence underlines the need for monitoring and improving medication adherence in clinical practice. PMID:21935332

  9. Auricular ossification: A newly recognized feature of osteoprotegerin-deficiency juvenile Paget disease.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Gary S; Madson, Katherine L; McAlister, William H; Nenninger, Angela; Wenkert, Deborah; Mumm, Steven; Whyte, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    We report auricular ossification (AO) affecting the elastic cartilage of the ear as a newly recognized feature of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-deficiency juvenile Paget disease (JPD). AO and auricular calcification refer interchangeably to rigid pinnae, sparing the ear lobe, from various etiologies. JPD is a rare Mendelian disorder characterized by elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity accompanied by skeletal pain and deformity from rapid bone turnover. Autosomal recessive transmission of loss-of-function mutations within TNFRSF11B encoding OPG accounts for most JPD (JPD1). JPD2 results from heterozygous constitutive activation of TNFRSF11A encoding RANK. Other causes of JPD remain unknown. In 2007, we reported a 60-year-old man with JPD1 who described hardening of his external ears at age 45 years, after 4 years of treatment with bisphosphonates (BPs). Subsequently, we noted rigid pinnae in a 17-year-old boy and 14-year-old girl, yet pliable pinnae in a 12-year-old boy, each with JPD1 and several years of BP treatment. Cranial imaging indicated cortical bone within the pinnae of both teenagers. Radiologic studies of our three JPD patients without mutations in TNFRSF11B showed normal auricles. Review of the JPD literature revealed possible AO in several reports. Two of our JPD1 patients had experienced difficult tracheal intubation, raising concern for mineralization of laryngeal elastic cartilage. Thus, AO is a newly recognized feature of JPD1, possibly exacerbated by BP treatment. Elastic cartilage at other sites in JPD1 might also ossify, and warrants investigation. PMID:26762549

  10. Newly synthesized mRNA in pea cotyledons at early stages of germination

    SciTech Connect

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Chumikina, L.V.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-20

    The intracellular localization and properties of the bulk of the newly synthesized RNAs in pea cotyledons after 5 h of swelling of dry embryos in the presence of (/sup 3/H) uridine were investigated. It was shown that more than 60% of the labeled RNA of the cotyledon homogenate is detected in a nucleus-free extract and is found in the postmitochondrial fraction; approx. 50% of this is present in the fraction enriched with polysomes, and only a small fraction (approx. 7%) corresponds to the monosomes and post-ribosomal particles. Structures containing the bulk of the labeled RNA are not membrane-bound; they are decomposed by treatment with RNase, sediment more rapidly than the 80S ribosomes, and have a buoyant density equal to 1.55-1.53 g/cm/sup 3/, on the basis of which they can be considered as polysomes. In the investigated period almost all the polysome-bound labeled RNA is sensitive to mild treatment with RNase, has a sedimentation coefficient from 10S to 30S, and is capable of being adsorbed on nitrocellulose filters. On the basis of the results obtained it is concluded that the predominant type of newly synthesized RNA in the cytoplasm of cells of pea cotyledons during the first hours of swelling is the mRNA-like RNAs, which are rapidly bound to the polysomes and are involved in the translation process. The synthesis and rapid utilization of this type of RNA in the polysomes are distinctly recorded in the cotyledons at all stages of germination: in the period of swelling, the lag phase, and the phase of growth.

  11. Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mary Ann; Goumnerova, Liliana C; Proctor, Mark; Scott, R Michael; Marcus, Karen; Pomeroy, Scott L; Turner, Christopher D; Chi, Susan N; Chordas, Christine; Kieran, Mark W

    2005-03-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly malignant lesions of childhood that carry a very poor prognosis. AT/RT can occur in the central nervous system (CNS AT/RT) and disease in this location carries an even worse prognosis with a median survival of 7 months. In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of maximal surgical resection (including second look surgery), radiation therapy (focal and craniospinal), and multi-agent intravenous, oral and intrathecal chemotherapy, with or without high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue, only seven long-term survivors of CNS AT/RT have been reported, all in patients with newly diagnosed disease. For this reason, many centers now direct such patients, particularly those under 5 years of age, or those with recurrent disease, towards comfort care rather than attempt curative therapy. We now report on four children, two with newly diagnosed CNS AT/RT and two with progressive disease after multi-agent chemotherapy who are long term survivors (median follow-up of 37 months) using a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and intensive chemotherapy. The chemotherapy component was modified from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS III) parameningeal protocol as three of the seven reported survivors in the literature were treated using this type of therapy. Our four patients, when added to the three reported survivors in the literature using this approach, suggest that patients provided this aggressive therapy can significantly alter the course of their disease. More importantly, we report on the first two survivors after relapse with multi-agent intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy treated with this modified regimen. PMID:15803379

  12. Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Results Data came from the SPREAD programme which collects samples of newly diagnosed patients that are representative for national HIV epidemics. 4260 pol sequences from 25 European countries and Israel collected in 2002–2007 were included. We identified 457 clusters including 1330 persons (31.2% of all patients). The cluster size ranged between 2 and 28. A number of 987 patients (74.2%) were part of a cluster that consisted only of patients originating from the same country. In addition, 135 patients (10.2%) were in a cluster including only individuals from neighboring countries. Finally, 208 patients (15.6%) clustered with individuals from countries without a common border. Clustering with patients from the same country was less prevalent in patients being infected with B subtype (P-value <0.0001), in men who have sex with men (P-value <0.0001), and in recently infected patients (P-value =0.045). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the transmission of HIV-1 in Europe is predominantly occurring between patients from the same country. This could have implications for HIV-1 transmission prevention programmes. Because infections through travelling between countries is not frequently observed it is important to have good surveillance of the national HIV-1 epidemics. PMID:23551870

  13. Views of newly-qualified GPs about their training and preparedness: lessons for extended generalist training

    PubMed Central

    Sabey, Abigail; Hardy, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Background General practice is becoming increasingly complex due to an ageing population with multiple morbidities and the shift of services from secondary to primary care, yet GP training remains largely the same. Extended training is now recommended, initially proposed as a fourth GP specialty trainee year, but more recently as a broad-based 4-year specialty training programme. Aim To explore the views of newly-qualified GPs about their training and preparedness for specific aspects of the GP’s role. Design and setting Qualitative study with newly-qualified GPs who qualified with Severn Deanery between 2007 and 2010. Method Semi-structured interviews with 18 GPs between November 2011 and April 2012. Results Gaining experience in a variety of primary care environments widens insight into patient populations as well as helping GPs develop adaptability and confidence, although this is not routinely part of GP training. However, alongside variety, having continuity with patients in practice remains important. Opportunities to be involved in the management of a practice or to take on substantial leadership roles also vary widely and this may limit preparedness and development of generalist skills. Conclusion Extended training could help prepare GPs for the current challenges of general practice. It could ensure all trainees are exposed to a greater variety of primary care settings including those outside GP practice, as well as experience of business, finance, and leadership roles. Collectively, these changes have the potential to produce GPs with both generalist and enhanced skills, who are better prepared to work collaboratively across the organisational boundaries between primary, secondary, and community care. PMID:25824188

  14. Elucidating Interactions and Conductivity of Newly Synthesised Low Bandgap Polymer with Protic and Aprotic Ionic Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Attri, Pankaj; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, Sun Woo; Kim, Joong I. L.; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Gi-Chung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, In Tae

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the conductivity and interaction studies of ammonium and imidazolium based ionic liquids (ILs) with the newly synthesised low bandgap polymer (Poly(2-heptadecyl-4-vinylthieno[3,4-d]thiazole) (PHVTT)). Use of low bandgap polymers is the most suitable way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiations for solar cells. But, still there is lack of most efficient low bandgap polymer. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesised a new low bandgap polymer and investigated its interaction with the ILs to enhance its conductivity. ILs may undergo almost unlimited structural variations; these structural variations have attracted extensive attention in polymer studies. The aim of present work is to illustrate the state of art progress of implementing the interaction of ILs (protic and aprotic ILs) with newly synthesised low bandgap polymer. In addition to this, our UV-Vis spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy results have revealed that all studied ILs (tributylmethylammonium methyl sulfate ([N1444][MeSO4] from ammonium family) and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl from imidazolium family) have potential to interact with polymer. Our semi empirical calculation with help of Hyperchem 7 shows that protic IL ([Mim]Cl) interacts strongly with the low bandgap polymer through the H-bonding. Further, protic ILs shows enhanced conductivity than aprotic ILs in association with low bandgap polymer. This study provides the combined effect of low bandgap polymer and ILs that may generate many theoretical and experimental opportunities. PMID:23874829

  15. Characterizing Newly Repopulated Microglia in the Adult Mouse: Impacts on Animal Behavior, Cell Morphology, and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Lee, Rafael J.; West, Brian L.; Green, Kim N.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cell in the brain and are postulated to play important roles outside of immunity. Administration of the dual colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)/c-Kit kinase inhibitor, PLX3397, to adult mice results in the elimination of ~99% of microglia, which remain eliminated for as long as treatment continues. Upon removal of the inhibitor, microglia rapidly repopulate the entire adult brain, stemming from a central nervous system (CNS) resident progenitor cell. Using this method of microglial elimination and repopulation, the role of microglia in both healthy and diseased states can be explored. Here, we examine the responsiveness of newly repopulated microglia to an inflammatory stimulus, as well as determine the impact of these cells on behavior, cognition, and neuroinflammation. Two month-old wild-type mice were placed on either control or PLX3397 diet for 21 d to eliminate microglia. PLX3397 diet was then removed in a subset of animals to allow microglia to repopulate and behavioral testing conducted beginning at 14 d repopulation. Finally, inflammatory profiling of the microglia-repopulated brain in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.25 mg/kg) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was determined 21 d after inhibitor removal using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), as well as detailed analyses of microglial morphologies. We find mice with repopulated microglia to perform similarly to controls by measures of behavior, cognition, and motor function. Compared to control/resident microglia, repopulated microglia had larger cell bodies and less complex branching in their processes, which resolved over time after inhibitor removal. Inflammatory profiling revealed that the mRNA gene expression of repopulated microglia was similar to normal resident microglia and that these new cells appear functional and responsive to LPS. Overall, these data demonstrate that newly repopulated microglia function similarly to the

  16. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Newly Recognized Inflammatory Brain Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia; Daengsuwan, Tassalapa; Dalmau, Josep; Jones, Kevin; deVeber, Gabrielle; Kobayashi, Jeffrey; Laxer, Ronald M.; Benseler, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a newly recognized anti-neuronal antibody-mediated inflammatory brain disease causing severe psychiatric and neurological deficits in previously healthy children. The aim of this study was to report characteristic clinical features and outcomes of children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Methods Consecutive children presenting with newly acquired psychiatric and/or neurologic deficits consistent with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and evidence of CNS inflammation were screened over a 12-month period. Children were included in the study if they had confirmatory evidence of anti-NMDAR antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Details of clinical presentation and results of investigations were reported. Type and duration of treatment and outcomes at last follow-up were documented. Results Seven children were screened and three children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were identified. All patients presented with neurological or psychiatric (‘neuropsychiatric’) abnormalities, seizures, speech disorder, sleep disturbance, and fluctuating level of consciousness. The two older patients also had more prominent psychiatric features, while the younger child had significant autonomic instability and prominent involuntary movement disorder. None had an underlying tumor. Immunosuppressive therapies resulted in near or complete recovery; however, two of the patients had early relapse requiring re-treatment. Conclusion Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is an important cause of neuropsychiatric deficits in children that must be included in the differential diagnosis of CNS vasculitis and other inflammatory brain diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for neurologic recovery. PMID:21547896

  17. Sexual Dysfunction and Help Seeking Behaviors in Newly Married Men in Sari City: a Descriptive

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Khaki-Rostami, Zeynab; Malakouti, Jamileh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ghanbari-Homayi, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for people's general health. The aim of this study was to determine the status of sexual function and help-seeking behaviors in newly married men. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 363 newly married men. Simple random sampling was used according to premarital counseling offices in the health center of Sari city. Data collection instruments included personal and social characteristics, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), and help-seeking behaviors questionnaires. In order to determine the relationship between characteristics and sexual function, general linear model and also between socio-demographic characteristics and receiving or lack of receiving help, multivariate logistic regression test were used. Results: The mean of sexual function score was 21.3 (2.7) out of possible 5-30, and 26% of men suffered sexual dysfunction. The highest prevalence (27.2%) of dysfunction was in the dimension of sexual stimulation, and the lowest (15.7%) in maintaining erection. For the treatment of sexual dysfunction, only 32% men had sought help, and 40% of them had visited specialists. The most frequent reasons for not seeking help were feeling uncomfortable with doctor, and their belief that doctor is not able to do much. 65% of men desired to be treated. Conclusion: The results demonstrated relatively high prevalence of sexual dysfunction among men, and unfortunately, most of them did not seek help for their sexual problem. Since Sexual dysfunction can leave damaging effects on the quality of life and marital relationship, interventions to deal with these challenges and screening to identify such problems appear necessary. PMID:26161368

  18. Ozone-Induced Alterations in the Accumulation of Newly Synthesized Proteins in Leaves of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Pino, M. E.; Mudd, J. B.; Bailey-Serres, J.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the response of leaves of 3-week-old maize (Zea mays L.) to short-term (5 h) fumigation with O3-enriched air (0, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.36 [mu]L/L). Older leaves and leaf tissue developed more severe visible damage at higher external O3 concentrations. To investigate the immediate effect of O3 exposure on the accumulation of newly synthesized leaf proteins, leaves were labeled with [35S]methionine after 2 h and fumigated for an additional 3 h. O3-induced alterations of leaf proteins were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. There was a significant decrease in [35S]methionine incorporation into protein at the highest O3 concentration. Developmental differences in accumulation of de novo-synthesized leaf proteins were observed when the leaf tip, middle, and basal sections were labeled under 0 [mu]L/L O3, and additional changes were apparent upon exposure to increasing O3 concentrations. Changes in leaf protein synthesis were observed in the absence of visible leaf injury. Subcellular fractionation revealed O3-induced alterations in soluble and membrane-associated proteins. A number of thylakoid membrane-associated proteins showed specific increases in response to O3 fumigation. In contrast, the synthesis of a 32-kD polypeptide associated with thylakoid membranes was reduced in response to O3 fumigation in parallel with reduced incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Immunoprecipitation identified this polypeptide as the D1 protein of photosystem II. A reduction in the accumulation of newly synthesized D1 could have consequences for the efficiency of photosynthesis and other cellular processes. PMID:12228510

  19. Producing speech with a newly learned morphosyntax and vocabulary: an magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Hultén, Annika; Karvonen, Leena; Laine, Matti; Salmelin, Riitta

    2014-08-01

    Ten participants learned a miniature language (Anigram), which they later employed to verbally describe a pictured event. Using magnetoencephalography, the cortical dynamics of sentence production in Anigram was compared with that in the native tongue from the preparation phase up to the production of the final word. At the preparation phase, a cartoon image with two animals prompted the participants to plan either the corresponding simple sentence (e.g., "the bear hits the lion") or a grammar-free list of the two nouns ("the bear, the lion"). For the newly learned language, this stage induced stronger left angular and adjacent inferior parietal activations than for the native language, likely reflecting a higher load on lexical retrieval and STM storage. The preparation phase was followed by a cloze task where the participants were prompted to produce the last word of the sentence or word sequence. Production of the sentence-final word required retrieval of rule-based inflectional morphology and was accompanied by increased activation of the left middle superior temporal cortex that did not differ between the two languages. Activation of the right temporal cortex during the cloze task suggested that this area plays a role in integrating word meanings into the sentence frame. The present results indicate that, after just a few days of exposure, the newly learned language harnesses the neural resources for multiword production much the same way as the native tongue and that the left and right temporal cortices seem to have functionally different roles in this processing. PMID:24392893

  20. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Methods Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005–2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Results Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10–40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), p<0.001) and ongoing secondary prophylaxis at follow-up (HR 0.27 (0.12 to 0.63), p=0.01) were the two most influential factors associated with MACE. Conclusions Newly diagnosed RHD is associated with poor outcomes, mainly in patients with moderate or severe valve disease and no secondary prophylaxis. PMID:26537732

  1. Insights into the growth of newly formed particles in a subtropical urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, F.; Crilley, L. R.; Stevanovic, S.; Ristovski, Z.; Mazaheri, M.; He, C.; Johnson, G.; Ayoko, G.; Morawska, L.

    2015-12-01

    The role of different chemical compounds, particularly organics, involved in the new particle formation (NPF) and its consequent growth are not fully understood. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of aerosol particles during NPF events in an urban subtropical environment. Aerosol chemical composition was measured along with particle number size distribution (PNSD) and several other air quality parameters at five sites across an urban subtropical environment. An Aerodyne compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (c-ToF-AMS) and a TSI Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measured aerosol chemical composition (particles above 50 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter) and PNSD (particles within 9-414 nm in mobility diameter), respectively. Five NPF events, with growth rates in the range 3.3-4.6 nm, were detected at two of the sites. The NPF events happened on relatively warmer days with lower condensation sink (CS). Temporal percent fractions of organics increased after the particles grew enough to have a significant contribution to particle volume, while the mass fraction of ammonium and sulfate decreased. This uncovered the important role of organics in the growth of newly formed particles. Three organic markers, factors f43, f44 and f57, were calculated and the f44 vs. f43 trends were compared between nucleation and non-nucleation days. K-means cluster analysis was performed on f44 vs. f43 data and it was found that they follow different patterns on nucleation days compared to non-nucleation days, whereby f43 decreased for vehicle-emission-generated particles, while both f44 and f43 decreased for NPF-generated particles. It was found for the first time that vehicle-generated and newly formed particles cluster in different locations on f44 vs. f43 plot, and this finding can be potentially used as a tool for source apportionment of measured particles.

  2. Phase I Study of Vandetanib With Radiotherapy and Temozolomide for Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Drappatz, Jan; Norden, Andrew D.; Wong, Eric T.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence has suggested that angiogenesis inhibition might potentiate the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition might be of therapeutic benefit, because the epidermal growth factor receptor is upregulated in GBM and contributes to radiation resistance. We conducted a Phase I study of vandetanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, in patients with newly diagnosed GBM combined with RT and temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: A total of 13 GBM patients were treated with vandetanib, radiotherapy, and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ, using a standard '3 + 3' dose escalation. The maximal tolerated dose was defined as the dose with <1 of 6 dose-limiting toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The eligible patients were adults with newly diagnosed GBM, Karnofsky performance status of {>=}60, normal organ function, who were not taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Results: Of the 13 patients, 6 were treated with vandetanib at a dose of 200mg daily. Of the 6 patients, 3 developed dose-limiting toxicities within the first 12 weeks, including gastrointestinal hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia in 1 patient, neutropenia in 1 patient, and diverticulitis with gastrointestinal perforation in 1 patient. The other 7 patients were treated with 100 mg daily, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed, establishing this dose as the maximal tolerated dose combined with TMZ and RT. Conclusion: Vandetanib can be safely combined with RT and TMZ in GBM patients. A Phase II study in which patients are randomized to vandetanib 100 mg daily with RT and TMZ or RT and TMZ alone is underway.

  3. NRSF and BDNF polymorphisms as biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Alix; Miyajima, Fabio; Shazadi, Kanvel; Crossley, Joanne; Johnson, Michael R.; Marson, Anthony G.; Baker, Gus A.; Quinn, John P.; Sills, Graeme J.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a common comorbidity in people with epilepsy, but its causes remain unclear. It may be related to the etiology of the disorder, the consequences of seizures, or the effects of antiepileptic drug treatment. Genetics may also play a contributory role. We investigated the influence of variants in the genes encoding neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins previously associated with cognition and epilepsy, on cognitive function in people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A total of 82 patients who had previously undergone detailed neuropsychological assessment were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the NRSF and BDNF genes. Putatively functional SNPs were included in a genetic association analysis with specific cognitive domains, including memory, psychomotor speed, and information processing. Cross-sectional and longitudinal designs were used to explore genetic influences on baseline cognition at diagnosis and change from baseline over the first year since diagnosis, respectively. We found a statistically significant association between genotypic variation and memory function at both baseline (NRSF: rs1105434, rs2227902 and BDNF: rs1491850, rs2030324, rs11030094) and in our longitudinal analysis (NRSF: rs2227902 and BDNF: rs12273363). Psychomotor speed was also associated with genotype (NRSF rs3796529) in the longitudinal assessment. In line with our previous work on general cognitive function in the healthy aging population, we observed an additive interaction between risk alleles for the NRSF rs2227902 (G) and BDNF rs6265 (A) polymorphisms which was again consistent with a significantly greater decline in delayed recall over the first year since diagnosis. These findings support a role for the NRSF–BDNF pathway in the modulation of cognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy. PMID:26708060

  4. Race- and sex-related differences in care for patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Prashant D.; Lu, Xin; Girotra, Saket; Kamel, Hooman; Sarrazin, Mary S. Vaughan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of stroke and death. Uniform utilization of appropriate therapies for AF may help reduce those risks. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether significant race and sex differences exist in the treatment of newly diagnosed AF in Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS We used administrative encounter data for Medicare beneficiaries to identify patients with newly diagnosed AF during 2010–2011. Services received after initial AF diagnosis were cataloged, including visits with a cardiologist or electrophysiolo-gist, catheter ablation procedures, and use of oral anticoagulants, rate control agents, and antiarrhythmic drugs. RESULTS Overall, 517,941 patients met study criteria, of whom 452,986 (87%) were white, 36,425 (7%) black, and 28,530 (6%) Hispanic. Male patients comprised 209,788 (41%) of the cohort. In multivariate analysis, there were statistically significant differences in the use of AF-related services by both race and sex, with white patients and male patients receiving the most care. The most notable disparities were for catheter ablation (Hispanic vs white: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.79; P < .001; female vs male: AHR 0.65; 95% CI 0.63–0.68; P < .001) and receipt of oral anticoagulation (black vs white: AHR 0.94; 95% CI 0.92–0.95; P < .001; Hispanic vs white: AHR 0.94; 95% CI 0.93–0.97; P < .001; female vs male: AHR 0.93; 95% CI 0.93–0.94; P < .001). CONCLUSION Race and sex appear to have a significant effect on the health care provided to this cohort of Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with AF. Possible explanations include racial differences in access, patient preferences, treatment bias, and unmeasured clinical characteristics. PMID:25814418

  5. The physical demands of Super League rugby: Experiences of a newly promoted franchise.

    PubMed

    Evans, S D; Brewer, C; Haigh, J D; Lake, M; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-01-01

    The physical match demands for a newly promoted European Super League (ESL) squad were analysed over a full season using global positioning systems. Players were classified into four positional groups: outside backs (OB), pivots (PIV), middle unit forwards (MUF) and wide running forwards (WRF). MUF covered less total distance (4318 ± 570 m) than WRF (6408 ± 629 m), PIV (6549 ± 853) and OB (7246 ± 333 m) (P < 0.05) and less sprint distance (185 ± 58 m) than WRF (296 ± 82 m), PIV (306 ± 108) and OB (421 ± 89 m; P < 0.05), likely attributable to less playing time by MUF (47.8 ± 6.6 min) compared with WRF (77.0 ± 9.0 min), PIV (72.8 ± 10.6 min) and OB (86.7 ± 3.4 min; P < 0.05). Metres per minute were greater for MUF (90.8 ± 2.2 m.min(-1)) compared with OB (83.6 ± 2.8 m.min(-1)) and WRF (83.4 ± 2.4 m.min(-1); P = 0.001) although not different from PIV (90.2 ± 3.3 m.min(-1); P > 0.05). WRF (36 ± 5) and MUF (35 ± 6) were involved in more collisions than OB (20 ± 3) and PIV (23 ± 3; P < 0.05). The high-speed running and collision demands observed here were greater than that previously reported in the ESL, which may reflect increased demands placed on the lower ranked teams. The present data may be used to inform coaches if training provides the physical stimulus to adequately prepare their players for competition which may be especially pertinent for newly promoted franchises. PMID:26055573

  6. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

  7. Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Samora, Barbara; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2011-01-01

    High variability in abundance, cryptic coloration, and small body size of newly metamorphosed anurans have limited demographic studies of this life-history stage. We used line-transect distance sampling and Bayesian methods to estimate the abundance and spatial distribution of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) in terrestrial habitat surrounding a montane lake in central Washington, USA. We completed 154 line-transect surveys from the commencement of metamorphosis (15 September 2009) to the date of first snow accumulation in fall (1 October 2009), and located 543 newly metamorphosed toads. After accounting for variable detection probability associated with the extent of barren habitats, estimates of total surface abundance ranged from a posterior median of 3,880 (95% credible intervals from 2,235 to 12,600) in the first week of sampling to 12,150 (5,543 to 51,670) during the second week of sampling. Numbers of newly metamorphosed toads dropped quickly with increasing distance from the lakeshore in a pattern that differed over the three weeks of the study and contradicted our original hypotheses. Though we hypothesized that the spatial distribution of toads would initially be concentrated near the lake shore and then spread outward from the lake over time, we observed the opposite. Ninety-five percent of individuals occurred within 20, 16, and 15 m of shore during weeks one, two, and three respectively, probably reflecting continued emergence of newly metamorphosed toads from the lake and mortality or burrow use of dispersed individuals. Numbers of toads were highest near the inlet stream of the lake. Distance sampling may provide a useful method for estimating the surface abundance of newly metamorphosed toads and relating their space use to landscape variables despite uncertain and variable probability of detection. We discuss means of improving the precision of estimates of total abundance.

  8. Failure-Free Survival and Radiotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D.; Spears, Melissa R.; Clarke, Noel W.; Dearnaley, David P.; Mason, Malcolm D.; Parker, Christopher C.; Ritchie, Alastair W. S.; Russell, J. Martin; Schiavone, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann S.; Birtle, Alison; Engeler, Daniel S.; Elliott, Tony; Matheson, David; O’Sullivan, Joe; Pudney, Delia; Srihari, Narayanan; Wallace, Jan; Barber, Jim; Syndikus, Isabel; Parmar, Mahesh K. B.; Sydes, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The natural history of patients with newly diagnosed high-risk nonmetastatic (M0) prostate cancer receiving hormone therapy (HT) either alone or with standard-of-care radiotherapy (RT) is not well documented. Furthermore, no clinical trial has assessed the role of RT in patients with node-positive (N+) M0 disease. The STAMPEDE Trial includes such individuals, allowing an exploratory multivariate analysis of the impact of radical RT. OBJECTIVE To describe survival and the impact on failure-free survival of RT by nodal involvement in these patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cohort study using data collected for patients allocated to the control arm (standard-of-care only) of the STAMPEDE Trial between October 5, 2005, and May 1, 2014. Outcomes are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models; survival estimates are reported at 2 and 5 years. Participants were high-risk, hormone-naive patients with newly diagnosed M0 prostate cancer starting long-term HT for the first time. Radiotherapy is encouraged in this group, but mandated for patients with node-negative (N0) M0 disease only since November 2011. EXPOSURES Long-term HT either alone or with RT, as per local standard. Planned RT use was recorded at entry. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival. RESULTS A total of 721 men with newly diagnosed M0 disease were included: median age at entry, 66 (interquartile range [IQR], 61-72) years, median (IQR) prostate-specific antigen level of 43 (18-88) ng/mL. There were 40 deaths (31 owing to prostate cancer) with 17 months’ median follow-up. Two-year survival was 96% (95% CI, 93%-97%) and 2-year FFS, 77% (95% CI, 73%-81%). Median (IQR) FFS was 63 (26 to not reached) months. Time to FFS was worse in patients with N+ disease (HR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.46-2.81]) than in those with N0 disease. Failure-free survival outcomes favored planned use of RT for patients with both N0M0 (HR, 0.33 [95% CI

  9. Surveying the Newly Digitized Apollo Metric Images for Highland Fault Scarps on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. R.; Pritchard, M. E.; Bell, J. F.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S.

    2009-12-01

    fault scarps. In this presentation we review the geologic characteristics and context of these newly-identified, potentially tectonic landforms. The lengths and relief of some of these linear and curvilinear features are consistent with previously identified lobate scarps. Most of these features are in the highlands, though a few occur along the edges of mare and/or crater ejecta deposits. In many cases the resolution of the Metric Camera frames (~10 m/pix) is not adequate to unequivocally determine the origin of these features. Thus, to assess if the newly identified features have tectonic or other origins, we are examining them in higher-resolution Panoramic Camera (currently being scanned) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera images [Watters et al., this meeting, 2009].

  10. Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposure in Newly-Diagnosed Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Deyu; Yu, Yu; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo

    2016-01-01

    Circulating vitamin D has previously been found to be lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), while the effects of sunlight exposure have not yet been fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the associations between serum vitamin D, vitamin D intake, sunlight exposure, and newly-diagnosed PD patients in a Chinese population. This case-control study measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and sunlight exposure in 201 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and 199 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. Data on vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels, sunlight exposure, and PD. Adjustments were made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, BMI, and vitamin D intake. There were significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D (20.6 ± 6.5 ng/mL), daily vitamin D intake (8.3 ± 3.7 g/day), and sunlight exposure (9.7 ± 4.1 h/week) in patients with PD compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for PD in the quartiles of serum 25(OH)D were 1 (reference), 0.710 (0.401, 1.257), 0.631 (0.348, 1.209), and 0.483 (0.267, 0.874), respectively. Crude ORs for PD in quartiles of sunlight exposure were 1 (reference), 0.809 (0.454, 1.443), 0.623 (0.345, 1.124) and 0.533 (0.294, 0.966), respectively. A significant positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure was found, but serum 25(OH)D was not correlated with daily vitamin D intake. This study indicates that lower levels of serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure are significantly associated with an increased risk for PD. PMID:26959053

  11. Phase II Trial of Hypofractionated IMRT With Temozolomide for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Krishna; Damek, Denise; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Ney, Douglas; Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin; Stuhr, Kelly; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chen Changhu

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity and overall survival (OS) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (hypo-IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM after biopsy or resection and with adequate performance status and organ or bone marrow function were eligible for this study. Patients received postoperative hypo-IMRT to the surgical cavity and residual tumor seen on T1-weighted brain MRI with a 5-mm margin to a total dose of 60 Gy in 10 fractions (6 Gy/fraction) and to the T2 abnormality on T2-weighted MRI with 5-mm margin to 30 Gy in 10 fractions (3 Gy/fraction). Concurrent TMZ was given at 75 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 28 consecutive days. Adjuvant TMZ was given at 150 to 200 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 5 days every 28 days. Toxicities were defined using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: Twenty-four patients were treated, consisting of 14 men, 10 women; a median age of 60.5 years old (range, 27-77 years); and a median Karnofsky performance score of 80 (range, 60-90). All patients received hypo-IMRT and concurrent TMZ according to protocol, except for 2 patients who received only 14 days of concurrent TMZ. The median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was 6.5 (range, 0-14).With a median follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2.7-34.2 months) for all patients and a minimum follow-up of 20.6 months for living patients, no instances of grade 3 or higher nonhematologic toxicity were observed. The median OS was 16.6 months (range, 4.1-35.9 months). Six patients underwent repeated surgery for suspected tumor recurrence; necrosis was found in 50% to 100% of the resected specimens. Conclusion: In selected GBM patients, 60 Gy hypo-IMRT delivered in 6-Gy fractions over 2 weeks with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ is safe. OS in this small cohort of patients was comparable to that treated with current standard of care

  12. Anterograde Glycoprotein-Dependent Transport of Newly Generated Rabies Virus in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Anja; Nolden, Tobias; Schröter, Josephine; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela; Gluska, Shani; Perlson, Eran

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rabies virus (RABV) spread is widely accepted to occur only by retrograde axonal transport. However, examples of anterograde RABV spread in peripheral neurons such as dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons indicated a possible bidirectional transport by an uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we analyzed the axonal transport of fluorescence-labeled RABV in DRG neurons by live-cell microscopy. Both entry-related retrograde transport of RABV after infection at axon endings and postreplicative transport of newly formed virus were visualized in compartmentalized DRG neuron cultures. Whereas entry-related transport at 1.5 μm/s occurred only retrogradely, after 2 days of infection, multiple particles were observed in axons moving in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. The dynamics of postreplicative retrograde transport (1.6 μm/s) were similar to those of entry-related retrograde transport. In contrast, anterograde particle transport at 3.4 μm/s was faster, indicating active particle transport. Interestingly, RABV missing the glycoproteins did not move anterogradely within the axon. Thus, anterograde RABV particle transport depended on the RABV glycoprotein. Moreover, colocalization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and glycoprotein in distal axonal regions as well as cotransport of labeled RNPs with membrane-anchored mCherry reporter confirmed that either complete enveloped virus particles or vesicle associated RNPs were transported. Our data show that anterograde RABV movement in peripheral DRG neurons occurs by active motor protein-dependent transport. We propose two models for postreplicative long-distance transport in peripheral neurons: either transport of complete virus particles or cotransport of RNPs and G-containing vesicles through axons to release virus at distal sites of infected DRG neurons. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus retrograde axonal transport by dynein motors supports virus spread over long distances and

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of newly diagnosed grade II gliomas†

    PubMed Central

    Khayal, Inas S.; McKnight, Tracy R.; McGue, Colleen; Vandenberg, Scott; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Distinguishing between low-grade oligodendrogliomas (ODs) and astrocytomas (AC) is of interest for defining prognosis and stratifying patients to specific treatment regimens. The purpose of this study was to determine if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion imaging can help to differentiate between newly diagnosed grade II OD and AC subtypes and to evaluate the ADC and FA values for the mixed population of oligoastrocytomas (OA). Fifty-three patients with newly diagnosed grade II gliomas were studied using a 1.5T whole body scanner (23 ODs, 16 ACs, and 14 OAs). The imaging protocol included post-gadolinium T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and either three and/or six directional diffusion imaging sequence with b = 1000 s/mm2. Diffusion-weighted images were analyzed using in-house software to calculate maps of ADC and for six directional acquisitions, FA. The intensity values were normalized by values from normal appearing white matter (NAWM) to generate maps of normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) and normalized fractional anisotropy (nFA). The hyperintense region in the T2 weighted image was defined as the T2All region. A Mann–Whitney rank-sum test was performed on the 25th, median, and 75th nADC and nFA among the three subtypes. Logistic regression was performed to determine how well the nADC and nFA predict subtype. Lesions diagnosed as being OD had significantly lower nADC and significantly higher nFA, compared to AC. The nADC and nFA values individually classified the data with an accuracy of 87%. Combining the two did not enhance the classification. The patients with OA had nADC and nFA values between those of OD and AC. This suggests that ADC and FA may be helpful in directing tissue sampling to the most appropriate regions for taking biopsies in order to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:19125391

  14. Apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of newly diagnosed grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Khayal, Inas S; McKnight, Tracy R; McGue, Colleen; Vandenberg, Scott; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Chang, Susan M; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J

    2009-05-01

    Distinguishing between low-grade oligodendrogliomas (ODs) and astrocytomas (AC) is of interest for defining prognosis and stratifying patients to specific treatment regimens. The purpose of this study was to determine if the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion imaging can help to differentiate between newly diagnosed grade II OD and AC subtypes and to evaluate the ADC and FA values for the mixed population of oligoastrocytomas (OA). Fifty-three patients with newly diagnosed grade II gliomas were studied using a 1.5T whole body scanner (23 ODs, 16 ACs, and 14 OAs). The imaging protocol included post-gadolinium T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and either three and/or six directional diffusion imaging sequence with b = 1000 s/mm(2). Diffusion-weighted images were analyzed using in-house software to calculate maps of ADC and for six directional acquisitions, FA. The intensity values were normalized by values from normal appearing white matter (NAWM) to generate maps of normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) and normalized fractional anisotropy (nFA). The hyperintense region in the T2 weighted image was defined as the T2All region. A Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was performed on the 25th, median, and 75th nADC and nFA among the three subtypes. Logistic regression was performed to determine how well the nADC and nFA predict subtype. Lesions diagnosed as being OD had significantly lower nADC and significantly higher nFA, compared to AC. The nADC and nFA values individually classified the data with an accuracy of 87%. Combining the two did not enhance the classification. The patients with OA had nADC and nFA values between those of OD and AC. This suggests that ADC and FA may be helpful in directing tissue sampling to the most appropriate regions for taking biopsies in order to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:19125391

  15. Evaluation of the Performance and Safety of a Newly Developed Intravenous Fluid Warmer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jung; Yoo, Sung Mook; Son, Ho Sung; Ahn, Chi Bum; Shin, Yeon Soo; Chung, Jae Ho; Sun, Kyung

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the performance and safety of a newly developed blood warmer (ThermoSens), we tested its heating capability under various conditions using isotonic saline and hemolysis analysis with swine blood. The following two in vitro tests were performed: (i) To investigate the performance of the device, the inflow and outflow temperatures were measured at various flow rates (30, 50, and 100 mL/min) using cold (5°C) and room temperature (20°C) isotonic saline (0.9%). Several parameters were measured including the highest temperature of the outlet, the time required to reach the highest temperature, and the temperature of the intravenous line. (ii) To investigate the safety of the device, a hemolysis test was performed using swine blood. We obtained 320 mL of whole blood from swine and refrigerated the blood for 35 days at 3°C. In order to replicate the clinical situation, blood flow by gravity and pressure (300 mm Hg) was used. Before and after the heating test, blood samples were obtained and a comparison was made between these samples. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, lactate dehydrogenase, and plasma hemoglobin were used for red blood cell (RBC) damage analysis. The highest outlet temperatures obtained using flow rates of 30, 50, and 100 mL/min were 39.10 ± 0.59, 39.25 ± 0.69, and 37.63 ± 1.03°C, respectively, with cold saline, and 39.40 ± 0.40, 39.66 ± 0.36, and 39.49 ± 0.49°C, respectively, with room temperature saline. Hemolysis tests showed no significant changes in hemoglobin, hematocrit, lactate dehydrogenase, or plasma hemoglobin (P > 0.05) between before and after heating for both gravity and pressure blood flow. The ThermoSens blood warmer warms isotonic saline effectively, reaching temperatures up to 36°C under various conditions. Hemolysis tests showed no RBC damage. Therefore, the newly developed ThermoSens has good heating performance and is safe for RBC products. PMID:25865383

  16. Older Adults Newly Diagnosed with Symptomatic Myeloma Want to Participate in Treatment Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Tariman, Joseph D.; Doorenbos, Ardith; Schepp, Karen G.; Singhal, Seema; Berry, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives The purpose of the study was to describe the preferences for participation in decision making of older patients newly diagnosed with symptomatic myeloma and to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and decisional role preferences. Design Descriptive, cross sectional design Setting Subjects’ homes and two large academic cancer centers. Sample The convenience sample consisted of 20 older adults (60 years of age and above) with symptomatic myeloma diagnosed within the past 6 months. Methods The Control Preferences Scale was administered followed by an in-person one-time semi-structured interview. Main Research Variables Role preferences for participation in treatment decision-making, age, gender, race, work status, personal relationship status, education, and income. Findings 55% (n=11) of the subjects had preferred a shared role with the physician and 40% (n=8) had preferred to make the decisions after seriously considering the opinion of their physicians. Only one subject preferred to leave the decision to the doctor as long as the doctor considered the patient’s treatment preferences. Sociodemographic characteristics had no impact on preferences for participation in treatment decision-making. Conclusions The study findings indicate that older adults newly diagnosed with myeloma wanted to participate during treatment decision-making. Oncology nurses must respect the patient's desired role preference and oncology clinicians must listen to the patient and allow them to be autonomous in making treatment decisions if the patient so desire such control in the decision-making process. A culture of equipoise between the patient and the clinician during TDM must be cultivated in order to achieve the patient's desired level of participation. More studies that focus on supporting and involving patients diagnosed with myeloma in the decision-making process are needed in order to influence clinical practice and policy. Practice

  17. Dynamics of photochemical and microbial processing of newly exposed terrestrial DOM in arctic surface waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, R. M.; Kling, G. W.

    2010-12-01

    Surface freshwaters act as conduits of terrestrially derived carbon to the atmosphere, and are susceptible to climate change impacts on the water and carbon cycles. For example, climate change in the Arctic is causing melting permafrost, thermokarst failures, and increased fire, all of which will release previously frozen or buried carbon to surface waters as dissolved organic matter (DOM). As previously-frozen DOM is released into relatively warm sunlit surface waters, photodegradation is expected to enhance the rates of DOM processing by bacteria. This close-coupled synergism between photo and bio-oxidation of the DOM is likely particularly important in the Arctic where photochemical interactions abound in the shallow, unshaded streams that transport DOM across the landscape. To test this, we manipulated the UV light exposure of freshly exposed DOM and measured the responses in bacterial production and respiration and characterized the DOM with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of fluorescence spectra. Exposure to light significantly enhanced bacterial processing of DOM, and the magnitude of the positive response was greater for recently exposed DOM compared to resident surface water DOM. These results suggest that turnover rates of newly released DOM depend on water residence time in sunlit surface waters. However, how water movement from soils to small streams and lakes controls the coupled photo- and bio-degradation of DOM is too poorly known to predict the fate of DOM, either to the atmosphere as CO2 or to the ocean as altered, recalcitrant carbon. As a first step in evaluating these hydro-bio-photo linkages and controls, we used DOM fluorescence as a proxy to trace the source and estimate the lability of the DOM in natural and thermokarst-disturbed environments. Results showed that the chemistry and reactivity of DOM was altered by both light exposure (as expected) and also by microbial processing even over short time periods similar to water residence

  18. A Newly Developed X-Y Planar Nano-Motion Table System with Large Travel Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurisaki, Yugo; Sawano, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Hayato; Shinno, Hidenori

    Precision motion control technology has been widely used in high accuracy applications such as advanced scientific instruments and semiconductor fabrication equipment. In particular, the nano-motion control system with multiple degrees of freedom positioning in large travel ranges has been required in the field of precision engineering. In order to realize such a system, it is necessary and indispensable to develop a planar motion table system based on a new design concept. This paper presents a newly developed X-Y planar nano-motion table system with large travel ranges. This system is composed of a fine motion table and a coarse motion mechanism. The fine motion table is supported by porous aerostatic bearings and driven by voice coil motors with a laser interferometer feedback in a perfect non-contact condition. In addition, the table is driven at the center of gravity during the X-Y planar motion. The coarse motion mechanism has the frame structure with the coils of voice coil motors for the fine motion table. In order to enlarge the table travel ranges, the coarse motion mechanism follows the fine table motion. Performance evaluation results confirm that the developed table system has a remarkable performance which includes nanometer positioning capability over large travel ranges.

  19. Thermoluminescence characterization of newly developed Cu-doped lithium tetraborate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, A.; Mesterházy, D.; Ignatovych, M.; Holovey, V.

    2012-09-01

    This work reports the thermoluminescence characterization of newly synthesized Li2B4O7 (LTB) and LTB:Cu materials of single crystal and glassy structure. The following basic properties were investigated: glow curve, dose response, fading, reproducibility and batch uniformity. The Cu doped samples and the non-doped single crystal gave TL response, while the non-doped glassy LTB did not up to 10 kGy. LTB:Cu single crystals showed promising properties. Their glow curve consists of two well separated peaks (at 165 °C and 270 °C) in the 50-350 °C temperature region. The sensitivity of this material is about 5 times higher than that of the TLD-100. The most attractive feature of these LTB:Cu single crystals is their linear dose response in a very wide range: from 0.3 mGy to 10 kGy. Unfortunately this material is sensitive to light; the fading of irradiated samples is very quick in daylight, but at room temperature and kept in dark the fading of the 270 °C peak is less than 6%.

  20. Rhizoxin analogs contribute to the biocontrol activity of a newly isolated pseudomonas strain.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kasumi; Noda, Naomi; Katayose, Yuichi; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Numa, Hisataka; Yamada, Kosumi; Someya, Nobutaka

    2015-03-01

    Two strains of Pseudomonas sp., Os17 and St29, were newly isolated from the rhizosphere of rice and potato, respectively, by screening for 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producers. These strains were found to be the same species and were the closest to but different from Pseudomonas protegens among the sequenced pseudomonads, based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene and whole-genome analyses. Strain Os17 was as effective a biocontrol agent as reported for P. protegens Cab57, whereas strain St29 was less effective. The whole-genome sequences of these strains were obtained: the genomes are organized into a single circular chromosome with 6,885,464 bp, 63.5% G+C content, and 6,195 coding sequences for strain Os17; and with 6,833,117 bp, 63.3% G+C content, and 6,217 coding sequences for strain St29. Comparative genome analysis of these strains revealed that the complete rhizoxin analog biosynthesis gene cluster (approximately 79 kb) found in the Os17 genome was absent from the St29 genome. In an rzxB mutant, which lacks the polyketide synthase essential for the production of rhizoxin analogs, the growth inhibition activity against fungal and oomycete pathogens and the plant protection efficacy were attenuated compared with those of wild-type Os17. These findings suggest that rhizoxin analogs are important biocontrol factors of this strain. PMID:25496595

  1. Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device

    PubMed Central

    Haslinger, Wolfram; Müller, Lisa; Mildner, Esmeralda; Löfler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut; Raschner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The sensorimotor system (SMS) plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP) in a target circle (TITC). The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe) were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS) was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS). The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years) showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments. PMID:25517695

  2. Assessment of a newly developed, active pneumatic-driven, sensorimotor test and training device.

    PubMed

    Haslinger, Wolfram; Müller, Lisa; Mildner, Esmeralda; Löfler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut; Raschner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The sensorimotor system (SMS) plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP) in a target circle (TITC). The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe) were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS) was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS). The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years) showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments. PMID:25517695

  3. Suboral fork: a newly discerned gnathosomal structure from the proboscis of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Bolton, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    The infracapitulum of eriophyoid mites comprises a cone-like basal infracapitulum, containing a pharynx, and a distal infracapitulum, forming a proboscis ensheathing a bunch of stylets. A well-developed basal labral section was observed in all studied specimens. A newly discerned structure, the suboral fork, situated in the ventral part of the proboscis was discovered. It is larger in diptilomiopids and Nalepella and notably smaller in eriophyids and phytoptids. This structure presumably determines the site of piercing and functions in a similar way to the pressure foot of a sewing machine which controls the movements of a needle. In diptilomiopids the suboral fork might have an additional function: it is a stopper which prevents the proboscis from further penetrating into plant tissues. It is possible that the suboral fork is homologous with the labium of early derivative acariform mites. The proboscis might be a fusion product of the infracapitular lateral lips, malapophyses and the labium. The proboscis serves as a feeding structure in eriophyoids; two ways of sucking plant cell sap, depending on shapes of proboscis and labrum, are hypothesized. Further work is needed to draw conclusions on homologies and the function of all gnathosomal structures in eriophyoids. PMID:27502114

  4. Newly Approved Agents for the Treatment and Prevention of Pediatric Migraine.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne; Hershey, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of pediatric migraine remains an unmet medical need. There continues to be a paucity of pediatric randomized controlled trials for the treatment of migraine, both in the acute and preventive settings. Pediatric studies are often complicated by high placebo-response rates and much of our current practice is based on adult trials. This lack of significant pediatric studies results in a wide variation in migraine management both amongst clinicians and between institutions, and evidence-based treatments are not always administered. In this article, we aim to briefly review newly approved abortive and preventive agents for migraine in the pediatric age group. Over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications, including ibuprofen, naproxen sodium, aspirin, and acetaminophen are reasonable first-line options for abortive therapy. In addition, studies have shown triptans, or migraine-specific agents, to be safe and effective in children and adolescents and several formulations have been approved for the pediatric population, including rizatriptan, almotriptan, zolmitriptan nasal spray, and naproxen sodium/sumatriptan in combination. PMID:27503180

  5. A Driving Mechanism for the Newly Discovered Class of Pulsating Subdwarf B Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpinet, S.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Chayer, P.; Rogers, F. J.; Iglesias, C. A.; Dorman, B.

    1997-07-01

    We present new calculations that strongly reinforce the idea--originally proposed by Charpinet et al.--that pulsation modes are driven through an opacity bump due to a local enhancement of the iron abundance in the envelopes of sdB stars. Our improved models incorporate nonuniform iron abundance distributions obtained through the condition of diffusive equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative levitation. They also include special Rosseland opacity tables that take into account the large variations of the iron abundance about the cosmic value that are predicted by equilibrium radiative levitation theory. For representative models with M = 0.48 Msolar and log g = 5.8, we find strong instabilities for low-order radial and nonradial (p and f) pulsation modes in the range 36,500 K >~ Teff >~ 29,000 K. The four pulsating sdB stars currently known all have effective temperatures in that range. In addition, one of our models with Teff = 34,000 K has a band of unstable modes with periods in the range 116-195 s, in excellent agreement with those of the known pulsators. We therefore claim that our proposed iron bump mechanism provides a natural explanation for the instabilities found in the newly discovered class of pulsating sdB stars.

  6. The warm molecular hydrogen of PKS B1718-649. Feeding a newly born radio AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccagni, F. M.; Santoro, F.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.

    2016-04-01

    We present new SINFONI VLT observations of molecular hydrogen (H 2) in the central regions (<2.5 kpc) of the youngest and closest radio source PKS B1718-649. We study the distribution of the H 2 traced by the 1-0 S(1) ro-vibrational line, revealing a double disk structure with the kinematics of both disks characterised by rotation. An outer disk (r > 650 pc) is aligned with other components of the galaxy (atomic hydrogen, stars, dust), while the inner disk (r < 600 pc) is perpendicular to it and is polar with respect to the stellar distribution. However, in the innermost 75 pc, the data show the presence of H 2 gas redshifted with respect to the rotating inner disk (Δv ~ + 150 km s-1), which may trace gas falling into the super massive black hole associated with the central radio source. Along the same line of sight, earlier observations had shown the presence in the central regions of PKS B1718-649 of clouds of atomic hydrogen with similar unsettled kinematics. The range of velocities and mass of these unsettled clouds of H i and H 2 suggest they may be actively contributing to fuelling the central newly born radio source.

  7. Use of olfactory cues by newly metamorphosed wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) during emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Popescu, Viorel D.; Brodie, Bekka S.; Hunter, Malcom L.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile amphibians are capable of long-distance upland movements, yet cues used for orientation during upland movements are poorly understood. We used newly metamorphosed Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate: (1) the existence of innate (i.e., inherited) directionality, and (2) the use of olfactory cues, specifically forested wetland and natal pond cues during emigration. In a circular arena experiment, animals with assumed innate directionality did not orient in the expected direction (suggested by previous studies) when deprived of visual and olfactory cues. This suggests that juvenile Wood Frogs most likely rely on proximate cues for orientation. Animals reared in semi-natural conditions (1500 l cattle tanks) showed a strong avoidance of forested wetland cues in two different experimental settings, although they had not been previously exposed to such cues. This finding is contrary to known habitat use by adult Wood Frogs during summer. Juvenile Wood Frogs were indifferent to the chemical signature of natal pond (cattle tank) water. Our findings suggest that management strategies for forest amphibians should consider key habitat features that potentially influence the orientation of juveniles during emigration movements, as well as adult behavior.

  8. Oms1 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates to stabilize newly synthesized Cox1

    PubMed Central

    Bareth, Bettina; Nikolov, Miroslav; Lorenzi, Isotta; Hildenbeutel, Markus; Mick, David U.; Helbig, Christin; Urlaub, Henning; Ott, Martin; Rehling, Peter; Dennerlein, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembles in the inner membrane from subunits of dual genetic origin. The assembly process of the enzyme is initiated by membrane insertion of the mitochondria-encoded Cox1 subunit. During complex maturation, transient assembly intermediates, consisting of structural subunits and specialized chaperone-like assembly factors, are formed. In addition, cofactors such as heme and copper have to be inserted into the nascent complex. To regulate the assembly process, the availability of Cox1 is under control of a regulatory feedback cycle in which translation of COX1 mRNA is stalled when assembly intermediates of Cox1 accumulate through inactivation of the translational activator Mss51. Here we isolate a cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate in preparatory scale from coa1Δ mutant cells, using Mss51 as bait. We demonstrate that at this stage of assembly, the complex has not yet incorporated the heme a cofactors. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we define the protein composition of the assembly intermediate and unexpectedly identify the putative methyltransferase Oms1 as a constituent. Our analyses show that Oms1 participates in cytochrome c oxidase assembly by stabilizing newly synthesized Cox1. PMID:27030670

  9. Spinach curly top virus: A Newly Described Curtovirus Species from Southwest Texas with Incongruent Gene Phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Baliji, Surendranath; Black, Mark C; French, Roy; Stenger, Drake C; Sunter, Garry

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT A curtovirus associated with a disease of spinach was isolated in southwest Texas during 1996. Disease symptoms included severe stunting and chlorosis, with younger leaves curled, distorted, and dwarfed. Viral DNA was purified and an infectious clone obtained. Agroinoculation using a construct bearing full-length tandem repeats of the cloned viral genome resulted in systemic infection of species in six of seven plant families tested, indicating that the virus has a wide host range. Symptoms produced in spinach agroinoculated with cloned viral DNA were similar to those observed in the field. Viral single-stranded and double-stranded DNA forms typical of curtovirus infection were detected in host plants by Southern blot hybridization. The complete sequence of the infectious clone comprised 2,925 nucleotides, with seven open reading frames encoding proteins homologous to those of other curtoviruses. Complete genome comparisons revealed that the spinach curtovirus shared 64.2 to 83.9% nucleotide sequence identity relative to four previously characterized curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus, Beet severe curly top virus, Beet mild curly top virus, and Horseradish curly top virus. Phylogenetic analysis of individual open reading frames indicated that the evolutionary history of the three virion-sense genes was different from that of the four complementary-sense genes, suggesting that recombination among curtoviruses may have occurred. Collectively, these results indicate that the spinach curtovirus characterized here represents a newly described species of the genus Curtovirus, for which we propose the name Spinach curly top virus. PMID:18943911

  10. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  11. Purification and characterization of a fish scale-degrading enzyme from a newly identified Vogesella sp.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Chen, Wen-Ming; Hwang, Ann; Sun Pan, Bonnie; Hwang, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Jen-Min

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to purify and characterize the fish scale-degrading enzyme from Vogesella sp.7307-1, which was newly identified and isolated from fish scales. The enzyme from Vogesella sp.7307-1 was assayed with casein and confirmed as a protease. Crude protease was extracted, isolated, and purified 35.7-fold with 19.6% recovery using 20-80% saturation of ammonium sulfate fractionation, Q FF ion exchange chromatography, and Superdex 200 gelfiltration. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 119 kDa. The Km and Vmax were 0.067 mM and 425.5 U/mg-min, respectively using azo-casein as substrate. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.5, and the optimum temperature was 50 °C. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 55 °C and pH range 7.5 to 9.0. The enzyme activity of the purified protease was completely inhibited by EDTA (ethylene diamine teraacetates), indicating the enzyme was a metalloprotease. Hydrolysates from fish scales treated with protease 7307-1 were found having low molecular weight peptides (<1 kDa). The protease 7307-1 is a promising enzyme for preparing smaller peptides from fish scales. PMID:21047138

  12. Telomere Length and Pulse Pressure in Newly Diagnosed, Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With Nonaffective Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Bernardo, Miguel; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Parellada, Eduard; Esmatjes, Enric; Conget, Ignacio; Nguyen, Linh; George, Varghese; Stöppler, Hubert; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies suggest that in addition to factors such as treatment side effects, suicide, and poor health habits, people with schizophrenia may have an increased risk of diabetes prior to antipsychotic treatment. Diabetes is associated with an increased pulse pressure (PP) and a shortened telomere. We tested the hypothesis that prior to antipsychotic treatment, schizophrenia and related disorders are associated with a shortened telomere, as well as an increased PP. Methods: Telomere content (which is highly correlated with telomere length) and PP were measured in newly diagnosed, antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia and related disorders on first clinical contact and in matched control subjects. Both groups were also administered an oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Compared with control subjects, the patients with psychosis had decreased telomere content and an increased PP. As previously reported, they also had increased glucose concentrations at 2 hours. These differences could not be attributed to differences in age, ethnicity, smoking, gender, body mass index, neighborhood of residence, socioeconomic status, aerobic conditioning, or an increased cortisol concentration in the psychotic subjects. Discussion: These results suggest that prior to antipsychotic use, nonaffective psychosis is associated with reduced telomere content and increased PP, indices that have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. PMID:19279086

  13. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    PubMed

    Grant-Downton, Robert T; Terhem, Razak B; Kapralov, Maxim V; Mehdi, Saher; Rodriguez-Enriquez, M Josefina; Gurr, Sarah J; van Kan, Jan A L; Dewey, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight) which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants. PMID:24887415

  14. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  15. Microtensile bond strength of a newly developed resin cement to dentin.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shimpei; Fu, Jiale; Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, Afm Almas; Fukuzawa, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Yoshitaka; Kakuda, Shinichi; Hoshika, Shuhei; Nakaoki, Yasuko; Ikeda, Takatsumi; Tanaka, Toru; Sano, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a newly developed resin cement, ECD-89 (ECD, Tokuyama Dental, Tokyo, Japan) to dentin and to observe the interfacial micromorphology by comparing with two commercial resin cements, Multilink Automix (MA, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray Noritake Dental, Tokyo, Japan). Flat dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed using #600 SiC. After application of primer and cement to the dentin surface, each cement was applied and cured with light (light condition) or without light (dark condition). The teeth were sectioned to obtain beams (1 mm×1 mm) after 24 h of water storage. The mean bond strengths and SDs (MPa) were: ECD: 68.6±14.9, MA: 39.2±18.9, PF: 39.4±18.5 and ECD: 54.5±22.4, MA: 36.7±15.6, PF: 13.4±4.46 when cured in light and dark condition, respectively. In both conditions, ECD-89 showed statistically higher µTBS than the others. PMID:25748460

  16. Glycemic index and microstructure analysis of a newly developed fiber enriched cookie.

    PubMed

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Wonik, Jasmin; Bindrich, Ute; Heinemann, Michaela; Kohrs, Heike; Schneider, Inga; Möller, Katharina; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) is associated with an elevated risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. We investigated the GI of a newly-developed fiber enriched cookie and characterized the microstructure of ingredients used. In a study with 26 non-diabetic healthy volunteers it was shown that the fiber enriched cookie has a GI of 58.9 in relation to white bread as reference. Using a conversion factor of 1.4, the GI of the fiber enriched cookie in relation to a glucose-solution is 42.0 and can be classified as a low-GI food. Postprandial insulin concentration was significantly lower after consumption of fiber enriched cookies compared to white bread. Glucose release after in vitro digestion was significantly lower from fiber enriched cookies compared to other cookies tested. In addition to its high percentage of fiber, the cookies' low GI can be attributed to the limited gelatinization potential of the starch granules found in the ingredients used. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it is shown that starch granule surface area of whole grain barley flour, spelt flour and oat flakes bears cluster-shaped protein-NSPS complexes that preferentially absorb water in conditions of water shortage and thereby prevent starch gelatinization. PMID:26514289

  17. Psychosocial processes influencing weight management among persons newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    Xiao, S; Baker, C; Oyewumi, L K

    2012-04-01

    The purpose was to generate a theory of the psychosocial processes influencing weight management among persons newly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications. A grounded theory research design was used to guide the study. Semi-structured interviews were the method of data collection, and analysis was performed using constant comparison. Using theoretical sampling, a sample of 11 participants with first-episode psychosis prescribed atypical antipsychotics for at least 8 weeks, and five participants with a diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia prescribed atypical antipsychotic medication for at least 3 years were recruited from an outpatient psychiatric programme. Contextual factors influencing weight management were: accessibility to resources, unstructured lifestyle, and others' perception of weight. Conditions influencing weight management were: rapid weight gain, insatiable hunger and lack of motivation boosters. Participants' early responses to weight gain included discontinuing medications, choosing lower-calorie foods, using walking in daily activities as exercise, accepting weight gain and trying to manage weight but giving up. The consequences revealed from data analysis were contemplating weight management and not trying, as the barriers to weight management exceeded the facilitators. The theoretical framework developed in this study can assist with the understanding and management of weight gain among this unique population. PMID:22074295

  18. Newly Digitized Historical Climate Data of the German Bight and the Southern Baltic Sea Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrbein, Dörte; Tinz, Birger; von Storch, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The detection of historical climate information plays an important role with regard to the discussion on climate change, particularly on storminess. The German Meteorological Service houses huge archives of historical handwritten journals of weather observations. A considerable number of original observation sheets from stations along the coast of the German Bight and the southern Baltic Sea exists which has been until recently almost unnoticed. These stations are called signal stations and are positioned close to the shore. However, for this region meteorological observation data of 128 stations exist from 1877 to 1999 and are partly digitized. In this study we show an analysis of firstly newly digitized wind and surface air pressure data of 15 stations from 1877 to 1939 and we also present a case study of the storm surge at the coast of the southern Baltic Sea in December 1913. The data are quality controlled by formal, climatological, temporal and consistency checks. It is shown that these historical climate data are usable in consistency and quality for further investigations on climate change, e.g. as input for regional and global reanalysis.

  19. Microbial community study in newly established Qingcaosha Reservoir of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiting; Xie, Bing; Yuan, Qi; Xu, Weiqing; Lu, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Qingcaosha Reservoir located at Yangtze Estuary of China is a newly constructed and one of the largest tidal reservoirs in the world, which will be an important drinking water source of Shanghai. This study aims at investigating microbial community and its shifts corresponding to different water quality during the test running period of Qingcaosha Reservoir. The results showed lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the reservoir than that in Yangtze Estuary. The number of total cultivable bacteria was significantly lower in the reservoir than that of Yangtze Estuary. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the dominant microbes were α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, Flavobacterium, Rheinheimera, Prochlorococcus, and Synechococcus. The quantitative PCR (q-PCR) results revealed significantly higher number of cyanobacteria and Microcystis in the reservoir during summer season. In addition, bacterial abundance positively correlated with TP concentration inside the reservoir. These results indicated that Qingcaosha Reservoir had ability to reduce the TN and TP in influent and improve the water quality overall. However, it also faced the risk of potential cyanobacteria bloom and eutrophication in Qingcaosha Reservoir where phosphorus will be the nutrient limiting factor. PMID:25042596

  20. Newly developed software for capillary blood pressure analysis in microcirculatory research.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M; Klyscz, T; Shore, A C; Jünger, M

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of the servonulling technique by Wiederhielm in 1963 allowed for the first time continuous and dynamic recording of capillary blood pressure (CP). In 1979 Mahler used this technique for the first measurements in humans. Data analysis was limited to manual analysis of chart recordings. Nowadays fast analog-digital converters with ay high sampling frequency are used for data recordings, and consequently there is a need for an easy-to-use software for data analysis of CP data. The presented newly developed computer software allows analysis of mean CP, taking into account the zero pressure measured before and after capillary cannulation. The simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram R wave is used as a marker for the calculation of the mean capillary pulse pressure waves and of their characteristic data. This may help determine the significance of the capillary pulse waveform for microvascular function. Changes in the pulse waveform may be the only detectable difference between patients and healthy controls. Analysis of simultaneously recorded temperature, the display of markers for valid readings, and the possibility of excluding nonvalid data or artefacts from analysis are additional features. PMID:8856386

  1. Permeability modification by in-situ gelation with a newly discovered biopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Vossoughi, S.; Buller, C.S. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that, in a typical gelled polymer process, a polymer reacts with a metal ion to yield a 3D crosslinked system. The success of the process depends on monitoring a large number of variables, including the concentrations of the metal ions, polymer, and reducing agent. Controlling these variables in field-scale tests is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Devising a process with fewer variables is therefore desirable. The in-situ gelation process in this paper uses a newly discovered biopolymer produced by Cellulomonas flavigena Strain KU. The bacteria produce the biopolymer when cultured in a simple salts medium containing any one of the variety of hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, or such inexpensive substrates as starch or molasses as the carbon and energy sources for growth. The polymer produced remains associated with the producer bacteria, causing them to aggregate and to settle out from the growth medium. The polymer is extracted from the bacteria easily by suspension in dilute alkali. Upon neutralization of such extracts, the polymer precipitates as a hydrogel. The gelation process is reversible, and the hydrogels are stable at high temperatures. A linear coreflood was performed to reveal the feasibility of using the microbial polymer for the in-situ gelation process. The core initially was waterflooded and then flushed with acid. The subsequent injection of an alkaline solution of the polymer resulted in in-situ formation of hydrogels.

  2. Investigation of newly identified G-quadruplexes and their application to DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjing; Lin, Min; Yang, Xiaohai; Wu, Bin; Chen, Nandi; Wang, Qing; Wang, Kemin; Qin, Shiya

    2016-07-21

    G-quadruplexes are guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences that can act as universal signal-transducers and generate colorimetric, fluorescence, and chemiluminescence signals when complexed with different ligands. Due to their merits including easy modification and low cost, it is of great importance to explore new G-quadruplexes with improved performance. Herein the properties of newly identified G-quadruplexes 9th-3-35 and 10th-2-40 were investigated in detail with UV-vis spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that 9th-3-35 and 10th-2-40 exhibited excellent peroxidase-like activity, as well as fluorescence enhancement of thioflavin T (ThT). Furthermore, the application of G-quadruplexes to DNA detection was performed on account of the ThT fluorescence enhancement, and the limit of detection was as low as 8 pM. This study implied that 9th-3-35 and 10th-2-40 are competitive candidates as signal-transducers in the design of bioassays. PMID:27215424

  3. Effect of reactive oxygen species on the biosynthesis and structure of newly synthesized proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, A; Frati, E; Ribault, D; Mitrovic, D

    1994-02-01

    The effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by a xanthine oxidase hypoxanthine system (mainly H2O2) on proteoglycan (PG) metabolism and structure was investigated in vitro, using cell monolayers of cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes and purified resident and newly synthesized proteoglycans. It was shown that ROS generated in this system frequently stimulate (at low concentrations), and consistently inhibit (at higher concentrations), the incorporation of 35SO4 and 3H-glucosamine into PG molecules synthesized by cultured chondrocytes. The inhibition of isotopes' incorporation at higher enzyme concentrations was suppressed completely by heating xanthine oxidase and allopurinol with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. ROS at high concentration also inhibited 3H-uridine incorporation but had no effect on 35SO4 and 3H-uridine uptake by the cells. They also alter hyaluronan (HA) and PG monomers by fragmenting the core protein moiety and destroying the hyaluronic acid binding region. Altered PG monomers do not interact with HA to form complexes, but fragmented HA still retain a significant PG monomer-binding capacity. PG-HA complexes are easily and irreversibly destroyed by ROS. These results suggest that ROS may at low fluxes stimulate PG-synthesis under physiological conditions and alter cartilage metabolism and structure in conditions where they are overproduced, such as in rheumatoid arthritis, and in hemochromatosis and other iron storage diseases. PMID:8005511

  4. Cardioprotective and β-adrenoceptor antagonistic activity of a newly synthesized aryloxypropanolamine derivative PP-36

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Lokesh K; Bansal, Jyotika; Piplani, Poonam; Bodhankar, SL; Veeranjaneyulu, A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects and pharmacological characterization of newly synthesized β-adrenoreceptor antagonists 3-(3-tert-butylamino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (PP-36) in the rat model of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. Pre-ischemic administration (20 minutes before coronary occlusion) of PP-36 showed cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. PP-36 (6 mg kg−1) significantly reduced arrhythmia score (6.33 ± 0.55, P < 0.05), infarct size/left ventricle size (38.9 ± 3.2, P < 0.05) and no mortality compared to vehicle-treated control group (14.17 ± 1.83, 44.9 ± 4.6 and 17% respectively). In-vitro studies in rat isolated right atria, guinea-pig trachea and rat distal colon preparations, were carried out to investigate the potency of PP-36 towards different β-adrenoceptor subtypes. pA2/pKB values of PP-36 for β1-β2-and β3-adrenoceptors were 6.904 ± 0.190, 6.44 ± 0.129 and 5.773 ± 0.129, respectively. In conclusion, PP-36 is a β-adrenoceptor antagonist possessing potent anti-arrhythmic and cardioprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

  5. Fate of exogenous and newly synthesized cholesterol in intestinal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Viallard, V; Castan, I; Trocheris, V; Lacombe, C

    1992-08-01

    1. The current study was undertaken to test the existence of functionally distinct intracellular pools of cholesterol depending on the origin: neosynthesis or exogenous. 2. This was performed on two subpopulations, either differentiated or undifferentiated, of the HT29 cell line. 3. A parallel study was also carried out on Caco-2 cells. 4. First we checked the ability of differentiated HT29 cells to secrete lipids into the medium and found that lipid production was efficient but less so than in Caco-2 cells. 5. In contrast, undifferentiated HT29 cells were unable to secrete lipids into the medium. 6. Then we studied the fate of [14C]cholesterol incorporated into micellar preparations and of [14C]mevalonate in the different models. 7. The data obtained with labelled exogenous cholesterol show that it enters the membrane cholesterol pool as well as, for the differentiated models, the cholesteryl ester pool. 8. Similarly, labelled newly synthesized cholesterol could be used for membrane formation as well as for incorporation into cholesteryl esters. 9. Thus, in HT29 subpopulations as well as in Caco-2 cells, the results suggest the existence of a common pool of cholesterol whatever its origin. PMID:1644212

  6. Relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction in newly qualified Malaysian dentists.

    PubMed

    Pau, Allan; Sabri, Budi Aslinie

    2015-03-01

    Job satisfaction (JS) is considered to be a key factor in workforce retention. This article reports on the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and JS in newly qualified dentistsemployed in the Malaysian 3-year compulsory service. A postal questionnaire survey collected data on sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, EI, and JS. In a sample of 342 (58.9%) respondents, sociodemographic characteristics were not statistically significantly associated with both EI and JS total scores, whereas overseas graduates scored more highly on the EI scale compared with local graduates. Linear regression analysis indicated that EI was the only statistically significant predictor of JS. EI was statistically significantly associated with JS with patient relationships (r = 0.28; P = .001), peer support (r = 0.30; P = .001), professional development (r = 0.21; P = .001), quality of care (r = 0.57; P = .001), supporting staff (r = 0.24;P = .001), overall JS (r = 0.28; P = .001), and total JS score (r = 0.40; P = .001). However, EI was not statistically significantly associated with JS with income (r = 0.06; P = .302). These findings have implications for the development of interventions to enhance EI and JS in order to promote retention of dentists in the public sector. PMID:22743863

  7. Newly identified and diverse plastid-bearing branch on the eukaryotic tree of life.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsoo; Harrison, James W; Sudek, Sebastian; Jones, Meredith D M; Wilcox, Heather M; Richards, Thomas A; Worden, Alexandra Z; Archibald, John M

    2011-01-25

    The use of molecular methods is altering our understanding of the microbial biosphere and the complexity of the tree of life. Here, we report a newly discovered uncultured plastid-bearing eukaryotic lineage named the rappemonads. Phylogenies using near-complete plastid ribosomal DNA (rDNA) operons demonstrate that this group represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage branching with haptophyte and cryptophyte algae. Environmental DNA sequencing revealed extensive diversity at North Atlantic, North Pacific, and European freshwater sites, suggesting a broad ecophysiology and wide habitat distribution. Quantitative PCR analyses demonstrate that the rappemonads are often rare but can form transient blooms in the Sargasso Sea, where high 16S rRNA gene copies mL(-1) were detected in late winter. This pattern is consistent with these microbes being a member of the rare biosphere, whose constituents have been proposed to play important roles under ecosystem change. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that cells from this unique lineage were 6.6 ± 1.2 × 5.7 ± 1.0 μm, larger than numerically dominant open-ocean phytoplankton, and appear to contain two to four plastids. The rappemonads are unique, widespread, putatively photosynthetic algae that are absent from present-day ecosystem models and current versions of the tree of life. PMID:21205890

  8. Concreteness effects in single-meaning, multi-meaning and newly acquired words.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Macgregor, Lucy J; Havelka, Jelena

    2013-11-13

    This study examined the extent to which concreteness influences the acquisition and subsequent processing of novel (low frequency) concepts. Participants were trained on 70 rare English words (35 concrete, 35 abstract) paired with definitions. ERPs were then recorded while participants performed a semantic categorisation (concrete vs. abstract) and a lexical decision task on single-meaning, multi-meaning and the newly acquired words. During training there was a significant effect of concreteness, in that participants were more successful at acquiring concrete concepts. In both the semantic categorisation and the lexical decision task, concreteness effects were evident in the behavioural and in the ERP data for all word types, with concrete words eliciting more negative waveforms than abstract words in the N400 time window. Behaviourally, participants experienced greater difficulty in judging the concreteness of multi-meaning words, yet concreteness effects in the N400 were equally strong for all three word types across both tasks. These findings indicate that concreteness represents a fundamental distinction in the way that items are represented in memory, which is independent of the participant's perceived judgement. They further demonstrate that novel concepts can be acquired rapidly after minimal training, and that the neurophysiological correlates associated with processing novel words are modulated by the specific nature of the conceptual characteristics assigned to the word. PMID:24064384

  9. Recent Trends in Newly Developed Plasma-Sprayed and Sintered Coatings for Implant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bsat, Suzan; Speirs, Andrew; Huang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    The current paper aims to review recent trends (2011 to 2015) in newly developed plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings for implant applications. Recent developments in plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings have focused on improving biological performance, bacterial growth resistance, and mechanical properties, predominantly of HA and glass ceramics. The majority of these improvements are attributed to the addition of dopants. To improve biological performance, trace elements, such as Zn and Mg, both of which are found in bone, were added to replicate the functions they provide for the skeletal system. Though bacterial growth resistance is traditionally improved by Ag dopant, the addition of new dopants such as CeO2 and Zn were explored as well. Great effort has also been made to improve coating adherence and reduce stresses by minimizing coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and substrate through the addition of elements such as Zn and Mg or the inclusion of a buffer layer. For sintering process in particular, there was an emphasis on reducing sintering temperature through modification of 45S5 Bioglass. New plasma spray and sintering technologies aimed at reducing high-temperature exposure are briefly introduced as well. These include microplasma spray and spark plasma sintering.

  10. 'What matters to graduates': An evaluation of a structured clinical support program for newly graduated nurses.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Amanda; Ossenberg, Christine; Tyler, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Effective guidance in practice is necessary for safe practice of clinicians upon entering the workforce. The transition period is recognised as a time of significant stress as newly graduated nurses (novices) endeavour to consolidate their nursing knowledge and gain mastery in a new working environment. This study explored novices perception of a structured clinical support program designed to assist their assimilation and development of good practice in the real world. Surveys and focus groups were conducted twelve months after novices commenced employment in a large tertiary hospital in South-East Queensland, Australia. Survey results from 78 novices (43% response rate), and feedback from a subsequent focus group of the respondents, indicated that the program which provided interactive content days and supervised experience in an environment conducive to learning was successful in transitioning novices. Novices placed considerable importance on largely intangible aspects of the interactive days, such as emotional support and collegiality which contributed to their confidence. These intangible elements of programs are often not measured and therefore their value not visible to those responsible for continuous education. Of particular significance was that novices indicated their thoughts about practice were given limited consideration. This is an important factor for future retention. PMID:25665461

  11. Internal pH of isolated newly formed and aged neurohypophysial granules.

    PubMed Central

    Scherman, D; Nordmann, J J

    1982-01-01

    The pH gradient (delta pH) across the membrane of bovine neurohypophysial granules was estimated by using the [14C]methylamine partition technique. The granule membrane showed high permeability to sugars such as sucrose or sorbitol and to cations. Granules suspended in sucrose medium showed an acidic internal delta pH that decreased with external pH from 1.0 pH unit at pH 7.5 to 0 at pH 4.5. High ionic strength of the external medium destroyed the delta pH, indicating that it originated from a Donnan equilibrium. In a medium constituted to simulate cytoplasm, the delta pH was approximately 0.5 pH unit. Aged neurosecretory granules were more acidic inside than were newly formed granules. The results are discussed in relationship to the nature and the duration of maturation and degradation process of the granule matrix. PMID:6952200

  12. In silico analysis suggests differential response to bevacizumab and radiation combination therapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; Rockne, Russell; Corwin, David; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Kinahan, Paul; Swanson, Kristin R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two phase III studies of bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenic, for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) patients were released. While they were unable to statistically significantly demonstrate that bevacizumab in combination with other therapies increases the overall survival of GBM patients, there remains a question of potential benefits for subpopulations of patients. We use a mathematical model of GBM growth to investigate differential benefits of combining surgical resection, radiation and bevacizumab across observed tumour growth kinetics. The differential hypoxic burden after gross total resection (GTR) was assessed along with the change in radiation cell kill from bevacizumab-induced tissue re-normalization when starting therapy for tumours at different diagnostic sizes. Depending on the tumour size at the time of treatment, our model predicted that GTR would remove a variable portion of the hypoxic burden ranging from 11% to 99.99%. Further, our model predicted that the combination of bevacizumab with radiation resulted in an additional cell kill ranging from 2.6×107 to 1.1×1010 cells. By considering the outcomes given individual tumour kinetics, our results indicate that the subpopulation of patients who would receive the greatest benefit from bevacizumab and radiation combination therapy are those with large, aggressive tumours and who are not eligible for GTR. PMID:26202682

  13. Evaluation of probiotic characteristics of newly isolated Lactobacillus spp.: immune modulation and longevity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Yun, Hyun Sun; Cho, Kyu Won; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Chun, Taehoon; Kim, Bongjoon; Whang, Kwang Youn

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, the probiotic potential of approximately 350 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean infant feces and Kimchi was investigated. Common probiotic properties of the bacterial strains, such as acid tolerance, bile tolerance and adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells (HT-29 cells), were examined. Some strains were found to have immune modulatory and antimicrobial properties. Antagonistic activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was found to be strain dependent. To evaluate the immune modulatory activity of the strains, lymphocyte interferon (IFN)-γ secretion was determined in conjunction with cell proliferation. Some strains of Lactobacillus gasseri, L. fermentum and L. plantarum exhibited increased IFN-γ levels and lymphocyte proliferation. To evaluate the effects of these immune modulating lactobacilli on host life span, Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an in vivo model. Nematodes that were supplied heat-killed lactobacilli as a food source exhibited obvious differences in life span compared with those fed Escherichia coli OP50. The mean life span (determined as mean percent survival) of worms fed L. plantarum CJLP133 and L. fermentum LA12 was 13.89% and 13.69% greater, respectively, than that of control nematodes after 21 days (P=0.036 and 0.043, respectively). In addition, some of safety profiles, including hemolytic type, gelatin hydration and degradation of urea, were found to be positive. These newly identified lactobacilli hold promise for use as probiotic agents, feed additives and/or in food applications. PMID:21652104

  14. Production of D-arabitol by a newly isolated Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    PubMed

    Saha, Badal C; Sakakibara, Yoshikiyo; Cotta, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    A newly isolated Zygosaccharomyces rouxii NRRL 27,624 produced D-arabitol as the main metabolic product from glucose. In addition, it also produced ethanol and glycerol. The optimal conditions were temperature 30 degrees C, pH 5.0, 350 rpm, and 5% inoculum. The yeast produced 83.4 +/- 1.1 g D-arabitol from 175 +/- 1.1 g glucose per liter at pH 5.0, 30 degrees C, and 350 rpm in 240 h with a yield of 0.48 g/g glucose. It also produced D-arabitol from fructose, galactose, and mannose. The yeast produced D-arabitol and xylitol from xylose and also from a mixture of xylose and xylulose. Resting yeast cells produced 63.6 +/- 1.9 g D-arabitol from 175 +/- 1.8 g glucose per liter in 210 h at pH 5.0, 30 degrees C and 350 rpm with a yield of 0.36 g/g glucose. The yeast has potential to be used for production of xylitol from glucose via D-arabitol route. PMID:17357803

  15. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Newly Built Daycare Center

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Miyuki; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yukio; Yamasaki, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    We measured temporal changes in concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and individual volatile organic compounds in a newly built daycare center. The temporal changes of the TVOC concentrations were monitored with a photo ionization detector (PID), and indoor air was sampled and analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the concentrations of the constituent VOCs. The measurements were performed just after completion of the building and again 3 months after completion. The TVOC concentration exceeded 1000 µg·m−3 for all the sampling locations just after completion of building, and decreased almost one tenth after 3 months, to below the guideline values of the TVOC in Japan at 400 µg·m−3. The concentrations of the target VOCs of which the indoor concentrations are regulated in Japan were below the guideline values for all the cases. The air-exchange rates were determined based on the temporal changes of the TVOC concentrations, and it was found that the countermeasure to increase the air exchange rate successfully decrease the TVOC concentration level in the rooms. PMID:27455290

  16. Indication of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Newly Discovered Dwarf Galaxy Reticulum II.

    PubMed

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Walker, Matthew G; Koushiappas, Savvas M; Koposov, Sergey E; Belokurov, Vasily; Torrealba, Gabriel; Evans, N Wyn

    2015-08-21

    We present a search for γ-ray emission from the direction of the newly discovered dwarf galaxy Reticulum II. Using Fermi-LAT Collaboration data, we detect a signal that exceeds expected backgrounds between ∼2-10  GeV and is consistent with annihilation of dark matter for particle masses less than a few ×10^{2}  GeV. Modeling the background as a Poisson process based on Fermi-LAT diffuse models, and taking into account trial factors, we detect emission with p value less than 9.8×10^{-5} (>3.7σ). An alternative, model-independent treatment of the background reduces the significance, raising the p value to 9.7×10^{-3} (2.3σ). Even in this case, however, Reticulum II has the most significant γ-ray signal of any known dwarf galaxy. If Reticulum II has a dark-matter halo that is similar to those inferred for other nearby dwarfs, the signal is consistent with the s-wave relic abundance cross section for annihilation. PMID:26340176

  17. [Intravenous chemotherapy and galvanization of damaged lung regions in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Strelis, A K; Blinov, V Iu; Andreev, I G

    1991-01-01

    The results of a combined treatment of 179 patients with newly diagnosed destructive pulmonary tuberculosis are presented. Patients of the main group (89 subjects) were given intermittent intravenous chemotherapy with simultaneous galvanization of the affected pulmonary zone, while patients of the control group (90 subjects) received the same treatment but without galvanization. In pulmonary tuberculosis patients who had undergone intracutaneous electrophoresis, the body temperature normalized significantly more rapidly (within 2.2 +/- 0.2 weeks), weakness and weakness disappeared (within 1.2 +/- 0.2 months) and cough ceased (1.6 +/- 0.2 months); sputum expectoration disappeared or substantially reduced (within 1.5 +/- 0.1 months); leukocytosis came to an end (within 1.5 +/- 0.1 months). The basic parameters of a spirogram improved in a shorter period and to a greater degree. Bacillary excretion ceased more rapidly (within 2.2 +/- 0.4 months), so did the infiltrative phenomena resolute (within 3.0 +/- 0.1 months) and pulmonary destructive changes disappear (within 3.3 +/- 0.2 months). PMID:1803367

  18. Psychosocial problems in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: number and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rane, K; Wajngot, A; Wändell, P E; Gåfvels, C

    2011-09-01

    Early in the course of diabetes, it is important to identify and support patients whose psychosocial situations and reactions to the diagnosis may affect their ability to adjust or take adequate responsibility for self-care. We aimed to identify (a) the number and characteristics of patients, 18-65 years, newly diagnosed with diabetes, who needed psychosocial interventions and (b) the type of psychosocial problems they had. A total of 106 patients (72 men) were included in the study. Interviews showed that 41.5% had psychosocial problems. Fifteen dropped out early in the study; 38% of those remaining had psychosocial problems (PSP). More than half had problems with their life situation; most commonly in relationships. About a third had problems related to diabetes, most commonly, work-related. Compared to other participants, PSP patients lived in more strained social situations, especially regarding personal finances and social support. More of the PSP patients were anxious and depressed. They used negative coping strategies more often and more frequently expected that diabetes would negatively affect their future. In conclusion, early in the course of diabetes, screening instruments should be used to identify PSP patients. Treatment by medical social workers skilled in diabetes care should be offered. PMID:21636163

  19. Sediment macroinvertebrate community functioning in impacted and newly-created tidal freshwater habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchard, Olivier; Jacobs, Sander; Ysebaert, Tom; Meire, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Although experiencing strong anthropogenic pressures in many estuaries, the ecology of tidal freshwater areas remains largely undocumented. As part of a restoration project in the freshwater zone of the Schelde estuary (Belgium), a new tidal habitat restoration technique (Controlled Reduced Tide system, CRT) was hypothesised to successfully compensate for the impairment of contemporary habitats. The suitability of this newly-created habitat (CRT) and the estuary was investigated over a period of three years for its macroinvertebrate community development. In both the estuary and the CRT, habitats along a flooding gradient were monitored. Differences between the CRT and reference sites in community functioning were explored according to environmental characteristics and organism biological attributes using the RLQ ordination analysis together with the fourth-corner method. Frequently flooded reference sites exhibited environmental characteristics resulting from a hydrological shear stress. In the CRT, after a rapid removal of the terrestrial fauna at low and mid elevations, the low-energy hydrology led to taxonomic and functional enrichment. The RLQ analysis produced significant environmental filtering of biological attributes mainly related to the terrestrial-aquatic transition and to the environmental stressors. This provides an example of life history modification via estuarine ecosystem management.

  20. A newly recognized autosomal recessive syndrome affecting neurologic function and vision.

    PubMed

    Salih, Mustafa A; Tzschach, Andreas; Oystreck, Darren T; Hassan, Hamdy H; AlDrees, Abdulmajeed; Elmalik, Salah A; El Khashab, Heba Y; Wienker, Thomas F; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Bosley, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Genetic factors represent an important etiologic group in the causation of intellectual disability. We describe a Saudi Arabian family with closley related parents in which four of six children were affected by a congenital cognitive disturbance. The four individuals (aged 18, 16, 13, and 2 years when last examined) had motor and cognitive delay with seizures in early childhood, and three of the four (sparing only the youngest child) had progressive, severe cognitive decline with spasticity. Two affected children had ocular malformations, and the three older children had progressive visual loss. The youngest had normal globes with good functional vision when last examined but exhibited the oculodigital sign, which may signify a subclinical visual deficit. A potentially deleterious nucleotide change (c.1A>G; p.Met1Val) in the C12orf57 gene was homozygous in all affected individuals, heterozygous in the parents, and absent in an unaffected sibling and >350 normal individuals. This gene has no known function. This family manifests a autosomal recessive syndrome with some phenotypic variability that includes abnormal development of brain and eyes, delayed cognitive and motor milestones, seizures, and a severe cognitive and visual decline that is associated with a homozygous variant in a newly identified gene. PMID:23633300

  1. Newly Diagnosed Diabetes and Stress Glycaemia and Its’ Association with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamceva, Gordana; Vavlukis, Marija; Kitanoski, Darko; Kedev, Sashko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is diagnosed in 10-20% of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) not known to be diabetics. Elevated blood glucose is an independent risk factor for cardiac events, regardless of presence of diabetes. AIM: Evaluating the prevalence of new-diagnosed DM among patients with ACS, and assessing the relationship between stress glycaemia and new diagnosed DM with in-hospital cardiac events. METHODS: Prospective observational study, in patients with ACS, in whom we analyzed parameters of glycemic metabolism, clinical data, and in-hospital cardiac events. We comparatively analyzed patients according to the HgbA1C and known DM in five groups: non-DM (< 5.6%), new pre-DM (5.6-6.5%), new DM (≥ 6.5%), controlled (<7%) and uncontrolled (≥7%) known DM. RESULTS: 150 patients, (93 male and 57 female) were included. Impaired glucose metabolism was detected in 44.5% of patients, 7.9% of whom were newly-diagnosed DM. The highest levels of stress glycaemia were found in new and uncontrolled known DM. The in-hospital event rate was 20.7%, the mortality rate 7.3%, being the highest in new diagnosed and uncontrolled known DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of unknown DM was high among patients with ACS. Stress glycaemia and failure to achieve glycemic controlee, were an independent predictors of in-hospital cardiac events.

  2. A Left Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks.

    PubMed

    McManus, I C; Snowman, Janet

    2010-01-01

    A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks (b. ca. 1795-1796, d. ca. 1857-1861), entitled A Left Handed Compliment, is described. In this humorous print a young boy is using his left hand to draw the face of an elderly woman who is his grandmother, and she is shocked at the boy's suggestion that he will, “just see if I can't touch off your old Phizog left handed”. The source of the joke about the left-handed compliment is obscure, but more than likely it is sexual in origin. Glued to the verso of the print are early versions of two prints by Robert Seymour (1798-1836), the illustrator of Dickens' Pickwick Papers, suggesting a possible link between Marks and Seymour. From the hatch patterns on the Seymour engravings, it appears that Seymour may himself have been left-handed and perhaps therefore the butt of the joke. An alternative possibility is that Phizog is a reference to Dickens' later illustrator whose pseudonym was Phiz. It is also just conceivable that the young boy is Marks's own young son, Jacob. The print can be placed in the context of a scatological English vernacular humour that extends from Shakespeare through to Donald McGill and into the present day. PMID:19760532

  3. An infectious disease of ducks caused by a newly emerged Tembusu virus strain in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Pixi; Zhao, Youshu; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Dawei; Dai, Xiaoguang; Teng, Qiaoyang; Yan, Liping; Zhou, Jiewen; Ji, Xiwen; Zhang, Shumei; Liu, Guangqing; Zhou, Yanjun; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Tong, Guangzhi; Li, Zejun

    2011-08-15

    During investigations into an outbreak of egg production decline, retarded growth, and even death among ducks in Southeast China, a novel Tembusu virus strain named Tembusu virus Fengxian 2010 (FX2010) was isolated. This virus replicated in embryonated chicken eggs and caused embryo death. In cross-neutralization tests, antiserum to the partial E protein of Tembusu virus Mm1775 strain neutralized FX2010, whereas antiserum to Japanese encephalitis virus did not. FX2010 is an enveloped RNA virus of approximately 45-50 nm in diameter. Sequence analysis of its E and NS5 genes showed that both genes share up to 99.6% nucleotide sequence identity with Baiyangdian virus, and up to 88% nucleotide sequence identity with their counterparts in Tembusu virus. FX2010 was transmitted without mosquito, and caused systemic infection and lesions in experimentally infected ducks. These results indicate that FX2010 and BYD virus are newly emerged Tembusu virus strains that cause an infectious disease in ducks. PMID:21722935

  4. Do depressed newly diagnosed cancer patients differentially benefit from nurse navigation?

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Evette J.; McCorkle, Ruth; Bowles, Erin Aiello; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Chubak, Jessica; Tuzzio, Leah; Jones, Salene; Reid, Robert J.; Penfold, Robert; Wagner, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether the effects of a nurse navigator intervention for cancer vary with baseline depressive symptoms. Method Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a nurse navigation intervention for patients newly diagnosed with lung, breast or colorectal cancer (N=251). This exploratory analysis used linear regression models to estimate the effect of a nurse navigator intervention on patient experience of care. Models estimated differential effects by including interactions between randomization group and baseline depressive symptoms. Baseline scores on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) were categorized into 3 groups: no depression (PHQ=0-4, N=138), mild symptoms of depression (PHQ=5-9, N=76); and moderate to severe symptoms (PHQ= 10 or greater, N=34). Patient experience outcomes were measured by subscales of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and subscales from an adaptation of the Picker Institute's patient experience survey at 4-month follow-up. Results With the exception of the PACIC subscale of delivery system/ practice design, interaction terms between randomization group and PHQ-9 scores were not statistically significant. Conclusions The intervention was broadly useful; we found it was equally beneficial for both depressed patients and patients who were not significantly depressed in the first four months post-diagnosis. However, because of the small sample size we cannot conclude with certainty that patients with depressive symptoms did not differentially benefit from the intervention. PMID:25835508

  5. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  6. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials. PMID:22048230

  7. Sarcolipin is a newly identified regulator of muscle-based thermogenesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Naresh C; Maurya, Santosh K; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Sahoo, Sanjaya K; Gupta, Subash C; Shaikh, Sana A; Pant, Meghna; Rowland, Leslie A; Bombardier, Eric; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Tupling, A Russell; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Periasamy, Muthu

    2013-01-01

    The role of skeletal muscle in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) is not well understood. Here we show that sarcolipin (Sln), a newly identified regulator of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (Serca) pump1–5, is necessary for muscle-based thermogenesis. When challenged to acute cold (4 °C), Sln−/− mice were not able to maintain their core body temperature (37 °C) and developed hypothermia. Surgical ablation of brown adipose tissue and functional knockdown of Ucp1 allowed us to highlight the role of muscle in NST. Overexpression of Sln in the Sln-null background fully restored muscle-based thermogenesis, suggesting that Sln is the basis for Serca-mediated heat production. We show that ryanodine receptor 1 (Ryr1)-mediated Ca2+ leak is an important mechanism for Serca-activated heat generation. Here we present data to suggest that Sln can continue to interact with Serca in the presence of Ca2+, which can promote uncoupling of the Serca pump and cause futile cycling. We further show that loss of Sln predisposes mice to diet-induced obesity, which suggests that Sln-mediated NST is recruited during metabolic overload. These data collectively suggest that SLN is an important mediator of muscle thermogenesis and whole-body energy metabolism. PMID:22961106

  8. Recent sexual victimization and drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students: a latent growth analysis.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Melissa J; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    College matriculation is a time of developmental and social change and is often a time of heavy drinking. Sexual victimization (SV) is prevalent in late adolescence and poses additional risk for problem drinking behavior. Thus, matriculating students with a SV history may be at heightened risk for maladaptive alcohol use while transitioning through the first year of college. Furthermore, victimization that has occurred close to college matriculation may confer particular risk for problem alcohol use, because the added stressor of coping with a SV while negotiating the transition into college may lead to risky drinking behavior. Therefore, examining the influence of SV timing (i.e., recency) on drinking patterns in freshman year was the aim of the present study. Matriculating undergraduates with a history of SV were assessed at six points during freshman year. Using latent growth curve modeling, we tested differences in trajectories of drinking behavior (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking) between students who reported a recent SV and those who reported a more distal SV. Students endorsing a recent SV evidenced greater overall levels of alcohol use and higher levels of binge drinking than individuals with SV that was less recent. Moreover, the recent SV group showed significantly more variability in drinking outcomes over freshman year, with escalations mapping onto more salient periods of transition over the first college year. SV that occurs close to college entry is associated with specific and persistent risk for maladaptive drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students. PMID:23528195

  9. A Geometric Analysis to Protect Manned Assets from Newly Launched Objects - Cola Gap Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hametz, Mark E.; Beaver, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    A safety risk was identified for the International Space Station (ISS) by The Aerospace Corporation, where the ISS would be unable to react to a conjunction with a newly launched object following the end of the launch Collision Avoidance (COLA) process. Once an object is launched, there is a finite period of time required to track, catalog, and evaluate that new object as part of standard onorbit COLA screening processes. Additionally, should a conjunction be identified, there is an additional period of time required to plan and execute a collision avoidance maneuver. While the computed prelaunch probability of collision with any object is extremely low, NASA/JSC has requested that all US launches take additional steps to protect the ISS during this "COLA gap" period. This paper details a geometric-based COLA gap analysis method developed by the NASA Launch Services Program to determine if launch window cutouts are required to mitigate this risk. Additionally, this paper presents the results of several missions where this process has been used operationally.

  10. Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in cross-pollinated citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Mesejo, Carlos; Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Reig, Carmina; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Seedlessness is a highly desirable characteristic in fresh fruits. However, post-fertilization seed abortion of cross-pollinated citrus fruit is uncommon. The factors regulating stenospermocarpy in citrus are unknown. In this research, we induced stenospermocarpy interfering in newly fertilized ovule cell division. The research also elucidates the most sensitive stage for ovule/seed abortion in citrus. Experiments were conducted with 'Afourer' mandarin that cross-pollinates with several cultivars and species. Cross-pollinated fruitlets were treated with maleic hydrazide (MH), a systemic growth regulator that specifically interferes in cell division. MH reduced ovule growth rate, the number of cell layers in nucella and inhibited embryo sac expansion; moreover, the treatment increased callose accumulation in nucella and surrounding the embryo sac. Fruits developed an early-aborted seed type with an immature, soft and edible seed coat. Seed number (-80%) and seed weight (-46%) were reduced in mature fruits. MH also hampered cell division in ovary walls, mesocarp and endocarp, thus reducing daily fruitlet growth and increasing fruit abscission. Stenospermocarpy could only be induced for a short period of time in the progamic phase of fertilization, specifically, when ovules are ready to be fertilized (7 days after anthesis) to early stages of embryo sac development (14 days after anthesis). PMID:25017163

  11. Pituitary function in patients with newly diagnosed untreated systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Koller, M; Templ, E; Riedl, M; Clodi, M; Wagner, O; Smolen, J; Luger, A

    2004-01-01

    Methods: 11 patients with SLE and 9 healthy controls were tested for their total anterior pituitary gland reserve by simultaneous injection of corticotropin-, growth hormone- (GH), thyrotropin-, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, GH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), PRL, luteinising hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured at baseline and after injection. Baseline values of oestradiol, testosterone, and thyroxine were determined. Results: Basal and stimulated serum concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, GH, and PRL were similar in both groups. In contrast, despite similar basal thyroxine levels the TSH response to TRH was significantly higher in patients than in controls. LH and FSH levels in premenopausal female patients of both groups were identical. In contrast, two of the three male patients were hypogonadal without compensatory increases of basal LH and FSH levels, but they retained excessive stimulatory capacity in response to GnRH. Conclusion: No significant alteration of the HPA axis was found in patients with SLE, which is inadequate in view of the continuing inflammation. GH and PRL secretion were normal. The pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal axes were affected in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated SLE. PMID:15082470

  12. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies have provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.

  13. Abnormal hepatic function and splenomegaly on the newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma Poudel, B; Karki, L

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the liver function, splenomegaly and related factors in the newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients. One hundred of fifty eight acute leukemia patients admitted in our hospital from March 2003 to April 2006 were studied. The related factors such as peripheral WBC count, bone marrow blasts, peripheral blasts, sex, age, AML, ALL affecting the liver function and splenomegaly were evaluated. Sixty two (39.24%) patients presented with splenomegaly. Twelve (7.59%) patients presented with hepatomegaly. Serum ALT was elevated in 54 (34.17%) patients. Similarly, serum AST, GGT, ALP, and Direct bilirubin were elevated in 26 (16.45%), 32 (20.25%), 20 (12.65%), and 22 (13.92%) patients, respectively. Low serum albumin was found in 40 (25.31%) patients. PT was prolonged in 62 (39.24%) patients. Statistical study shows that there is a relation between high WBC counts and elevated serum ALT (P<0.05) and high WBC counts and splenomegaly (P<0.05). Acute leukemia patients with leukocytosis are more prone to develop abnormal liver function and splenomegaly. PMID:18340367

  14. Selection of newly isolated mushroom strains for tolerance and biosorption of zinc in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gonen Tasdemir, F; Yamac, M; Cabuk, A; Yildiz, Z

    2008-03-01

    Nine newly isolated mushroom strains were tested to assess both their zinc tolerance and potential for zinc removal from an aqueous solution. Four strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi, namely Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Rhizopogon roseolus (T 21), Lepista nuda (T 373), and Tricholoma equestre (T 174), along with five strains of white rot fungi, Lenzites betulina (S 2), Trametes hirsuta (T 587), Ganoderma spp. (T 99), Polyporus arcularius (T 438), and Ganoderma carnosum (M 88), were investigated using zinc-amended solid and liquid media. Their biosorption properties were also determined. The colony diameter and dry weight were used as tolerance indices for fungal growth. C. truncatus and T. equestre were not strongly inhibited at the highest concentrations of (225 mg/l) zinc in solid media. The most tolerant four strains with solid media, C. truncatus, G. carnosum, T. hirsuta, and T. equestre, were then chosen for tolerance tests in liquid media. An ectomycorrhizal strain, C. truncatus, was also detected as the most tolerant strain in liquid media. However, the metal-tolerant strains demonstrated weak activity in the biosorption studies. In contrast, the highest biosorption activity was presented by a more sensitive strain, G. carnosum. In addition, seven different biosorbent types from G. carnosum (M 88) were compared for their Zn (II) biosorption in batch experiments. PMID:18388466

  15. Endocan--a novel inflammatory indicator in newly diagnosed patients with hypertension: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Balta, Sevket; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Demirkol, Sait; Ozturk, Cengiz; Kurtoglu, Ertugrul; Demir, Mustafa; Celik, Turgay; Turker, Turker; Iyisoy, Atila

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as the initial lesion in the development of atherosclerosis. Endocan, previously called endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 (ESM-1), is a new candidate immunoinflammatory marker that may be associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, we assessed serum levels of endocan in newly diagnosed patients with untreated essential hypertension (HT). A total of 18 patients with HT and 23 normotensive control participants were included in the study. Serum endocan levels, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Serum endocan levels were significantly higher in the HT group (P < .001). In patients with HT, serum endocan levels correlated positively with cIMT and hsCRP (r = .551, P < .001 and r = .644, P < .001, respectively). Our findings suggest that circulating endocan levels represent a new marker in patients with essential HT. Endocan may be a surrogate endothelial dysfunction marker and may have a functional role in endothelium-dependent pathological disorders. PMID:24402320

  16. Genotype and allelic frequencies of a newly identified mutation causing blindness in jordanian awassi sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Jawasreh, K I Z; Ababneh, H; Awawdeh, F T; Al-Massad, M A; Al-Majali, A M

    2012-01-01

    A total of 423 blood samples were collected (during 2009 and 2010) from all the ram holdings at three major Jordanian governmental Awassi breeding stations (Al-Khanasry, Al-Mushairfa and Al-Fjaje) and two private flocks. All blood samples were screened for the presence of mutations at the CNGA3 gene (responsible for day blindness in Awassi sheep) using RFLP-PCR. The day blindness mutation was detected in all studied flocks. The overall allele and genotype frequencies of all studied flocks of the day blindness mutation were 0.088 and 17.49%, respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies were higher in station flocks than the farmer flocks (0.121, 24.15 and 0.012, 2.32, respectively). Al-Mushairfa and Al-Khanasry stations have the highest genotype and allele frequencies for the day blindness mutation that were 27.77, 30.00% and 0.14, 0.171, respectively. The investigated farmer flocks have low percentages (0.03, 5.88% at Al-Shoubak and 0.005 and 1.05%, at Al-Karak, respectively for genotype and allele frequencies) compared with the breeding stations. Ram culling strategy was applied throughout the genotyping period in order to gradually eradicate this newly identified day blindness mutation from Jordanian Breeding station, since they annually distribute a high percentage of improved rams to farmer's flocks. PMID:25049475

  17. Genotype and Allelic Frequencies of a Newly Identified Mutation Causing Blindness in Jordanian Awassi Sheep Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Jawasreh, K. I. Z.; Ababneh, H.; Awawdeh, F. T.; Al-Massad, M. A.; Al-Majali, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 423 blood samples were collected (during 2009 and 2010) from all the ram holdings at three major Jordanian governmental Awassi breeding stations (Al-Khanasry, Al-Mushairfa and Al-Fjaje) and two private flocks. All blood samples were screened for the presence of mutations at the CNGA3 gene (responsible for day blindness in Awassi sheep) using RFLP-PCR. The day blindness mutation was detected in all studied flocks. The overall allele and genotype frequencies of all studied flocks of the day blindness mutation were 0.088 and 17.49%, respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies were higher in station flocks than the farmer flocks (0.121, 24.15 and 0.012, 2.32, respectively). Al-Mushairfa and Al-Khanasry stations have the highest genotype and allele frequencies for the day blindness mutation that were 27.77, 30.00% and 0.14, 0.171, respectively. The investigated farmer flocks have low percentages (0.03, 5.88% at Al-Shoubak and 0.005 and 1.05%, at Al-Karak, respectively for genotype and allele frequencies) compared with the breeding stations. Ram culling strategy was applied throughout the genotyping period in order to gradually eradicate this newly identified day blindness mutation from Jordanian Breeding station, since they annually distribute a high percentage of improved rams to farmer’s flocks. PMID:25049475

  18. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the 'Chinese Spring' common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence 'Chinese Spring' genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the 'Chinese Spring' bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  19. ‘Synthetic lipase’ production from a newly isolated Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain by submerged fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Smaniotto, Alessandra; Skovronski, Aline; Rigo, Elisandra; Tsai, Siu Mui; Durrer, Ademir; Foltran, Lillian Liva; Luccio, Marco Di; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; de Oliveira, Débora; Treichel, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The lipase produced by a newly isolate Sporidiobolus pararoseus strain has potential catalysis ability for esterification reactions. In order to improve its synthetic activity, this work aimed at optimizing ‘synthetic lipase’ production by submerged fermentation of a conventional media based on peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil using experimental design technique. According to the results obtained in the first experimental design (24–1), yeast extract and NaCl concentrations were tested to further optimization by response surface methodology. The maximum ‘synthetic lipase’ activity obtained was 26.9 U/mL in the optimized media (5.0, 6.8, 7.0 and 1.0% (wt/v) of peptone, yeast extract, NaCl and olive oil, respectively), representing a 6.36-fold increase compared to the initial medium. The time course of ‘synthetic lipase’ production in the optimized condition was evaluated in terms of synthetic activity, protease activity, biomass and total carbon and the maximum synthetic activity was observed during the stationary phase of growth. PMID:24031980

  20. Primary failure of bortezomib in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma--understanding the magnitude, predictors, and significance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Yael C; Joffe, Erel; Benyamini, Noam; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Terpos, Evangelos; Trestman, Svetlana; Held-Kuznetsov, Viki; Avivi, Irit; Kastritis, Efstathios

    2016-01-01

    Botezomib-based induction is highly effective for the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). We investigated the outcomes of NDMM patients who failed to respond to bortezomib-based induction in a 'real-life' clinical setting. In a cohort of 295 consecutive NDMM patients in 3 medical centers, 74 (25%) failed to achieve at least partial response after 4 induction cycles, and were classified as non-responsive. Compared to induction responders, they were older, more frequently anemic, had a higher incidence of del17p and ISS-3, and a worse performance status. In multivariable analysis, bortezomib-based induction failure occurred in 25% of patients and was the strongest independent factor predicting mortality with a 5-fold hazard ratio (95% CI 1.44-8.68). Three-year overall survival in responsive vs. non-responsive patients were 76% vs. 53%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Survival from time of salvage second-line treatment was significantly shorter among induction non-responders vs. responders (25 months vs. not-reached, p = 0.024). PMID:26727104