Science.gov

Sample records for next-generation microlensing surveys

  1. Detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation microlensing events via next-generation ground-based surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2014-04-20

    Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over its peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (EWCPs, fractional deviations of ≲ 2%). For confident detection of planets in EWCP events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems. The next-generation ground-based observation project, Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), satisfies these conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of ≤2% in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of >50% in the case of ≲ 100 M {sub E} planets with separations of 0.2 AU ≲ d ≲ 20 AU. We find that for main-sequence and sub-giant source stars, ≳ 1 M {sub E} planets in EWCP events with deviations ≤2% can be detected with frequency >50% in a certain range that changes with the planet mass. However, it is difficult to detect planets in EWCP events of bright stars like giant stars because it is easy for KMTNet to be saturated around the peak of the events because of its constant exposure time. EWCP events are caused by close, intermediate, and wide planetary systems with low-mass planets and close and wide planetary systems with massive planets. Therefore, we expect that a much greater variety of planetary systems than those already detected, which are mostly intermediate planetary systems, regardless of the planet mass, will be significantly detected in the near future.

  2. Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M.; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordán, Andrés; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion; Walker, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based survey for transiting exoplanets. Our primary goal is to find the first statistically-significant sample of Neptunes and super-Earths that are bright enough for radial velocity confirmation. By measuring precise masses and radii we will constrain the bulk composition and internal structure of planets that span the transition between the gas giants and terrestrial planets. Our brightest exoplanets will also be suitable for atmospheric characterisation with large facilities such as the VLT, JWST and the E-ELT. NGTS construction began in June 2013, and the survey is due to commence in 2014.

  3. The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don L.; Queloz, Didier; Rauer, Heike; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Chazelas, Bruno; Louden, Tom M.; Walker, Simon; Bannister, Nigel; Bento, Joao; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Genolet, Ludovic; Goad, Michael; Grange, Andrew; Jordán, Andrés; Lawrie, Katherine; McCormac, James; Neveu, Marion

    2013-04-01

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) is a new ground-based sky survey designed to find transiting Neptunes and super-Earths. By covering at least sixteen times the sky area of Kepler, we will find small planets around stars that are sufficiently bright for radial velocity confirmation, mass determination and atmospheric characterisation. The NGTS instrument will consist of an array of twelve independently pointed 20 cm telescopes fitted with red-sensitive CCD cameras. It will be constructed at the ESO Paranal Observatory, thereby benefiting from the very best photometric conditions as well as follow up synergy with the VLT and E-ELT. Our design has been verified through the operation of two prototype instruments, demonstrating white noise characteristics to sub-mmag photometric precision. Detailed simulations show that about thirty bright super-Earths and up to two hundred Neptunes could be discovered. Our science operations are due to begin in 2014.

  4. A Next-Generation NEO Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy; Grav, Tommy; Bauer, James; Cutri, Roc Michael; Masiero, Joseph; Wright, Edward

    2015-08-01

    NASA's NEOWISE project has demonstrated the feasibility of using a space-based infrared telescope to discover minor planets and characterize their physical properties such as diameter and albedo. NEOWISE has detected >160,000 minor planets to date at thermal infrared wavelengths, including nearly 1000 near-Earth objects (NEOs; Mainzer et al. 2011, Wright et al. 2010). While NEOWISE serves as a valuable proof of concept, the number of NEOs it can discover is intrinsically limited by expendable cryogens, its field of view, and the relatively narrow range of solar elongations it can view. To make substantial rapid progress toward discovering >90% of the NEO population larger than 140 m in diameter (the goal set to NASA by Congress in 2005), a dedicated survey is needed. The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a proposed space-based IR survey telescope that will discover and deliver thermal IR images at 4 and 8 microns of millions of minor planets. NEOCam was funded for technology development in the 2011 Discovery competition to mature the long-wavelength IR detector arrays needed to support a mission that is cooled purely passively, without the use of cryogens or cryocoolers. That development was successful and has resulted in the production of chips that exceed NEOCam's requirements (McMurtry et al. 2013, Girard et al. 2014). Detailed survey simulations have been carried out using a realistic survey cadence that will result in linkable detections of NEO candidates. The results of the simulation show that stationing NEOCam in a Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point halo orbit provides the optimal environment for surveying the NEO population (Mainzer et al. 2015).

  5. Compact continuum source finding for next generation radio surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, P. J.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hopkins, A.; Curran, J. R.

    2012-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of four of the most widely used radio source-finding packages in radio astronomy, and a program being developed for the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder telescope. The four packages: SEXTRACTOR, SFIND, IMSAD and SELAVY are shown to produce source catalogues with high completeness and reliability. In this paper we analyse the small fraction (˜1 per cent) of cases in which these packages do not perform well. This small fraction of sources will be of concern for the next generation of radio surveys which will produce many thousands of sources on a daily basis, in particular for blind radio transients surveys. From our analysis we identify the ways in which the underlying source-finding algorithms fail. We demonstrate a new source-finding algorithm AEGEAN, based on the application of a Laplacian kernel, which can avoid these problems and can produce complete and reliable source catalogues for the next generation of radio surveys.

  6. Next-generation X-ray cluster surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, N. W.; Ponman, T. J.

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary X-ray surveys have permitted rich galaxy clusters to be detected out to redshifts z > 1, but studies with next-generation instruments will allow this work to be extended to both higher redshift and lower cluster masses. Such studies have the potential to provide powerful constraints on the evolution of baryonic processes such as cooling and feedback within developing cosmic structures, provided that observational selection effects can be controlled. To explore this, we generate simulated surveys using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument on International X-ray Observatory (IXO), studied in 2010 by NASA and ESA as a major next-generation X-ray observatory. A sample of observed groups and clusters is assembled and used to derive relationships between temperature and four cluster properties: M500, L500, core radius and β. These are coupled with an evolving population of dark matter haloes drawn from the Millennium Simulation to construct an evolving set of X-ray clusters which are cast into a lightcone and imaged using the main instrumental characteristics of the IXO WFI. State-of-the-art techniques are then employed for source detection and extension testing, to generate a simulated survey cluster catalogue. These simulations are used to explore the dependence of a next-generation survey on the evolution of cluster scaling relations, survey strategy (wide versus deep) and instrument point spread function (PSF). We find that a 1.8 Ms IXO survey gives a cluster sample three to five times larger for a wide survey compared to a deep survey. In both surveys, the strongest discrimination between different LX-T evolutionary models derives from galaxy groups, with T ˜ 1-2 keV. Deep surveys can be affected by cosmic variance within this temperature range, whilst wide surveys suffer from incompleteness, and hence are more vulnerable to biases arising from incomplete knowledge of the survey selection function. Degrading the telescope PSF is found to most

  7. The (obscene) Challenges of Next-Generation Pulsar Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ransom, Scott M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, large-scale surveys for new radio pulsars have made incredible progress, particularly in their ability to find important binary and millisecond pulsars. The reason for this progress has been Moore's Law, the same reason behind our current efforts and plans to build fantastic next-generation radio facilities. These new facilities, though, especially the radio arrays, will make pulsar searching incredibly difficult due to the (obscene) data rates that will be generated. Dealing with data rates that we cannot record will demand new ways of thinking about and processing our pulsar data. And unfortunately these challenges apply not only to the SKA in some distant future, but are with us already today in the arrays we have in operation or under construction.

  8. Launching the Next Generation IODP Site Survey Data Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. P.; Helly, J.; Clark, D.; Eakins, B.; Sutton, D.; Weatherford, J.; Thatch, G.; Miville, B.; Zelt, B.

    2005-12-01

    The next generation all-digital Site Survey Data Bank (SSDB) became operational on August 15, 2005 as an online resource for Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) proponents, reviewers, panels and operations, worldwide. There are currently 123 active proposals for drilling at sites distributed across the globe, involving nearly 1000 proponents from more than 40 countries. The goal is to provide an authoritative, persistent, secure, password-controlled and easily-used home for contributed data objects, as proposals evolve through their life cycle from preliminary phases to planned drilling expeditions. Proposal status can be monitored graphically by proposal number, data type or date. A Java SSDBviewer allows discovery of all proposal data objects, displayed over a basemap of global topography, crustal age or other custom maps. Data can be viewed or downloaded under password control. Webform interfaces assist with the uploading of data and metadata. Thirty four different standard data types are currently supported. The system was designed as a fully functioning digital library, not just a database or a web archive, drawing upon the resources of the SIOExplorer Digital Library project. Blocks of metadata are organized to support discovery and use, as appropriate for each data type. The SSDB has been developed by a UCSD team of researchers and computer scientists at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the San Diego Supercomputer Center, under contract with IODP Management International Inc., supported by NSF OCE 0432224.

  9. Faint detection of exoplanets in microlensing surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2014-06-20

    We propose a new approach to discovering faint microlensing signals below traditional thresholds, and for estimating the binary-lens mass ratio and the apparent separation from such signals. The events found will be helpful in accurately estimating the true distribution of planetary semimajor axes, which is an important goal of space microlensing surveys.

  10. Testing LMC Microlensing Scenarios: The Discrimination Power of the SuperMACHO Microlensing Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A; Stubbs, C; Becker, A C; Miknaitis, G A; Miceli, A; Covarrubias, R; Hawley, S L; Smith, C; Suntzeff, N B; Olsen, K; Prieto, J; Hiriart, R; Welch, D L; Cook, K; Nikolaev, S; Proctor, G; Clocchiatti, A; Minniti, D; Garg, A; Challis, P; Keller, S C; Scmidt, B P

    2004-05-27

    Characterizing the nature and spatial distribution of the lensing objects that produce the observed microlensing optical depth toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains an open problem. They present an appraisal of the ability of the SuperMACHO Project, a next-generation microlensing survey pointed toward the LMC, to discriminate between various proposed lensing populations. they consider two scenarios: lensing by a uniform foreground screen of objects and self-lensing of LMC stars. The optical depth for ''screen-lensing'' is essentially constant across the face of the LMC; whereas, the optical depth for self-lensing shows a strong spatial dependence. they have carried out extensive simulations, based upon actual data obtained during the first year of the project, to assess the SuperMACHO survey's ability to discriminate between these two scenarios. In the simulations they predict the expected number of observed microlensing events for each of their fields by adding artificial stars to the images and estimating the spatial and temporal efficiency of detecting microlensing events using Monte-Carlo methods. They find that the event rate itself shows significant sensitivity to the choice of the LMC luminosity function shape and other parameters, limiting the conclusions which can be drawn from the absolute rate. By instead determining the differential event rate across the LMC, they can decrease the impact of these systematic uncertainties rendering the conclusions more robust. With this approach the SuperMACHO Project should be able to distinguish between the two categories of lens populations and provide important constraints on the nature of the lensing objects.

  11. Discovering Extrasolar Planets with Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wambsganss, J.

    2016-06-01

    An astronomical survey is commonly understood as a mapping of a large region of the sky, either photometrically (possibly in various filters/wavelength ranges) or spectroscopically. Often, catalogs of objects are produced/provided as the main product or a by-product. However, with the advent of large CCD cameras and dedicated telescopes with wide-field imaging capabilities, it became possible in the early 1990s, to map the same region of the sky over and over again. In principle, such data sets could be combined to get very deep stacked images of the regions of interest. However, I will report on a completely different use of such repeated maps: Exploring the time domain for particular kinds of stellar variability, namely microlens-induced magnifications in search of exoplanets. Such a time-domain microlensing survey was originally proposed by Bohdan Paczynski in 1986 in order to search for dark matter objects in the Galactic halo. Only a few years later three teams started this endeavour. I will report on the history and current state of gravitational microlensing surveys. By now, routinely 100 million stars in the Galactic Bulge are monitored a few times per week by so-called survey teams. All stars with constant apparent brightness and those following known variability patterns are filtered out in order to detect the roughly 2000 microlensing events per year which are produced by stellar lenses. These microlensing events are identified "online" while still in their early phases and then monitored with much higher cadence by so-called follow-up teams. The most interesting of such events are those produced by a star-plus-planet lens. By now of order 30 exoplanets have been discovered by these combined microlensing surveys. Microlensing searches for extrasolar planets are complementary to other exoplanet search techniques. There are two particular advantages: The microlensing method is sensitive down to Earth-mass planets even with ground-based telecopes, and it

  12. Stellar Angular Diameter Relations for Microlensing Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Arthur; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; von Braun, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Determining the physical properties of microlensing events depends on having accurate angular radii of the source star. Using long-baseline optical interferometry we are able to determine the angular sizes of nearby stars with uncertainties less than 2 percent. We present empirical estimates of angular diameters for both dwarfs/subgiants and giant stars as functions of five color indices which are relevant to planned microlensing surveys. We find in all considered colors that metallicity does not play a statistically significant role in predicting stellar size for the samples of stars considered.

  13. Next generation cosmology: constraints from the Euclid galaxy cluster survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartoris, B.; Biviano, A.; Fedeli, C.; Bartlett, J. G.; Borgani, S.; Costanzi, M.; Giocoli, C.; Moscardini, L.; Weller, J.; Ascaso, B.; Bardelli, S.; Maurogordato, S.; Viana, P. T. P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the characteristics of the galaxy cluster samples expected from the European Space Agency's Euclid satellite and forecast constraints on parameters describing a variety of cosmological models. In this paper we use the same method of analysis already adopted in the Euclid Red Book, which is based on the Fisher matrix approach. Based on our analytical estimate of the cluster selection function in the photometric Euclid survey, we forecast the constraints on cosmological parameters corresponding to different extensions of the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Using only Euclid clusters, we find that the amplitude of the matter power spectrum will be constrained to Δσ8 = 0.0014 and the mass density parameter to ΔΩm = 0.0011. The dynamical evolution of dark energy will be constrained to Δw0 = 0.03 and Δwa = 0.2 with free curvature Ωk, resulting in a (w0, wa) figure of merit (FoM) of 291. In combination with Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints, the amplitude of primordial non-Gaussianity will be constrained to ΔfNL ≃ 6.6 for the local shape scenario. The growth factor parameter γ, which signals deviations from general relativity, will be constrained to Δγ = 0.02, and the neutrino density parameter to ΔΩν = 0.0013 (or Δ∑mν = 0.01). Including the Planck CMB covariance matrix improves dark energy constraints to Δw0 = 0.02, Δwa = 0.07, and a FoM = 802. Knowledge of the observable-cluster mass scaling relation is crucial to reach these accuracies. Imaging and spectroscopic capabilities of Euclid will enable internal mass calibration from weak lensing and the dynamics of cluster galaxies, supported by external cluster surveys.

  14. The WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Expectations and Unexpectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Penny, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The WFIRST microlensing survey will provide the definitive determination of the demographics of cool planets with semimajor axes > 1 AU and masses greater than that of the Earth, including free-floating planets. Together with the results from Kepler, TESS, and PLATO, WFIRST will complete the statistical census of planets in the Galaxy. These expectations are based on the most basic and conservative assumptions about the data quality, and assumes that the analysis methodologies will be similar to that used for current ground-based microlensing. Yet, in fact, the data quality will be dramatically better, and information content substantially richer, for the WFIRST microlensing survey as compared to current ground-based surveys. Thus WFIRST should allow for orders of magnitude improvement in both sensitivity and science yield. We will review some of these expected improvements and opportunities (the "known unknowns"), and provide a "to do list" of what tasks will need to be completed in order to take advantage of these opportunities. We will then speculate on the opportunities that we may not be aware of yet (the "unknown unknowns"), how we might go about determining what those opportunities are, and how we might figure out what we will need to do to take advantage of them.This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX14AF63G.

  15. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY (NGVS). I. INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Gwyn, S. D. J.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Mei, Simona; Erben, Thomas; Durrell, Patrick R.; Christopher Mihos, J.; Jordan, Andres; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lancon, Ariane; Emsellem, Eric; Balogh, Michael L.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; and others

    2012-05-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a program that uses the 1 deg{sup 2} MegaCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to carry out a comprehensive optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster, from its core to its virial radius-covering a total area of 104 deg{sup 2}-in the u*griz bandpasses. Thanks to a dedicated data acquisition strategy and processing pipeline, the NGVS reaches a point-source depth of g Almost-Equal-To 25.9 mag (10{sigma}) and a surface brightness limit of {mu}{sub g} {approx} 29 mag arcsec{sup -2} (2{sigma} above the mean sky level), thus superseding all previous optical studies of this benchmark galaxy cluster. In this paper, we give an overview of the technical aspects of the survey, such as areal coverage, field placement, choice of filters, limiting magnitudes, observing strategies, data processing and calibration pipelines, survey timeline, and data products. We also describe the primary scientific topics of the NGVS, which include: the galaxy luminosity and mass functions; the color-magnitude relation; galaxy scaling relations; compact stellar systems; galactic nuclei; the extragalactic distance scale; the large-scale environment of the cluster and its relationship to the Local Supercluster; diffuse light and the intracluster medium; galaxy interactions and evolutionary processes; and extragalactic star clusters. In addition, we describe a number of ancillary programs dealing with 'foreground' and 'background' science topics, including the study of high-inclination trans-Neptunian objects; the structure of the Galactic halo in the direction of the Virgo Overdensity and Sagittarius Stream; the measurement of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy, and cluster lensing; and the identification of distant galaxy clusters, and strong-lensing events.

  16. DETECTION RATES FOR SURVEYS FOR FAST TRANSIENTS WITH NEXT GENERATION RADIO ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-10

    We relate the underlying properties of a population of fast radio-emitting transient events to its expected detection rate in a survey of finite sensitivity. The distribution of the distances of the detected events is determined in terms of the population luminosity distribution and survey parameters, for both extragalactic and Galactic populations. The detection rate as a function of Galactic position is examined to identify regions that optimize survey efficiency in a survey whose field of view is limited. The impact of temporal smearing caused by scattering in the interstellar medium has a large and direction-dependent bearing on the detection of impulsive signals, and we present a model for the effects of scattering on the detection rate. We show that the detection rate scales as {Omega}S{sup -3/2+{delta}}{sub 0}, where {Omega} is the field of view, S{sub 0} is the minimum detectable flux density, and 0 < {delta} {<=} 3/2 for a survey of Galactic transients in which interstellar scattering or the finite volume of the Galaxy is important. We derive formal conditions on the optimal survey strategy to adopt under different circumstances for fast transient surveys on next generation large-element, wide-field arrays, such as ASKAP, LOFAR, the MWA, and the SKA, and show how interstellar scattering and the finite spatial extent of a Galactic population modify the choice of optimal strategy.

  17. A survey of tools for variant analysis of next-generation genome sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pabinger, Stephan; Dander, Andreas; Fischer, Maria; Snajder, Rene; Sperk, Michael; Efremova, Mirjana; Krabichler, Birgit; Speicher, Michael R.; Zschocke, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies provide unprecedented opportunities to characterize individual genomic landscapes and identify mutations relevant for diagnosis and therapy. Specifically, whole-exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies is gaining popularity in the human genetics community due to the moderate costs, manageable data amounts and straightforward interpretation of analysis results. While whole-exome and, in the near future, whole-genome sequencing are becoming commodities, data analysis still poses significant challenges and led to the development of a plethora of tools supporting specific parts of the analysis workflow or providing a complete solution. Here, we surveyed 205 tools for whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing data analysis supporting five distinct analytical steps: quality assessment, alignment, variant identification, variant annotation and visualization. We report an overview of the functionality, features and specific requirements of the individual tools. We then selected 32 programs for variant identification, variant annotation and visualization, which were subjected to hands-on evaluation using four data sets: one set of exome data from two patients with a rare disease for testing identification of germline mutations, two cancer data sets for testing variant callers for somatic mutations, copy number variations and structural variations, and one semi-synthetic data set for testing identification of copy number variations. Our comprehensive survey and evaluation of NGS tools provides a valuable guideline for human geneticists working on Mendelian disorders, complex diseases and cancers. PMID:23341494

  18. Collision avoidance in next-generation fiber positioner robotic systems for large survey spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Jenni, Laurent; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo

    2014-06-01

    Some of the next-generation massive spectroscopic survey projects plan to use thousands of fiber positioner robots packed at a focal plane to quickly move the fiber ends in parallel from the previous to the next target points. The most direct trajectories are prone to collision that could damage the robots and have an impact on the survey operation. We thus present here a motion planning method based on a novel decentralized navigation function for collision-free coordination of fiber positioners. The navigation function takes into account the configuration of positioners as well as the actuator constraints. We provide details of the proof of convergence and collision avoidance. Decentralization results in linear complexity for the motion planning as well as no dependence of motion duration on the number of positioners. Therefore, the coordination method is scalable for large-scale spectrograph robots. The short in-motion duration of positioner robots will thus allow the time dedicated for observation to be maximized.

  19. The Next Generation Sky Survey and the Quest for Cooler Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2003-06-01

    The Next Generation Sky Survey (NGSS) is a proposed NASA MIDEX mission to map the entire sky in four infrared bandpasses -- 3.5, 4.7, 12, and 23 μm. The seven-month mission will use a 50-cm telescope and four-channel imager to survey the sky from a circular orbit above the Earth. Expected sensitivities will be half a million times that of COBE/DIRBE at 3.5 and 4.7 μm and a thousand times that of IRAS at 12 and 23 μm. NGSS will be particularly sensitive to brown dwarfs cooler than those presently known. Deep absorption in the methane fundamental band at 3.3 μm and a predicted 5-μm overluminosity will produce uniquely red 3.5-to-4.7 μm colors for such objects. For a limiting volume of 25 pc, NGSS will completely inventory the Solar Neighborhood for brown dwarfs as cool as Gl 229B. At 10 pc, the census will be complete to 500 K. Assuming a field mass function with α = 1, there could be one or more brown dwarfs warmer than 150 K lying closer to the Sun than Proxima Centauri and detectable primarily at NGSS wavelengths. NGSS will enable estimates of the brown dwarf mass and luminosity functions to very cool temperatures and will provide both astrometric references and science targets for NGST.

  20. The Near-Earth Object Camera: A Next-Generation Minor Planet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amy K.; Wright, Edward L.; Bauer, James; Grav, Tommy; Cutri, Roc M.; Masiero, Joseph; Nugent, Carolyn R.

    2015-11-01

    The Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a next-generation asteroid and comet survey designed to discover, characterize, and track large numbers of minor planets using a 50 cm infrared telescope located at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point. Proposed to NASA's Discovery program, NEOCam is designed to carry out a comprehensive inventory of the small bodies in the inner regions of our solar system. It address three themes: 1) quantify the potential hazard that near-Earth objects may pose to Earth; 2) study the origins and evolution of our solar system as revealed by its small body populations; and 3) identify the best destinations for future robotic and human exploration. With a dual channel infrared imager that observes at 4-5 and 6-10 micron bands simultaneously through the use of a beamsplitter, NEOCam enables measurements of asteroid diameters and thermal inertia. NEOCam complements existing and planned visible light surveys in terms of orbital element phase space and wavelengths, since albedos can be determined for objects with both visible and infrared flux measurements. NEOCam was awarded technology development funding in 2011 to mature the necessary megapixel infrared detectors.

  1. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XV. THE PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION FOR BACKGROUND SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Licitra, R.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ilbert, O.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Ball, N. M.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Chen, Y.-T.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; and others

    2014-12-20

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg{sup 2} centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i {sub AB} = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag ≤ i ≲ 23 mag or z {sub phot} ≲ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σ{sub outl.rej.}, and an individual error on z {sub phot} that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 ≲ z {sub phot} ≲ 0.8 range (–0.05 < Δz < –0.02, σ{sub outl.rej} ∼ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z {sub phot.err.} ∼ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  2. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XIX. Tomography of Milky Way Substructures in the NGVS Footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhorst, Deborah; Starkenburg, Else; McConnachie, Alan W.; Navarro, Julio F.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2016-03-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a deep u*giz survey targeting the Virgo Cluster of galaxies at 16.5 Mpc. This survey provides high-quality photometry over an ˜100 deg2 region straddling the constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices. This sightline through the Milky Way is noteworthy in that it intersects two of the most prominent substructures in the Galactic halo: the Virgo overdensity (VOD) and Sagittarius stellar stream (close to its bifurcation point). In this paper, we use deep u*gi imaging from the NGVS to perform tomography of the VOD and Sagittarius stream using main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars as a halo tracer population. The VOD, whose centroid is known to lie at somewhat lower declinations (α ˜ 190°, δ ˜ -5°) than is covered by the NGVS, is nevertheless clearly detected in the NGVS footprint at distances between ˜8 and 25 kpc. By contrast, the Sagittarius stream is found to slice directly across the NGVS field at distances between 25 and 40 kpc, with a density maximum at ≃35 kpc. No evidence is found for new substructures beyond the Sagittarius stream, at least out to a distance of ˜90 kpc—the largest distance to which we can reliably trace the halo using MSTO stars. We find clear evidence for a distance gradient in the Sagittarius stream across the ˜30° of sky covered by the NGVS and its flanking fields. We compare our distance measurements along the stream with those predicted by leading stream models.

  3. Microlensing Surveys of M31 in the Wide Field Imaging ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, E.

    2004-10-27

    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the closest large galaxy to the Milky Way, thus it is an important laboratory for studying massive dark objects in galactic halos (MACHOs) by gravitational microlensing. Such studies strongly complement the studies of the Milky Way halo using the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. We consider the possibilities for microlensing surveys of M31 using the next generation of wide field imaging telescopes with fields of view in the square degree range. We consider proposals for such imagers both on the ground and in space. For concreteness, we specialize to the SNAP proposal for a space telescope and the LSST proposal for a ground based telescope. We find that a modest space-based survey of 50 visits of one hour each is considerably better than current ground based surveys covering 5 years. Crucially, systematic effects can be considerably better controlled with a space telescope because of both the infrared sensitivity and the angular resolution. To be competitive, 8 meter class wide-field ground based imagers must take exposures of several hundred seconds with several day cadence.

  4. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. NGC 4216: A BOMBARDED SPIRAL IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Ferriere, Etienne; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; Michel-Dansac, Leo; Mei, Simona; Van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-20

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  5. An Open-Source Galaxy Redshift Survey Simulator for next-generation Large Scale Structure Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seijak, Uros

    Galaxy redshift surveys produce three-dimensional maps of the galaxy distribution. On large scales these maps trace the underlying matter fluctuations in a relatively simple manner, so that the properties of the primordial fluctuations along with the overall expansion history and growth of perturbations can be extracted. The BAO standard ruler method to measure the expansion history of the universe using galaxy redshift surveys is thought to be robust to observational artifacts and understood theoretically with high precision. These same surveys can offer a host of additional information, including a measurement of the growth rate of large scale structure through redshift space distortions, the possibility of measuring the sum of neutrino masses, tighter constraints on the expansion history through the Alcock-Paczynski effect, and constraints on the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations. Extracting this broadband clustering information hinges on both our ability to minimize and subtract observational systematics to the observed galaxy power spectrum, and our ability to model the broadband behavior of the observed galaxy power spectrum with exquisite precision. Rapid development on both fronts is required to capitalize on WFIRST's data set. We propose to develop an open-source computational toolbox that will propel development in both areas by connecting large scale structure modeling and instrument and survey modeling with the statistical inference process. We will use the proposed simulator to both tailor perturbation theory and fully non-linear models of the broadband clustering of WFIRST galaxies and discover novel observables in the non-linear regime that are robust to observational systematics and able to distinguish between a wide range of spatial and dynamic biasing models for the WFIRST galaxy redshift survey sources. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach in a pilot study of the SDSS-III BOSS galaxies, in which we

  6. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. NGC 4216: A Bombarded Spiral in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Ferriere, Etienne; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Michel-Dansac, Leo; van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  7. Next-generation biofuels: Survey of emerging technologies and sustainability issues.

    PubMed

    Zinoviev, Sergey; Müller-Langer, Franziska; Das, Piyali; Bertero, Nicolás; Fornasiero, Paolo; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Centi, Gabriele; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-10-25

    Next-generation biofuels, such as cellulosic bioethanol, biomethane from waste, synthetic biofuels obtained via gasification of biomass, biohydrogen, and others, are currently at the center of the attention of technologists and policy makers in search of the more sustainable biofuel of tomorrow. To set realistic targets for future biofuel options, it is important to assess their sustainability according to technical, economical, and environmental measures. With this aim, the review presents a comprehensive overview of the chemistry basis and of the technology related aspects of next generation biofuel production, as well as it addresses related economic issues and environmental implications. Opportunities and limits are discussed in terms of technical applicability of existing and emerging technology options to bio-waste feedstock, and further development forecasts are made based on the existing social-economic and market situation, feedstock potentials, and other global aspects. As the latter ones are concerned, the emphasis is placed on the opportunities and challenges of developing countries in adoption of this new industry. PMID:20922754

  8. Microbial Community Composition in the Marine Sediments of Jeju Island: Next-Generation Sequencing Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Heebok; Koh, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Hongik; Chae, Jong-Chan; Park, Soo-Je

    2016-05-28

    Marine sediments are a microbial biosphere with an unknown physiology, and the sediments harbor numerous distinct phylogenetic lineages of Bacteria and Archaea that are at present uncultured. In this study, the structure of the archaeal and bacterial communities was investigated in the surface and subsurface sediments of Jeju Island using a next-generation sequencing method. The microbial communities in the surface sediments were distinct from those in the subsurface sediments; the relative abundance of sequences for Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria were higher in the surface than subsurface sediments, whereas the sequences for Euryarchaeota, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Deltaproteobacteria were relatively more abundant in the subsurface than surface sediments. This study presents detailed characterization of the spatial distribution of benthic microbial communities of Jeju Island and provides fundamental information on the potential interactions mediated by microorganisms with the different biogeochemical cycles in coastal sediments. PMID:26869600

  9. Determination of Microlensing Selection Criteria for the SuperMACHO Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A

    2008-10-10

    The SuperMACHO project is a 5 year survey to determine the nature of the lens population responsible for the excess microlensing rate toward the Large Magellanic Cloud observed by the MACHO project [1]. The survey probes deeper than earlier surveys unveiling many more extragalactic contaminants, particularly type Ia supernovae and active galactic nuclei. Using {approx}10{sup 7} simulated light curves of both microlensing events and type Ia supernovae we determine selection criteria optimized to maximize the microlensing detection efficiency while minimizing the contamination rate from non-microlensing events. We discuss these simulations and the selection criteria.

  10. The exoplanet microlensing survey by the proposed WFIRST Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Richard; Kruk, Jeffery; Anderson, Jay; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Bennett, David P.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Cheng, Ed; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Kane, Stephen; Lunine, Jonathan; Sumi, Takahiro; Tanner, Angelle; Traub, Wesley

    2011-10-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons report released by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey Board in 2010 listed the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as the highest-priority large space mission for the coming decade. This observatory will provide wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopy at near infrared wavelengths. The scientific goals are to obtain a statistical census of exoplanets using gravitational microlensing, measure the expansion history of and the growth of structure in the Universe by multiple methods, and perform other astronomical surveys to be selected through a guest observer program. A Science Definition Team has been established to assist NASA in the development of a Design Reference Mission that accomplishes this diverse array of science programs with a single observatory. In this paper we present the current WFIRST payload concept and the expected capabilities for planet detection. The observatory, with science goals that are complimentary to the Kepler exoplanet transit mission, is designed to complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from habitable Earth-mass planets to free floating planets, including analogs to all of the planets in our Solar System except Mercury. The exoplanet microlensing survey will observe for 500 days spanning 5 years. This long temporal baseline will enable the determination of the masses for most detected exoplanets down to 0.1 Earth masses.

  11. The Exoplanet Microlensing Survey by the Proposed WFIRST Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard; Kruk, Jeffrey; Anderson, Jay; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Bennett, David P.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Cheng, Ed; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; Kane, Stephen; Lunine, Jonathan; Sumi, Takahiro; Tanner, Angelle; Traub, Wesley

    2012-01-01

    The New Worlds, New Horizons report released by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey Board in 2010 listed the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) as the highest-priority large space mission for the . coming decade. This observatory will provide wide-field imaging and slitless spectroscopy at near infrared wavelengths. The scientific goals are to obtain a statistical census of exoplanets using gravitational microlensing. measure the expansion history of and the growth of structure in the Universe by multiple methods, and perform other astronomical surveys to be selected through a guest observer program. A Science Definition Team has been established to assist NASA in the development of a Design Reference Mission that accomplishes this diverse array of science programs with a single observatory. In this paper we present the current WFIRST payload concept and the expected capabilities for planet detection. The observatory. with science goals that are complimentary to the Kepler exoplanet transit mission, is designed to complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from habitable Earth-mass planets to free floating planets, including analogs to all of the planets in our Solar System except Mercury. The exoplanet microlensing survey will observe for 500 days spanning 5 years. This long temporal baseline will enable the determination of the masses for most detected exoplanets down to 0.1 Earth masses.

  12. Next-generation computers

    SciTech Connect

    Torrero, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Developments related to tomorrow's computers are discussed, taking into account advances toward the fifth generation in Japan, the challenge to U.S. supercomputers, plans concerning the creation of supersmart computers for the U.S. military, a U.S. industry response to the Japanese challenge, a survey of U.S. and European research, Great Britain, the European Common Market, codifying human knowledge for machine reading, software engineering, the next-generation softwave, plans for obtaining the million-transistor chip, and fabrication issues for next-generation circuits. Other topics explored are related to a status report regarding artificial intelligence, an assessment of the technical challenges, aspects of sociotechnology, and defense advanced research projects. Attention is also given to expert systems, speech recognition, computer vision, function-level programming and automated programming, computing at the speed limit, VLSI, and superpower computers.

  13. BULK FLOWS FROM GALAXY LUMINOSITIES: APPLICATION TO 2MASS REDSHIFT SURVEY AND FORECAST FOR NEXT-GENERATION DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect

    Nusser, Adi; Branchini, Enzo; Davis, Marc E-mail: branchin@fis.uniroma3.it

    2011-07-10

    We present a simple method for measuring cosmological bulk flows from large redshift surveys, based on the apparent dimming or brightening of galaxies due to their peculiar motion. It is aimed at estimating bulk flows of cosmological volumes containing large numbers of galaxies. Constraints on the bulk flow are obtained by minimizing systematic variations in galaxy luminosities with respect to a reference luminosity function measured from the whole survey. This method offers two advantages over more popular bulk flow estimators: it is independent of error-prone distance indicators and of the poorly known galaxy bias. We apply the method to the Two Micron All Sky Survey redshift survey to measure the local bulk flows of spherical shells centered on the Milky Way (MW). The result is consistent with that obtained by Nusser and Davis using the SFI++ catalogue of Tully-Fisher distance indicators. We also make an assessment of the ability of the method to constrain bulk flows at larger redshifts (z = 0.1-0.5) from next-generation data sets. As a case study we consider the planned EUCLID survey. Using this method we will be able to measure a bulk motion of {approx}200 km s{sup -1} of 10{sup 6} galaxies with photometric redshifts, at the 3{sigma} level for both z {approx} 0.15 and z {approx} 0.5. Thus, the method will allow us to put strong constraints on dark energy models as well as alternative theories for structure formation.

  14. A survey of tools and resources for the next generation analyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David L.; Graham, Jake; Catherman, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We have previously argued that a combination of trends in information technology (IT) and changing habits of people using IT provide opportunities for the emergence of a new generation of analysts that can perform effective intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) on a "do it yourself" (DIY) or "armchair" approach (see D.L. Hall and J. Llinas (2014)). Key technology advances include: i) new sensing capabilities including the use of micro-scale sensors and ad hoc deployment platforms such as commercial drones, ii) advanced computing capabilities in mobile devices that allow advanced signal and image processing and modeling, iii) intelligent interconnections due to advances in "web N" capabilities, and iv) global interconnectivity and increasing bandwidth. In addition, the changing habits of the digital natives reflect new ways of collecting and reporting information, sharing information, and collaborating in dynamic teams. This paper provides a survey and assessment of tools and resources to support this emerging analysis approach. The tools range from large-scale commercial tools such as IBM i2 Analyst Notebook, Palantir, and GeoSuite to emerging open source tools such as GeoViz and DECIDE from university research centers. The tools include geospatial visualization tools, social network analysis tools and decision aids. A summary of tools is provided along with links to web sites for tool access.

  15. Creation of next generation U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is 2 years into a 3-year cycle to create new digital topographic map products for the conterminous United States from data acquired and maintained as part of The National Map databases. These products are in the traditional, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5-minute (latitude and longitude) cell format. The 3-year cycle was conceived to follow the acquisition of National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) orthorectified imagery, a key layer in the new product. In fiscal year (FY) 2009 (ending September 30, 2009), the first year of the 3-year cycle, the USGS produced 13,200 products. These initial products of the “Digital MapBeta” series had limited feature content, including only the NAIP image, some roads, geographic names, and grid and collar information. The products were created in layered georegistered Portable Document Format (PDF) files, allowing users with freely available Adobe® Reader® software to view, print, and perform simple Geographic Information System-like functions. In FY 2010 (ending September 30, 2010), the USGS produced 20,380 products. These products of the “US Topo” series added hydrography (surface water features), contours, and some boundaries. In FY 2011 (ending September 30, 2011), the USGS will complete the initial coverage with US Topo products and will add additional feature content to the maps. The design, development, and production associated with the US Topo products provide management and technical challenges for the USGS and its public and private sector partners. One challenge is the acquisition and maintenance of nationally consistent base map data from multiple sources. Another is the use of these data to create a consistent, current series of cartographic products that can be used by the broad spectrum of traditional topographic map users. Although the USGS and its partners have overcome many of these challenges, many, such as establishing and funding a sustainable base data

  16. Discovery of a New Member of the Inner Oort Cloud from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Suc, Vincent; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of 2010 GB174, a likely new member of the Inner Oort Cloud (IOC). 2010 GB174 is 1 of 91 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs discovered in a 76 deg2 contiguous region imaged as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS)—a moderate ecliptic latitude survey reaching a mean limiting magnitude of g' ~= 25.5—using MegaPrime on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. 2010 GB174 is found to have an orbit with a semi-major axis of a ~= 350.8 AU, an inclination of i ~= 21.°6, and a pericenter of q ~ 48.5 AU. This is the second largest perihelion distance among known solar system objects. Based on the sky coverage and depth of the NGVS, we estimate the number of IOC members with sizes larger than 300 km (HV <= 6.2 mag) to be ~= 11, 000. A comparison of the detection rate from the NGVS and the PDSSS (a characterized survey that "rediscovered" the IOC object Sedna) gives, for an assumed a power-law luminosity function for IOC objects, a slope of α ~= 0.7 ± 0.2. With only two detections in this region this slope estimate is highly uncertain.

  17. DISCOVERY OF A NEW MEMBER OF THE INNER OORT CLOUD FROM THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Ip, Wing-Huen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Jordán, Andrés; Suc, Vincent; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-20

    We report the discovery of 2010 GB{sub 174}, a likely new member of the Inner Oort Cloud (IOC). 2010 GB{sub 174} is 1 of 91 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs discovered in a 76 deg{sup 2} contiguous region imaged as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS)—a moderate ecliptic latitude survey reaching a mean limiting magnitude of g' ≅ 25.5—using MegaPrime on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. 2010 GB{sub 174} is found to have an orbit with a semi-major axis of a ≅ 350.8 AU, an inclination of i ≅ 21.°6, and a pericenter of q ∼ 48.5 AU. This is the second largest perihelion distance among known solar system objects. Based on the sky coverage and depth of the NGVS, we estimate the number of IOC members with sizes larger than 300 km (H{sub V} ≤ 6.2 mag) to be ≅ 11, 000. A comparison of the detection rate from the NGVS and the PDSSS (a characterized survey that 'rediscovered' the IOC object Sedna) gives, for an assumed a power-law luminosity function for IOC objects, a slope of α ≅ 0.7 ± 0.2. With only two detections in this region this slope estimate is highly uncertain.

  18. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. I. Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the order of magnitude difference in the frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs inferred by microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys, we present a method for comparing the statistical constraints on exoplanet demographics inferred from these methods. We first derive the mapping from the observable parameters of a microlensing-detected planet to those of an analogous planet orbiting an RV-monitored star. Using this mapping, we predict the distribution of RV observables for the planet population inferred from microlensing surveys, taking care to adopt reasonable priors for, and properly marginalize over, the unknown physical parameters of microlensing-detected systems. Finally, we use simple estimates of the detection limits for a fiducial RV survey to predict the number and properties of analogs of the microlensing planet population such an RV survey should detect. We find that RV and microlensing surveys have some overlap, specifically for super-Jupiter mass planets (m{sub p} ≳ 1 M {sub Jup}) with periods between ∼3-10 yr. However, the steeply falling planetary mass function inferred from microlensing implies that, in this region of overlap, RV surveys should infer a much smaller frequency than the overall giant planet frequency (m{sub p} ≳ 0.1 M {sub Jup}) inferred by microlensing. Our analysis demonstrates that it is possible to statistically compare and synthesize data sets from multiple exoplanet detection techniques in order to infer exoplanet demographics over wider regions of parameter space than are accessible to individual methods. In a companion paper, we apply our methodology to several representative microlensing and RV surveys to derive the frequency of planets around M dwarfs with orbits of ≲ 30 yr.

  19. Apples to apples A2 - I. Realistic galaxy simulated catalogues and photometric redshift predictions for next-generation surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascaso, B.; Mei, S.; Benítez, N.

    2015-11-01

    We present new mock catalogues for two of the largest Stage IV next-generation surveys in the optical and infrared: Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and Euclid, based on an N-body simulation+semi-analytical cone with a posterior modification with PHOTREAL. This technique modifies the original photometry by using an empirical library of spectral templates to make it more realistic. The reliability of the catalogues is confirmed by comparing the obtained colour-magnitude relation, the luminosity and mass function and the angular correlation function with those of real data. Consistent comparisons between the expected photometric redshifts for different surveys are also provided. Very deep near-infrared surveys such as Euclid will provide very good performance (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.025-0.053) down to H ˜ 24 AB mag and up to z ˜ 3 depending on the optical observations available from the ground, whereas extremely deep optical surveys such as LSST will obtain an overall lower photometric redshift resolution (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.045) down to i ˜ 27.5 AB mag, being considerably improved (Δz/(1 + z) ˜ 0.035) if we restrict the sample down to i ˜ 24 AB mag. Those numbers can be substantially upgraded by selecting a subsample of galaxies with the best quality photometric redshifts. We finally discuss the impact that these surveys will have for the community in terms of photometric redshift legacy. This is the first of a series of papers where we set a framework for comparability between mock catalogues and observations with a particular focus on cluster surveys. The Euclid and LSST mocks are made publicly available.

  20. Genome Survey Sequencing and Genetic Background Characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) Based on Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhenghong; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jinguo; Chang, Lianpeng; Guo, Weihua; Li, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%. The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb) of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs), followed by the di- (17.41%), tetra- (5.49%), hexa- (2.90%), and penta- (1.00%) nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon. PMID:23875008

  1. Preparing for the Kepler K2 Microlensing Survey: A Call to Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In 2016 the ninth campaign of K2 (the extended, two-wheel Kepler mission) will be targeted towards the Galactic bulge, where it will perform the first wide-field, space-based microlensing survey. This survey will discover tens of both bound and free-floating planets by itself, but its real value will come from simultaneous ground-based observations that will provide parallax measurements enabling both mass and distance measurements for the majority of these planets and their hosts. These will include the first ever measurements of free-floating planet masses.K2's immediate public data release policy offers a huge one-time-only opportunity to build up the US's expertise in exoplanetary microlensing surveys in preparation for the WFIRST mission. Unbeknownst to most astronomers at home and abroad, the US also owns the best instrument in the world for conducting ground-based microlensing surveys -- DECam on the Blanco 4m, whose etendue is a factor of 20 larger than OGLE's at equal resolution. A simultaneous survey using ~80 half nights on DECam (as part of a NOAO large survey program) could also make its data immediately public, catapulting US astronomers to the forefront of planetary microlensing surveys, measuring masses of and distances to microlensing exoplanets on a never-before-possible scale. This is an opportunity that should not be missed and I will outline ways in which you can get involved.

  2. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin; Mihos, J. Christopher; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Duc, Pierre-Alain; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5}, the latter values

  3. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  4. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. V. modeling the dynamics of M87 with the made-to-measure method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ling; Long, R. J.; Mao, Shude; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Liu, Chengze; Caldwell, Nelson; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas; Lançon, Ariane; Mei, Simona

    2014-09-01

    We study the dynamics of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 from the central to the outermost regions with the made-to-measure (M2M) method. We use a new catalog of 922 globular cluster line-of-sight velocities extending to a projected radius of 180 kpc (equivalent to 25 M87 effective radii), and SAURON integral field unit data within the central 2.4 kpc. There are 263 globular clusters, mainly located beyond 40 kpc, newly observed by the Next Generation Virgo Survey. For the M2M modeling, the gravitational potential is taken as a combination of a luminous matter potential with a constant stellar mass-to-light ratio and a dark matter potential modeled as a logarithmic potential. Our best-fit dynamical model returns a stellar mass-to-light ratio in the I band of M/L{sub I} = 6.0 ± 0.3 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1} with a dark matter potential scale velocity of 591 ± 50 km s{sup –1} and scale radius of 42 ± 10 kpc. We determine the total mass of M87 within 180 kpc to be (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 13} M {sub ☉}. The mass within 40 kpc is smaller than previous estimates determined using globular cluster kinematics that did not extend beyond ∼45 kpc. With our new globular cluster velocities at much larger radii, we see that globular clusters around 40 kpc show an anomalously large velocity dispersion which affected previous results. The mass we derive is in good agreement with that inferred from ROSAT X-ray observation out to 180 kpc. Within 30 kpc our mass is also consistent with that inferred from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, while within 120 kpc it is about 20% smaller. The model velocity dispersion anisotropy β parameter for the globular clusters in M87 is small, varying from –0.2 at the center to 0.2 at ∼40 kpc, and gradually decreasing to zero at ∼120 kpc.

  5. Galactic Planet Population and Astrophysics with a Space-Based Microlensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger

    Microlensing surveys have detected hundreds of events in the direction of the Galactic bulge, providing valuable information on the population of faint stars otherwise undetectable in our Galaxy. Within this sample of events approximately 20 planets have been uncovered, with about half of them being either unbound or at large separation (greater than 100 AU) from their host star. The majority of the current microlensing planetary detections have come from rare, high- magnification events which are alerted and immediately followed on with high cadence ground- based observations from a network of collaborations around the world. These results have established that microlensing is an effective technique that can be used distinguish planets from their host star, in particular planets at large separation, a regime in which the radial velocity and transiting methods for planet detection lose sensitivity. The next step in studies of Galactic microlensing involve development of space-based surveys, which provide better angular resolution and the ability resolve more faint stars. In anticipation of proposed spaced-based microlensing surveys such as the WFIRST satellite, this research will develop theoretical tools to understand and interpret future large samples of Galactic microlensing observations. We will study how to optimize a space-based microlensing survey to obtain the maximal scientific output for the costs available. As part of this theoretical research we plan to develop a fast and efficient numerical code that can be distributed to the larger community, incorporating modern aspects of Galactic astrophysics into microlensing theory. The simulations will include effects that will become important for space-based surveys, such as the finite size of main sequence source stars and understanding the microlensing signals from multiple planets. A major output of our analysis will be a quantification of the planetary detection efficiency over the entire range of planet

  6. VSX: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C. L.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX), the most comprehensive and up-to-date assemblage of publicly-maintained variable star data on the planet, will be undergoing a major overhaul in the coming year to greatly improve the database design, as well as the Web-based user interface. Five years after its official launch, VSX has evolved into an essential component of the AAVSO enterprise information architecture, tightly integrated with many of the technical organization’s other mission-critical processes. However, its unique configuration and functionality are largely based on decades-old data formats and outmoded Web methodologies which will generally not scale well under the anticipated deluge of data from large-scale synoptic surveys. Here, we present the justifications and vision for VSX 2.0, the next generation of this indispensable research tool, including overviews of the creation of a brand new, fully-normalized, database schema, and the ground-up redesign of the front-end Web interface.

  7. Next Generation Internet Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, R.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation Internet are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Internet architecture; 2) NASA's advanced networking; 3) Internet capability, capacity and applications; and 4) Systems engineering.

  8. Preparing for the WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Simulations, Requirements, Survey Strategies, and Precursor Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, Bernard

    As one of the four primary investigations of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission, the microlensing survey will monitor several square degrees of the Galactic bulge for a total of roughly one year. Its primary science goal is to "Complete the statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, from the outer habitable zone to free floating planets, including analogs of all of the planets in our Solar System with the mass of Mars or greater.'' WFIRST will therefore (a) measure the mass function of cold bound planets with masses greater than that of roughly twice the mass of the moon, including providing an estimate of the frequency of sub-Mars-mass embryos, (b) determine the frequency of free-floating planets with masses down to the Earth and below, (c) inform the frequency and habitability of potentially habitable worlds, and (d) revolutionize our understanding of the demographics of cold planets with its exquisite sensitivity to, and large expected yield of, planets in a broad and unexplored region of parameter space. In order for the microlensing survey to be successful, we must develop a plan to go from actual survey observations obtained by the WFIRST telescope and hardware to the final science products. This plan will involve many steps, the development of software, data reduction, and analysis tools at each step, and a list of requirements for each of these components. The overarching goal of this proposal is thus to develop a complete flowdown from the science goals of the microlensing survey to the mission design and hardware components. We have assembled a team of scientists with the breadth of expertise to achieve this primary goal. Our specific subgoals are as follows. Goal 1: We will refine the input Galactic models in order to provide improved microlensing event rates in the WFIRST fields. Goal 2: We will use the improved event rate estimates, along with improvements in our simulation methodology, to provide higher

  9. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; PARK, Joonhee; PARK, Huiju; COCA, Aitor; KIM, Jung-Hyun; TAYLOR, Nigel A.S.; SON, Su-Young; TOCHIHARA, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying ‘a location monitoring system’ as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred ‘an automatic body cooling system’ while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally ‘an automatic body cooling system’ and ‘a wireless communication system’. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: ‘a location monitoring system’, ‘an automatic body cooling system’, ‘a wireless communication system’, and ‘a vision support system’. The least preferred elements were ‘an automatic body warming system’ and ‘a voice recording system’. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  10. What do firefighters desire from the next generation of personal protective equipment? Outcomes from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Park, Huiju; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Taylor, Nigel A S; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate smart features required for the next generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighters in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the USA. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 167 Australian, 351 Japanese, 413 Korean, and 763 U.S. firefighters (1,611 males and 61 females). Preferences concerning smart features varied among countries, with 27% of Korean and 30% of U.S. firefighters identifying 'a location monitoring system' as the most important element. On the other hand, 43% of Japanese firefighters preferred 'an automatic body cooling system' while 21% of the Australian firefighters selected equally 'an automatic body cooling system' and 'a wireless communication system'. When asked to rank these elements in descending priority, responses across these countries were very similar with the following items ranked highest: 'a location monitoring system', 'an automatic body cooling system', 'a wireless communication system', and 'a vision support system'. The least preferred elements were 'an automatic body warming system' and 'a voice recording system'. No preferential relationship was apparent for age, work experience, gender or anthropometric characteristics. These results have implications for the development of the next generation of PPE along with the international standardisation of the smart PPE. PMID:26027710

  11. MOA-2011-BLG-322Lb: a `second generation survey' microlensing planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Maoz, D.; Kaspi, S.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Han, C.; Abe, F.; Bond, I. A.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Namba, S.; Ohnishi, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.; Saito, To.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sweatman, W. L.; Suzuki, D.; Tristram, P. J.; Wada, K.; Yock, P. C. M.; Skowron, J.; Kozłowski, S.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.

    2014-03-01

    Global `second-generation' microlensing surveys aim to discover and characterize extrasolar planets and their frequency, by means of round-the-clock high-cadence monitoring of a large area of the Galactic bulge, in a controlled experiment. We report the discovery of a giant planet in microlensing event MOA-2011-BLG-322. This moderate-magnification event, which displays a clear anomaly induced by a second lensing mass, was inside the footprint of our second-generation microlensing survey, involving MOA, OGLE and the Wise Observatory. The event was observed by the survey groups, without prompting alerts that could have led to dedicated follow-up observations. Fitting a microlensing model to the data, we find that the time-scale of the event was tE = 23.2 ± 0.8 d, and the mass ratio between the lens star and its companion is q = 0.028 ± 0.001. Finite-source effects are marginally detected, and upper limits on them help break some of the degeneracy in the system parameters. Using a Bayesian analysis that incorporates a Galactic structure model, we estimate the mass of the lens at 0.39^{+0.45}_{-0.19} M_{⊙}, at a distance of 7.56 ± 0.91 kpc. Thus, the companion is likely a planet of mass 11.6^{+13.4}_{-5.6} M_J, at a projected separation of 4.3^{+1.5}_{-1.2} AU, rather far beyond the snow line. This is the first pure-survey planet reported from a second-generation microlensing survey, and shows that survey data alone can be sufficient to characterize a planetary model. With the detection of additional survey-only planets, we will be able to constrain the frequency of extrasolar planets near their systems' snow lines.

  12. Identifying Microlenses In Large, Non-uniformly Sampled Surveys: The Case Of PTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agúeros, M.; Fournier, A.; Ofek, E.; Street, R.

    2012-05-01

    Many current photometric, time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as supernova searches, transiting exoplanet discoveries, or stellar variability studies, which set the cadence with which individual fields get re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several such sub-surveys are being conducted in parallel, leading to an extremely non-uniform sampling gradient over the survey footprint of nearly 20,000 deg^2: while the typical 7.26 deg^2 PTF field has been imaged 15 times, 1000 deg^2 of the survey has been observed more than 150 times. We use the existing PTF data to study the trade-off between a large survey footprint and irregular sampling when searching for microlensing events, and to examine the probability that such events can be recovered in these data. We conduct Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate our detection efficiency in a hypothetical survey field as a function of both the baseline and number of observations. We also apply variability statistics to systematically differentiate between periodic, transient, and flat light curves. Preliminary results suggest that both recovery and discovery of microlensing events are possible with a careful consideration of photometric systematics. This work can help inform predictions about the observability of microlensing signals in future wide-field time-domain surveys such as that of LSST.

  13. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m class deployable, radiatively cooled telescope, optimized for the 1-5 μm band, with zodiacal background limited sensitivity from 0.6 to 10 μm or longer, operating for 10 yr near the Earth-Sun second LAGRANGIAN POINT (L2). It will be a general-purpose observatory, operated by the SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE (STScI) for competitively s...

  14. Next Generation Data Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    We live in an era of data proliferation - more instruments are capturing data, more entities are publishing data, often making the data discoverable and widely available. Along with the data explosion, more tools and strategies are emerging for finding, using, and making sense of this next generation of widely available, massively growing datasets. In this contribution, we will take one of current use cases - environmentally motivated water research - and use this scenario to describe some current challenges around data interoperability and often unanticipated usage issues in the evolving data ecosystems. We will also discuss some emerging semantic strategies for data usage in broad and diverse settings and then discuss evolving trends.

  15. Synergies Between The Next Generation Of Optical/ir Sky Survey Projects And The Square Kilometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2007-12-01

    There are significant scientific synergies between proposed facilities making up the Square Kilometer Array and its precursor pathfinders, including the EVLA, the Allen Telescope, and LOFAR, and upcoming Optical/NIR Synoptic Survey Telescopes such as the Pan-STARRS Telescopes (PS1, PS4, PSn), and the LSST Corporation Telescope. Commissioning data from the PS1 System will be presented along with discussion of lessons learned to date from commissioning and issues arising from the start of the PS1 Science Mission this spring. The approach of the PS1 Science Consortium towards survey strategies and the synergies that arise from designing observational data sets to meet diverse science goals and the challenges of data reduction and coordinated scientific analysis tools in the epoch of multiple petabyte datasets will be presented. In particular we will focus on the scientific benefits of coordinating Optical/IR synoptic sky surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST with the SKA pathfinders and the proposed mid-frequency Radio Synoptic Survey Telescope as a component of the Square Kilometer Array. These include substantial gains for fundamental science across diverse physical and astrophysical fields of study and including both static sky and time domain multi-wavelength programs.

  16. Next generation vaccines.

    PubMed

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines. PMID:22002157

  17. Extinction and the rate of superstring microlensing detection for WFIRST survey of the Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Taylor Andrew; Chernoff, David F.

    2015-01-01

    A network of superstrings produced during the epoch of inflation gives birth to long-lived string loops if, as current observational constraints imply, the string tension G μ/c2 < 10-9. String loops track dark matter when galaxy formation occurs. As part of an ongoing Cornell project we investigate the detection rate of string loop microlensing of stars within the Galaxy and make detailed estimates for the WFIRST survey of the Bulge. In particular, here we compare the rate estimates for different models of J-band extinction. Most of the stars microlensed by strings reside near the Galactic center and the range of variation in extinction models induces a factor of 5 in the overall rate. While this rate-sensitivity is non-trivial we conclude that the overall microlensing rate is sufficiently large that detecting strings over a tension range 10-14 to 10-10 is feasible. For a well-defined model of the string loop population, stellar blending and our effective magnitude cutoff in the WFIRST survey currently dominate our rate uncertainties. For example, detection rates at S/N=102 (cutoff of 23) are about an order of magnitude less than rates at marginal S/N (cutoff of 27). Future work will explore the effective cutoff and the resultant rates.

  18. Microlensing by Kuiper, Oort, and Free-Floating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Microlensing is generally thought to probe planetary systems only out to a few Einstein radii. Microlensing events generated by bound planets beyond about 10 Einstein radii generally do not yield any trace of their hosts, and so would be classified as free floating planets (FFPs). I show that it is already possible, using adaptive optics (AO), to constrain the presence of potential hosts to FFP candidates at separations comparable to the Oort Cloud. With next-generation telescopes, planets at Kuiper-Belt separations can be probed. Next generation telescopes will also permit routine vetting for all FFP candidates, simply by obtaining second epochs 4-8 years after the event.At present, the search for such hosts is restricted to within the ``confusion limit'' of θ_\\confus ˜ 0.25'' but future WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope) observations will allow one to probe beyond this confusion limit as well.

  19. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web

  20. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  1. The Next Generation EMR.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, Karim; Mirza, Kashif; Martin, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical/health record (EMR) usage in North America has increased significantly in the last half decade. But there is widespread dissatisfaction with the technologies that are currently available in the market place. Our hypothesis is that EMR vendors and the market place alone cannot solve the issue of poor technology. We propose an architecture for the next generation of electronic records that solves current concerns of end users and addresses the needs of additional stakeholders, including health system funders, patients, researchers and guideline implementers. By including additional stakeholders, we believe that additional resources, competencies and functionality can be unleashed to solve the larger problems of the current generation of EMRs. The architecture also addresses future requirements that are likely to arise from technological developments such as mobile apps and PHRs and from innovations in medicine, including genomics, artificial intelligence and personalized medicine. The paper makes a call to action for informatics researchers to play a greater role in R&D on EMRs. PMID:25676975

  2. Next Generation HVAC System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Yasuo; Murakami, Yoshiki; Hanada, Yuuichi; Nishimura, Nobutaka; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Itoh, Yasuyuki

    A new HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning) system for buildings is proposed. The key technology for the system is a twin coil air handling unit (AHU) and its advanced control method. One coil is equipped to cool and dehumidify the fresh air intake, and the other coil is for cooling circulated air. The deeply chilled water is necessary only for removing the moisture from the fresh air. The latter coil requires moderately cool water according to the HVAC load. Then 2 kinds of chilled water in terms of temperature should be prepared. The structure helps saving the energy consumption for air-conditioning because the higher chilled water temperature implies the better chiller efficiency (COP: Coefficient of Performance). In addition, an advanced control method that is called an ‘Air-Water cooperation system’ is introduced. The control system mainly focuses on energy savings through changing the temperature of the chilled water and supply air according to the HVAC load and weather conditions. In this paper, we introduce a Next Generation HVAC system with its control system and present evaluation results of the system for the model-building simulator.

  3. Next Generation Summer School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2013-04-01

    On 21.06.2010 the "Next Generation" Summer School has opened the doors for its first students. They were introduced in the astronomy world by astronomical observations, astronomy and radio-astronomy lectures, laboratory projects meant to initiate them into modern radio astronomy and radio communications. The didactic programme was structure as fallowing: 1) Astronomical elements from the visible spectrum (lectures + practical projects) 2) Radio astronomy elements (lectures + practical projects) 3) Radio communication base (didactic- recreative games) The students and professors accommodation was at the Agroturistic Pension "Popasul Iancului" situated at 800m from the Marisel Observatory. First day (summer solstice day) began with a practical activity: determination of the meridian by measurements of the shadow (the direction of one vertical alignment, when it has the smallest length). The experiment is very instructive and interesting because combines notions of physics, spatial geometry and basic astronomy elements. Next day the activities took place in four stages: the students processed the experimental data obtained on first day (on sheets of millimetre paper they represented the length of the shadow alignments according the time), each team realised its own sun quadrant, point were given considering the design and functionality of these quadrant, the four teams had to mimic important constellations on carton boards with phosphorescent sticky stars and the students, accompanied by the professors took a hiking trip to the surroundings, marking the interest point coordinates, using a GPS to establish the geographical coronations and at the end of the day the students realised a small map of central Marisel area based on the GPS data. On the third day, the students were introduced to basic notions of radio astronomy, the principal categories of artificial Earth satellites: low orbit satellites (LEO), Medium orbit satellites (MEO) and geostationary satellites (GEO

  4. Next generation information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Limback, Nathan P; Medina, Melanie A; Silva, Michelle E

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  5. A GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT-ENABLED, HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING PARAMETER SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bate, N. F.; Fluke, C. J.

    2012-01-10

    In the era of synoptic surveys, the number of known gravitationally lensed quasars is set to increase by over an order of magnitude. These new discoveries will enable a move from single-quasar studies to investigations of statistical samples, presenting new opportunities to test theoretical models for the structure of quasar accretion disks and broad emission line regions (BELRs). As one crucial step in preparing for this influx of new lensed systems, a large-scale exploration of microlensing convergence-shear parameter space is warranted, requiring the computation of O(10{sup 5}) high-resolution magnification maps. Based on properties of known lensed quasars, and expectations from accretion disk/BELR modeling, we identify regions of convergence-shear parameter space, map sizes, smooth matter fractions, and pixel resolutions that should be covered. We describe how the computationally time-consuming task of producing {approx}290,000 magnification maps with sufficient resolution (10,000{sup 2} pixel map{sup -1}) to probe scales from the inner edge of the accretion disk to the BELR can be achieved in {approx}400 days on a 100 teraflop s{sup -1} high-performance computing facility, where the processing performance is achieved with graphics processing units. We illustrate a use-case for the parameter survey by investigating the effects of varying the lens macro-model on accretion disk constraints in the lensed quasar Q2237+0305. We find that although all constraints are consistent within their current error bars, models with more densely packed microlenses tend to predict shallower accretion disk radial temperature profiles. With a large parameter survey such as the one described here, such systematics on microlensing measurements could be fully explored.

  6. The Next Generation Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Dennis Thomas; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2005-09-12

    This dissertation will elucidate the design, construction, theory, and operation of the Next Generation Photoinjector (NGP). This photoinjector is comprised of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell symmetrized S-band photocathode radio frequency (rf) electron gun and a single emittance-compensation solenoidal magnet. This photoinjector is a prototype for the Linear Coherent Light Source X-ray Free Electron Laser operating in the 1.5 {angstrom} range. Simulations indicate that this photoinjector is capable of producing a 1nC electron bunch with transverse normalized emittance less than 1 {pi} mm mrad were the cathode is illuminated with a 10 psec longitudinal flat top pulse. Using a Gaussian longitudinal laser profile with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of 10 psec, simulation indicates that the NGP is capable of producing a normalized rms emittance of 2.50 {pi} mm mrad at 1 nC. Using the removable cathode plate we have studied the quantum efficiency (QE) of both copper and magnesium photo-cathodes. The Cu QE was found to be 4.5 x 10{sup -5} with a 25% variation in the QE across the emitting surface of the cathode, while supporting a field gradient of 125 MV/m. At low charge, the transverse normalized rms emittance, {epsilon}{sub n,rms}, produced by the NGP is {epsilon}{sub n,rms} = 1.2 {pi} mm mrad for Q{sub T} = 0.3 nC. The 95% electron beam bunch length was measured to 10.9 psec. The emittance due to the finite magnetic field at the cathode has been studied. The scaling of this magnetic emittance term as a function of cathode magnetic field was found to be 0.01 {pi} mm mrad per Gauss. The 1.6 cell rf gun has been designed to reduce the dipole field asymmetry of the longitudinal accelerating field. Low level rf measurements show that this has in fact been accomplished, with an order of magnitude decrease in the dipole field. High power beam studies also show that the dipole field has been decreased. An upper limit of the intrinsic non-reducible thermal emittance of a

  7. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply

  8. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XII. Stellar Populations and Kinematics of Compact, Low-mass Early-type Galaxies from Gemini GMOS-IFU Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérou, Adrien; Emsellem, Eric; McDermid, Richard M.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Durrell, Patrick R.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Peng, Eric W.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We present Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph integral-field unit (GMOS-IFU) data of eight compact, low-mass early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Virgo cluster. We analyze their stellar kinematics and stellar population and present two-dimensional maps of these properties covering the central 5″ × 7″ region. We find a large variety of kinematics, from nonrotating to highly rotating objects, often associated with underlying disky isophotes revealed by deep images from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. In half of our objects, we find a centrally concentrated younger and more metal-rich stellar population. We analyze the specific stellar angular momentum through the λR parameter and find six fast rotators and two slow rotators, one having a thin counterrotating disk. We compare the local galaxy density and stellar populations of our objects with those of 39 more extended low-mass Virgo ETGs from the SMAKCED survey and 260 massive (M > 1010 {{M}⊙ }) ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample. The compact low-mass ETGs in our sample are located in high-density regions, often close to a massive galaxy, and have, on average, older and more metal-rich stellar populations than less compact low-mass galaxies. We find that the stellar population parameters follow lines of constant velocity dispersion in the mass-size plane, smoothly extending the comparable trends found for massive ETGs. Our study supports a scenario where low-mass compact ETGs have experienced long-lived interactions with their environment, including ram-pressure stripping and gravitational tidal forces, that may be responsible for their compact nature.

  9. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    PubMed

    Jaitovich Groisman, Iris; Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings. PMID:27167380

  10. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members

    PubMed Central

    Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants’ contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents’ experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings. PMID:27167380

  11. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. X. Properties of Ultra-compact Dwarfs in the M87, M49, and M60 Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Mihos, J. Christopher; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Blakeslee, John P.; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Guhathakurta, Puragra; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Xu, Haiguang

    2015-10-01

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color-color diagrams (u*iKs or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ˜3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ˜85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  12. Next Generation Virgo Survey Photometry and Keck/DEIMOS Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Satellites of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Chen, Stephanie; Yagati, Samyukta; Muller, Meredith; Next Generation Virgo Survey Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing study of globular cluster (GC) satellites of low-luminosity dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Our 21 dE targets and candidate GC satellites around them in the apparent magnitude range g ~ 20-24 were selected from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) and followed up with medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy (resolving power: R ~ 2000; wavelength coverage: 4800-9500 Angstrom). In addition, the remaining space available on the nine DEIMOS multi-slit masks were populated with "filler" targets in the form of distant Milky Way halo star candidates in a comparable apparent magnitude range. A combination of radial velocity information (measured from the Keck/DEIMOS spectra), color-color information (from four-band NGVS photometry), and sky position information was used to sort the sample into the following categories: (1) GC satellites of dEs, (2) other non-satellite GCs in the Virgo cluster (we dub them "orphan" GCs), (3) foreground Milky Way stars that are members of the Sagittarius stream, the Virgo overdensity, or the field halo population, and (4) distant background galaxies. We stack the GC satellite population across all 21 host dEs and carry out dynamical modeling of the stacked sample in order to constrain the average mass of dark matter halos that these dEs are embedded in. We study rotation in the system of GC satellites of dEs in the handful of more populated systems in our sample - i.e., those that contain 10 or more GC satellites per dE. A companion AAS poster presented at this meeting (Chu, J. et al. 2015) presents chemical composition and age constraints for these GC satellites relative to the nuclei of the host dEs based on absorption line strengths in co-added spectra. The orphan GCs are likely to be intergalactic GCs within the Virgo cluster (or, equivalently, GCs in the remote outer envelope of the cluster's central galaxy, the giant elliptical M87).This project is funded in part by the

  13. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Macri

    2002-02-28

    Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.

  14. Next-Generation Telemetry Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A next-generation telemetry workstation has been developed to replace the one currently used to test and control Range Safety systems. Improving upon the performance of the original system, the new telemetry workstation uses dual-channel telemetry boards for better synchronization of the two uplink telemetry streams. The new workstation also includes an Interrange Instrumentation Group/Global Positioning System (IRIG/GPS) time code receiver board for independent, local time stamping of return-link data. The next-generation system will also record and play back return-link data for postlaunch analysis.

  15. Microlensing Optical Depth towards the Galactic Bulge Using Clump Giants from the MACHO Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, P; Griest, K; Thomas, C L; Cook, K H; Bennett, D P; Becker, A C; Alves, D R; Minniti, D; Drake, A J; Alcock, C; Allsman, R A; Axelrod, T S; Freeman, K C; Geha, M; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Nelson, C A; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Vandehei, T; Welch, D

    2005-07-14

    Using 7 years of MACHO survey data, we present a new determination of the optical depth to microlensing towards the Galactic bulge. We select the sample of 62 microlensing events (60 unique) on clump giant sources and perform a detailed efficiency analysis. We use only the clump giant sources because these are bright bulge stars and are not as strongly affected by blending as other events. Using a subsample of 42 clump events concentrated in an area of 4.5 deg{sup 2} with 739000 clump giant stars, we find {tau} = 2.17{sub -0.38}{sup +0.47} x 10{sup -6} at (l,b) = (1{sup o}.50, -2{sup o}.68), somewhat smaller than found in most previous MACHO studies, but in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. We also present the optical depth in each of the 19 fields in which we detected events, and find limits on optical depth for fields with no events. The errors in optical depth in individual fields are dominated by Poisson noise. We measure optical depth gradients of (1.06 {+-} 0.71) x 10{sup -6}deg{sup -1} and (0.29 {+-} 0.43) x 10{sup -6}deg{sup -1} in the galactic latitude b and longitude l directions, respectively. Finally, we discuss the possibility of anomalous duration distribution of events in the field 104 centered on (l,b) = (3{sup o}.11, -3{sup o}.01) as well as investigate spatial clustering of events in all fields.

  16. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Frey, H. V.; Gross, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Noll, C. E.; Pavilis, E. C.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.; Zagwodski, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA s contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

  17. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hillard, L. M.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    survey system to measure inter-technique vectors for co-location; and (5) Develop an Implementation Plan to build, deploy and operate a next-generation integrated NASA SGN that will serve as NASA's contribution to the international global geodetic network. An envisioned Phase 2 (which is not currently funded) would include the replication of up to ten such stations to be deployed either as integrated units or as a complement to already in-place components provided by other organizations. This talk will give an update on the activities underway and the plans for completion.

  18. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XIII. The Luminosity and Mass Function of Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster and the Contribution from Disrupted Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben; Roediger, Joel; McConnachie, Alan W.; Durrell, Patrick R.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Blakeslee, John P.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Boissier, S.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Emsellem, Eric; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Mihos, J. Christopher; Navarro, Julio F.; Peng, Eric W.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Taylor, James E.; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-06-01

    We present measurements of the galaxy luminosity and stellar mass function in a 3.71 deg2 (0.3 Mpc2) area in the core of the Virgo Cluster, based on {u}\\ast griz data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). The galaxy sample—which consists of 352 objects brighter than M g = ‑9.13 mag, the 50% completeness limit of the survey—reaches 2.2 mag deeper than the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog and at least 1.2 mag deeper than any sample previously used to measure the luminosity function in Virgo. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find a best-fit faint-end slope of α = ‑1.33 ± 0.02 for the g-band luminosity function; consistent results are found for the stellar mass function and the luminosity function in the other four NGVS bandpasses. We discuss the implications for the faint-end slope of adding 92 ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs)—previously compiled by the NGVS in this region—to the galaxy sample, assuming that UCDs are the stripped remnants of nucleated dwarf galaxies. Under this assumption, the slope of the luminosity function (down to the UCD faint magnitude limit, M g = ‑9.6 mag) increases dramatically, up to α = ‑1.60 ± 0.06 when correcting for the expected number of disrupted non-nucleated galaxies. We also calculate the total number of UCDs and globular clusters that may have been deposited in the core of Virgo owing to the disruption of satellites, both nucleated and non-nucleated. We estimate that ˜150 objects with M g ≲ ‑9.6 mag and that are currently classified as globular clusters might, in fact, be the nuclei of disrupted galaxies. We further estimate that as many as 40% of the (mostly blue) globular clusters in the Virgo core might once have belonged to such satellites; these same disrupted satellites might have contributed ˜40% of the total luminosity in galaxies observed in the core region today. Finally, we use an updated Local Group galaxy catalog to provide a new measurement of the luminosity function of Local Group

  19. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XIII. The Luminosity and Mass Function of Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster and the Contribution from Disrupted Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben; Roediger, Joel; McConnachie, Alan W.; Durrell, Patrick R.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Blakeslee, John P.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Boissier, S.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Emsellem, Eric; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Mihos, J. Christopher; Navarro, Julio F.; Peng, Eric W.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Taylor, James E.; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-06-01

    We present measurements of the galaxy luminosity and stellar mass function in a 3.71 deg2 (0.3 Mpc2) area in the core of the Virgo Cluster, based on {u}\\ast griz data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). The galaxy sample—which consists of 352 objects brighter than M g = ‑9.13 mag, the 50% completeness limit of the survey—reaches 2.2 mag deeper than the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog and at least 1.2 mag deeper than any sample previously used to measure the luminosity function in Virgo. Using a Bayesian analysis, we find a best-fit faint-end slope of α = ‑1.33 ± 0.02 for the g-band luminosity function; consistent results are found for the stellar mass function and the luminosity function in the other four NGVS bandpasses. We discuss the implications for the faint-end slope of adding 92 ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs)—previously compiled by the NGVS in this region—to the galaxy sample, assuming that UCDs are the stripped remnants of nucleated dwarf galaxies. Under this assumption, the slope of the luminosity function (down to the UCD faint magnitude limit, M g = ‑9.6 mag) increases dramatically, up to α = ‑1.60 ± 0.06 when correcting for the expected number of disrupted non-nucleated galaxies. We also calculate the total number of UCDs and globular clusters that may have been deposited in the core of Virgo owing to the disruption of satellites, both nucleated and non-nucleated. We estimate that ∼150 objects with M g ≲ ‑9.6 mag and that are currently classified as globular clusters might, in fact, be the nuclei of disrupted galaxies. We further estimate that as many as 40% of the (mostly blue) globular clusters in the Virgo core might once have belonged to such satellites; these same disrupted satellites might have contributed ∼40% of the total luminosity in galaxies observed in the core region today. Finally, we use an updated Local Group galaxy catalog to provide a new measurement of the luminosity function of Local Group

  20. Next-generation air monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution measurement technology is advancing rapidly towards smaller-scale and wireless devices, with a potential to significantly change the landscape of air pollution monitoring. EPA is evaluating and developing a range of next-generation air monitoring (NGAM) technologie...

  1. Resists for next generation lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, Robert L.; Barclay, George G.; Anderson, Erik H.; Ocola, Leonidas E.

    2001-10-03

    Four Next Generation Lithographic options (EUV, x-ray, EPL, IPL) are compared against four current optical technologies (i-line, DUV, 193 nm, 157 nm) for resolution capabilities based on wavelength. As the wavelength of the incident radiation decreases, the nature of the interaction with the resist changes. At high energies, optical density is less sensitive to molecular structure then at 157 nm.

  2. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Fournier, Amanda P.; Street, Rachel; Ofek, Eran O.; Covey, Kevin R.; Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  3. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bely, Pierre-Yves (Editor); Burrows,, Christopher J. (Editor); Illingworth,, Garth D.

    1989-01-01

    In Space Science in the Twenty-First Century, the Space Science Board of the National Research Council identified high-resolution-interferometry and high-throughput instruments as the imperative new initiatives for NASA in astronomy for the two decades spanning 1995 to 2015. In the optical range, the study recommended an 8 to 16-meter space telescope, destined to be the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and to complement the ground-based 8 to 10-meter-class telescopes presently under construction. It might seem too early to start planning for a successor to HST. In fact, we are late. The lead time for such major missions is typically 25 years, and HST has been in the making even longer with its inception dating back to the early 1960s. The maturity of space technology and a more substantial technological base may lead to a shorter time scale for the development of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Optimistically, one could therefore anticipate that NGST be flown as early as 2010. On the other hand, the planned lifetime of HST is 15 years. So, even under the best circumstances, there will be a five year gap between the end of HST and the start of NGST. The purpose of this first workshop dedicated to NGST was to survey its scientific potential and technical challenges. The three-day meeting brought together 130 astronomers and engineers from government, industry and universities. Participants explored the technologies needed for building and operating the observatory, reviewed the current status and future prospects for astronomical instrumentation, and discussed the launch and space support capabilities likely to be available in the next decade. To focus discussion, the invited speakers were asked to base their presentations on two nominal concepts, a 10-meter telescope in space in high earth orbit, and a 16-meter telescope on the moon. The workshop closed with a panel discussion focused mainly on the scientific case, siting, and the

  4. NASA's Next Generation Space Geodesy Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, S. D.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry, J. F.; Merkowitz, S. M.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN). Each of the sites in this planned network co-locate current state-of-the-art stations from all four space geodetic observing systems, GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS, with the goal of achieving modern requirements for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). In particular, the driving ITRF requirements for this network are 1.0 mm in accuracy and 0.1 mm/yr in stability, a factor of 10-20 beyond current capabilities. Development of the prototype core site, located at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center, started in 2011 and will be completed by the end of 2013. In January 2012, two operational GNSS stations, GODS and GOON, were established at the prototype site within 100 m of each other. Both stations are being proposed for inclusion into the IGS network. In addition, work is underway for the inclusion of next generation SLR and VLBI stations along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vectorties, and network design studies are being performed to define the appropriate number and distribution of these next generation space geodetic core sites that are required to achieve the driving ITRF requirements. We present the status of this prototype next generation space geodetic core site, results from the analysis of data from the established geodetic stations, and results from the ongoing network design studies.

  5. Regulation of next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Javitt, Gail H; Carner, Katherine Strong

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing raises new questions within the context of an existing and still evolving regulatory landscape for device manufacturers and clinical laboratories. FDA cleared the first NGS sequencing platform in November 2013, but it is unclear what lies ahead for this technology. NGS will require new types of training and expertise to interpret the vast quantities of genetic data so as to provide meaningful clinical information to physicians and patients. This paper will describe the current regulatory landscape for NGS technologies, identify the regulatory challenges they present, and consider whether new regulatory paradigms are needed to accommodate NGS technologies and services. PMID:25298288

  6. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  7. Rhamnolipids--next generation surfactants?

    PubMed

    Müller, Markus Michael; Kügler, Johannes H; Henkel, Marius; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hörmann, Barbara; Pöhnlein, Martin; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2012-12-31

    The demand for bio-based processes and materials in the petrochemical industry has significantly increased during the last decade because of the expected running out of petroleum. This trend can be ascribed to three main causes: (1) the increased use of renewable resources for chemical synthesis of already established product classes, (2) the replacement of chemical synthesis of already established product classes by new biotechnological processes based on renewable resources, and (3) the biotechnological production of new molecules with new features or better performances than already established comparable chemically synthesized products. All three approaches are currently being pursued for surfactant production. Biosurfactants are a very promising and interesting substance class because they are based on renewable resources, sustainable, and biologically degradable. Alkyl polyglycosides are chemically synthesized biosurfactants established on the surfactant market. The first microbiological biosurfactants on the market were sophorolipids. Of all currently known biosurfactants, rhamnolipids have the highest potential for becoming the next generation of biosurfactants introduced on the market. Although the metabolic pathways and genetic regulation of biosynthesis are known qualitatively, the quantitative understanding relevant for bioreactor cultivation is still missing. Additionally, high product titers have been exclusively described with vegetable oil as sole carbon source in combination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Competitive productivity is still out of reach for heterologous hosts or non-pathogenic natural producer strains. Thus, on the one hand there is a need to gain a deeper understanding of the regulation of rhamnolipid production on process and cellular level during bioreactor cultivations. On the other hand, there is a need for metabolizable renewable substrates, which do not compete with food and feed. A sustainable bioeconomy approach should

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardis, Elaine R.

    2013-06-01

    Automated DNA sequencing instruments embody an elegant interplay among chemistry, engineering, software, and molecular biology and have built upon Sanger's founding discovery of dideoxynucleotide sequencing to perform once-unfathomable tasks. Combined with innovative physical mapping approaches that helped to establish long-range relationships between cloned stretches of genomic DNA, fluorescent DNA sequencers produced reference genome sequences for model organisms and for the reference human genome. New types of sequencing instruments that permit amazing acceleration of data-collection rates for DNA sequencing have been developed. The ability to generate genome-scale data sets is now transforming the nature of biological inquiry. Here, I provide an historical perspective of the field, focusing on the fundamental developments that predated the advent of next-generation sequencing instruments and providing information about how these instruments work, their application to biological research, and the newest types of sequencers that can extract data from single DNA molecules.

  9. Next generation imager performance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian; Reynolds, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    The next generation of Army imager performance models is currently under development at NVESD. The aim of this new model is to provide a flexible and extensible engineering tool for system design which encapsulates all of the capabilities of the existing Night Vision model suite (NVThermIP, SSCamIP, etc) along with many new design tools and features including a more intuitive interface, the ability to perform trade studies, and a library of standard and user generated components. By combining the previous model architectures in one interface the new design is better suited to capture emerging technologies such as fusion and new sensor modalities. In this paper we will describe the general structure of the model and some of its current capabilities along with future development plans.

  10. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David A. Petti

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear- based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950°C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications (see Figure 1). The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to other nuclear technologies.

  11. Japan's next generation of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togai, M.

    1984-03-01

    In 1983, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) initiated a project with the objective to develop robots capable of operating in environments which might be intolerable or unsafe for humans. Three special-purpose robots are to be designed for operations in nuclear plants and undersea research stations, taking into account tasks related to disaster relief, equipment and facility maintenance, and advanced assembly. The development of generic technologies is planned, giving attention to mobile mechanisms, manipulators, sensors, control systems, and system totalization. A preview of the considered project is presented along with an overview regarding the next generation of robots, and an outline of the various subsidiary research projects which are to be completed in the 1990s.

  12. Next generation oil reservoir simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a collaborative effort between Amoco Production Company, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cray Research Inc. to develop a next-generation massively parallel oil reservoir simulation code. The simulator, code-named Falcon, enables highly detailed simulations to be performed on a range of platforms such as the Cray T3D and T3E. The code is currently being used by Amoco to perform a sophisticated field study using multiple geostatistical realizations on a scale of 2-5 million grid blocks and 1000-2000 wells. In this paper we discuss the nature of this collaborative effort, the software design and engineering aspects of the code, parallelization experiences, and performance studies. The code will be marketed to the oil industry by a third-party independent software vendor in mid-1996.

  13. Microlensing Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Andrew

    The theory and practice of microlensing planet searches is developed in a systematic way, from an elementary treatment of the deflection of light by a massive body to a thorough discussion of the most recent results. The main concepts of planetary microlensing, including microlensing events, finite-source effects, and microlens parallax, are first introduced within the simpler context of point-lens events. These ideas are then applied to binary (and hence planetary) lenses and are integrated with concepts specific to binaries, including caustic topologies, orbital motion, and degeneracies, with an emphasis on analytic understanding. The most important results from microlensing planet searches are then reviewed, with emphasis both on understanding the historical process of discovery and the means by which scientific conclusions were drawn from light-curve analysis. Finally, the future prospects of microlensing planets searches are critically evaluated. Citations to original works provide the reader with multiple entry points into the literature.

  14. Next Generation NASA Initiative for Space Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Desai, S.; Gross, R. S.; Hilliard, L.; Lemoine, F. G.; Long, J. L.; Ma, C.; McGarry J. F.; Murphy, D.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Pearlman, M. R.; Stowers, D. A.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-01-01

    Space geodesy measurement requirements have become more and more stringent as our understanding of the physical processes and our modeling techniques have improved. In addition, current and future spacecraft will have ever-increasing measurement capability and will lead to increasingly sophisticated models of changes in the Earth system. Ground-based space geodesy networks with enhanced measurement capability will be essential to meeting these oncoming requirements and properly interpreting the sate1!ite data. These networks must be globally distributed and built for longevity, to provide the robust data necessary to generate improved models for proper interpretation ofthe observed geophysical signals. These requirements have been articulated by the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The NASA Space Geodesy Project (SGP) is developing a prototype core site as the basis for a next generation Space Geodetic Network (SGN) that would be NASA's contribution to a global network designed to produce the higher quality data required to maintain the Terrestrial Reference Frame and provide information essential for fully realizing the measurement potential of the current and coming generation of Earth Observing spacecraft. Each of the sites in the SGN would include co-located, state of-the-art systems from all four space geodetic observing techniques (GNSS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS). The prototype core site is being developed at NASA's Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project commenced in 2011 and is scheduled for completion in late 2013. In January 2012, two multiconstellation GNSS receivers, GODS and GODN, were established at the prototype site as part of the local geodetic network. Development and testing are also underway on the next generation SLR and VLBI systems along with a modern DORIS station. An automated survey system is being developed to measure inter-technique vector ties, and network design studies are being

  15. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  16. Next generation digital GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, G. B.; Yakos, Michael D.

    1990-07-01

    The architecture and technology features of the next-generation (NGR) digital GPS receiver manufactured by Collins are described. The project's objective was to develop an advanced GPS receiver chipset with high antijam capabilities. The program, initiated in 1985, has provided the technology for miniature receiver products for both unmanned and manned vehicle applications. A two-channel version of the receiver is currently in full-scale development for tactical missile applications. A five-channel version is being tested and evaluated as a drop-in replacement for RCVR-3A, the US Department of Defense standard high dynamic receiver. The NGR design started with the digital signal processing architecture developed for the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) hand-held GPS receiver. Enhancements were made to improve the antijam and signal acquisition performance. Producible, qualifiable and cost-effective silicon monolithic microwave integrated circuits and semicustom digital technologies were used to develop the core GPS chipset. A system design approach was established to permit reuse of mature and validated GPS software.

  17. Next-generation Digital Earth

    PubMed Central

    Goodchild, Michael F.; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J.; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of “big data” has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public’s access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation. PMID:22723346

  18. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  19. Next-Generation Tumbleweed Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a next-generation tumbleweed rover that involves a split balloon system that is made up of two half-spherical air bladders with a disc between them. This disc contains all the electronics and instruments. By deflating only the bottom balloon, the rover can sit, bringing the surface probe into contact with the ground. The bottom balloon has a channel passing through it, allowing the surface probe to reach the surface through the balloon. Once the sample has been gathered and analyzed, the rover can re-inflate the lower air bladder and continue rolling. The rover will use a small set of instruments and electronics situated at the center of its inflatable spherical hull. The current version is a large beach-ball-like construction, about 1.8 m in diameter and weighing roughly 15 kg. The rover comprises two major parts, an outer spherical hull (split in half at the central disc) and an inner, disc-shaped cylindrical section. The balloons are attached to the bottom and top of the disc. Inside the disc, there are temperature and pressure sensors to keep track of the inner and outer conditions of the rover. A system of pumps and valves is responsible for independently inflating and deflating the balloons as necessary. There are also accelerometers to record the movement, together with a GPS receiver. The data are then sent through a modem to a control station. This work builds upon the project Tumbleweed rover for planetary exploration, described in the Technical Support Package.

  20. Next Generation National Security Leaders

    SciTech Connect

    Mahy, Heidi A.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Stein, Steven L.; Toomey, Christopher

    2012-07-19

    It is generally accepted that the international security community faces an impending challenge in its changing leadership demographics. The workforce that currently addresses nonproliferation, arms control, and verification is moving toward retirement and there is a perceived need for programs to train a new set of experts for both technical- and policy-related functions to replace the retiring generation. Despite the perceived need, there are also indicators that there are not sufficient jobs for individuals we are currently training. If we had “right-sized” the training programs, there would not be a shortage of jobs. The extent and scope of the human resource crisis is unclear, and information about training programs and how they meet existing needs is minimal. This paper seeks to achieve two objectives: 1) Clarify the major human resource problem and potential consequences; and 2) Propose how to characterize the requirement with sufficient granularity to enable key stakeholders to link programs aimed at developing the next generations of experts with employment needs. In order to accomplish both these goals, this paper recommends establishing a forum comprised of key stakeholders of this issue (including universities, public and private sectors), and conducting a study of the human resources and resource needs of the global security community. If there is indeed a human resource crisis in the global security field, we cannot address the problem if we are uninformed. The solution may lie in training more (or fewer) young professions to work in this community – or it may lie in more effectively using our existing resources and training programs.

  1. A Survey on Next-Generation Mixed Line Rate (MLR) and Energy-Driven Wavelength-Division Multiplexed (WDM) Optical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Sridhar

    2015-06-01

    With the ever-increasing traffic demands, infrastructure of the current 10 Gbps optical network needs to be enhanced. Further, since the energy crisis is gaining increasing concerns, new research topics need to be devised and technological solutions for energy conservation need to be investigated. In all-optical mixed line rate (MLR) network, feasibility of a lightpath is determined by the physical layer impairment (PLI) accumulation. Contrary to PLI-aware routing and wavelength assignment (PLIA-RWA) algorithm applicable for a 10 Gbps wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network, a new Routing, Wavelength, Modulation format assignment (RWMFA) algorithm is required for the MLR optical network. With the rapid growth of energy consumption in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), recently, lot of attention is being devoted toward "green" ICT solutions. This article presents a review of different RWMFA (PLIA-RWA) algorithms for MLR networks, and surveys the most relevant research activities aimed at minimizing energy consumption in optical networks. In essence, this article presents a comprehensive and timely survey on a growing field of research, as it covers most aspects of MLR and energy-driven optical networks. Hence, the author aims at providing a comprehensive reference for the growing base of researchers who will work on MLR and energy-driven optical networks in the upcoming years. Finally, the article also identifies several open problems for future research.

  2. Optimal survey strategies and predicted planet yields for the Korean microlensing telescope network

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Calen B.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Skowron, Jan; Penny, Matthew T.; Gould, Andrew P.; Han, Cheongho; Nataf, David

    2014-10-10

    The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) will consist of three 1.6 m telescopes each with a 4 deg{sup 2} field of view (FoV) and will be dedicated to monitoring the Galactic Bulge to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. KMTNet's combination of aperture size, FoV, cadence, and longitudinal coverage will provide a unique opportunity to probe exoplanet demographics in an unbiased way. Here we present simulations that optimize the observing strategy for and predict the planetary yields of KMTNet. We find preferences for four target fields located in the central Bulge and an exposure time of t {sub exp} = 120 s, leading to the detection of ∼2200 microlensing events per year. We estimate the planet detection rates for planets with mass and separation across the ranges 0.1 ≤ M{sub p} /M {sub ⊕} ≤ 1000 and 0.4 ≤ a/AU ≤ 16, respectively. Normalizing these rates to the cool-planet mass function of Cassan et al., we predict KMTNet will be approximately uniformly sensitive to planets with mass 5 ≤ M{sub p} /M {sub ⊕} ≤ 1000 and will detect ∼20 planets per year per dex in mass across that range. For lower-mass planets with mass 0.1 ≤ M{sub p} /M {sub ⊕} < 5, we predict KMTNet will detect ∼10 planets per year. We also compute the yields KMTNet will obtain for free-floating planets (FFPs) and predict KMTNet will detect ∼1 Earth-mass FFP per year, assuming an underlying population of one such planet per star in the Galaxy. Lastly, we investigate the dependence of these detection rates on the number of observatories, the photometric precision limit, and optimistic assumptions regarding seeing, throughput, and flux measurement uncertainties.

  3. Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In-Space propulsion technologies relevant to Mars presentation is for the 14.03 Emerging Technologies for Mars Exploration panel. The talk will address propulsion technology needs for future Mars science missions, and will address electric propulsion, Earth entry vehicles, light weight propellant tanks, and the Mars ascent vehicle. The second panel presentation is Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions. This talk is for 14.02 Technology Needs for the Next Generation of NASA Science Missions panel. The talk will summarize the technology needs identified in the NAC's Planetary Science Decadal Survey, and will set the stage for the talks for the 4 other panelist.

  4. Next generation vertical electrode cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Craig

    2001-05-01

    The concept of the vertical electrode cell (VEC) for aluminum electrowinning is presented with reference to current research. Low-temperature electrolysis allows nonconsumable metal-alloy anodes to show ongoing promise in laboratory tests. The economic and environmental advantages of the VEC are surveyed. The unique challenges of bringing VEC technology into practice are discussed. The current status of laboratory research is summarized. New results presented show that commercial purity aluminum can be produced with promisingly high current efficiency.

  5. Advanced IRFPAs for next-generation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John T.; Fletcher, Christopher L.; Graham, Roger W.; Patten, Elizabeth A.; Pham, Le T.; Pierce, Gregory; Scribner, Dean A.; Skele, Martins; Taylor, Scott M.; Trautfield, Walter C.

    2004-08-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has invented and demonstrated a new class of advanced focal plane arrays. These Advanced FPAs are sometimes called 3rd Generation or "Next Generation" FPAs because they have integrated onto the FPA the ability to sense multiple IR spectrums, have improved resolution and performance, and conduct image processing on the FPA ROIC. These next generation of FPAs are allowing more functionality and the detection of a more diverse set of data than previously possible with 2nd Gen FPAs. Examples and history of advanced next generation FPAs are reviewed including RVS"s Multispectral, Uncooled, Adaptive Sensors and other advanced sensors.

  6. Analysis of Next Generation TCP

    SciTech Connect

    Halliday, K; Hurst, A; Nelson, J

    2004-12-13

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) has been around for around 30 years, and in that time computer networks have increased in speed and reliability many times over. TCP has done very well to maintain stability and avoid collapse from congestion in the Internet with this incredible increase in speed. But as the speed of networks continues to increase, some assumptions about the underlying network that influenced the design of TCP may no longer hold valid. Additionally, modern networks often span many different types of links. For example, one end-to-end transmission may traverse both an optical link (high-bandwidth, low-loss) and a wireless network (low-bandwidth, high loss). TCP does not perform well in these situations. This survey will examine some of the reasons for this, focusing on high-bandwidth networks, and offer some solutions that have been proposed to fix these problems. This paper assumes basic knowledge of the TCP protocol.

  7. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. II. The frequency of planets orbiting M dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-20

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (∼0.1 M {sub Jup}) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M {sub Jup}) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub Jup} ≲ 13) with periods 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} is f{sub J}=0.029{sub −0.015}{sup +0.013}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub G}=0.15{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4}), we find f{sub G{sup ′}}=0.11±0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 ≤ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≤ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub p} = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  8. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics from Radial Velocity and Microlensing Surveys. II. The Frequency of Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (~0.1 M Jup) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M Jup) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 <~ mp sin i/M Jup <~ 13) with periods 1 <= P/days <= 104 is f_J=0.029^{+0.013}_{-0.015}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 <~ mp sin i/M ⊕ <~ 104 and 1 <= P/days <= 104 to be f_G=0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.07}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 <~ mp sin i/M ⊕ <~ 104), we find f_G^{\\prime }=0.11+/- 0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 <= mp sin i/M ⊕ <= 104 and 1 <= P/days <= 104 to be fp = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  9. Next Generation Spacecraft, Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This special bibliography includes research on reusable launch vehicles, aerospace planes, shuttle replacement, crew/cargo transfer vehicle, related X-craft, orbital space plane, and next generation launch technology.

  10. The Next Generation of Space Communications

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is looking for the next generation of space communications technology and Laser Comm may be the answer. Optical communications provide higher bandwidth, which allows for faster data flow and e...

  11. Enabling America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs o America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles are presented. The topics include: 1) UAV's- Unlimited Applications; 2) Global Challenges; 3) UAV/CNS Overview; 4) Communications; 5) Navigation; and 6) Surveillance.

  12. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  13. Proceedings of the Next Generation Exploration Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schingler, Robbie (Editor); Lynch, Kennda

    2006-01-01

    The Next Generation Exploration Conference (NGEC) brought together the emerging next generation of space leaders over three intensive days of collaboration and planning. The participants extended the ongoing work of national space agencies to draft a common strategic framework for lunar exploration, to include other destinations in the solar system. NGEC is the first conference to bring together emerging leaders to comment on and contribute to these activities. The majority of the three-day conference looked beyond the moon and focused on the "next destination": Asteroids, Cis-Lunar, Earth 3.0, Mars Science and Exploration, Mars Settlement and Society, and Virtual Worlds and Virtual Exploration.

  14. Compact CFB: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, J.

    1996-12-31

    The next generation of compact circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is described in outline form. The following topics are discussed: compact CFB = pyroflow + compact separator; compact CFB; compact separator is a breakthrough design; advantages of CFB; new design with substantial development history; KUHMO: successful demo unit; KUHMO: good performance over load range with low emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; compact CFB installations; next generation CFB boiler; grid nozzle upgrades; cast segmented vortex finders; vortex finder installation; ceramic anchors; pre-cast vertical bullnose; refractory upgrades; and wet gunning.

  15. 78 FR 64404 - Next Generation 911; Text-to-911; Next Generation 911 Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... released September 30, 2013. The full text of this document is available for public inspection and copying... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Next Generation 911; Text-to-911; Next Generation 911 Applications AGENCY: Federal... (Commission) amends the text-to-911 ``bounce-back'' requirement as it applies to Commercial Mobile...

  16. Next Generation Drivetrain Development and Test Program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jonathan; Erdman, Bill; Blodgett, Doug; Halse, Chris; Grider, Dave

    2015-11-03

    This presentation was given at the Wind Energy IQ conference in Bremen, Germany, November 30 through December 2, 2105. It focused on the next-generation drivetrain architecture and drivetrain technology development and testing (including gearbox and inverter software and medium-voltage inverter modules.

  17. Data Analysis and Next Generation Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    For the last decade, much of the work of California school administrators has been shaped by the accountability of the No Child Left Behind Act. Now as they stand at the precipice of Common Core Standards and next generation assessments, it is important to reflect on the proficiency educators have attained in using data to improve instruction and…

  18. Designing the next generation of robotic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, David G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of scenario-based, object-oriented software engineering methodologies in the next generation of robotic controllers is discussed. The controllers are intended to supplant the decades old technology currently embraced by the manufacturing industry of the United States.

  19. New Learning: The Next Generation of Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Diane D.; Aalsburg Wiessner, Colleen; Storberg-Walker, Julia; Hatcher, Tim

    2006-01-01

    New Learning is an innovative process, aimed at collaborative learning in professional and scholarly events, that we suggest may be the "next generation" of evaluation. In this manuscript we review the literature of evaluation, describe what new learning is and how it works, and then compare and contrast it with traditional evaluation methods and…

  20. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Harris, Christopher J.; DeBarger, Angela Haydel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards embody a new vision for science education grounded in the idea that science is both a body of knowledge and a set of linked practices for developing knowledge. The authors describe strategies that they suggest school and district leaders consider when designing strategies to support NGSS implementation.

  1. Panel Moves toward "Next Generation" Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a national effort to produce "next generation" science standards for K-12 education, a panel of experts convened by the National Research Council (NRC) has issued a draft of a conceptual framework designed to guide the standards and "move science education toward a more coherent vision." One key goal of the effort is to focus science…

  2. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VII. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-luminosity Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster, and a Comparison with the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; McConnacchie, Alan W.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Emsellem, Eric; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Simard, Luc; Boyer, Fred; Santos, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the intrinsic shapes of low-luminosity galaxies in the central 300 kpc of the Virgo Cluster using deep imaging obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). We build a sample of nearly 300 red-sequence cluster members in the yet-unexplored -14 < Mg < -8 mag range, and we measure their apparent axis ratios, q, through Sérsic fits to their two-dimensional light distribution, which is well described by a constant ellipticity parameter. The resulting distribution of apparent axis ratios is then fit by families of triaxial models with normally distributed intrinsic ellipticities, E = 1 - C/A, and triaxialities, T = (A2 - B2)/(A2 - C2). We develop a Bayesian framework to explore the posterior distribution of the model parameters, which allows us to work directly on discrete data, and to account for individual, surface-brightness-dependent axis ratio uncertainties. For this population we infer a mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.43}-0.02+0.02 and a mean triaxiality \\bar{T} = {0.16}-0.06+0.07. This implies that faint Virgo galaxies are best described as a family of thick, nearly oblate spheroids with mean intrinsic axis ratios 1:0.94:0.57. The core of Virgo lacks highly elongated low-luminosity galaxies, with 95% of the population having q > 0.45. We additionally attempt a study of the intrinsic shapes of Local Group (LG) satellites of similar luminosities. For the LG population we infer a slightly larger mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.51}-0.06+0.07, and the paucity of objects with round apparent shapes translates into more triaxial mean shapes, 1:0.76:0.49. Numerical studies that follow the tidal evolution of satellites within LG-sized halos are in good agreement with the inferred shape distributions, but the mismatch for faint galaxies in Virgo highlights the need for more adequate simulations of this population in the cluster environment. We finally compare the intrinsic shapes of NGVS low-mass galaxies with

  3. Stellar Rotation Effects in Polarimetric Microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that the polarization signal in microlensing events of hot stars is larger than that of main-sequence stars. Most hot stars rotate rapidly around their stellar axes. The stellar rotation creates ellipticity and gravity-darkening effects that break the spherical symmetry of the source's shape and the circular symmetry of the source's surface brightness respectively. Hence, it causes a net polarization signal for the source star. This polarization signal should be considered in polarimetric microlensing of fast rotating stars. For moderately rotating stars, lensing can magnify or even characterize small polarization signals due to the stellar rotation through polarimetric observations. The gravity-darkening effect due to a rotating source star creates asymmetric perturbations in polarimetric and photometric microlensing curves whose maximum occurs when the lens trajectory crosses the projected position of the rotation pole on the sky plane. The stellar ellipticity creates a time shift (i) in the position of the second peak of the polarimetric curves in transit microlensing events and (ii) in the peak position of the polarimetric curves with respect to the photometric peak position in bypass microlensing events. By measuring this time shift via polarimetric observations of microlensing events, we can evaluate the ellipticity of the projected source surface on the sky plane. Given the characterizations of the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) polarimeter at the Very Large Telescope, the probability of observing this time shift is very small. The more accurate polarimeters of the next generation may well measure these time shifts and evaluate the ellipticity of microlensing source stars.

  4. Next-generation emergency response robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Forrest; Paul, George; Dunten, Seth; Kennedy, William; Dietsch, Jeanne A.

    2004-09-01

    As reported by Blitch, current Search and Rescue robots have proven inadequate in the field. Shortfalls in mobility include: inadequate relationship between traction and drag, inadequate self-righting, inadequate sensor protection and too many protrusions to snag. Because autonomous navigation is often impossible but tele-operation may be difficult, sliding autonomy is critical. In addition, next generation SR robots need plug-n-play sensor options and modular cargo holds to deliver daughter-bots or other specialized rescue equipment. Finally, dust and smoke have caused both sensors and robots to fail in the field. Many of the needs of Search and Rescue teams are shared by all Emergency Response robots: EOD, SWAT, HazMat and other law enforcement officers. We discuss how next-generation designs solve many of the problems currently facing ER robots.

  5. Next Generation Multimedia Distributed Data Base Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Stuart E.

    1997-01-01

    The paradigm of client/server computing is changing. The model of a server running a monolithic application and supporting clients at the desktop is giving way to a different model that blurs the line between client and server. We are on the verge of plunging into the next generation of computing technology--distributed object-oriented computing. This is not only a change in requirements but a change in opportunities, and requires a new way of thinking for Information System (IS) developers. The information system demands caused by global competition are requiring even more access to decision making tools. Simply, object-oriented technology has been developed to supersede the current design process of information systems which is not capable of handling next generation multimedia.

  6. Next generation biofuel engineering in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation biofuels must be compatible with current transportation infrastructure and be derived from environmentally sustainable resources that do not compete with food crops. Many bacterial species have unique properties advantageous to the production of such next-generation fuels. However, no single species possesses all characteristics necessary to make high quantities of fuels from plant waste or CO2. Species containing a subset of the desired characteristics are used as starting points for engineering organisms with all desired attributes. Metabolic engineering of model organisms has yielded high titer production of advanced fuels, including alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives. Technical developments now allow engineering of native fuel producers, as well as lignocellulolytic and autotrophic bacteria, for the production of biofuels. Continued research on multiple fronts is required to engineer organisms for truly sustainable and economical biofuel production. PMID:23623045

  7. Neutronics activities for next generation devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Neutronic activities for the next generation devices are the subject of this paper. The main activities include TFCX and FPD blanket/shield studies, neutronic aspects of ETR/INTOR critical issues, and neutronics computational modules for the tokamak system code and tandem mirror reactor system code. Trade-off analyses, optimization studies, design problem investigations and computational models development for reactor parametric studies carried out for these activities are summarized.

  8. Interferometric observation of microlensing events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassan, Arnaud; Ranc, Clément

    2016-05-01

    Interferometric observations of microlensing events have the potential to provide unique constraints on the physical properties of the lensing systems. In this work, we first present a formalism that closely combines interferometric and microlensing observable quantities, which lead us to define an original microlensing (u, v) plane. We run simulations of long-baseline interferometric observations and photometric light curves to decide which observational strategy is required to obtain a precise measurement on vector Einstein radius. We finally perform a detailed analysis of the expected number of targets in the light of new microlensing surveys (2011+) which currently deliver 2000 alerts per year. We find that a few events are already at reach of long-baseline interferometers (CHARA, VLTI), and a rate of about six events per year is expected with a limiting magnitude of K ≃ 10. This number would increase by an order of magnitude by raising it to K ≃ 11. We thus expect that a new route for characterizing microlensing events will be opened by the upcoming generations of interferometers.

  9. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmet, Jérôme; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus; Spinola Durante, Guido; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut; Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried; Keppner, Herbert

    2009-08-01

    structures and their potential to deliver next generation micro devices.

  10. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. ); Kozanecki, W. )

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  11. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  12. Security Profile Inspector (SPI): The next generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoletti, T.; Fisher, J.

    1995-03-01

    The current Security Profile Inspector (SPI) conducts analysis of UNIX and VMS based operating system configurations to help system managers maintain secure operating environments. A broad horizontal range of security tests with a vertical array of usage options supports the needs of both novice and experienced system administrators. Its modular structure was designed to provide a foundation for distributed operation and network-wide inspection conducted from a central command host. The {open_quotes}Next Generation{close_quotes} SPI outlined should serve to promote cost-effective computer security for many years.

  13. Next generation neonatal health informatics with Artemis.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Carolyn; Catley, Christina; James, Andrew; Padbury, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a platform to enable processing of currently uncharted high frequency, high fidelity, synchronous data from medical devices. Such a platform would support the next generation of informatics solutions for neonatal intensive care. We present Artemis, a platform for real-time enactment of clinical knowledge as it relates to multidimensional data analysis and clinical research. Through specific deployment examples at two different neonatal intensive care units, we demonstrate that Artemis supports: 1) instantiation of clinical rules; 2) multidimensional analysis; 3) distribution of services for critical care via cloud computing; and 4) accomplishing 1 through 3 using current technology without a negative impact on patient care. PMID:21893725

  14. Morf - Towards Next Generation Digital Media Management

    SciTech Connect

    Almquist, Justin P.; Connell, Linda M.; Johns, Zoe C.; Dillon, Heather E.; Elliott, Geoffrey

    2005-07-27

    The Morf project is developing next generation digital media management technologies by incorporating features of traditional systems such as digital libraries, knowledge bases, and content management systems. In particular, Morf supports fine-grained content management by allowing text, graphics, or any media to be reused throughout the system, which creates for a ?change once, permeate everywhere? environment. Additionally, Morf provides searching and browsing capabilities of multiple media types across internal and external content. This paper describes the requirements, design, and implementation of Morf and presents three web tools currently driven by the Morf platform.

  15. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  16. Next-Generation Sequencing in Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Carvill, Gemma L; Mefford, Heather C

    2015-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized gene discovery in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and led to an unprecedented expansion in the number of genes implicated in this disorder. We discuss the strategies that have been used to identify these novel genes for both syndromic and nonsyndromic ID and highlight the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity that underpin this condition. Finally, we discuss the future of defining the genetic etiology of ID, including the role of whole-genome sequencing, mosaicism, and the importance of diagnostic testing in ID. PMID:27617123

  17. Formal Verification for a Next-Generation Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Stacy D.; Pecheur, Charles; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the verification and validation (V&2) of advanced software used for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM), in the context of NASA's next-generation space shuttle. We survey the current VBCV practice and standards used in selected NASA projects, review applicable formal verification techniques, and discuss their integration info existing development practice and standards. We also describe two verification tools, JMPL2SMV and Livingstone PathFinder, that can be used to thoroughly verify diagnosis applications that use model-based reasoning, such as the Livingstone system.

  18. Next-generation sequencing for mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, C J; Brilhante, V; Suomalainen, A

    2014-01-01

    A great deal of our understanding of mitochondrial function has come from studies of inherited mitochondrial diseases, but still majority of the patients lack molecular diagnosis. Furthermore, effective treatments for mitochondrial disorders do not exist. Development of therapies has been complicated by the fact that the diseases are extremely heterogeneous, and collecting large enough cohorts of similarly affected individuals to assess new therapies properly has been difficult. Next-generation sequencing technologies have in the last few years been shown to be an effective method for the genetic diagnosis of inherited mitochondrial diseases. Here we review the strategies and findings from studies applying next-generation sequencing methods for the genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. Detailed knowledge of molecular causes also enables collection of homogenous cohorts of patients for therapy trials, and therefore boosts development of intervention. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24138576

  19. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  20. Next-generation mapping of Arabidopsis genes.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan S; Vidaurre, Danielle; Stamatiou, George; Breit, Robert; Provart, Nicholas J; Bonetta, Dario; Zhang, Jianfeng; Fung, Pauline; Gong, Yunchen; Wang, Pauline W; McCourt, Peter; Guttman, David S

    2011-08-01

    Next-generation genomic sequencing technologies have made it possible to directly map mutations responsible for phenotypes of interest via direct sequencing. However, most mapping strategies proposed to date require some prior genetic analysis, which can be very time-consuming even in genetically tractable organisms. Here we present a de novo method for rapidly and robustly mapping the physical location of EMS mutations by sequencing a small pooled F₂ population. This method, called Next Generation Mapping (NGM), uses a chastity statistic to quantify the relative contribution of the parental mutant and mapping lines to each SNP in the pooled F₂ population. It then uses this information to objectively localize the candidate mutation based on its exclusive segregation with the mutant parental line. A user-friendly, web-based tool for performing NGM analysis is available at http://bar.utoronto.ca/NGM. We used NGM to identify three genes involved in cell-wall biology in Arabidopsis thaliana, and, in a power analysis, demonstrate success in test mappings using as few as ten F₂ lines and a single channel of Illumina Genome Analyzer data. This strategy can easily be applied to other model organisms, and we expect that it will also have utility in crops and any other eukaryote with a completed genome sequence. PMID:21518053

  1. NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

    2003-03-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

  2. Next Generation Distributed Computing for Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  3. Microlensing detection of extrasolar planets.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Emanuela; Lunine, Jonathan I

    2013-05-01

    We review the method of exoplanetary microlensing with a focus on two-body planetary lensing systems. The physical properties of planetary systems can be successfully measured by means of a deep analysis of lightcurves and high-resolution imaging of planetary systems, countering the concern that microlensing cannot determine planetary masses and orbital radii. Ground-based observers have had success in diagnosing properties of multi-planet systems from a few events, but space-based observations will be much more powerful and statistically more complete. Since microlensing is most sensitive to exoplanets beyond the snow line, whose statistics, in turn, allow for testing current planetary formation and evolution theories, we investigate the retrieval of semi-major axis density by a microlensing space-based survey with realistic parameters. Making use of a published statistical method for projected exoplanets quantities (Brown 2011), we find that one year of such a survey might distinguish between simple power-law semi-major axis densities. We conclude by briefly reviewing ground-based results hinting at a high abundance of free-floating planets and describing the potential contribution of space-based missions to understanding the frequency and mass distribution of these intriguing objects, which could help unveil the formation processes of planetary systems. PMID:23604071

  4. The next generation Antarctic digital magnetic anomaly map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Frese, R.R.B; Golynsky, A.V.; Kim, H.R.; Gaya-Piqué, L.; Thébault, E.; Chiappinii, M.; Ghidella, M.; Grunow, A.; ADMAP Working Group

    2007-01-01

    S (Golynsky et al., 2001). This map synthesized over 7.1 million line-kms of survey data available up through 1999 from marine, airborne and Magsat satellite observations. Since the production of the initial map, a large number of new marine and airborne surveys and improved magnetic observations from the Ørsted and CHAMP satellite missions have become available. In addition, an improved core field model for the Antarctic has been developed to better isolate crustal anomalies in these data. The next generation compilation also will likely represent the magnetic survey observations of the region in terms of a high-resolution spherical cap harmonic model. In this paper, we review the progress and problems of developing an improved magnetic anomaly map to facilitate studies of the Antarctic crustal magnetic field

  5. Thermally tunable polymer microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian; Cheng, Chao-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Bin; Su, Chih-Chuan; Ho, Mon-Shu; LeDuc, Philip R.; Lin, Qiao

    2008-06-01

    Polymer microlenses capable of using heat to control its focal length are presented. The microlenses are created by exposing droplets of the polymer SU-8 to UV light. By altering the temperature of the microlenses via on-chip heating, their curvature and focal length are actively controlled without mechanical movements. By directly and indirectly measuring temperature-dependent changes of the focal length, we test the ability of the microlenses as a tunable imaging component. The microlenses have potential use in applications such as laser systems, functional biomimetics, and endoscopy.

  6. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... turn Javascript on. Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians fight cervical ...

  7. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not components of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.

  8. Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik Chinnathambi; Joshua Kane; Darryl P. Butt; William E. Windes; Rick Ubic

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

  9. Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Barry, Matthew R.; Benton, Isaac; Bishop, Michael M.; Evans, Steven; Harvey, Jason; King, Timothy; Martin, Jacob; Mercier, Al; Miller, Walt; Payne, Dan L.; Phu, Hanh; Thompson, James C.; Aadsen, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Flight Controller Trainer (NGFCT) is a relatively inexpensive system of hardware and software that provides high-fidelity training for spaceshuttle flight controllers. NGFCT provides simulations into which are integrated the behaviors of emulated space-shuttle vehicle onboard general-purpose computers (GPCs), mission-control center (MCC) displays, and space-shuttle systems as represented by high-fidelity shuttle mission simulator (SMS) mathematical models. The emulated GPC computers enable the execution of onboard binary flight-specific software. The SMS models include representations of system malfunctions that can be easily invoked. The NGFCT software has a flexible design that enables independent updating of its GPC, SMS, and MCC components.

  10. Next-Generation Genomics: an Integrative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R. David; Hon, Gary C.; Ren, Bing

    2011-01-01

    Integrating results from diverse experiments is an essential process in our effort to understand the logic of complex systems, such as development, homeostasis and responses to the environment. With the advent of high-throughput methods - including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), ChIP-Seq, and RNA-Seq, etc., - acquisition of genome-scale data has never been easier. Epigenetics, transcriptomics, proteomics and genomics each provide an insightful, and yet single-dimensional, view of genome function; integrative analysis promises a unified, global view. However, the large amount of information and diverse technology platforms pose multiple challenges for data access and processing. This Review discusses emerging issues and strategies related to data integration in the era of next-generation genomics. PMID:20531367

  11. Next generation and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation and Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies: Essential Considerations Towards Regulatory Acceptance in Europe workshop, organized by the European Centre of Regulatory Affairs Freiburg (EUCRAF), was held February 3–4, 2011 in Freiburg, Germany. The workshop attracted over 100 attendees from 15 countries, including regulators from 11 agencies, who interacted over the course of two days. The speakers presented their authoritative views on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as attractive targets for development, the experience to date with the regulatory process for biosimilar medicinal products, the European Medicines Agency draft guideline on biosimilar mAbs, as well as key elements in the development of mAbs. Participants engaged in many lively discussions, and much speculation on the nature of the quality, non-clinical and clinical requirements for authorization of biosimilar mAbs. PMID:21487235

  12. Next-Generation Synthetic Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Timothy K.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles. During the field’s first decade of development, significant progress has been made in designing biological parts and assembling them into genetic circuits to achieve basic functionalities. These circuits have been used to construct proof-of-principle systems with promising results in industrial and medical applications. However, advances in synthetic biology have been limited by a lack of interoperable parts, techniques for dynamically probing biological systems, and frameworks for the reliable construction and operation of complex, higher-order networks. Here, we highlight challenges and goals for next-generation synthetic gene networks, in the context of potential applications in medicine, biotechnology, bioremediation, and bioenergy. PMID:20010597

  13. Integrated control of next generation power system

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  14. Radiology: "killer app" for next generation networks?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Kevin M

    2004-03-01

    The core principles of digital radiology were well developed by the end of the 1980 s. During the following decade tremendous improvements in computer technology enabled realization of those principles at an affordable cost. In this decade work can focus on highly distributed radiology in the context of the integrated health care enterprise. Over the same period computer networking has evolved from a relatively obscure field used by a small number of researchers across low-speed serial links to a pervasive technology that affects nearly all facets of society. Development directions in network technology will ultimately provide end-to-end data paths with speeds that match or exceed the speeds of data paths within the local network and even within workstations. This article describes key developments in Next Generation Networks, potential obstacles, and scenarios in which digital radiology can become a "killer app" that helps to drive deployment of new network infrastructure. PMID:15255516

  15. Clinical Integration of Next Generation Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gullapalli, R.R.; Lyons-Weiler, M.; Petrosko, P.; Dhir, R.; Becich, M.J.; LaFramboise, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract/Synopsis Recent technological advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods have substantially reduced cost and operational complexity leading to the production of bench top sequencers and commercial software solutions for implementation in small research and clinical laboratories. This chapter summarizes requirements and hurdles to the successful implementation of these systems including 1) calibration, validation and optimization of the instrumentation, experimental paradigm and primary readout, 2) secure transfer, storage and secondary processing of the data, 3) implementation of software tools for targeted analysis, and 4) training of research and clinical personnel to evaluate data fidelity and interpret the molecular significance of the genomic output. In light of the commercial and technological impetus to bring NGS technology into the clinical domain, it is critical that novel tests incorporate rigid protocols with built-in calibration standards and that data transfer and processing occur under exacting security measures for interpretation by clinicians with specialized training in molecular diagnostics. PMID:23078661

  16. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  17. Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Li, Yinhu; Li, Siliang; Hu, Ni; He, Yimin; Pong, Ray; Lin, Danni; Lu, Lihua; Law, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    With fast development and wide applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, genomic sequence information is within reach to aid the achievement of goals to decode life mysteries, make better crops, detect pathogens, and improve life qualities. NGS systems are typically represented by SOLiD/Ion Torrent PGM from Life Sciences, Genome Analyzer/HiSeq 2000/MiSeq from Illumina, and GS FLX Titanium/GS Junior from Roche. Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI), which possesses the world's biggest sequencing capacity, has multiple NGS systems including 137 HiSeq 2000, 27 SOLiD, one Ion Torrent PGM, one MiSeq, and one 454 sequencer. We have accumulated extensive experience in sample handling, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis. In this paper, technologies of these systems are reviewed, and first-hand data from extensive experience is summarized and analyzed to discuss the advantages and specifics associated with each sequencing system. At last, applications of NGS are summarized. PMID:22829749

  18. The Next Generation of Planetary Atmospheric Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houben, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Entry probes provide useful insights into the structures of planetary atmospheres, but give only one-dimensional pictures of complex four-dimensional systems that vary on all temporal and spatial scales. This makes the interpretation of the results quite challenging, especially as regards atmospheric dynamics. Here is a planetary meteorologist's vision of what the next generation of atmospheric entry probe missions should be: Dedicated sounding instruments get most of the required data from orbit. Relatively simple and inexpensive entry probes are released from the orbiter, with low entry velocities, to establish ground truth, to clarify the vertical structure, and for adaptive observations to enhance the dataset in preparation for sensitive operations. The data are assimilated onboard in real time. The products, being immediately available, are of immense benefit for scientific and operational purposes (aerobraking, aerocapture, accurate payload delivery via glider, ballooning missions, weather forecasts, etc.).

  19. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not componentsmore » of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.« less

  20. Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This document contains presentations from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Next Generation CAD/CAM/CAE Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia on March 18-19, 1997. The presentations focused on current capabilities and future directions of CAD/CAM/CAE systems, aerospace industry projects, and university activities related to simulation-based design. Workshop attendees represented NASA, commercial software developers, the aerospace industry, government labs, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the potential of emerging CAD/CAM/CAE technology for use in intelligent simulation-based design and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of CAE systems for simulating the entire life cycle of aerospace systems.

  1. Next Generation Sequencing in Endocrine Practice

    PubMed Central

    Forlenza, Gregory P.; Calhoun, Amy; Beckman, Kenneth B.; Halvorsen, Tanya; Hamdoun, Elwaseila; Zierhut, Heather; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Polgreen, Lynda E.; Miller, Bradley S.; Nathan, Brandon; Petryk, Anna

    2016-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and advances in genomic sequencing technologies, the use of clinical molecular diagnostics has grown tremendously over the last decade. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has overcome many of the practical roadblocks that had slowed the adoption of molecular testing for routine clinical diagnosis. In endocrinology, targeted NGS now complements biochemical testing and imaging studies. The goal of this review is to provide clinicians with a guide to the application of NGS to genetic testing for endocrine conditions, by compiling a list of established gene mutations detectable by NGS, and highlighting key phenotypic features of these disorders. As we outline in this review, the clinical utility of NGS-based molecular testing for endocrine disorders is very high. Identifying an exact genetic etiology improves understanding of the disease, provides clear explanation to families about the cause, and guides decisions about screening, prevention and/or treatment. PMID:25958132

  2. Bioinformatics for Next Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Magi, Alberto; Benelli, Matteo; Gozzini, Alessia; Girolami, Francesca; Torricelli, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms imposes increasing demands on statistical methods and bioinformatic tools for the analysis and the management of the huge amounts of data generated by these technologies. Even at the early stages of their commercial availability, a large number of softwares already exist for analyzing NGS data. These tools can be fit into many general categories including alignment of sequence reads to a reference, base-calling and/or polymorphism detection, de novo assembly from paired or unpaired reads, structural variant detection and genome browsing. This manuscript aims to guide readers in the choice of the available computational tools that can be used to face the several steps of the data analysis workflow. PMID:24710047

  3. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jimmy; Spencer, Susan; Bryan, Tom; Johnson, Jimmie; Robertson, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    The first autonomous rendezvous and docking in the history of the U.S. Space Program was successfully accomplished by Orbital Express, using the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) as the primary docking sensor. The United States now has a mature and flight proven sensor technology for supporting Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV) and Commercial Orbital Transport. Systems (COTS) Automated Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D). AVGS has a proven pedigree, based on extensive ground testing and flight demonstrations. The AVGS on the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART)mission operated successfully in "spot mode" out to 2 km. The first generation rendezvous and docking sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was developed and successfully flown on Space Shuttle flights in 1997 and 1998. Parts obsolescence issues prevent the construction of more AVGS. units, and the next generation sensor must be updated to support the CEV and COTS programs. The flight proven AR&D sensor is being redesigned to update parts and add additional. capabilities for CEV and COTS with the development of the Next, Generation AVGS (NGAVGS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The obsolete imager and processor are being replaced with new radiation tolerant parts. In addition, new capabilities might include greater sensor range, auto ranging, and real-time video output. This paper presents an approach to sensor hardware trades, use of highly integrated laser components, and addresses the needs of future vehicles that may rendezvous and dock with the International Space Station (ISS) and other Constellation vehicles. It will also discuss approaches for upgrading AVGS to address parts obsolescence, and concepts for minimizing the sensor footprint, weight, and power requirements. In addition, parts selection and test plans for the NGAVGS will be addressed to provide a highly reliable flight qualified sensor. Expanded capabilities through innovative use of existing capabilities will also be

  4. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics: A Single Population of Long-period Planetary Companions to M Dwarfs Consistent with Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2016-03-01

    We present the first study to synthesize results from five different exoplanet surveys using three independent detection methods: microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging. The constraints derived herein represent the most comprehensive picture of the demographics of large-separation (≳2 AU) planets orbiting the most common stars in our Galaxy that has been constructed to date. We assume a simple, joint power-law planet distribution function of the form {d}2{N}{{pl}}/(d{log} {m}p d{log} a)={ A }{({m}p/{M}{{Sat}})}α {(a/2.5{{AU}})}β with an outer cutoff radius of the separation distribution function of aout. Generating populations of planets from these models and mapping them into the relevant observables for each survey, we use actual or estimated detection sensitivities to determine the expected observations for each survey. Comparing with the reported results, we derive constraints on the parameters \\{α ,β ,{ A },{a}{{out}}\\} that describe a single population of planets that is simultaneously consistent with the results of microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. We find median and 68% confindence intervals of α =-{0.86}-0.19+0.21 (-{0.85}-0.19+0.21), β ={1.1}-1.4+1.9 ({1.1}-1.3+1.9), { A }={0.21}-0.15+0.20 {{dex}}-2 ({0.21}-0.15+0.20 {{dex}}-2), and {a}{{out}}={10}-4.7+26 AU ({12}-6.2+50 AU) assuming “hot-start” (“cold-start”) planet evolutionary models. These values are consistent with all current knowledge of planets on orbits beyond ∼2 AU around single M dwarfs.

  5. Next-Generation Sequence Assembly: Four Stages of Data Processing and Computational Challenges

    PubMed Central

    El-Metwally, Sara; Hamza, Taher; Zakaria, Magdi; Helmy, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Decoding DNA symbols using next-generation sequencers was a major breakthrough in genomic research. Despite the many advantages of next-generation sequencers, e.g., the high-throughput sequencing rate and relatively low cost of sequencing, the assembly of the reads produced by these sequencers still remains a major challenge. In this review, we address the basic framework of next-generation genome sequence assemblers, which comprises four basic stages: preprocessing filtering, a graph construction process, a graph simplification process, and postprocessing filtering. Here we discuss them as a framework of four stages for data analysis and processing and survey variety of techniques, algorithms, and software tools used during each stage. We also discuss the challenges that face current assemblers in the next-generation environment to determine the current state-of-the-art. We recommend a layered architecture approach for constructing a general assembler that can handle the sequences generated by different sequencing platforms. PMID:24348224

  6. Nuclear Knowledge to the Next Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazour, Thomas.; Kossilov, Andrei

    2004-06-01

    The safe, reliable, and cost-effective operation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) requires that personnel possess and maintain the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes to do their jobs properly. Such knowledge includes not only the technical competencies required by the nature of the technology and particular engineering designs, but also the softer competencies associated with effective management, communication and teamwork. Recent studies have shown that there has been a loss of corporate knowledge and memory. Both explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge must be passed on to the next generation of workers in the industry to ensure a quality workforce. New and different techniques may be required to ensure timely and effective knowledge retention and transfer. The IAEA prepared a report on this subject. The main conclusions from the report regarding strategies for managing the aging workforce are included. Also included are main conclusions from the report regarding the capture an d preservation of mission critical knowledge, and the effective transfer of this knowledge to the next generation of NPP personnel. The nuclear industry due to its need for well-documented procedures, specifications, design basis, safety analyses, etc., has a greater fraction of its mission critical knowledge as explicit knowledge than do many other industries. This facilitates the task of knowledge transfer. For older plants in particular, there may be a need for additional efforts to transfer tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge to support major strategic initiatives such as plant license extensions/renewals, periodic safety reviews, major plant upgrades, and plant specific control room simulator development. The challenge in disseminating explicit knowledge is to make employees aware that it is available and provide easy access in formats and forms that are usable. Tacit knowledge is more difficult to identify and disseminate. The challenge is to identify what can be converted to

  7. Reaching the Next Generation of Marine Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, J.

    2009-04-01

    The next generation of marine scientists are today at primary school, secondary school or at college. To encourage them in their career, and to introduce those who are as yet undecided to the wonders of marine science, the Irish Marine Institute has devised a series of three overlapping outreach programmes to reach children at all three levels. Beginning at primary school, the "Explorers" programme offers a range of resources to teachers to enable them to teach marine-related examples as part of the science or geography modules of the SESE curriculum. These include teacher training, expert visits to schools, the installation and stocking of aquaria, field trips and downloadable lesson plans. For older pupils, the "Follow the Fleet" programme is a web-based education asset that allows users to track individual merchant ships and research vessels across the world, to interact with senior crew members of ships and to learn about their cargoes, the ports they visit and the sea conditions along the way. Finally, the "Integrated Marine Exploration Programme (IMEP)" takes secondary school pupils and university students to sea aboard the Marine Institute's research vessels to give them a taste of life as a marine scientist or to educate them in the practical day-to-day sampling and data processing tasks that make up a marine scientist's job.

  8. Completing the Next Generation Spectral Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We propose to complete our STIS UV+optical snapshot program, the Next Generation SpectralLibrary, which now stands at 380 targets. When complete the NGSL will comprise 600 stars,roughly equally divided among four metallicities, very low {[Fe/H] < -1.5}, low {-1.5 <[Fe/H] < -0.5}, near-solar {-0.3 < [Fe/H] < 0.1}, and super-solar {[Fe/H] > 0.2},well-sampling the entire HR-diagram in each bin. The finished NGSL will be invaluable formodeling the integrated light of galaxies and clusters, as well as calibrating the stellareffective temperature scale to <1% precision. Included in the updated target list forCycle 22 are select "touchstone" stars with precise radii measured with long baselineinterferometry, which will be used in the absolute calibration of the stellar effectivetemperature scale. Upon completion, the NGSL will surpass all extant spectral librariesbecause of its combination of UV spectral coverage and comprehensive metallicity range,with lasting archival value well into the JWST era and beyond. Because of the universalutility and community-broad nature of this venture, we waive the proprietary period.While snapshot proposals are ineligible for the UV initiative, the scientific returns fromthis program stem mainly from the HST/STIS UV capabilities.

  9. Digital Earth reloaded - Beyond the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, M.; Woodgate, P.; Annoni, A.; Schade, S.

    2014-02-01

    Digital replicas (or 'mirror worlds') of complex entities and systems are now routine in many fields such as aerospace engineering; archaeology; medicine; or even fashion design. The Digital Earth (DE) concept as a digital replica of the entire planet occurs in Al Gore's 1992 book Earth in the Balance and was popularized in his speech at the California Science Center in January 1998. It played a pivotal role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth that achieved many elements of this vision. Almost 15 years after Al Gore's speech, the concept of DE needs to be re-evaluated in the light of the many scientific and technical developments in the fields of information technology, data infrastructures, citizen?s participation, and earth observation that have taken place since. This paper intends to look beyond the next generation predominantly based on the developments of fields outside the spatial sciences, where concepts, software, and hardware with strong relationships to DE are being developed without referring to this term. It also presents a number of guiding criteria for future DE developments.

  10. Next generation drying technologies for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Walters, Robert H; Bhatnagar, Bakul; Tchessalov, Serguei; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ohtake, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Drying is a commonly used technique for improving the product stability of biotherapeutics. Typically, drying is accomplished through freeze-drying, as evidenced by the availability of several lyophilized products on the market. There are, however, a number of drawbacks to lyophilization, including the lengthy process time required for drying, low energy efficiency, high cost of purchasing and maintaining the equipment, and sensitivity of the product to freezing and various other processing-related stresses. These limitations have led to the search for next-generation drying methods that can be applied to biotherapeutics. Several alternative drying methods are reviewed herein, with particular emphasis on methods that are commonly employed outside of the biopharmaceutical industry including spray drying, convective drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying, and combinations thereof. Although some of the technologies have already been implemented for processing biotherapeutics, others are still at an early stage of feasibility assessment. An overview of each method is presented, detailing the comparison to lyophilization, examining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and evaluating the potential of each to be utilized for drying biotherapeutic products. PMID:24916125

  11. Next generation sequencing of viral RNA genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, the ability to generate large amounts of sequence data has revolutionized the genomics field. Most RNA viruses have relatively small genomes in comparison to other organisms and as such, would appear to be an obvious success story for the use of NGS technologies. However, due to the relatively low abundance of viral RNA in relation to host RNA, RNA viruses have proved relatively difficult to sequence using NGS technologies. Here we detail a simple, robust methodology, without the use of ultra-centrifugation, filtration or viral enrichment protocols, to prepare RNA from diagnostic clinical tissue samples, cell monolayers and tissue culture supernatant, for subsequent sequencing on the Roche 454 platform. Results As representative RNA viruses, full genome sequence was successfully obtained from known lyssaviruses belonging to recognized species and a novel lyssavirus species using these protocols and assembling the reads using de novo algorithms. Furthermore, genome sequences were generated from considerably less than 200 ng RNA, indicating that manufacturers’ minimum template guidance is conservative. In addition to obtaining genome consensus sequence, a high proportion of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were identified in the majority of samples analyzed. Conclusions The approaches reported clearly facilitate successful full genome lyssavirus sequencing and can be universally applied to discovering and obtaining consensus genome sequences of RNA viruses from a variety of sources. PMID:23822119

  12. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Pickering, Karen D.; Cox, Marlon; Towsend, Neil; Campbell, Colin; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by NASA s Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project is developing life support technologies (including water recovery and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processor (AWP). The RCA swing bed and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit, with focus on test article development and integrated testing in an Advanced PLSS in cooperation with the Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Project. An RCA swing-bed provides integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The VOR technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current space suit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings whereas the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The AWP effort, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based secondary treatment, will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water. This paper will provide a status of technology development activities and future plans.

  13. The next-generation BLASTPol experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dober, Bradley J.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Ashton, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-07-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment designed to study the role magnetic fields play in star formation. BLASTPol has had two science flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. These flights have produced thousands of polarization vectors at 250, 350 and 500 microns in several molecular cloud targets. We present the design, specifications, and progress towards the next-generation BLASTPol experiment (BLAST-TNG). BLAST-TNG will fly a 40% larger diameter primary mirror, with almost 8 times the number of polarization-sensitive detectors resulting in a factor of 16 increase in mapping speed. With a spatial resolution of 2200 and four times the field of view (340 arcmin2) of BLASTPol, BLAST-TNG will bridge the angular scales between Planck's all-sky maps with 50 resolution and ALMA's ultra-high resolution narrow (~ 2000) fields. The new receiver has a larger cryogenics volume, allowing for a 28 day hold time. BLAST-TNG employs three arrays of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) with 30% fractional bandwidth at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In this paper, we will present the new BLAST-TNG instrument and science objectives.

  14. THE NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT GRAPHITE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Windes; Timothy D. Burchell; Robert L. Bratton

    2008-09-01

    Developing new nuclear grades of graphite used in the core of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the critical development activities being pursued within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. Graphite’s thermal stability (in an inert gas environment), high compressive strength, fabricability, and cost effective price make it an ideal core structural material for the HTGR reactor design. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermo-mechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. The NGNP graphite R&D program has selected a handful of commercially available types for research and development activities necessary to qualify this nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor. These activities fall within five primary areas; 1) material property characterization, 2) irradiated material property characterization, 3) modeling, and 4) ASTM test development, and 5) ASME code development efforts. Individual research and development activities within each area are being pursued with the ultimate goal of obtaining a commercial operating license for the nuclear graphite from the US NRC.

  15. Next generation sequencing methodologies--an overview.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, William O; Rees, Mark I; Chung, Seo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Gene discovery has been one of the most important advances in our understanding of human disorders. Early linkage and positional cloning strategies have now given way to next generation sequencing (NGS) with age-old help from biostatistical and bioinformatical input. In this chapter, we present the importance of getting the basics right, namely, how the best phenotyping in the clinical domain will provide a higher chance of a successful NGS experiment. In addition, we show getting the correct submission of DNA samples to NGS providers is dependent on the type of inheritance pattern that may or may not be apparent. We discuss one of the most crucial decisions for investigators when designing a study, namely choosing a trio, quad or cohort for analysis. Following on from this, we compare and contrast the underlying technology adopted by provider companies as they vie for customers and submissions. Each platform has advantages and disadvantages based on false calls, coverage, and read depth; however, some of these issues may be solved with the third wave of sequencing technology development in early commercial roll-out. Lastly, we provide a bioinformatic filtering overview of a "quad"-based submission and show how 3 million SNPs and indels can be reduced to a biologically plausible and experimentally manageable n≤50 gene variants. PMID:23046880

  16. Keeping Up With the Next Generation

    PubMed Central

    ten Bosch, John R.; Grody, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    The speed, accuracy, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of DNA sequencing have been improving continuously since the initial derivation of the technique in the mid-1970s. With the advent of massively parallel sequencing technologies, DNA sequencing costs have been dramatically reduced. No longer is it unthinkable to sequence hundreds or even thousands of genes in a single individual with a suspected genetic disease or complex disease predisposition. Along with the benefits offered by these technologies come a number of challenges that must be addressed before wide-scale sequencing becomes accepted medical practice. Molecular diagnosticians will need to become comfortable with, and gain confidence in, these new platforms, which are based on radically different technologies compared to the standard DNA sequencers in routine use today. Experience will determine whether these instruments are best applied to sequencing versus resequencing. Perhaps most importantly, along with increasing read lengths inevitably comes increased ascertainment of novel sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance, the postanalytical aspects of which could bog down the entire field. But despite these obstacles, and as a direct result of the promises these sequencing advances present, it will likely not be long before next-generation sequencing begins to make an impact in molecular medicine. In this review, technical issues are discussed, in addition to the practical considerations that will need to be addressed as advances push toward personal genome sequencing. PMID:18832462

  17. Guidelines for diagnostic next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Matthijs, Gert; Souche, Erika; Alders, Mariëlle; Corveleyn, Anniek; Eck, Sebastian; Feenstra, Ilse; Race, Valérie; Sistermans, Erik; Sturm, Marc; Weiss, Marjan; Yntema, Helger; Bakker, Egbert; Scheffer, Hans; Bauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present, on behalf of EuroGentest and the European Society of Human Genetics, guidelines for the evaluation and validation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications for the diagnosis of genetic disorders. The work was performed by a group of laboratory geneticists and bioinformaticians, and discussed with clinical geneticists, industry and patients' representatives, and other stakeholders in the field of human genetics. The statements that were written during the elaboration of the guidelines are presented here. The background document and full guidelines are available as supplementary material. They include many examples to assist the laboratories in the implementation of NGS and accreditation of this service. The work and ideas presented by others in guidelines that have emerged elsewhere in the course of the past few years were also considered and are acknowledged in the full text. Interestingly, a few new insights that have not been cited before have emerged during the preparation of the guidelines. The most important new feature is the presentation of a ‘rating system' for NGS-based diagnostic tests. The guidelines and statements have been applauded by the genetic diagnostic community, and thus seem to be valuable for the harmonization and quality assurance of NGS diagnostics in Europe. PMID:26508566

  18. Next generation SAR demonstration on space station

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, Wendy; Kim, Yunjin; Freeman, Anthony; Jordan, Rolando

    1999-01-22

    This paper describes the next generation synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that enables future low cost space-borne radar missions. In order to realize these missions, we propose to use an inflatable, membrane, microstrip antenna that is particularly suitable for low frequency science radar missions. In order to mitigate risks associated with this revolutionary technology, the space station demonstration will be very useful to test the long-term survivability of the proposed antenna. This experiment will demonstrate several critical technology challenges associated with space-inflatable technologies. Among these include space-rigidization of inflatable structures, controlled inflation deployment, flatness and uniform separation of thin-film membranes and RF performance of membrane microstrip antennas. This mission will also verify the in-space performance of lightweight, high performance advanced SAR electronics. Characteristics of this SAR instrument include a capability for high resolution polarimetric imaging. The mission will acquire high quality scientific data using this advanced SAR to demonstrate the utility of these advanced technologies. We will present an inflatable L-band SAR concept for commercial and science applications and a P-band design concept to validate the Biomass SAR mission concept. The ionospheric effects on P-band SAR images will also be examined using the acquired data.

  19. The next generation of crystal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Crystal detectors have been used widely in high energy and nuclear physics experiments, medical instruments and homeland security applications. Novel crystal detectors are continuously being discovered and developed in academia and in industry. In high energy and nuclear physics experiments, total absorption electromagnetic calorimeters (ECAL) made of inorganic crystals are known for their superb energy resolution and detection efficiency for photon and electron measurements. A crystal ECAL is thus the choice for those experiments where precision measurements of photons and electrons are crucial for their physics missions. For future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers, however, the crystal detectors used in the above mentioned ECALs are either not bright and fast enough, or not radiation hard enough. Crystal detectors have also been proposed to build a Homogeneous Hadron Calorimeter (HHCAL) to achieve unprecedented jet mass resolution by duel readout of both Cherenkov and scintillation light, where development of cost-effective crystal detectors is a crucial issue because of the huge crystal volume required. This paper discusses several R&D directions for the next generation of crystal detectors for future HEP experiments.

  20. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Vega, Leticia; Cox, Marlon R.; Aitchison, Lindsay T.; Lange, Kevin E.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, W. Andrew; Abney, Morgan B.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.

  1. RNA nanomedicines: the next generation drugs?

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Peer, Dan

    2016-06-01

    RNA therapeutics could represent the next generation personalized medicine. The variety of RNA molecules that can inhibit the expression of any mRNA using, for example, RNA interference (RNAi) strategies, or increase the expression of a given protein using modified mRNA together with new gene editing strategies open new avenues for manipulating the fate of diseased cells while leaving healthy cells untouched. In addition, these therapeutic RNA molecules can maximize the treatment of diseases and minimize its adverse effects. Yet, the promise of RNA therapeutics is hindered by the lack of efficient delivery strategies to selectively target these molecules into specific cells. Herein, we will focus on the challenges and opportunities of the delivery of therapeutic RNAi molecules into cancer cells with special emphasis on solid tumors. Solid tumors represent more than 80 percent of cancers and some are very challenging to treat, not merely due to physiological barriers but also since the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex milieu of accessory cells besides the cancerous cells. In this review, we will highlight various limiting factors to successful delivery, current clinical achievements and future outlook focusing on RNAi therapeutics to the TME. PMID:26773301

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Burchell, Timothy D; Corwin, William R; Fisher, Stephen Eugene; Forsberg, Charles W.; Morris, Robert Noel; Moses, David Lewis

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  3. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  4. Tailoring next-generation biofuels and their combustion in next-generation engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, John Michael; Wu, Weihua; Taatjes, Craig A.; Scheer, Adam Michael; Turner, Kevin M.; Yu, Eizadora T.; O'Bryan, Greg; Powell, Amy Jo; Gao, Connie W.

    2013-11-01

    Increasing energy costs, the dependence on foreign oil supplies, and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. The strategy for producing next-generation biofuels must include efficient processes for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and the fuels must be compatible with current and future engines. Unfortunately, biofuel development generally takes place without any consideration of combustion characteristics, and combustion scientists typically measure biofuels properties without any feedback to the production design. We seek to optimize the fuel/engine system by bringing combustion performance, specifically for advanced next-generation engines, into the development of novel biosynthetic fuel pathways. Here we report an innovative coupling of combustion chemistry, from fundamentals to engine measurements, to the optimization of fuel production using metabolic engineering. We have established the necessary connections among the fundamental chemistry, engine science, and synthetic biology for fuel production, building a powerful framework for co-development of engines and biofuels.

  5. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2013-09-01

    Infrared sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection has become application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive infrared (IR) sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage and 2-stage cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single mechanical module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (<20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (<=25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing techniques and hardware can be utilized to null all motion along the common axis. Low vibration translates to better sensor performance resulting in simpler, more direct mechanical mounting configurations, eliminating the need for convoluted, expensive, massive, long lead damping hardware.

  6. Economic regulation of next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing broadens the debate about appropriate regulatory oversight of genetic testing and may force scholars to move beyond familiar privacy and health and safety regulatory issues to address new problems with industry structure and economic regulation. The genetic testing industry is passing through a period of profound structural change in response to shifts in technology and in the legal environment. Making genetic testing safe and effective for consumers increasingly requires access to comprehensive genomic data infrastructures that can support accurate, state-of-the-art interpretation of genetic test results. At present, there are significant barriers to access and there is no sector-specific regulator with power to ensure appropriate data access. Without it, genetic testing will not be safe for consumers even when it is performed at CLIA-certified laboratories using tests that have been FDA-cleared or approved. This article explores the emerging structure of the genetic testing industry and describes its present economic regulatory vacuum. In view of this gap in regulation, the article explores whether generally applicable law, particularly antitrust law, may offer solutions to the industry's data access problems. It concludes that courts may have a useful role to play, particularly in Europe and other jurisdictions where the essential facilities doctrine enjoys continued vitality. After Verizon Communications v. Law Offices of Curtis V. Trinko, the role of U.S. federal courts is less certain. Congress has demonstrated willingness to address access issues as they emerged in other infrastructure industries in recent decades. This article expresses no preference between legislative and judicial solutions. Its aim is simply to highlight an emerging economic regulatory issue which, if left unresolved, presents real health and safety concerns for consumers who receive genetic tests. PMID:25298291

  7. Patterning techniques for next generation IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.

    2007-12-01

    Reduction of linear critical dimensions (CDs) beyond 45 nm would require significant increase of the complexity of pattern definition process. In this work, we discuss the key successor methodology to the current optical lithography, the Double Patterning Technique (DPT). We compare the complexity of CAD solutions, fab equipment, and wafer processing with its competitors, such as the nanoimprint (NIL) and the extreme UV (EUV) techniques. We also look ahead to the market availability for the product families enabled using the novel patterning solutions. DPT is often recognized as the most viable next generation lithography as it utilizes the existing equipment and processes and is considered a stop-gap solution before the advanced NIL or EUV equipment is developed. Using design for manufacturability (DfM) rules, DPT can drive the k1 factor down to 0.13. However, it faces a variety of challenges, from new mask overlay strategies, to layout pattern split, novel OPC, increased CD tolerances, new etch techniques, as well as long processing time, all of which compromise its return on investment (RoI). In contrast, it can be claimed e.g., that the RoI is the highest for the NIL but this technology bears significant risk. For all novel patterning techniques, the key questions remain: when and how should they be introduced, what is their long-term potential, when should they be replaced, and by what successor technology. We summarize the unpublished results of several panel discussions on DPT at the recent SPIE/BACUS conferences.

  8. NEXT GENERATION MELTER OPTIONEERING STUDY - INTERIM REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    GRAY MF; CALMUS RB; RAMSEY G; LOMAX J; ALLEN H

    2010-10-19

    The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D{sub 2}0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.

  9. Next-generation healthcare: a strategic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Montague, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Successful next-generation healthcare must deliver timely access and quality for an aging population, while simultaneously promoting disease prevention and managing costs. The key factors for sustained success are a culture with aligned goals and values; coordinated team care that especially engages with physicians and patients; practical information that is collected and communicated reliably; and education in the theory and methods of collaboration, measurement and leadership. Currently, optimal population health is challenged by a high prevalence of chronic disease, with large gaps between best and usual care, a scarcity of health human resources - particularly with the skills, attitudes and training for coordinated team care - and the absence of flexible, reliable clinical measurement systems. However, to make things better, institutional models and supporting technologies are available. In the short term, a first step is to enhance the awareness of the practical opportunities to improve, including the expansion of proven community-based disease management programs that communicate knowledge, competencies and clinical measurements among professional and patient partners, leading to reduced care gaps and improved clinical and economic outcomes. Longer-term success requires two additional steps. One is formal inter-professional training to provide, on an ongoing basis, the polyvalent human resource skills and foster the culture of working with others to improve the care of whole populations. The other is the adoption of reliable information systems, including electronic health records, to allow useful and timely measurement and effective communication of clinical information in real-world settings. A better health future can commence immediately, within existing resources, and be sustained with feasible innovations in provider and patient education and information systems. The future is now. PMID:19521152

  10. Next generation prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schiller, John T; Müller, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The two licensed bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 (the major papillomavirus virion protein) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are regarded as safe, effective, and well established prophylactic vaccines. However, they have some inherent limitations, including a fairly high production and delivery cost, virus-type restricted protection, and no reported therapeutic activity, which might be addressed with the development of alternative dosing schedules and vaccine products. A change from a three-dose to a two-dose protocol for the licensed HPV vaccines, especially in younger adolescents (aged 9-13 years), is underway in several countries and is likely to become the future norm. Preliminary evidence suggests that recipients of HPV vaccines might derive prophylactic benefits from one dose of the bivalent vaccine. Substantial interest exists in both the academic and industrial sectors in the development of second-generation L1 VLP vaccines in terms of cost reduction-eg, by production in Escherichia coli or alternative types of yeast. However, Merck's nonavalent vaccine, produced via the Saccharomyces cerevisiae production system that is also used for their quadrivalent vaccine, is the first second-generation HPV VLP vaccine to be available on the market. By contrast, other pharmaceutical companies are developing microbial vectors that deliver L1 genes. These two approaches would add an HPV component to existing live attenuated vaccines for measles and typhoid fever. Prophylactic vaccines that are based on induction of broadly cross-neutralising antibodies to L2, the minor HPV capsid protein, are also being developed both as simple monomeric fusion proteins and as virus-like display vaccines. The strong interest in developing the next generation of vaccines, particularly by manufacturers in middle-to-high income countries, increases the likelihood that vaccine production will become decentralised with the hope that effective HPV vaccines will be

  11. From Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lindler, D.

    2016-05-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R˜1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18–1.03 μ. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsl/. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We have therefore developed an observing procedure, data-reduction procedure, and correction algorithms that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1%.

  12. Next-Generation Multifunctional Electrochromic Devices.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-08-16

    during the daytime. Energy can also be stored in the smart windows during the daytime simultaneously and be discharged for use in the evening. These results reveal that the electrochromic devices have potential applications in a wide range of areas. We hope that this Account will promote further efforts toward fundamental research on electrochromic materials and the development of new multifunctional electrochromic devices to meet the growing demands for next-generation electronic systems. PMID:27404116

  13. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-29

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  14. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  15. NEXT GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENT FLUORESCENT LIGHTING PRODUCT

    SciTech Connect

    Alok Srivastava; Anant Setlur

    2003-04-01

    This is the Final Report of the Next-Generation Energy Efficient Fluorescent Lighting Products program, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program was to develop novel phosphors to improve the color rendition and efficiency of compact and linear fluorescent lamps. The prime technical approach was the development of quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) to further increase the efficiency of conventional linear fluorescent lamps and the development of new high color rendering phosphor blends for compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) as potential replacements for the energy-hungry and short-lived incandescent lamps in market segments that demand high color rendering light sources. We determined early in the project that the previously developed oxide QSP, SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+}, did not exhibit an quantum efficiency higher than unity under excitation by 185 nm radiation, and we therefore worked to determine the physical reasons for this observation. From our investigations we concluded that the achievement of quantum efficiency exceeding unity in SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Pr{sup 3+} was not possible due to interaction of the Pr{sup 3+} 5d level with the conduction band of the solid. The interaction which gives rise to an additional nonradiative decay path for the excitation energy is responsible for the low quantum efficiency of the phosphor. Our work has led to the development of a novel spectroscopic method for determining photoionzation threshold of luminescent centers in solids. This has resulted in further quantification of the requirements for host phosphor lattice materials to optimize quantum efficiency. Because of the low quantum efficiency of the QSP, we were unable to demonstrate a linear fluorescent lamp with overall performance exceeding that of existing mercury-based fluorescent lamps. Our work on the high color rendering CFLs has been very successful. We have demonstrated CFLs that satisfies the EnergyStar requirement with color

  16. Next-Generation Ion Propulsion Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.; Foster, John E.; Haag, Thomas W.; Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Doehne, S. Michelle

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center ion-propulsion program addresses the need for high specific-impulse systems and technology across a broad range of mission applications and power levels. One activity is the development of the next-generation ion-propulsion system as a follow-on to the successful Deep Space 1 system. The system is envisioned to incorporate a lightweight ion engine that can operate over 1 to 10 kW, with a 550-kg propellant throughput capacity. The engine concept under development has a 40-cm beam diameter, twice the effective area of the Deep Space 1 engine. It incorporates mechanical features and operating conditions to maximize the design heritage established by the Deep Space 1 engine, while incorporating new technology where warranted to extend the power and throughput capability. Prototype versions of the engine have been fabricated and are under test at NASA, with an engineering model version in manufacturing. Preliminary performance data for the prototype engine have been documented over 1.1- to 7.3-kW input power. At 7.3 kW, the engine efficiency is 0.68, at 3615-sec specific impulse. Critical component temperatures, including those of the discharge cathode assembly and magnets, have been documented and are within established limits, with significant margins relative to the Deep Space 1 engine. The 1- to 10-kW ion thruster approach described here was found to provide the needed power and performance improvement to enable important NASA missions. The Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP) studies compared many potential technologies for various NASA, Government, and commercial missions. These studies indicated that a high-power ion propulsion system is the most important technology for development because of its outstanding performance versus perceived development and recurring costs for interplanetary solar electric propulsion missions. One of the best applications of a highpower electric propulsion system was as an integral part

  17. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  18. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC), is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA’s and NLSI’s objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE’s High School Lunar Research Project is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The High School Lunar Research Project engages teams of high school students in authentic lunar research that envelopes them in the process of science and supports the science goals of the CLSE. Most high school students’ lack of scientific research experience leaves them without an understanding of science as a process. Because of this, each team is paired with a lunar scientist mentor responsible for guiding students through the process of conducting a scientific investigation. Before beginning their research, students undertake “Moon 101,” designed to familiarize them with lunar geology and exploration. Students read articles covering various lunar geology topics and analyze images from past and current lunar missions to become familiar with available lunar data sets. At the end of “Moon 101”, students present a characterization of the geology and chronology of features surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To begin their research, teams choose a research subject from a pool of topics compiled by the CLSE staff. After choosing a topic, student teams ask their own research questions, within the context of the larger question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results and, after receiving feedback, create and present a conference style poster to a panel of

  19. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.

    2013-04-01

    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  20. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald

    2003-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project will demonstrate emissions-free nuclearassisted electricity and hydrogen production by 2015. The NGNP reactor will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. The reactor thermal power and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during hypothetical accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. This paper provides a description of the project to build the NGNP at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NGNP Project includes an overall reactor design activity and four major supporting activities: materials selection and qualification, NRC licensing and regulatory support, fuel development and qualification, and the hydrogen production plant. Each of these activities is discussed in the paper. All the reactor design and construction activities will be managed under the DOE’s project management system as outlined in DOE Order 413.3. The key elements of the overall project management system discussed in this paper include the client and project management organization relationship, critical decisions (CDs), acquisition strategy, and the project logic and timeline. The major activities associated with the materials program include development of a plan for managing the selection and qualification of all component materials required for the NGNP; identification of specific materials alternatives for each system component; evaluation of the needed testing, code work, and analysis required to qualify each identified material; preliminary selection of component materials; irradiation of needed sample materials; physical, mechanical, and chemical testing of unirradiated and irradiated materials; and documentation of final materials selections. The NGNP will be licensed by the NRC under 10 CFR 50 or 10

  1. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  2. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    The emission regions of many types of X-ray sources are small and cannot be spatially resolved without interferometry techniques that haven't yet been developed. In order to understand the emission mechanisms and emission geometry, alternate measurement techniques are required. Most microphysical processes that affect X-rays, including scattering and magnetic emission processes are imprinted as polarization signatures. X-ray polarization also reveals exotic physical processes occurring in regions of very strong gravitational and magnetic fields. Observations of X-ray polarization will provide a measurement of the geometrical distribution of gas and magnetic fields without foreground depolarization that affects longer wavelengths (e.g. Faraday rotation in the radio). Emission from accretion disks has an inclination-dependent polarization. The polarization signature is modified by extreme gravitational forces, which bend light, essentially changing the contribution of each part of the disk to the integrated total intensity seen by distant observers. Because gravity has the largest effect on the innermost parts of the disk (which are the hottest, and thus contributes to more high energy photons), the energy dependent polarization is diagnostic of disk inclination, black hole mass and spin. Increasing the sensitive energy band will make these measurements possible. X-ray polarimetry will also enable the study of the origin of cosmic rays in the universe, the nature of black holes, the role of black holes in the evolution of galaxies, and the interaction of matter with the highest physically possible magnetic fields. These objectives address NASA's strategic interest in the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. We propose a two-year effort to develop the Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter (NGXP) that will have more than ten times the sensitivity of the current state of the art. NGXP will make possible game changing measurements of classes of astrophysical

  3. Roadmap for Next-Generation State Accountability Systems. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This Roadmap, developed by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Next-Generation State Accountability Taskforce, presents a vision for next-generation accountability systems to support college and career readiness for all students. It is written by and for states, building on the leadership toward college and career readiness. This…

  4. K2 Microlensing and Campaign 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Campaign 9 of K2 will observe a contiguous 3.7 deg^2 region of the Galactic bulge in order to search for microlensing events and measure microlens parallaxes. It will also perform targeted follow-up of approximately 50 microlensing events spread throughout the Kepler focal plane. Parallax measurements are a critical ingredient for measurements of both the lens mass and distance, which contribute to our understanding of the formation of cold exoplanets, and the formation of planets as a function of Galactic environment. Additionally, as the first un-targeted, space-based microlensing survey, K2C9 offers us the first chance to measure the masses and kinematics of a large population of free-floating planet candidates, whose large abundance has been a puzzle since their discovery.I will review the scientific goals of the K2C9 survey, which will be well underway, and report on the ongoing activity of the K2 Campaign 9 Microlensing Science Team and the wider microlensing community, with a focus on the progress that has been made towards analyzing K2 data in crowded fields.

  5. Accurately Mapping M31's Microlensing Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2004-07-01

    We propose to augment an existing microlensing survey of M31 with source identifications provided by a modest amount of ACS {and WFPC2 parallel} observations to yield an accurate measurement of the masses responsible for microlensing in M31, and presumably much of its dark matter. The main benefit of these data is the determination of the physical {or "einstein"} timescale of each microlensing event, rather than an effective {"FWHM"} timescale, allowing masses to be determined more than twice as accurately as without HST data. The einstein timescale is the ratio of the lensing cross-sectional radius and relative velocities. Velocities are known from kinematics, and the cross-section is directly proportional to the {unknown} lensing mass. We cannot easily measure these quantities without knowing the amplification, hence the baseline magnitude, which requires the resolution of HST to find the source star. This makes a crucial difference because M31 lens m ass determinations can be more accurate than those towards the Magellanic Clouds through our Galaxy's halo {for the same number of microlensing events} due to the better constrained geometry in the M31 microlensing situation. Furthermore, our larger survey, just completed, should yield at least 100 M31 microlensing events, more than any Magellanic survey. A small amount of ACS+WFPC2 imaging will deliver the potential of this large database {about 350 nights}. For the whole survey {and a delta-function mass distribution} the mass error should approach only about 15%, or about 6% error in slope for a power-law distribution. These results will better allow us to pinpoint the lens halo fraction, and the shape of the halo lens spatial distribution, and allow generalization/comparison of the nature of halo dark matter in spiral galaxies. In addition, we will be able to establish the baseline magnitude for about 50, 000 variable stars, as well as measure an unprecedentedly deta iled color-magnitude diagram and luminosity

  6. Synergy Between the Jansky Very Large Array, LSST and the Next Generation 30 Meter Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Stefi

    2014-07-01

    This talk will discuss the science capabilities of the JVLA in the context of the next generation ground based optical/ir telescopes LSST and TMT. Examples will be provided of the kind of survey and targeted science JVLA can contribute to major optical/ir science themes.

  7. Applications and Case Studies of the Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies in Food, Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are able to produce high-throughput short sequence reads in a cost-effective fashion. The emergence of these technologies has not only facilitated genome sequencing but also changed the landscape of life sciences. Here I survey their major applications ranging...

  8. Next generation sequencers: methods and applications in food-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencers are able to produce millions of short sequence reads in a high-throughput, low-cost way. The emergence of these technologies has not only facilitated genome sequencing but also started to change the landscape of life sciences. This chapter will survey their methods and app...

  9. Next generation strong lensing time delay estimation with Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojjati, Alireza; Linder, Eric V.

    2014-12-01

    Strong gravitational lensing forms multiple, time delayed images of cosmological sources, with the "focal length" of the lens serving as a cosmological distance probe. Robust estimation of the time delay distance can tightly constrain the Hubble constant as well as the matter density and dark energy. Current and next generation surveys will find hundreds to thousands of lensed systems but accurate time delay estimation from noisy, gappy light curves is potentially a limiting systematic. Using a large sample of blinded light curves from the Strong Lens Time Delay Challenge we develop and demonstrate a Gaussian process cross correlation technique that delivers an average bias within 0.1% depending on the sampling, necessary for subpercent Hubble constant determination. The fits are accurate (80% of them within one day) for delays from 5-100 days and robust against cadence variations shorter than six days. We study the effects of survey characteristics such as cadence, season, and campaign length, and derive requirements for time delay cosmology: in order not to bias the cosmology determination by 0.5 σ , the mean time delay fit accuracy must be better than 0.2%.

  10. The Angstrom Project: a new microlensing candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerins, E.; Darnley, M. J.; Newsam, A. M.; Duke, J. P.; Gould, A.; Street, C. Han B.-G. Park R. A.

    2008-12-01

    We report the discovery of a new microlensing candidate in M31 by the Angstrom Project M31 bulge microlensing survey using the Liverpool Telescope (La Palma). The candidate was discovered using difference imaging techniques by the Angstrom Project Alert System (APAS) in a series of Sloan i'-band images of the bulge of M31.

  11. PLANETESIMAL DISK MICROLENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R. E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2009-12-10

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  12. Prospects for Next-Generation Storage Ring Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Storage ring light sources are among the most productive large-scale scientific user facilities in existence, owing to a combination of broad tunability, mature technology, high capacity, remarkable reliability, and high performance. The most commonly-used performance measure is the photon beam brightness, which is proportional to the flux per unit volume in six-dimensional phase space. The brightness is generally maximized by minimizing the transverse phase space area, or emittance, of the electron beam that generates the photons. Since the 1990's, most storage ring light sources have used a variant of the Chasman-Green, or double-bend-achromat (DBA), lattice, which produces transverse emittances of several nanometers. Presently, several light sources are under construction based on more challenging multi-bend-achromat (MBA) concepts, which promise an order of magnitude reduction in the emittance. Somewhat larger reductions are contemplated for upgrades of the largest facilities. This talk briefly surveys the relevant concepts in light source design, then explains both the mechanism and challenge of achieving next-generation emittances. Other factors, such as improved radiation-emitting devices, are also described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. Toward green next-generation passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an increasingly important aspect of designing access networks, due to both increased concerns for global warming and increased network costs related to energy consumption. Comparing access, metro, and core, the access constitutes a substantial part of the per subscriber network energy consumption and is regarded as the bottleneck for increased network energy efficiency. One of the main opportunities for reducing network energy consumption lies in efficiency improvements of the customer premises equipment. Access networks in general are designed for low utilization while supporting high peak access rates. The combination of large contribution to overall network power consumption and low Utilization implies large potential for CPE power saving modes where functionality is powered off during periods of idleness. Next-generation passive optical network, which is considered one of the most promising optical access networks, has notably matured in the past few years and is envisioned to massively evolve in the near future. This trend will increase the power requirements of NG-PON and make it no longer coveted. This paper will first provide a comprehensive survey of the previously reported studies on tackling this problem. A novel solution framework is then introduced, which aims to explore the maximum design dimensions and achieve the best possible power saving while maintaining the QoS requirements for each type of service.

  14. NEXT-GENERATION NUMERICAL MODELING: INCORPORATING ELASTICITY, ANISOTROPY AND ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. LARSEN; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    A new effort has been initiated between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) to investigate what features the next generation of numerical seismic models should contain that will best address current technical problems encountered during exploration in increasingly complex geologies. This collaborative work is focused on designing and building these new models, generating synthetic seismic data through simulated surveys of various geometries, and using these data to test and validate new and improved seismic imaging algorithms. The new models will be both 2- and 3-dimensional and will include complex velocity structures as well as anisotropy and attenuation. Considerable attention is being focused on multi-component acoustic and elastic effects because it is now widely recognized that converted phases could play a vital role in improving the quality of seismic images. An existing, validated 3-D elastic modeling code is being used to generate the synthetic data. Preliminary elastic modeling results using this code are presented here along with a description of the proposed new models that will be built and tested.

  15. A research roadmap for next-generation sequencing informatics.

    PubMed

    Altman, Russ B; Prabhu, Snehit; Sidow, Arend; Zook, Justin M; Goldfeder, Rachel; Litwack, David; Ashley, Euan; Asimenos, George; Bustamante, Carlos D; Donigan, Katherine; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Johansen, Elaine; Khuri, Natalia; Lee, Eunice; Liang, Xueying Sharon; Salit, Marc; Serang, Omar; Tezak, Zivana; Wall, Dennis P; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Kass-Hout, Taha

    2016-04-20

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are fueling a wave of new diagnostic tests. Progress on a key set of nine research challenge areas will help generate the knowledge required to advance effectively these diagnostics to the clinic. PMID:27099173

  16. Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) VOC Sensor Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of next generation air monitor (NGAM) volatile organic compound (VOC) evaluations performed using both laboratory as well as field scale settings. These evaluations focused on challenging lower cost (<$2500) NGAM technologies to either controlle...

  17. Next Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Arrhythmia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, Steven A.; Ellinor, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited arrhythmia syndromes are collectively associated with substantial morbidity, yet our understanding of the genetic architecture of these conditions remains limited. Recent technological advances in DNA sequencing have led to the commercialization of genetic testing now widely available in clinical practice. In particular, next generation sequencing allows the large-scale and rapid assessment of entire genomes. Although next generation sequencing represents a major technological advance, it has introduced numerous challenges with respect to the interpretation of genetic variation, and has opened a veritable floodgate of biological data of unknown clinical significance to practitioners. In this review, we discuss current genetic testing indications for inherited arrhythmia syndromes, broadly outline characteristics of next generation sequencing techniques, and highlight challenges associated with such testing. We further summarize future directions that will be necessary to address to enable the widespread adoption of next generation sequencing in the routine management of patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. PMID:25625719

  18. NASA/NREN: Next Generation Internet (NGI) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Richard; Freeman, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation internet (NGI) and the NREN (NASA Research and Education Network) activities are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NREN architecture; 2) NREN applications; and 3) NREN applied research.

  19. Next generation interatomic potentials for condensed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handley, Christopher Michael; Behler, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    The computer simulation of condensed systems is a challenging task. While electronic structure methods like density-functional theory (DFT) usually provide a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency, they are computationally very demanding and thus applicable only to systems containing up to a few hundred atoms. Unfortunately, many interesting problems require simulations to be performed on much larger systems involving thousands of atoms or more. Consequently, more efficient methods are urgently needed, and a lot of effort has been spent on the development of a large variety of potentials enabling simulations with significantly extended time and length scales. Most commonly, these potentials are based on physically motivated functional forms and thus perform very well for the applications they have been designed for. On the other hand, they are often highly system-specific and thus cannot easily be transferred from one system to another. Moreover, their numerical accuracy is restricted by the intrinsic limitations of the imposed functional forms. In recent years, several novel types of potentials have emerged, which are not based on physical considerations. Instead, they aim to reproduce a set of reference electronic structure data as accurately as possible by using very general and flexible functional forms. In this review we will survey a number of these methods. While they differ in the choice of the employed mathematical functions, they all have in common that they provide high-quality potential-energy surfaces, while the efficiency is comparable to conventional empirical potentials. It has been demonstrated that in many cases these potentials now offer a very interesting new approach to study complex systems with hitherto unreached accuracy.

  20. Detectability of orbital motion in stellar binary and planetary microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Matthew T.; Mao, Shude; Kerins, Eamonn

    2011-03-01

    A standard binary microlensing event light curve allows just two parameters of the lensing system to be measured: the mass ratio of the companion to its host and the projected separation of the components in units of the Einstein radius. However, other exotic effects can provide more information about the lensing system. Orbital motion in the lens is one such effect, which, if detected, can be used to constrain the physical properties of the lens. To determine the fraction of binary-lens light curves affected by orbital motion (the detection efficiency), we simulate light curves of orbiting binary star and star-planet (planetary) lenses and simulate the continuous, high-cadence photometric monitoring that will be conducted by the next generation of microlensing surveys that are beginning to enter operation. The effect of orbital motion is measured by fitting simulated light-curve data with standard static binary microlensing models; light curves that are poorly fitted by these models are considered to be detections of orbital motion. We correct for systematic false positive detections by also fitting the light curves of static binary lenses. For a continuous monitoring survey without intensive follow-up of high-magnification events, we find the orbital motion detection efficiency for planetary events with caustic crossings to be 0.061 ± 0.010, consistent with observational results, and 0.0130 ± 0.0055 for events without caustic crossings (smooth events). Similarly, for stellar binaries, the orbital motion detection efficiency is 0.098 ± 0.011 for events with caustic crossings and is 0.048 ± 0.006 for smooth events. These result in combined (caustic-crossing and smooth) orbital motion detection efficiencies of 0.029 ± 0.005 for planetary lenses and 0.070 ± 0.006 for stellar binary lenses. We also investigate how various microlensing parameters affect the orbital motion detectability. We find that the orbital motion detection efficiency increases as the binary

  1. Astrometric microlensing with the GAIA satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, V. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2002-04-01

    GAIA is the `super-Hipparcos ' survey satellite selected as a Cornerstone 6 mission by the European Space Agency. GAIA can measure microlensing by the brightening of source stars. For the broad G -band photometer, the all-sky source-averaged photometric optical depth is ~10-7 . There are ~1300 photometric microlensing events for which GAIA will measure at least one data point on the amplified light curve. GAIA can also measure microlensing by the small excursions of the light centroid that occur during events. The all-sky source-averaged astrometric microlensing optical depth is ~2.5×10-5 . Some ~25000 sources will have a significant variation of the centroid shift, together with a closest approach, during the lifetime of the mission. This is not the actual number of events that can be extracted from the GAIA data set, as the false detection rate has not been assessed. A covariance analysis is used to study the propagation of errors and the estimation of parameters from realistic sampling of the GAIA data stream of transits in the along-scan direction during microlensing events. The mass of the lens can be calculated to good accuracy if the lens is nearby so that the angular Einstein radius θ E is large; if the Einstein radius projected on to the observer plane r~ E is approximately an astronomical unit; or if the duration of the astrometric event is long (>~1yr) or the source star is bright . Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the ~2500 events for which the mass can be recovered with an error of <50 per cent. These high-quality events are dominated by disc lenses within a few tens of parsecs and source stars within a few hundred parsecs. We show that the local mass function can be recovered from the high-quality sample to good accuracy. GAIA is the first instrument with the capability of measuring the mass locally in very faint objects such as black holes and very cool white and brown dwarfs. For only ~5 per cent of all astrometric events will GAIA record

  2. The Next Generation of the Montage Image Mopsaic Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce; Good, John; Rusholme, Ben; Robitaille, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We have released a major upgrade of the Montage image mosaic engine (http://montage.ipac.caltech.edu) , as part of a program to develop the next generation of the engine in response to the rapid changes in the data processing landscape in Astronomy, which is generating ever larger data sets in ever more complex formats . The new release (version 4) contains modules dedicated to creating and managing mosaics of data stored as multi-dimensional arrays ("data cubes"). The new release inherits the architectural benefits of portability and scalability of the original design. The code is publicly available on Git Hub and the Montage web page. The release includes a command line tool that supports visualization of large images, and the beta-release of a Python interface to the visualization tool. We will provide examples on how to use these these features. We are generating a mosaic of the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI) Survey maps of neutral hydrogen in and around our Milky Way Galaxy, to assess the performance at scale and to develop tools and methodologies that will enable scientists inexpert in cloud processing to exploit could platforms for data processing and product generation at scale. Future releases include support for an R-tree based mechanism for fast discovery of and access to large data sets and on-demand access to calibrated SDSS DR9 data that exploits it; support for the Hierarchical Equal Area isoLatitude Pixelization (HEALPix) scheme, now standard for projects investigating cosmic background radiation (Gorski et al 2005); support fort the Tessellated Octahedral Adaptive Subdivision Transform (TOAST), the sky partitioning sky used by the WorldWide Telescope (WWT); and a public applications programming interface (API) in C that can be called from other languages, especially Python.

  3. Gravitational Microlensing Events as a Target for the SETI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2016-09-01

    The detection of signals from a possible extrasolar technological civilization is one of the most challenging efforts of science. In this work, we propose using natural telescopes made of single or binary gravitational lensing systems to magnify leakage of electromagnetic signals from a remote planet that harbors Extraterrestrial Intelligent (ETI) technology. Currently, gravitational microlensing surveys are monitoring a large area of the Galactic bulge to search for microlensing events, finding more than 2000 events per year. These lenses are capable of playing the role of natural telescopes, and, in some instances, they can magnify radio band signals from planets orbiting around the source stars in gravitational microlensing systems. Assuming that the frequency of electromagnetic waves used for telecommunication in ETIs is similar to ours, we propose follow-up observation of microlensing events with radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), the Low Frequency Demonstrators, and the Mileura Wide-Field Array. Amplifying signals from the leakage of broadcasting by an Earth-like civilization will allow us to detect them as far as the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Our analysis shows that in binary microlensing systems, the probability of amplification of signals from ETIs is more than that in single microlensing events. Finally, we propose the use of the target of opportunity mode for follow-up observations of binary microlensing events with SKA as a new observational program for searching ETIs. Using optimistic values for the factors of the Drake equation provides detection of about one event per year.

  4. Physical Configuration of the Next Generation Home Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Shohei; Kakishima, Yu; Hanawa, Dai; Oguchi, Kimio

    The number of broadband users is rapidly increasing worldwide. Japan already has over 10 million FTTH users. Another trend is the rapid digitalization of home electrical equipment e. g. digital cameras and hard disc recorders. These trends will encourage the emergence of the next generation home network. In this paper, we introduce the next generation home network image and describe the five domains into which home devices can be classified. We then clarify the optimum medium with which to configure the network given the requirements imposed by the home environment. Wiring cable lengths for three network topologies are calculated. The results gained from the next generation home network implemented on the first phase testbed are shown. Finally, our conclusions are given.

  5. Next Generation Sequencing of Ancient DNA: Requirements, Strategies and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The invention of next-generation-sequencing has revolutionized almost all fields of genetics, but few have profited from it as much as the field of ancient DNA research. From its beginnings as an interesting but rather marginal discipline, ancient DNA research is now on its way into the centre of evolutionary biology. In less than a year from its invention next-generation-sequencing had increased the amount of DNA sequence data available from extinct organisms by several orders of magnitude. Ancient DNA research is now not only adding a temporal aspect to evolutionary studies and allowing for the observation of evolution in real time, it also provides important data to help understand the origins of our own species. Here we review progress that has been made in next-generation-sequencing of ancient DNA over the past five years and evaluate sequencing strategies and future directions. PMID:24710043

  6. Requirements for Next Generation Comprehensive Analysis of Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Data, Anubhav

    2008-01-01

    The unique demands of rotorcraft aeromechanics analysis have led to the development of software tools that are described as comprehensive analyses. The next generation of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses will be driven and enabled by the tremendous capabilities of high performance computing, particularly modular and scaleable software executed on multiple cores. Development of a comprehensive analysis based on high performance computing both demands and permits a new analysis architecture. This paper describes a vision of the requirements for this next generation of comprehensive analyses of rotorcraft. The requirements are described and substantiated for what must be included and justification provided for what should be excluded. With this guide, a path to the next generation code can be found.

  7. Theory of dispersive microlenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, B.; Gal, George

    1993-01-01

    A dispersive microlens is a miniature optical element which simultaneously focuses and disperses light. Arrays of dispersive mircolenses have potential applications in multicolor focal planes. They have a 100 percent optical fill factor and can focus light down to detectors of diffraction spot size, freeing up areas on the focal plane for on-chip analog signal processing. Use of dispersive microlenses allows inband color separation within a pixel and perfect scene registration. A dual-color separation has the potential for temperature discrimination. We discuss the design of dispersive microlenses and present sample results for efficient designs.

  8. Evolution and Next Generation of Large Cosmic-Ray Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela

    2016-03-01

    With collaborations involving as many as 32 countries, next generation astro-particle observatories are being built to understand the puzzling origin of the most energetic processes in the Universe. We will review some recent results and the effort behind next generation observatories, which include large arrays of detectors and space missions to study high to ultra-high energy cosmic-rays, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. The great opportunity of word-wide scientific productivity and funding motivates these large-scale efforts, which also face many challenges due to geopolitical events and differences in science funding cultures.

  9. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, James W., Ed.; Wilson, Mark R., Ed.; Koenig, Judith A., Ed.; Beatty, Alexandra S., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments, understood as tools for tracking what and how well students have learned, play a critical role in the classroom. "Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards" develops an approach to science assessment to meet the vision of science education for the future as it has been elaborated in "A Framework…

  10. 75 FR 82387 - Next Generation Risk Assessment Public Dialogue Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... AGENCY Next Generation Risk Assessment Public Dialogue Conference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Generation of Risk Assessment'' (NexGen) program, EPA is announcing a 2-day public dialogue conference to... Information About the Conference The landscape of risk assessment is changing rapidly with new advances...

  11. The Next Generation Science Standards: A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes ways to adapt U.S. science curriculum to the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and "Next Generation of Science Standards" (NGSS), noting their focus on teaching the physical sciences. The overall goal of the Framework and NGSS is to help all learners develop the…

  12. The "Next Generation Science Standards": A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    What should all students know about the physical sciences? Why should all students have a basic understanding of these ideas? An amazing number of new scientific breakthroughs have occurred in the last 20 years that impact daily lives. This article focuses on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) disciplinary core ideas in…

  13. Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.; Saleh, Issa M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "Approaches and Strategies in Next Generation Science Learning" examines the challenges involved in the development of modern curriculum models, teaching strategies, and assessments in science education in order to prepare future students in the 21st century economies. This comprehensive collection of research brings together science educators,…

  14. Using Digital Watermarking for Securing Next Generation Media Broadcasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Dominik; Gaines, Seán

    The Internet presents a problem for the protection of intellectual property. Those who create content must be adequately compensated for the use of their works. Rights agencies who monitor the use of these works exist in many jurisdictions. In the traditional broadcast environment this monitoring is a difficult task. With Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and Next Generation Networks (NGN) this situation is further complicated.

  15. Biopsies: next-generation biospecimens for tailoring therapy.

    PubMed

    Basik, Mark; Aguilar-Mahecha, Adriana; Rousseau, Caroline; Diaz, Zuanel; Tejpar, Sabine; Spatz, Alan; Greenwood, Celia M T; Batist, Gerald

    2013-08-01

    The majority of samples in existing tumour biobanks are surgical specimens of primary tumours. Insights into tumour biology, such as intratumoural heterogeneity, tumour-host crosstalk, and the evolution of the disease during therapy, require biospecimens from the primary tumour and those that reflect the patient's disease in specific contexts. Next-generation 'omics' technologies facilitate deep interrogation of tumours, but the characteristics of the samples can determine the ultimate accuracy of the results. The challenge is to biopsy tumours, in some cases serially over time, ensuring that the samples are representative, viable, and adequate both in quantity and quality for subsequent molecular applications. The collection of next-generation biospecimens, tumours, and blood samples at defined time points during the disease trajectory--either for discovery research or to guide clinical decisions--presents additional challenges and opportunities. From an organizational perspective, it also requires new additions to the multidisciplinary therapeutic team, notably interventional radiologists, molecular pathologists, and bioinformaticians. In this Review, we describe the existing procedures for sample procurement and processing of next-generation biospecimens, and highlight the issues involved in this endeavour, including the ethical, logistical, scientific, informational, and financial challenges accompanying next-generation biobanking. PMID:23799370

  16. Lo Que Aprendimos: Advice for the Next Generation of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This essay identifies several themes presented by my parents, Abel and Juanita Jimenez. They are parents of five children who successfully navigated through the K-12 system and earned university degrees. They were interviewed over several evenings and asked what advice they would provide to the next generation of Latino parents. My parents…

  17. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  18. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Next Generation Science Standards" identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education." The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of…

  19. Multiple nuclear ortholog next generation sequencing phylogeny of Daucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation sequencing is helping to solve the data insufficiency problem hindering well-resolved dominant gene phylogenies. We used Roche 454 technology to obtain DNA sequences from 93 nuclear orthologs, dispersed throughout all linkage groups of Daucus. Of these 93 orthologs, ten were designed...

  20. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  1. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Alaska Native governments selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  2. Next-generation fire extinguishing agent, phase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapscott, Robert E.; Moore, Joanne P.; Lee, Michael E.; Watson, Jimmy D.; Morehouse, E. T.

    1990-04-01

    This project was established to originate concepts for next-generation fire extinguishing agents. In Phase 3, an effort to develop a substitute agent to replace Halon 1211 in Air Force firefighter training was initiated. Laboratory scale investigations of flame extinguishment by chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCSCs) were performed. Laboratory studies of physical properties of CFC blends were also carried out.

  3. ACMG clinical laboratory standards for next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Heidi L.; Bale, Sherri J; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Berg, Jonathan S; Brown, Kerry K; Deignan, Joshua L; Friez, Michael J; Funke, Birgit H; Hegde, Madhuri R; Lyon, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have been and continue to be deployed in clinical laboratories, enabling rapid transformations in genomic medicine. These technologies have reduced the cost of large-scale sequencing by several orders of magnitude, and continuous advances are being made. It is now feasible to analyze an individual's near-complete exome or genome to assist in the diagnosis of a wide array of clinical scenarios. Next-generation sequencing technologies are also facilitating further advances in therapeutic decision making and disease prediction for at-risk patients. However, with rapid advances come additional challenges involving the clinical validation and use of these constantly evolving technologies and platforms in clinical laboratories. To assist clinical laboratories with the validation of next-generation sequencing methods and platforms, the ongoing monitoring of next-generation sequencing testing to ensure quality results, and the interpretation and reporting of variants found using these technologies, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics has developed the following professional standards and guidelines. PMID:23887774

  4. Internet 2 and the Next Generation Internet: A Realistic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Cecilia M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes new developments, such as Internet 2 and the Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative, as well as other potential advances in high-performance applications that these new electronic resources will create. Relates these developments to the evolution of the Internet, and looks ahead to their likely impact beyond the higher education and…

  5. Building Next Generation Video Game Collections in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskowski, Mary; Ward, David

    2009-01-01

    Most academic libraries do not yet have gaming collections, let alone gaming services and facilities that support the unique and growing teaching and research needs of campus environments. Academic libraries in particular need to start thinking about developing the next generation of gaming collections and services. This article examines the…

  6. Desirements of Next Generation Spacecraft Interconnects : The JPL NEXUS Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yutao; Some, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of NEXUS (NEXt bUS) (1) A research task funded by JPL R&TD program (2) Develop a common highly-capable next generation avionics interconnect with the following features: (a) Transparently compatible with wired, fiber-optic, and RF physical layers (b) A clear and feasible path-to-flight to ensure infusion into future NASA/JPL missions

  7. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in…

  8. Teachers Shift Instructional Approaches to Bring "Next Generation" into Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    Well before the Next Generation Science Standards became final last month, teachers in pockets around the country were already exploring the vision for science education espoused by the document and bringing elements of that approach to the classroom. The new standards call for bringing greater depth to K-12 students' understanding of the subject…

  9. NGSS and the Next Generation of Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2014-01-01

    This article centers on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and their implications for teacher development, particularly at the undergraduate level. After an introduction to NGSS and the influence of standards in the educational system, the article addresses specific educational shifts--interconnecting science and engineering…

  10. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, by States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Next Generation Science Standards" identifies the science all K-12 students should know. These new standards are based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education." The National Research Council, the National Science Teachers Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science,…

  11. Mobile e-Learning for Next Generation Communication Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Tin-Yu; Chao, Han-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    This article develops an environment for mobile e-learning that includes an interactive course, virtual online labs, an interactive online test, and lab-exercise training platform on the fourth generation mobile communication system. The Next Generation Learning Environment (NeGL) promotes the term "knowledge economy." Inter-networking…

  12. Design Principles of Next-Generation Digital Gaming for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Jenkins, Henry; Holland, Walter; Miller, Heather; O'Driscoll, Alice; Tan, Katie Philip; Todd, Katie.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of digital games, describes research at MIT that is exploring the potential of digital games for supporting learning, and offers hypotheses about the design of next-generation educational video and computer games. Highlights include simulations and games; and design principles, including context and using information to…

  13. Efficient Cryptography for the Next Generation Secure Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupcu, Alptekin

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, and client-server type storage and computation outsourcing constitute some of the major applications that the next generation cloud schemes will address. Since these applications are just emerging, it is the perfect time to design them with security and privacy in mind. Furthermore, considering the high-churn…

  14. Applications of next-generation sequencing techniques in plant biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The last several years have seen revolutionary advances in DNA sequencing technologies with the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS methods now allow millions of bases to be sequenced in one round, at a fraction of the cost relative to traditional Sanger sequencing, allowing u...

  15. The NASA Next Generation Stirling Technology Program Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J. G.; Shaltens, R. K.; Wong, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is developing the next generation Stirling technology for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for surface and deep space missions. The next generation Stirling convertor is one of two advanced power conversion technologies currently being developed for future NASA missions, and is capable of operating for both planetary atmospheres and deep space environments. The Stirling convertor (free-piston engine integrated with a linear alternator) produces about 90 We(ac) and has a specific power of about 90 We/kg. Operating conditions of Thot at 850 degree C and Trej at 90 degree C results in the Stirling convertor estimated efficiency of about 40 per cent. Using the next generation Stirling convertor in future RPS, the "system" specific power is estimated at 8 We/kg. The design lifetime is three years on the surface of Mars and fourteen years in deep space missions. Electrical power of about 160 We (BOM) is produced by two (2) free-piston Stirling convertors heated by two (2) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. This development is being performed by Sunpower, Athens, OH with Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA under contract to Glenn Research Center (GRC), Cleveland, Ohio. GRC is guiding the independent testing and technology development for the next generation Stirling generator.

  16. Advancing Next-Generation Energy in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on Tribes in the lower 48 states selected to receive assistance from the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  17. Next Generation Science Standards: Adoption and Implementation Workbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzman, Alissa; Rodriguez, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent the culmination of years of collaboration and effort by states, science educators and experts from across the United States. Based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" and developed in partnership with 26 lead states, the NGSS, when…

  18. The Next Generation of Science Standards: Implications for Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…

  19. Next Generation Sequencing at the University of Chicago Genomics Core

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, Pieter

    2013-04-24

    The University of Chicago Genomics Core provides University of Chicago investigators (and external clients) access to State-of-the-Art genomics capabilities: next generation sequencing, Sanger sequencing / genotyping and micro-arrays (gene expression, genotyping, and methylation). The current presentation will highlight our capabilities in the area of ultra-high throughput sequencing analysis.

  20. 76 FR 2109 - Next Generation Risk Assessment Public Dialogue Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Next Generation Risk Assessment Public Dialogue Conference Correction In notice document 2010-32977 appearing on page 82387 in the issue of Thursday, December 30, 2010, make the following...

  1. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS…

  2. Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.

  3. Emerging Definition of Next-Generation of Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Aviation continues to experience rapid growth. In regions such as the United States and Europe air traffic congestion is constraining operations, leading to major new efforts to develop methodologies and infrastructures to enable continued aviation growth through transformational air traffic management systems. Such a transformation requires better communications linking airborne and ground-based elements. Technologies for next-generation communications, the required capacities, frequency spectrum of operation, network interconnectivity, and global interoperability are now receiving increased attention. A number of major planning and development efforts have taken place or are in process now to define the transformed airspace of the future. These activities include government and industry led efforts in the United States and Europe, and by international organizations. This paper will review the features, approaches, and activities of several representative planning and development efforts, and identify the emerging global consensus on requirements of next generation aeronautical communications systems for air traffic control.

  4. Next-generation proteomics faces new challenges in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Armengaud, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Environmental biotechnology relies on the exploration of novel biological systems and a thorough understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Next-generation proteomics based on the latest generation of mass analyzers currently allows the recording of complete proteomes from any microorganism. Interpreting these data can be straightforward if the genome of the organism is established, or relatively easy to perform through proteogenomics approaches if a draft sequence can be obtained. However, next-generation proteomics faces new, interesting challenges when the organism is distantly related to previously characterized organisms or when mixtures of organisms have to be analyzed. New mass spectrometers and innovative bioinformatics tools are reshaping the possibilities of homology-based proteomics, proteogenomics, and metaproteomics for the characterization of biological systems. Novel time- and cost-effective screening strategies are also possible with this methodology, as exemplified by whole proteome thermal profiling and subpopulation proteomics. The complexity of environmental samples allows for unique developments of approaches and concepts. PMID:26950175

  5. RESULTS OF ANALYSES OF THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR PARSONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-03-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared a nominal 150 gallon batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) for Parsons. This material was then analyzed and tested for cesium mass transfer efficiency. The bulk of the results indicate that the solvent is qualified as acceptable for use in the upcoming pilot-scale testing at Parsons Technology Center. This report describes the analysis and testing of a batch of Next Generation Solvent (NGS) prepared in support of pilot-scale testing in the Parsons Technology Center. A total of {approx}150 gallons of NGS solvent was prepared in late November of 2011. Details for the work are contained in a controlled laboratory notebook. Analysis of the Parsons NGS solvent indicates that the material is acceptable for use. SRNL is continuing to improve the analytical method for the guanidine.

  6. Next generation: Unmanned launch vehicles and upper stages: The needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    The focus is on common vehicle elements, higher mission success, and lower transportation cost with respect to the common needs of the Department of Defense, NASA, and U.S. Industry. The following are presented in viewgraph form: (1) perspectives on mission costs and failures; (2) the recurring costs of the Delta 7925, Atlas/Centar, Titan 3, and Titan 4; (3) U.S. launches from 1957-1987 of Vanguard, Jupiter, Thor/Delta, Juno, Atlas, Scout, Redstone, Saturn, Titan, and the Space Transportation System; and (4) subsystem sources of failure. The following topics are also briefly presented: (1) engine costs; (2) a summary of flight experience; (3) recommendations for next generation space transportation; (4) low cost engine demonstration; and (5) the next generation commercial expendable launch vehicle (ELV) needs estimate.

  7. NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program - Strategy and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established a new program office, Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program Office, last year to pursue technologies for future space launch systems. NGLT will fund research in key technology areas such as propulsion, launch vehicles, operations and system analyses. NGLT is part of NASA s Integrated Space Technology Plan. The NGLT Program is sponsored by NASA s Office of Aerospace Technology and is part of the Space Launch Initiative theme that includes both NGLT and Orbital Space Plane. NGLT will focus on technology development to increase safety and reliability and reduce overall costs associated with building, flying and maintaining the nation s next-generations of space launch vehicles. These investments will be guided by systems engineering and analysis with a focus on the needs of National customers.

  8. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  9. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.

    1991-08-22

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing for Binary Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Bernhard; Zhang, Xinmin; Pesce, C. Gustavo; Mendelsohn, Andrew R.; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system exploits host cell genetics in order to display binary protein–protein interactions (PPIs) via defined and selectable phenotypes. Numerous improvements have been made to this method, adapting the screening principle for diverse applications, including drug discovery and the scale-up for proteome wide interaction screens in human and other organisms. Here we discuss a systematic workflow and analysis scheme for screening data generated by Y2H and related assays that includes high-throughput selection procedures, readout of comprehensive results via next-generation sequencing (NGS), and the interpretation of interaction data via quantitative statistics. The novel assays and tools will serve the broader scientific community to harness the power of NGS technology to address PPI networks in health and disease. We discuss examples of how this next-generation platform can be applied to address specific questions in diverse fields of biology and medicine. PMID:26734059

  11. Next-generation genome-scale models for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    King, Zachary A; Lloyd, Colton J; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-12-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods have become widely used tools for metabolic engineering in both academic and industrial laboratories. By employing a genome-scale in silico representation of the metabolic network of a host organism, COBRA methods can be used to predict optimal genetic modifications that improve the rate and yield of chemical production. A new generation of COBRA models and methods is now being developed--encompassing many biological processes and simulation strategies-and next-generation models enable new types of predictions. Here, three key examples of applying COBRA methods to strain optimization are presented and discussed. Then, an outlook is provided on the next generation of COBRA models and the new types of predictions they will enable for systems metabolic engineering. PMID:25575024

  12. Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor Development and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Lee, Jimmy; Robertson, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) was the primary docking sensor for the Orbital Express mission. The sensor performed extremely well during the mission, and the technology has been proven on orbit in other flights too. Parts obsolescence issues prevented the construction of more AVGS units, so the next generation of sensor was designed with current parts and updated to support future programs. The Next Generation Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (NGAVGS) has been tested as a breadboard, two different brassboard units, and a prototype. The testing revealed further improvements that could be made and demonstrated capability beyond that ever demonstrated by the sensor on orbit. This paper presents some of the sensor history, parts obsolescence issues, radiation concerns, and software improvements to the NGAVGS. In addition, some of the testing and test results are presented. The NGAVGS has shown that it will meet the general requirements for any space proximity operations or docking need.

  13. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  14. NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Halse, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

  15. The next generation of power reactors - safety characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Modro, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of commercial nuclear power reactors is characterized by a new approach to achieving reliability of their safety systems. In contrast to current generation reactors, these designs apply passive safety features that rely on gravity-driven transfer processes or stored energy, such as gas-pressurized accumulators or electric batteries. This paper discusses the passive safety system of the AP600 and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) designs.

  16. Next Generation Luminaire (NGL) Downlight Demonstration Project, Hilton Columbus Downtown

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R. G.; Perrin, T. E.

    2014-09-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code.

  17. TriG: Next Generation Scalable Spaceborne GNSS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Okihiro, Brian Bachman; Esterhuizen, Stephan X.; Franklin, Garth W.; Meehan, Thomas K.; Munson, Timothy N.; Robison, David E.; Turbiner, Dmitry; Young, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    TriG is the next generation NASA scalable space GNSS Science Receiver. It will track all GNSS and additional signals (i.e. GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Compass and Doris). Scalable 3U architecture and fully software and firmware recofigurable, enabling optimization to meet specific mission requirements. TriG GNSS EM is currently undergoing testing and is expected to complete full performance testing later this year.

  18. Preparation of SELEX Samples for Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tolle, Fabian; Mayer, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by massive whole genome sequencing projects such as the human genome project, enormous technological advancements and therefore tremendous price drops could be achieved, rendering next-generation sequencing very attractive for deep sequencing of SELEX libraries. Herein we describe the preparation of SELEX samples for Illumina sequencing, based on the already established whole genome sequencing workflow. We describe the addition of barcode sequences for multiplexing and the adapter ligation, avoiding associated pitfalls. PMID:26552817

  19. Next-generation digital information storage in DNA.

    PubMed

    Church, George M; Gao, Yuan; Kosuri, Sriram

    2012-09-28

    Digital information is accumulating at an astounding rate, straining our ability to store and archive it. DNA is among the most dense and stable information media known. The development of new technologies in both DNA synthesis and sequencing make DNA an increasingly feasible digital storage medium. We developed a strategy to encode arbitrary digital information in DNA, wrote a 5.27-megabit book using DNA microchips, and read the book by using next-generation DNA sequencing. PMID:22903519

  20. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  1. Visualizing next-generation sequencing data with JBrowse

    PubMed Central

    Westesson, Oscar; Skinner, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    JBrowse is a web-based genome browser, allowing many sources of data to be visualized, interpreted and navigated in a coherent visual framework. JBrowse uses efficient data structures, pre-generation of image tiles and client-side rendering to provide a fast, interactive browsing experience. Many of JBrowse's design features make it well suited for visualizing high-volume data, such as aligned next-generation sequencing reads. PMID:22411711

  2. SNP Discovery through Next-Generation Sequencing and Its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Banks, Travis W.; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The decreasing cost along with rapid progress in next-generation sequencing and related bioinformatics computing resources has facilitated large-scale discovery of SNPs in various model and nonmodel plant species. Large numbers and genome-wide availability of SNPs make them the marker of choice in partially or completely sequenced genomes. Although excellent reviews have been published on next-generation sequencing, its associated bioinformatics challenges, and the applications of SNPs in genetic studies, a comprehensive review connecting these three intertwined research areas is needed. This paper touches upon various aspects of SNP discovery, highlighting key points in availability and selection of appropriate sequencing platforms, bioinformatics pipelines, SNP filtering criteria, and applications of SNPs in genetic analyses. The use of next-generation sequencing methodologies in many non-model crops leading to discovery and implementation of SNPs in various genetic studies is discussed. Development and improvement of bioinformatics software that are open source and freely available have accelerated the SNP discovery while reducing the associated cost. Key considerations for SNP filtering and associated pipelines are discussed in specific topics. A list of commonly used software and their sources is compiled for easy access and reference. PMID:23227038

  3. Next-generation pushbroom filter radiometers for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarde, Richard W.; Dittman, Michael G.; Kvaran, Geir E.

    2012-09-01

    Individual focal plane size, yield, and quality continue to improve, as does the technology required to combine these into large tiled formats. As a result, next-generation pushbroom imagers are replacing traditional scanning technologies in remote sensing applications. Pushbroom architecture has inherently better radiometric sensitivity and significantly reduced payload mass, power, and volume than previous generation scanning technologies. However, the architecture creates challenges achieving the required radiometric accuracy performance. Achieving good radiometric accuracy, including image spectral and spatial uniformity, requires creative optical design, high quality focal planes and filters, careful consideration of on-board calibration sources, and state-of-the-art ground test facilities. Ball Aerospace built the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) next-generation Operational Landsat Imager (OLI) payload. Scheduled to launch in 2013, OLI provides imagery consistent with the historical Landsat spectral, spatial, radiometric, and geometric data record and completes the generational technology upgrade from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) whiskbroom technology to modern pushbroom technology afforded by advanced focal planes. We explain how Ball's capabilities allowed producing the innovative next-generational OLI pushbroom filter radiometer that meets challenging radiometric accuracy or calibration requirements. OLI will improve the multi-decadal land surface observation dataset dating back to the 1972 launch of ERTS-1 or Landsat 1.

  4. Recent progress in the study of the next generation Internet in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Jianping; Wu, Qian; Xu, Ke

    2013-03-28

    The Internet has become a major part of the global communications infrastructure supporting modern-day socio-economic development, social progress and technological innovation. Invented 30 years ago, today the Internet is facing severe challenges. Many countries have funded research projects on the new-generation Internet, such as GENI, FIND, FIRE and CNGI, in an effort to solve these challenges. In addition, over the past few years, the networking research community has engaged in an ongoing conversation about how to move the Internet forward, and there are now two different approaches towards Internet research. The first approach is based on using the existing Internet architecture to solve the major technical challenges-this is called 'evolutionary' research. The other, which is called the 'clean slate', involves the design of an entirely new Internet architecture. In the first part of this paper, the basic features of the next generation Internet and its principal contradictions are analysed. Then a survey of recent progress in the study of the next generation Internet in China is discussed. Finally, the focus and direction for the next step in research are presented as based on fundamental research into the international next generation Internet architecture, and the many new innovative demands placed on Internet architecture in recent years. PMID:23419856

  5. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  6. Defining next-generation products: an inside look.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, B; Walleigh, R

    1997-01-01

    The continued success of technology-based companies depends on their proficiency in creating next-generation products and their derivatives. So getting such products out the door on schedule must be routine for such companies, right? Not quite. The authors recently engaged in a detailed study--in which they had access to sensitive internal information and to candid interviews with people at every level--of 28 next-generation product-development projects in 14 leading high-tech companies. They found that most of the companies were unable to complete such projects on schedule. And the companies also had difficulty developing the derivative products needed to fill the gaps in the market that their next-generation products would create. The problem in every case, the authors discovered, was rooted in the product definition phase. And not coincidentally, the successful companies in the study had all learned how to handle the technical and marketplace uncertainties in their product definition processes. The authors have discerned from the actions of those companies a set of best practices that can measurably improve the definition phase of any company's product-development process. They have grouped the techniques into three categories and carefully lay out the steps that companies need to take as they work through each stage. The best practices revealed here are not a magic formula for rapid, successful new-product definition. But they can help companies capture new markets without major delays. And that is good news for any manager facing the uncertainty that goes with developing products for a global marketplace. PMID:10174793

  7. Investigation of Next-Generation Earth Radiation Budget Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Katherine L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The current effort addresses two issues important to the research conducted by the Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Tech. The first research topic involves the development of a method which can properly model the diffraction of radiation as it enters an instrument aperture. The second topic involves the study of a potential next-generation space-borne radiometric instrument concept. Presented are multiple modeling efforts to describe the diffraction of monochromatic radiant energy passing through an aperture for use in the Monte-Carlo ray-trace environment. Described in detail is a deterministic model based upon Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the particle theory of light. This method is applicable to either Fraunhofer or Fresnel diffraction situations, but is incapable of predicting the secondary fringes in a diffraction pattern. Also presented is a second diffraction model, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle with a correcting obliquity factor. This model is useful for predicting Fraunhofer diffraction, and can predict the secondary fringes because it keeps track of phase. NASA is planning for the next-generation of instruments to follow CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), an instrument which measures components of the Earth's radiant energy budget in three spectral bands. A potential next-generation concept involves modification of the current CERES instrument to measure in a larger number of wavelength bands. This increased spectral partitioning would be achieved by the addition of filters and detectors to the current CERES geometry. The capacity of the CERES telescope to serve for this purpose is addressed in this thesis.

  8. Plant virology and next generation sequencing: experiences with a Potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Monica A; Coutts, Brenda A; Buirchell, Bevan J; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is quickly emerging as the go-to tool for plant virologists when sequencing whole virus genomes, and undertaking plant metagenomic studies for new virus discoveries. This study aims to compare the genomic and biological properties of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (genus Potyvirus), isolates from Lupinus angustifolius plants with black pod syndrome (BPS), systemic necrosis or non-necrotic symptoms, and from two other plant species. When one Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) (genus Potyvirus) and 22 BYMV isolates were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000, one new ClYVV and 23 new BYMV sequences were obtained. When the 23 new BYMV genomes were compared with 17 other BYMV genomes available on Genbank, phylogenetic analysis provided strong support for existence of nine phylogenetic groupings. Biological studies involving seven isolates of BYMV and one of ClYVV gave no symptoms or reactions that could be used to distinguish BYMV isolates from L. angustifolius plants with black pod syndrome from other isolates. Here, we propose that the current system of nomenclature based on biological properties be replaced by numbered groups (I-IX). This is because use of whole genomes revealed that the previous phylogenetic grouping system based on partial sequences of virus genomes and original isolation hosts was unsustainable. This study also demonstrated that, where next generation sequencing is used to obtain complete plant virus genomes, consideration needs to be given to issues regarding sample preparation, adequate levels of coverage across a genome and methods of assembly. It also provided important lessons that will be helpful to other plant virologists using next generation sequencing in the future. PMID:25102175

  9. Developing Next Generation Natural Fracture Detection and Prediction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of the ''Next Generation'' project was to develop technology that will provide a quantitative description of natural fracture properties and locations in low-permeability reservoirs. The development of this technology has consistently been ranked as one of the highest priority needs by industry. Numerous researchers and resource assessment groups have stated that the ability to identify area where intense clusters of natural fractures co-exist with gas-charged sands, the so called ''sweet spots'', will be the key to unlocking the vast quantities of gas in-place contained in these low-permeability gas basins. To meet this technology need, the ''Next Generation'' project was undertaken with three performance criteria in mind: (1) provide an integrated assessment of the burial and tectonic stresses in a basin responsible for natural fracture genesis (using seismic data, a significantly modified application of geomechanics, and a discrete natural fracture generation model); (2) link the assessment of natural fracture properties and locations to the reservoir's fluid, storage and flow properties; and, (3) provide a reservoir simulation-based calculation of the gas (and water) production capacity of a naturally fractured reservoir system. Phase III of the ''Next Generation'' project entailed the performance of a field demonstration of the software in an ''exploration'' setting. The search for an Industry Partner willing to host an exploratory field demonstration was unsuccessful and Phase III was canceled effective May, 31, 2005. The failure to find an Industry Partner can be attributed to severe changes in the petroleum industry competitive environment between 1999 when the project was initiated and 2005 when further demonstration efforts were halted. The software was employed in portions of other, non-exploratory, projects underway during the development time period, and insights gained will be summarized here in lieu of a full field demonstration.

  10. THE NEXT GENERATION SAFEGUARDS PROFESSIONAL NETWORK: PROGRESS AND NEXT STEPS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhernosek, Alena V; Lynch, Patrick D; Scholz, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    President Obama has repeatedly stated that the United States must ensure that the international safeguards regime, as embodied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has 'the authority, information, people, and technology it needs to do its job.' The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) works to implement the President's vision through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), a program to revitalize the U.S. DOE national laboratories safeguards technology and human capital base so that the United States can more effectively support the IAEA and ensure that it meets current and emerging challenges to the international safeguards system. In 2009, in response to the human capital development goals of NGSI, young safeguards professionals within the Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory launched the Next Generation Safeguards Professional Network (NGSPN). The purpose of this initiative is to establish working relationships and to foster collaboration and communication among the next generation of safeguards leaders. The NGSPN is an organization for, and of, young professionals pursuing careers in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation - as well as mid-career professionals new to the field - whether working within the U.S. DOE national laboratory complex, U.S. government agencies, academia, or industry or at the IAEA. The NGSPN is actively supported by the NNSA, boasts more than 70 members, maintains a website and newsletter, and has held two national meetings as well as an NGSPN session and panel at the July 2010 Institute of Nuclear Material Management Annual Meeting. This paper discusses the network; its significance, goals and objectives; developments and progress to date; and future plans.

  11. Plant Virology and Next Generation Sequencing: Experiences with a Potyvirus

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Monica A.; Coutts, Brenda A.; Buirchell, Bevan J.; Jones, Roger A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is quickly emerging as the go-to tool for plant virologists when sequencing whole virus genomes, and undertaking plant metagenomic studies for new virus discoveries. This study aims to compare the genomic and biological properties of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (genus Potyvirus), isolates from Lupinus angustifolius plants with black pod syndrome (BPS), systemic necrosis or non-necrotic symptoms, and from two other plant species. When one Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) (genus Potyvirus) and 22 BYMV isolates were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq2000, one new ClYVV and 23 new BYMV sequences were obtained. When the 23 new BYMV genomes were compared with 17 other BYMV genomes available on Genbank, phylogenetic analysis provided strong support for existence of nine phylogenetic groupings. Biological studies involving seven isolates of BYMV and one of ClYVV gave no symptoms or reactions that could be used to distinguish BYMV isolates from L. angustifolius plants with black pod syndrome from other isolates. Here, we propose that the current system of nomenclature based on biological properties be replaced by numbered groups (I–IX). This is because use of whole genomes revealed that the previous phylogenetic grouping system based on partial sequences of virus genomes and original isolation hosts was unsustainable. This study also demonstrated that, where next generation sequencing is used to obtain complete plant virus genomes, consideration needs to be given to issues regarding sample preparation, adequate levels of coverage across a genome and methods of assembly. It also provided important lessons that will be helpful to other plant virologists using next generation sequencing in the future. PMID:25102175

  12. Automatic content recognition for the next-generation TV experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaofan

    2012-03-01

    Smart TVs has been introduced. Second, applications running on mobile devices (so called "second-screen apps") have significantly enriched TV watching experience. As an enabler of content-aware TVs and apps, automatic content recognition (ACR) is attracting a lot of attention recently. This paper presents an overview of ACR in this context. It attempts to answer a number of questions: Why do we need ACR for the next generation TV experience? What is the relationship between ACR and existing technologies? What are the unique requirements and challenges on ACR in those applications? What are the typical implementation architectures? It also describes the existing products in this space.

  13. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P.; Kozanecki, W.

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  14. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  15. Clinical Next Generation Sequencing for Precision Medicine in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ling; Wang, Wanheng; Li, Alvin; Kansal, Rina; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hong; Li, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in genomic medicine has been driven by low cost, high throughput sequencing and rapid advances in our understanding of the genetic bases of human diseases. Today, the NGS method has dominated sequencing space in genomic research, and quickly entered clinical practice. Because unique features of NGS perfectly meet the clinical reality (need to do more with less), the NGS technology is becoming a driving force to realize the dream of precision medicine. This article describes the strengths of NGS, NGS panels used in precision medicine, current applications of NGS in cytology, and its challenges and future directions for routine clinical use. PMID:27006629

  16. Technology Innovations from NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.; Tyson, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program has been on the cutting edge of technology, improving the safety, affordability, and reliability of future space-launch-transportation systems. The array of projects focused on propulsion, airframe, and other vehicle systems. Achievements range from building miniature fuel/oxygen sensors to hot-firings of major rocket-engine systems as well as extreme thermo-mechanical testing of large-scale structures. Results to date have significantly advanced technology readiness for future space-launch systems using either airbreathing or rocket propulsion.

  17. Clinical Next Generation Sequencing for Precision Medicine in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ling; Wang, Wanheng; Li, Alvin; Kansal, Rina; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hong; Li, Xinmin

    2015-08-01

    Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in genomic medicine has been driven by low cost, high throughput sequencing and rapid advances in our understanding of the genetic bases of human diseases. Today, the NGS method has dominated sequencing space in genomic research, and quickly entered clinical practice. Because unique features of NGS perfectly meet the clinical reality (need to do more with less), the NGS technology is becoming a driving force to realize the dream of precision medicine. This article describes the strengths of NGS, NGS panels used in precision medicine, current applications of NGS in cytology, and its challenges and future directions for routine clinical use. PMID:27006629

  18. Next generation platforms for high-throughput biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Repin, Mikhail; Turner, Helen C.; Garty, Guy; Brenner, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here the general concept of the combined use of plates and tubes in racks compatible with the American National Standards Institute/the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening microplate formats as the next generation platforms for increasing the throughput of biodosimetry assays was described. These platforms can be used at different stages of biodosimetry assays starting from blood collection into microtubes organised in standardised racks and ending with the cytogenetic analysis of samples in standardised multiwell and multichannel plates. Robotically friendly platforms can be used for different biodosimetry assays in minimally equipped laboratories and on cost-effective automated universal biotech systems. PMID:24837249

  19. JVM: Java Visual Mapping tool for next generation sequencing read.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Liu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We developed a program JVM (Java Visual Mapping) for mapping next generation sequencing read to reference sequence. The program is implemented in Java and is designed to deal with millions of short read generated by sequence alignment using the Illumina sequencing technology. It employs seed index strategy and octal encoding operations for sequence alignments. JVM is useful for DNA-Seq, RNA-Seq when dealing with single-end resequencing. JVM is a desktop application, which supports reads capacity from 1 MB to 10 GB. PMID:25387956

  20. Airframe Technology Development for Next Generation Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airframe subproject within NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program has the responsibility to develop airframe technology for both rocket and airbreathing vehicles for access to space. The Airframe sub-project pushes the state-of-the-art in airframe technology for low-cost, reliable, and safe space transportation. Both low and medium technology readiness level (TRL) activities are being pursued. The key technical areas being addressed include design and integration, hot and integrated structures, cryogenic tanks, and thermal protection systems. Each of the technologies in these areas are discussed in this paper.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  2. Towards Human Centred Manufacturing Systems in the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Hata, Seiji

    Nowadays agile market is in common, and the fundamental technology supporting next-generation production system requires further development of machine and information technologies to establish “human friendly technology" and a bridging of these technologies together. IMS-HUTOP project proposes a new product life cycle that respects the human nature of individuals, and establishes the elemental technologies necessary for acquiring, modelling and evaluating various human factors in an effort to achieve the HUTOP cycle. In this paper we propose a human centred and human friendly manufacturing system, which has been proposed in the IMS-HUTOP project.

  3. Small Accelerators for the Next Generation of BNCT Irradiation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Tanaka, K.; Bengua, G.; Hoshi, M.; Nakagawa, Y.

    2005-01-15

    The neutron irradiation system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using compact accelerators installed at hospitals was mainly investigated for the usage of direct neutrons from near-threshold {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be, and moderated neutrons from 2.5 MeV {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reactions and other reactions. This kind of system can supply the medical doctors and patients with convenience to carry out BNCT in hospitals. The accelerator system would be regarded as the next-generation of BNCT in the near future.

  4. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-03-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in April of 2013. From his perspective as the coordinator of the development of the NGSS, the author discusses the background regarding the development, key features and some of the challenges ahead in implementing the NGSS.

  5. NGSS and the Next Generation of Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2014-03-01

    This article centers on the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and their implications for teacher development, particularly at the undergraduate level. After an introduction to NGSS and the influence of standards in the educational system, the article addresses specific educational shifts—interconnecting science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts; recognizing learning progressions; including engineering; addressing the nature of science, coordinating with Common Core State Standards. The article continues with a general discussion of reforming teacher education programs and a concluding discussion of basic competencies and personal qualities of effective science teachers.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  7. Discovering the Majorana neutrino: The next generation of experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, L. A.

    2015-07-15

    The discovery of a Majorana neutrino would be revolutionary with far-reaching consequences in both particle physics and cosmology. The only feasible experiments to determine the Majorana nature of the neutrino are searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay. The next generation of double-beta decay experiments are being prepared. The general goal is to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay throughout the parameter space corresponding to the inverted hierarchy for neutrino mass. There are a several strong proposals for how to achieve this goal. The status of these efforts is reviewed.

  8. Advancing translational research with next-generation protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaobo; Petritis, Brianne; LaBaer, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Protein microarrays are a high-throughput technology used increasingly in translational research, seeking to apply basic science findings to enhance human health. In addition to assessing protein levels, posttranslational modifications, and signaling pathways in patient samples, protein microarrays have aided in the identification of potential protein biomarkers of disease and infection. In this perspective, the different types of full-length protein microarrays that are used in translational research are reviewed. Specific studies employing these microarrays are presented to highlight their potential in finding solutions to real clinical problems. Finally, the criteria that should be considered when developing next-generation protein microarrays are provided. PMID:26749402

  9. Towards Manufacturing/Distribution Systems in the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimizu, Hiroyasu; Kaihara, Toshiya; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    Nowadays agile market is in common, and the fundamental technology supporting next-generation production system requires further development of machine and information technologies to establish “human technology” and a bridging of these technologies together. IMS-HUTOP project proposes a new product life cycle that respects the human nature of individuals, and establishes the elemental technologies necessary for acquiring, modelling and evaluating various human factors in an effort to achieve the HUTOP cycle. In this paper we propose a human centred KANSEI manufacturing system, which has been proposed in the IMS-HUTOP project with 5 work packages.

  10. Translating next generation sequencing to practice: opportunities and necessary steps.

    PubMed

    Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Varadan, Vinay; Janevski, Angel; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Tuck, David; McCombie, W Richard; Dimitrova, Nevenka; Harris, Lyndsay N

    2013-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches for measuring RNA and DNA benefit from greatly increased sensitivity, dynamic range and detection of novel transcripts. These technologies are rapidly becoming the standard for molecular assays and represent huge potential value to the practice of oncology. However, many challenges exist in the transition of these technologies from research application to clinical practice. This review discusses the value of NGS in detecting mutations, copy number changes and RNA quantification and their applications in oncology, the challenges for adoption and the relevant steps that are needed for translating this potential to routine practice. PMID:23769412

  11. Clinical integration of next generation sequencing: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, David; Curnutte, Margaret; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are challenging existing regulatory paradigms. We advocate a coordinate policy approach, which first requires a comprehensive understanding of the existing regulatory and legal structures. This paper introduces four key policy domains - including quality assurance, insurance coverage, intellectual property management, and data sharing - that must be addressed to ensure high quality clinical NGS. In bringing these policy issues into conversation through this special issue for the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, we hope to lay the foundation for further discussion by a range of stakeholder groups with diverse and strong interests in the governance of NGS. PMID:25298287

  12. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  13. EOS attitude determination and next generation star tracker enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudva, P.; Throckmorton, A.

    1993-01-01

    The pointing knowledge required for the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM mission is at the limit of the current generation of star trackers, with little margin. Techniques for improving the performance of existing star trackers are explored, with performance sensitivities developed for each alternative. These are extended to define the most significant performance enhancements for a next generation star tracker. Since attitude determination studies tend to be computationally intensive, an approach for using a simpler one degree of freedom formulation is contrasted with a full three degree of freedom formulation. Additionally, covariance analysis results are compared with time domain simulation performance results.

  14. Controls concepts for next generation reuseable rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.; Musgrave, Jefferey L.; Ray, Asok

    1995-01-01

    Three primary issues will drive the design and control used in next generation reuseable rocket engines. In addition to steady-state and dynamic performance, the requirements for increased durability, reliability and operability (with faults) will dictate which new controls and design technologies and features will be brought to bear. An array of concepts which have been brought forward will be tested against the measures of cost and benefit as reflected in the above 'ilities'. This paper examines some of the new concepts and looks for metrics to judge their value.

  15. Hepatitis B virus resistance substitutions: long-term analysis by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leandro R; Sede, Mariano; Manrique, Julieta M; Quarleri, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    HBV phylogenetics and resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were surveyed by next-generation sequencing of 21 longitudinal samples from seven patients entering antiviral therapy. The virus populations were dominated by a few abundant lineages that coexisted with substantial numbers of low-frequency variants. A few low-frequency RAMs were observed before treatment, but new ones emerged, and their frequencies increased during therapy. Together, these results support the idea that chronic HBV infection is dominated by a few virus lineages and that an accompanying plethora of diverse, low-frequency variants may function as a reservoir that potentially contribute to viral genetic plasticity, potentially affecting patient outcome. PMID:27447462

  16. Computational and Bioinformatics Frameworks for Next-Generation Whole Exome and Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Dolled-Filhart, Marisa P.; Lee, Michael; Ou-yang, Chih-wen; Haraksingh, Rajini Rani; Lin, Jimmy Cheng-Ho

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that one of the major hurdles in the genomic age will be the bioinformatics challenges of next-generation sequencing. We provide an overview of a general framework of bioinformatics analysis. For each of the three stages of (1) alignment, (2) variant calling, and (3) filtering and annotation, we describe the analysis required and survey the different software packages that are used. Furthermore, we discuss possible future developments as data sources grow and highlight opportunities for new bioinformatics tools to be developed. PMID:23365548

  17. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  18. Next-generation optical wireless communications for data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2015-01-01

    Data centers collect and process information with a capacity that has been increasing from year to year at an almost exponential pace. Traditional fiber/cable data center network interconnections suffer from bandwidth overload, as well as flexibility and scalability issues. Therefore, a technology-shift from the fiber and cable to wireless has already been initiated in order to meet the required data-rate, flexibility and scalability demands for next-generation data center network interconnects. In addition, the shift to wireless reduces the volume allocated to the cabling/fiber and increases the cooling efficiency. Optical wireless communication (OWC), or free space optics (FSO), is one of the most effective wireless technologies that could be used in future data centers and could provide ultra-high capacity, very high cyber security and minimum latency, due to the low index of refraction of air in comparison to fiber technologies. In this paper we review the main concepts and configurations for next generation OWC for data centers. Two families of technologies are reviewed: the first technology regards interconnects between rack units in the same rack and the second technology regards the data center network that connects the server top of rack (TOR) to the switch. A comparison between different network technologies is presented.

  19. Engineering Micromechanical Systems for the Next Generation Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen; Constandinou, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) enables the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However treatment of these pathologies can only be achieved through conventional means. This paper describes the next generation WCE with increased functionality to enable targeted drug delivery in the small intestinal tract. A prototype microrobot fabricated in Nylon 6 is presented which is capable of resisting peristaltic pressure through the deployment of an integrated holding mechanism and delivering targeted therapy. The holding action is achieved by extending an “anchor” spanning a 60.4 mm circumference, for an 11.0 mm diameter WCE. This function is achieved by a mechanism that occupies only 347.0 mm3 volume, including mechanics and actuator. A micropositioning mechanism is described which utilises a single micromotor to radially position and then deploy a needle 1.5 mm outside the microrobot's body to deliver a 1 mL dose of medication to a targeted site. An analysis of the mechanics required to drive the holding mechanism is presented and an overview of microactuators and the state of the art in WCE is discussed. It is envisaged that this novel functionality will empower the next generation of WCE to help diagnose and treat pathologies of the GI tract. PMID:26258143

  20. Next generation sequencing applications for breast cancer research

    PubMed Central

    PETRIC, ROXANA COJOCNEANU; POP, LAURA-ANCUTA; JURJ, ANCUTA; RADULY, LAJOS; DUMITRASCU, DAN; DRAGOS, NICOLAE; NEAGOE, IOANA BERINDAN

    2015-01-01

    For some time, cancer has not been thought of as a disease, but as a multifaceted, heterogeneous complex of genotypic and phenotypic manifestations leading to tumorigenesis. Due to recent technological progress, the outcome of cancer patients can be greatly improved by introducing in clinical practice the advantages brought about by the development of next generation sequencing techniques. Biomedical suppliers have come up with various applications which medical researchers can use to characterize a patient’s disease from molecular and genetic point of view in order to provide caregivers with rapid and relevant information to guide them in choosing the most appropriate course of treatment, with maximum efficiency and minimal side effects. Breast cancer, whose incidence has risen dramatically, is a good candidate for these novel diagnosis and therapeutic approaches, particularly when referring to specific sequencing panels which are designed to detect germline or somatic mutations in genes that are involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression. Benchtop next generation sequencing machines are becoming a more common presence in the clinical setting, empowering physicians to better treat their patients, by offering early diagnosis alternatives, targeted remedies, and bringing medicine a step closer to achieving its ultimate goal, personalized therapy. PMID:26609257

  1. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.

  2. Next-Generation Linear Collider Final Focus System Stability Tolerances

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, G.; Irwin, J.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    The design of final focus systems for the next generation of linear colliders has evolved largely from the experience gained with the design and operation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and with the design of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We will compare the tolerances for two typical designs for a next-generation linear collider final focus system. The chromaticity generated by strong focusing systems, like the final quadrupole doublet before the interaction point of a linear collider, can be canceled by the introduction of sextupoles in a dispersive region. These sextupoles must be inserted in pairs separated by a -I transformation (Chromatic Correction Section) in order to cancel the strong geometric aberrations generated by sextupoles. Designs proposed for both the JLC or NLC final focus systems have two separate chromatic correction sections, one for each transverse plane separated by a ''{beta}-exchanger'' to manipulate the {beta}-function between the two CCS. The introduction of sextupoles and bending magnets gives rise to higher order aberrations (long sextupole and chrome-geometries) and radiation induced aberrations (chromaticity unbalance and ''Oide effect'') and one must optimize the lattice accordingly.

  3. Next generation database relational solutions for ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, G.; Maeno, T.; Garonne, V.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) project delivers production tools and services for ATLAS offline activities such as data placement and data processing on the Grid. The system has been capable of sustaining with high efficiency the needed computing activities during the first run of LHC data taking, and has demonstrated flexibility in reacting promptly to new challenges. Databases are a vital part of the whole ADC system. The Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) has been addressing a majority of the ADC database requirements for many years. Much expertise was gained through the years and without a doubt will be used as a good foundation for the next generation PanDA (Production ANd Distributed Analysis) and DDM (Distributed Data Management) systems. In this paper we present the current production ADC database solutions and notably the planned changes on the PanDA system, and the next generation ATLAS DDM system called Rucio. Significant work was performed on studying different solutions to arrive at the best relational and physical database model for performance and scalability in order to be ready for deployment and operation in 2014.

  4. Designing Next Generation Massively Multithreaded Architectures for Irregular Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone; Villa, Oreste

    2012-08-31

    Irregular applications, such as data mining or graph-based computations, show unpredictable memory/network access patterns and control structures. Massively multi-threaded architectures with large node count, like the Cray XMT, have been shown to address their requirements better than commodity clusters. In this paper we present the approaches that we are currently pursuing to design future generations of these architectures. First, we introduce the Cray XMT and compare it to other multithreaded architectures. We then propose an evolution of the architecture, integrating multiple cores per node and next generation network interconnect. We advocate the use of hardware support for remote memory reference aggregation to optimize network utilization. For this evaluation we developed a highly parallel, custom simulation infrastructure for multi-threaded systems. Our simulator executes unmodified XMT binaries with very large datasets, capturing effects due to contention and hot-spotting, while predicting execution times with greater than 90% accuracy. We also discuss the FPGA prototyping approach that we are employing to study efficient support for irregular applications in next generation manycore processors.

  5. Avionics architectures for the next generation of launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Jeffrey H.

    The challenges and benefits of utilizing current avionics architecture concepts for the next generation of space launch vehicles are examined. The generic integration approach and architecture produced by the Advanced System Avionics (ASA)-Pave Pillar program is the foundation for avionics development in next generation aircraft for the U.S. Department of Defense, and include aircraft such as the USAF advanced tactical fighter (AFTF) and USN advanced tactical aircraft (ATA). The implementation strategies being used by aircraft avionics include the system-wide utilization of common modular building blocks using advanced microelectronics such as VHSIC, standard electronic module (SEM) sizes and integrated racks, and interconnection networks using fiber optics. It is concluded that the Pave Pillar core architecture objectives of high availability, resiliency, supportability, and low life cycle cost are similar to the desired attributes of future space launch vehicles. The core avionics, with tailoring to those requirements, can be used as the design baseline for launch vehicles, and thereby utilize the experience and investment already committed to the advanced modular avionics architecture program.

  6. Optical performance monitoring (OPM) in next-generation optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhauser, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    DWDM transmission is the enabling technology currently pushing the transmission bandwidths in core networks towards the multi-Tb/s regime with unregenerated transmission distances of several thousand km. Such systems represent the basic platform for transparent DWDM networks enabling both the transport of client signals with different data formats and bit rates (e.g. SDH/SONET, IP over WDM, Gigabit Ethernet, etc.) and dynamic provisioning of optical wavelength channels. Optical Performance Monitoring (OPM) will be one of the key elements for providing the capabilities of link set-up/control, fault localization, protection/restoration and path supervisioning for stable network operation becoming the major differentiator in next-generation networks. Currently, signal quality is usually characterized by DWDM power levels, spectrum-interpolated Optical Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (OSNR), and channel wavelengths. On the other hand there is urgent need for new OPM technologies and strategies providing solutions for in-channel OSNR, signal quality measurement, fault localization and fault identification. Innovative research and product activities include polarization nulling, electrical and optical amplitude sampling, BER estimation, electrical spectrum analysis, and pilot tone technologies. This presentation focuses on reviewing the requirements and solution concepts in current and next-generation networks with respect to Optical Performance Monitoring.

  7. Next generation informatics for big data in precision medicine era.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuji; Zhu, Qian; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    The rise of data-intensive biology, advances in informatics technology, and changes in the way health care is delivered has created an compelling opportunity to allow us investigate biomedical questions in the context of "big data" and develop knowledge systems to support precision medicine. To promote such data mining and informatics technology development in precision medicine, we hosted two international informatics workshops in 2014: 1) the first workshop on Data Mining in Biomedical informatics and Healthcare, in conjunction with the 18th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD 2014), and 2) the first workshop on Translational biomedical and clinical informatics, in conjunction with the 8th International Conference on Systems Biology and the 4th Translational Bioinformatics Conference (ISB/TBC 2014). This thematic issue of BioData Mining presents a series of selected papers from these two international workshops, aiming to address the data mining needs in the informatics field due to the deluge of "big data" generated by next generation biotechnologies such as next generation sequencing, metabolomics, and proteomics, as well as the structured and unstructured biomedical and healthcare data from electronic health records. We are grateful for the BioData Mining's willingness to produce this forward-looking thematic issue. PMID:26539249

  8. Hybrid Network Architectures for the Next Generation NAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madubata, Christian

    2003-01-01

    To meet the needs of the 21st Century NAS, an integrated, network-centric infrastructure is essential that is characterized by secure, high bandwidth, digital communication systems that support precision navigation capable of reducing position errors for all aircraft to within a few meters. This system will also require precision surveillance systems capable of accurately locating all aircraft, and automatically detecting any deviations from an approved path within seconds and be able to deliver high resolution weather forecasts - critical to create 4- dimensional (space and time) profiles for up to 6 hours for all atmospheric conditions affecting aviation, including wake vortices. The 21st Century NAS will be characterized by highly accurate digital data bases depicting terrain, obstacle, and airport information no matter what visibility conditions exist. This research task will be to perform a high-level requirements analysis of the applications, information and services required by the next generation National Airspace System. The investigation and analysis is expected to lead to the development and design of several national network-centric communications architectures that would be capable of supporting the Next Generation NAS.

  9. The Need for Next Generation of Radiochemists in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour Akbarzadeh; Steven Bakhtiar; Patricia Paviet-Hartmann

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, the nuclear industry employed approximately 120,000 people. Nearly 38 percent of the nuclear industry force will be eligible to retire within the next five years. To maintain the current work force, the industry will need to hire approximately 25,000 more workers by 2015.1 The federal government will also need nuclear workers in the future in its laboratories, the military and government programs. There is a need not only for the entire nuclear community to work with the academia to recruit and train students in a standardized way for employment at nuclear facilities. Several strategies are taking place in the USA, as an example, an initiative developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INEST) with four Centers of Research and Education (COREs) selected to address some of the most challenging issues facing nuclear energy today: (1) Fuels and Materials, (2) Space Nuclear Research, (3) Fuel Cycle, and (4) Safety and Licensing. Another example is the development of a radiochemistry program at two universities: the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) and Washington State University (WSU) to attract the next generation work force. This paper will solely focus on the next generation of radiochemists needed in the US and will give examples illustrating the needs as well as the current activities in the academia and in the national laboratories to fulfill national needs.

  10. 25 years of endothelin research: the next generation.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Noriaki; Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Lopes, Rhéure Alves Moreira; Cacioppo, Joseph; Desbiens, Louisane; Kamato, Danielle; Leurgans, Thomas; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Straube, Julia; Wurm, Raphael; Heiden, Susi; Ergul, Adviye; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    In the past three decades, endothelin and endothelin receptor antagonists have received great scientific and clinical interest, leading to the publication of more than 27,000 scientific articles since its discovery. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held on September 8-11, 2013, at Tokyo Campus of the University of Tsukuba in Japan. Close to 300 scientists from 25 countries from around the world came to Tokyo to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of the endothelin peptide discovered 25 years ago at the University of Tsukuba. This article summarizes some of the highlights of the conference, the anniversary celebration ceremony, and particularly the participation of next generation of endothelin researchers in endothelin science and the anniversary celebration. As a particular highlight, next generation endothelin researchers wrote a haiku (a traditional form of Japanese poetry originating from consisting of no more than three short verses and 27 on, or Japanese phonetic units) to describe the magic of endothelin science which they presented to the conference audience at the anniversary ceremony. The text of each haiku - both in its original language together with the English translation - is part of this article providing in an exemplary fashion how poetry can be bridged with science. Finally, we give an outlook towards the next 25 years of endothelin research. PMID:25238993

  11. Options for a next-generation spheromak physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, E. B.; Cohen, B. I.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.; Wood, R. D.

    2006-10-01

    SSPX experiments and resistive MHD modeling suggest options for a next-generation experiment. Magnetic fluctuations are now <1% when the q-profile does not cross low-order rational surfaces in the spheromak core, yielding good energy confinement.^1 Plasma current and magnetic field decay slowly; initial experiments suggest that the they can be rebuilt periodically by high current pulses.^2 Modeling predicts that flux amplification, typically 2-3 in SSPX, can be increased to >50 by actively reducing the bias (``ABR'') after spheromak formation, reducing edge ohmic losses proportionally. ABR is also predicted to improve stability and energy confinement. Neutral-beam experiments planned for SSPX^3 may provide a path to hotter plasmas. Next-generation spheromak geometries and scenarios building on these results are described to improve plasma parameters, explore additional stability control, and examine other physics issues. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48 at UC LLNL. ^1H. S. McLean, et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056105 (2006). ^2S. Woodruff, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters 93, 205002 (2004). ^3D..N. Hill, et al., this meeting.

  12. Next generation sequencing applications for breast cancer research.

    PubMed

    Petric, Roxana Cojocneanu; Pop, Laura-Ancuta; Jurj, Ancuta; Raduly, Lajos; Dumitrascu, Dan; Dragos, Nicolae; Neagoe, Ioana Berindan

    2015-01-01

    For some time, cancer has not been thought of as a disease, but as a multifaceted, heterogeneous complex of genotypic and phenotypic manifestations leading to tumorigenesis. Due to recent technological progress, the outcome of cancer patients can be greatly improved by introducing in clinical practice the advantages brought about by the development of next generation sequencing techniques. Biomedical suppliers have come up with various applications which medical researchers can use to characterize a patient's disease from molecular and genetic point of view in order to provide caregivers with rapid and relevant information to guide them in choosing the most appropriate course of treatment, with maximum efficiency and minimal side effects. Breast cancer, whose incidence has risen dramatically, is a good candidate for these novel diagnosis and therapeutic approaches, particularly when referring to specific sequencing panels which are designed to detect germline or somatic mutations in genes that are involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression. Benchtop next generation sequencing machines are becoming a more common presence in the clinical setting, empowering physicians to better treat their patients, by offering early diagnosis alternatives, targeted remedies, and bringing medicine a step closer to achieving its ultimate goal, personalized therapy. PMID:26609257

  13. The NASA Education Enterprise: Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On April 12, 2002, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe opened a new window to the future of space exploration with these words in his Pioneering the Future address. Thus began the conceptual framework for structuring the new Education Enterprise. The Agency s mission is to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe in search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers as only NASA can. In adopting this mission, education became a core element and is now a vital part of every major NASA research and development mission. NASA s call to inspire the next generation of explorers is now resounding throughout the NASA community and schools of all levels all around the country. The goal is to capture student interest, nurture their natural curiosities, and intrigue their minds with new and exciting scientific research; as well as to provide educators with the creative tools they need to improve America s scientific literacy. The future of NASA begins with America s youngest scholars. According to Administrator O Keefe s address, if NASA does not motivate the youngest generation now, there is little prospect this generation will choose to pursue scientific disciplines later. Since embracing Administrator O Keefe s educational mandate over a year ago, NASA has been fully devoted to broadening its roadmap to motivation. The efforts have generated a whole new showcase of thoughtprovoking and fun learning opportunities, through printed material, Web sites and Webcasts, robotics, rocketry, aerospace design contests, and various other resources as only NASA can.

  14. Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens

    PubMed Central

    Shokralla, Shadi; Gibson, Joel F; Nikbakht, Hamid; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need for relatively high-target amplicon yield, coamplification of nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes, confusion with sequences from intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia) and instances of intraindividual variability (i.e. heteroplasmy). Any of these situations can lead to failed Sanger sequencing attempts or ambiguity of the generated DNA barcodes. Here, we demonstrate the potential application of next-generation sequencing platforms for parallel acquisition of DNA barcode sequences from hundreds of specimens simultaneously. To facilitate retrieval of sequences obtained from individual specimens, we tag individual specimens during PCR amplification using unique 10-mer oligonucleotides attached to DNA barcoding PCR primers. We employ 454 pyrosequencing to recover full-length DNA barcodes of 190 specimens using 12.5% capacity of a 454 sequencing run (i.e. two lanes of a 16 lane run). We obtained an average of 143 sequence reads for each individual specimen. The sequences produced are full-length DNA barcodes for all but one of the included specimens. In a subset of samples, we also detected Wolbachia, nontarget species, and heteroplasmic sequences. Next-generation sequencing is of great value because of its protocol simplicity, greatly reduced cost per barcode read, faster throughout and added information content. PMID:24641208

  15. Precision medicine at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: clinical next-generation sequencing enabling next-generation targeted therapy trials.

    PubMed

    Hyman, David M; Solit, David B; Arcila, Maria E; Cheng, Donavan T; Sabbatini, Paul; Baselga, Jose; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Implementing a center-wide precision medicine strategy at a major cancer center is a true multidisciplinary effort and requires comprehensive alignment of a broad screening strategy with a clinical research enterprise that can use these data to accelerate development of new treatments. Here, we describe the genomic screening approach at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, a hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing clinical assay for solid tumor molecular oncology designated MSK-IMPACT, and how it enables and supports a large clinical trial portfolio enriched for multi-histology, biomarker-selected, 'basket' studies of targeted therapies. PMID:26320725

  16. Identification of conserved genomic regions and variation therein amongst Cetartiodactyla species using next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Next Generation Sequencing has created an opportunity to genetically characterize an individual both inexpensively and comprehensively. In earlier work produced in our collaboration [1], it was demonstrated that, for animals without a reference genome, their Next Generation Sequence data ...

  17. Applications of Next-generation Sequencing in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yiyangzi; Shi, Na; Li, Mengtao; Chen, Fei; Niu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Although numerous causal genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), these susceptibility genes are correlated to a relatively low disease risk, indicating that environmental factors also play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease. The intestinal microbiome, as the main symbiotic ecosystem between the host and host-associated microorganisms, has been demonstrated to regulate the development of the body’s immune system and is likely related to genetic mutations in systemic autoimmune diseases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with high-throughput capacity and accuracy, provides a powerful tool to discover genomic mutations, abnormal transcription and intestinal microbiome identification for autoimmune diseases. In this review, we briefly outlined the applications of NGS in systemic autoimmune diseases. This review may provide a reference for future studies in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:26432094

  18. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  19. Rethinking ASIC design with next generation lithography and process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Liu, Renzhi; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Strojwas, Andrzej; Pileggi, Larry

    2013-03-01

    Given the deployment delays for EUV, several next generation lithography (NGL) options are being actively researched. Several cost-effective NGL solutions, such as self-aligned double patterning through sidewall image transfer (SIT) and directed self-assembly (DSA), in conjunction with process integration challenges, mandate grating-like pattern design. As part of the GRATEdd project, we have evaluated the design cost of grating-based design for ASICs (application specific ICs). Based on our observations we have engineered fundamental changes to the primary ASIC design components to make scaling affordable and useful in deeply scaled sub-20 nm technologies: unidirectional-M1 based standard cells, application-specific smart SRAM synthesis, and statistical and self-healing analog design.

  20. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  1. Advances in the development of next-generation anthrax vaccines.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur M; Little, Stephen F

    2009-11-01

    Anthrax, a disease of herbivores, only rarely infects humans. However, the threat of using Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent, to intentionally produce disease has been the impetus for development of next-generation vaccines. Two licensed vaccines have been available for human use for several decades. These are composed of acellular culture supernatants containing the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxins. In this review we summarize the various approaches used to develop improved vaccines. These efforts have included the use of PA with newer adjuvants and delivery systems, including bacterial and viral vectors and DNA vaccines. Attempts to broaden the protection afforded by PA-based vaccines have focused on adding other B. anthracis components, including spore and capsule antigens. PMID:19837282

  2. Optical Property Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Deshpande, Mukund S.; Pierson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation white thermal control coatings were developed via the Small Business Innovative Research program utilizing lithium silicate chemistry as a binder. Doping of the binder with additives yielded a powder that was plasma spray capable and that could be applied to light weight polymers and carbon-carbon composite surfaces. The plasma sprayed coating had acceptable beginning-of-life and end-of-live optical properties, as indicated by a successful 1.5 year exposure to the space environment in low Earth orbit. Recent studies also showed the coating to be durable to simulated space environments consisting of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons, 4.5 MeV electrons, and thermal cycling. Large scale deposition was demonstrated on a polymer matrix composite radiator panel, leading to the selection of the coating for use on the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

  3. Next generation sequencing: implications in personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Bahareh; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tekin, Mustafa; Mahdieh, Nejat

    2016-05-24

    A breakthrough in next generation sequencing (NGS) in the last decade provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate genetic variations in humans and their roles in health and disease. NGS offers regional genomic sequencing such as whole exome sequencing of coding regions of all genes, as well as whole genome sequencing. RNA-seq offers sequencing of the entire transcriptome and ChIP-seq allows for sequencing the epigenetic architecture of the genome. Identifying genetic variations in individuals can be used to predict disease risk, with the potential to halt or retard disease progression. NGS can also be used to predict the response to or adverse effects of drugs or to calculate appropriate drug dosage. Such a personalized medicine also provides the possibility to treat diseases based on the genetic makeup of the patient. Here, we review the basics of NGS technologies and their application in human diseases to foster human healthcare and personalized medicine. PMID:27066891

  4. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT LICENSING BASIS EVENT SELECTION WHITE PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant capable of producing the electricity and high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) application process, as recommended in the Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy. NRC licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy of licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This white paper is one in a series of submittals that will address key generic issues of the COL priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements.

  5. Executing Medical Guidelines on the Web: Towards Next Generation Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; Des, J.; Fernandez-Prieto, M. J.; Perez, R.; Paniagua, H.

    There is still a lack of full integration between current Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and medical guidelines that encapsulate evidence-based medicine. Thus, general practitioners (GPs) and specialised physicians still have to read document-based medical guidelines and decide among various options for managing common non-life-threatening conditions where the selection of the most appropriate therapeutic option for each individual patient can be a difficult task. This paper presents a simulation framework and computational test-bed, called V.A.F. Framework, for supporting simulations of clinical situations that boosted the integration between Health Level Seven (HL7) and Semantic Web technologies (OWL, SWRL, and OWL-S) to achieve content layer interoperability between online clinical cases and medical guidelines, and therefore, it proves that higher integration between EHRs and evidence-based medicine can be accomplished which could lead to a next generation of healthcare systems that provide more support to physicians and increase patients' safety.

  6. Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhongqi; Yu, Changyuan; Willner, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    Today's optical networks function are in a fairly static fashion and are built to operate within well-defined specifications. This scenario is quite challenging for next generation high-capacity systems, since network paths are not static and channel-degrading effects can change with temperature, component drift, aging, fiber plant maintenance and many other factors. Moreover, we are far from being able to simply "plug-and-play" an optical node into an existing network in such a way that the network itself can allocate resources to ensure error-free transmission. Optical performance monitoring could potentially enable higher stability, reconfigurability, and flexibility in a self-managed optical network. This paper will describe the specific fiber impairments that future intelligent optical network might want to monitor as well as some promising techniques.

  7. From GOCE to the Next Generation Gravity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesare, Stefano; Allasio, Andrea; Anselmi, Alberto; Dionisio, Sabrina; Mottini, Sergio; Parisch, Manilo; Massotti, Luca; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2015-03-01

    ESA’s gravity mission GOCE, carried out with extraordinary success between 2009 and 2013, was the result of more than twenty years of system studies and technology developments in which Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I) always played a major role. Already while GOCE was being developed, ESA began promoting preparatory studies for a Next Generation Gravity Mission (NGGM). While GOCE aimed to provide a high resolution static map of Earth’s gravity, the objective of NGGM is long-term monitoring of the time-variable gravity field with high temporal and spatial resolution. The new mission implies new measurement techniques and instrumentation, a new mission scenario and different spacecraft design drivers. Despite the differences, however, the achievements of GOCE (demonstration of long-duration wide-band drag free control, ultra-sensitive accelerometers, stable noncryogenic temperature control in low earth orbit, etc.) stand as the basis on which the new mission is being created.

  8. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. PMID:26403162

  9. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  10. An advanced control system for a next generation transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J; Grantham, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of modern control theory to develop a high-authority stability and control system for the next generation transport aircraft is described with examples taken from work performed on an advanced pitch active control system (PACS). The PACS was configured to have short-period and phugoid modes frequency and damping characteristics within the shaded S-plane areas, column force gradients with set bounds and with constant slope, and a blended normal-acceleration/pitch rate time history response to a step command. Details of the control law, feedback loop, and modal control syntheses are explored, as are compensation for the feedback gain, the deletion of the velocity signal, and the feed-forward compensation. Scheduling of the primary and secondary gains are discussed, together with control law mechanization, flying qualities analyses, and application on the L-1011 aircraft.

  11. Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

    2007-05-04

    Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

  12. Optical-system design for next-generation pushbroom sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mika, A. M.; Richard, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Next-generation pushbroom sensors for earth observation require high-performance optics that provide high spatial resolution over wide fields of view. Specifically, blur diameters on the order of 10 to 15 microns are needed over 5 to 15 deg fields. In addition to this fundamental level of optical performance, other characteristics, such as spatial coregistration of spectral bands, flat focal plane, telecentricity, and workable pupil location are significant instrument design considerations. The detector-assembly design, optical line-of-sight pointing method and sensor packaging all hinge on these secondary attributes. Moreover, the need for broad spectral coverage, ranging from 0.4 to 12.5 microns, places an additional constraint on optical design. This paper presents alternative design forms that are candidates for wide-field pushbroom sensors, and discusses the instrument-design tradeoffs that are linked to the selection of these alternate optical approaches.

  13. Swift: The Next-Generation Gamma-Ray Burst Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Thomas; Gehrels, Neil; Norris, Jay

    2006-02-01

    Swift is a next-generation, multi-wavelength observatory for transient gamma-ray astromomy. A NASA mission with an international collaboration, Swift is in development for launch in 2004. It is designed to make breakthroughs in determining the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and in using GRBs to probe the early Universe. This mission features a wide-field, 15-150 keV, gamma ray imager that will detect over 100 GRBs per year of all durations and spectral types, including X-ray rich, and localize them with better than 4 arc-minute accuracy. Autonomous, on-board source localization will enable rapid reorientation of two narrow-field optical/UV and X-ray telescopes to determine arc-second source localizations and to perform optical, UV, and x-ray spectrophotometry. A strong outreach program and the afterglow campaigns should make possible great advances in the understanding of the early Universe.

  14. Next-generation surveillance strategies for patients with lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathon B; Kurtz, David M; Staton, Ashley D; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    While remission and cure rates for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma continue to improve, surveillance approaches remain controversial, especially in light of recent reports suggesting limited benefit for routine radiologic assessment. Routine cross-sectional imaging results in considerable patient expense and anxiety, and this approach does not clearly improve patient outcomes. Next-generation approaches including minimal residual disease detection may provide an opportunity to identify relapse early and intervene prior to progression of clinical disease. This review discusses the role of surveillance imaging in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and provides an introduction to serologic assessment of minimal residual disease. Future studies will need to focus on the clinical application of minimal residual disease surveillance and its ability to predict relapse, treatment response and survival. PMID:26161931

  15. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era.

    PubMed

    Gajecka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method on the mosaicism detection rate is especially highlighted. As next-generation sequencing technologies constitute a promising methodological solution in mosaicism detection in the coming years, revisions in current diagnostic protocols are necessary to increase the detection rate of the unrevealed mosaicism events. Since mosaicism identification is a complex process, numerous examples of multistep mosaicism investigations are presented and discussed. PMID:26481646

  16. Next generation microwave multiplexers for low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Kent

    We propose to continue our successful program for the development of breakthrough readout technology for low-temperature detectors. The next generation of larger arrays requires multiplexed readout at microwave frequencies. Multiplexing at microwave frequencies with superconducting microwave resonators shows great promise for the instrumentation of very large arrays of transition-edge sensors (TES) and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID). Applications include the detection of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, optical astronomy, and x-ray astronomy. These arrays will play a critical role in answering questions about the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planetary systems, the physics of the cosmos, and the physics of the inflationary epoch in the early universe. We propose an integrated program to develop quantum-limited amplifiers to enable the readout of both large TES and MKID arrays. These amplifiers include microwave SQUIDs for TES readout and wideband parametric amplifiers for MKID arrays.

  17. Next Generation Sequencing: Potential and Application in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Shukla, Pooja; Omer, Ankur; Pareek, Shruti; Singh, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The world has now entered into a new era of genomics because of the continued advancements in the next generation high throughput sequencing technologies, which includes sequencing by synthesis-fluorescent in situ sequencing (FISSEQ), pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation using polony amplification, supported oligonucleotide detection (SOLiD), sequencing by hybridization along with sequencing by ligation, and nanopore technology. Great impacts of these methods can be seen for solving the genome related problems of plant and animal kingdom that will open the door of a new era of genomics. This may ultimately overcome the Sanger sequencing that ruled for 30 years. NGS is expected to advance and make the drug discovery process more rapid. PMID:24688432

  18. Next Generation Device Grade Silicon-Germanium on Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohns, Callum G.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mallinson, Christopher F.; Watts, John F.; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Reed, Graham T.; Gardes, Frederic Y.

    2015-01-01

    High quality single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator has the potential to facilitate the next generation of photonic and electronic devices. Using a rapid melt growth technique we engineer tailored single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator structures with near constant composition over large areas. The proposed structures avoid the problem of laterally graded SiGe compositions, caused by preferential Si rich solid formation, encountered in straight SiGe wires by providing radiating elements distributed along the structures. This method enables the fabrication of multiple single crystal silicon-germanium-on-insulator layers of different compositions, on the same Si wafer, using only a single deposition process and a single anneal process, simply by modifying the structural design and/or the anneal temperature. This facilitates a host of device designs, within a relatively simple growth environment, as compared to the complexities of other methods, and also offers flexibility in device designs within that growth environment. PMID:25656076

  19. Design Considerations for the Next Generation of General Aviation Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of research conducted at NASA Langley Research Center during two summer programs during 1994 and 1995. These programs were the NASA Advanced Design Program and the Langley Research Summer Scholars program. The work was incorporated in a three phase project at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University which focused on development of the next generation Primary Flight Trainer, as well as in ERAU's participation in the AGATE General Aviation Design Competition. The project was conducted as part of the ERAU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics as well as the AGATE competition. A design study was completed which encompassed the incorporation of existing conventional technologies and advanced technologies into PFT designs and advanced GA aircraft designs. Multiple aircraft configurations were also examined throughout the ADP/AGATE. Evaluations of the various technologies and configurations studied will be made and recommendations will be included.

  20. SLAC Next-Generation High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, P.; MacNair, D.; ,

    2010-06-11

    SLAC recently commissioned forty high availability (HA) magnet power supplies for Japan's ATF2 project. SLAC is now developing a next-generation N+1 modular power supply with even better availability and versatility. The goal is to have unipolar and bipolar output capability. It has novel topology and components to achieve very low output voltage to drive superconducting magnets. A redundant, embedded, digital controller in each module provides increased bandwidth for use in beam-based alignment, and orbit correction systems. The controllers have independent inputs for connection to two external control nodes. Under fault conditions, they sense failures and isolate the modules. Power supply speed mitigates the effects of fault transients and obviates subsequent magnet standardization. Hot swap capability promises higher availability and other exciting benefits for future, more complex, accelerators, and eventually the International Linear Collider project.

  1. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of viruses infecting grapevines.

    PubMed

    Burger, Johan T; Maree, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, for the first time, provide a truly "complete" representation of the viral (and other) pathogens present in a host organism. This is achieved in an unbiased way, and without any prior biological or molecular knowledge of these pathogen(s). During recent years a number of broad approaches, for most of the popular NGS platforms, have been developed. Here we describe such a protocol-one that accurately and reliably analyze viruses (and viroids) infecting grapevine. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of cDNA sequencing libraries from dsRNA, extracted from diseased grapevine tissues; the sequencing of these on an Illumina platform, and a streamlined bioinformatics pipeline to analyze the NGS data, yielding the virus composition (virome) of a specific grapevine tissue type, organ, entire plant, or even a vineyard. PMID:25981264

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  3. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice. PMID:25462152

  4. Next Generation Prokaryotic Engineering: The CRISPR-Cas Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Mougiakos, Ioannis; Bosma, Elleke F; de Vos, Willem M; van Kranenburg, Richard; van der Oost, John

    2016-07-01

    The increasing demand for environmentally friendly production processes of green chemicals and fuels has stimulated research in microbial metabolic engineering. CRISPR-Cas-based tools for genome editing and expression control have enabled fast, easy, and accurate strain development for established production platform organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the growing interest in alternative production hosts, for which genome editing options are generally limited, requires further developing such engineering tools. In this review, we discuss established and emerging CRISPR-Cas-based tools for genome editing and transcription control of model and non-model prokaryotes, and we analyse the possibilities for further improvement and expansion of these tools for next generation prokaryotic engineering. PMID:26944793

  5. Next Generation Sequencing to Characterize Mitochondrial Genomic DNA Heteroplasmy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Taosheng

    2015-01-01

    This protocol is to describe the methodology to characterize mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy with parallel sequencing. Mitochondria play a very important role in important cellular functions. Each eukaryotic cell contains hundreds of mitochondria with hundreds of mitochondria genomes. The mutant mtDNA and the wild type may co-exist as heteroplasmy, and cause human disease. The purpose of this methodology is to simultaneously determine mtDNA sequence and to quantify the heteroplasmy level. The protocol includes two-fragment mitochondria genome DNA PCR amplification. The PCR product is then mixed at an equimolar ratio. The samples will be barcoded and sequenced with high-throughput next-generation sequencing technology. We found that this technology is highly sensitive, specific, and accurate in determining mtDNA mutations and the degree of heteroplasmic level. PMID:21975941

  6. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed “reads” are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions. PMID:24681819

  7. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  8. Production of the next-generation library virtual tour.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J M; Roth, L K

    2001-10-01

    While many libraries offer overviews of their services through their Websites, only a small number of health sciences libraries provide Web-based virtual tours. These tours typically feature photographs of major service areas along with textual descriptions. This article describes the process for planning, producing, and implementing a next-generation virtual tour in which a variety of media elements are integrated: photographic images, 360-degree "virtual reality" views, textual descriptions, and contextual floor plans. Hardware and software tools used in the project are detailed, along with a production timeline and budget, tips for streamlining the process, and techniques for improving production. This paper is intended as a starting guide for other libraries considering an investment in such a project. PMID:11837254

  9. Satellite communications for the next generation telecommunication services and networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    Satellite communications can play an important role in provisioning the next-generation telecommunication services and networks, provided the protocols specifying these services and networks are satellite-compatible and the satellite subnetworks, consisting of earth stations interconnected by the processor and the switch on board the satellite, interwork effectively with the terrestrial networks. The specific parameters and procedures of frame relay and broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) protocols which are impacted by a satellite delay. Congestion and resource management functions for frame relay and B-ISDN are discussed in detail, describing the division of these functions between earth stations and on board the satellite. Specific onboard and ground functions are identified as potential candidates for their implementation via neural network technology.

  10. Application of next generation sequencing technology in Mendelian movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yumin; Pan, Xuya; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zheng, Jiabo; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has developed very rapidly in the last decade. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS has the advantages of high sensitivity and high throughput. Movement disorders are a common type of neurological disease. Although traditional linkage analysis has become a standard method to identify the pathogenic genes in diseases, it is getting difficult to find new pathogenic genes in rare Mendelian disorders, such as movement disorders, due to a lack of appropriate families with high penetrance or enough affected individuals. Thus, NGS is an ideal approach to identify the causal alleles for inherited disorders. NGS is used to identify genes in several diseases and new mutant sites in Mendelian movement disorders. This article reviewed the recent progress in NGS and the use of NGS in Mendelian movement disorders from genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. A perspective on how NGS could be employed in rare Mendelian disorders is also provided. PMID:26932219

  11. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  12. Perspectives of integrative cancer genomics in next generation sequencing era.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Mee; Cho, Hyunwoo; Choi, Ji Hye; Jee, Byul A; Jo, Yuna; Woo, Hyun Goo

    2012-06-01

    The explosive development of genomics technologies including microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS) has provided comprehensive maps of cancer genomes, including the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs, DNA copy numbers, sequence variations, and epigenetic changes. These genome-wide profiles of the genetic aberrations could reveal the candidates for diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers as well as mechanistic insights into tumor development and progression. Recent efforts to establish the huge cancer genome compendium and integrative omics analyses, so-called "integromics", have extended our understanding on the cancer genome, showing its daunting complexity and heterogeneity. However, the challenges of the structured integration, sharing, and interpretation of the big omics data still remain to be resolved. Here, we review several issues raised in cancer omics data analysis, including NGS, focusing particularly on the study design and analysis strategies. This might be helpful to understand the current trends and strategies of the rapidly evolving cancer genomics research. PMID:23105932

  13. Hydrogen Production from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. Patterson; C. Park

    2008-03-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor that will be capable of producing hydrogen, electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial use. The project has initiated the conceptual design phase and when completed will demonstrate the viability of hydrogen generation using nuclear produced process heat. This paper explains how industry and the U.S. Government are cooperating to advance nuclear hydrogen technology. It also describes the issues being explored and the results of recent R&D including materials development and testing, thermal-fluids research, and systems analysis. The paper also describes the hydrogen production technologies being considered (including various thermochemical processes and high-temperature electrolysis).

  14. Precision medicine for cancer with next-generation functional diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Adam A.; Letai, Anthony; Fisher, David E.; Flaherty, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is about matching the right drugs to the right patients. Although this approach is technology agnostic, in cancer there is a tendency to make precision medicine synonymous with genomics. However, genome-based cancer therapeutic matching is limited by incomplete biological understanding of the relationship between phenotype and cancer genotype. This limitation can be addressed by functional testing of live patient tumour cells exposed to potential therapies. Recently, several ‘next-generation’ functional diagnostic technologies have been reported, including novel methods for tumour manipulation, molecularly precise assays of tumour responses and device-based in situ approaches; these address the limitations of the older generation of chemosensitivity tests. The promise of these new technologies suggests a future diagnostic strategy that integrates functional testing with next-generation sequencing and immunoprofiling to precisely match combination therapies to individual cancer patients. PMID:26536825

  15. The road from next-generation sequencing to personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Moving from a traditional medical model of treating pathologies to an individualized predictive and preventive model of personalized medicine promises to reduce the healthcare cost on an overburdened and overwhelmed system. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to accelerate the early detection of disorders and the identification of pharmacogenetics markers to customize treatments. This review explains the historical facts that led to the development of NGS along with the strengths and weakness of NGS, with a special emphasis on the analytical aspects used to process NGS data. There are solutions to all the steps necessary for performing NGS in the clinical context where the majority of them are very efficient, but there are some crucial steps in the process that need immediate attention. PMID:26000024

  16. Next Generation GPS Ground Control Segment (OCX) Navigation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Harvey, Nate; Miller, Kevin; Romans, Larry; Weiss, Jan; Doyle, Larry; Solorzano, Tara; Petzinger, John; Stell, Al

    2010-01-01

    In February 2010, a Raytheon-led team was selected by The Air Force to develop, implement, and operate the next generation GPS ground control segment (OCX). To meet and exceed the demanding OCX navigation performance requirements, the Raytheon team partnered with ITT (Navigation lead) and JPL to adapt major elements of JPL's navigation technology, proven in the operations of the Global Differential GPS (GDGPS) System. Key design goals for the navigation subsystem include accurate ephemeris and clock accuracy (user range error), ease of model upgrades, and a smooth and safe transition from the legacy system to OCX.We will describe key elements of the innovative architecture of the OCX navigation subsystem,and demonstrate the anticipated performance of the system through high fidelity simulations withactual GPS measurements.

  17. Final Report for "Analyzing and visualizing next generation climate data"

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, Alexander

    2012-11-13

    The project "Analyzing and visualizing next generation climate data" adds block-structured (mosaic) grid support, parallel processing, and 2D/3D curvilinear interpolation to the open-source UV-CDAT climate data analysis tool. Block structured grid support complies to the Gridspec extension submitted to the Climate and Forecast metadata conventions. It contains two parts: aggregation of data spread over multiple mosaic tiles (M-SPEC) and aggregation of temporal data stored in different files (F-SPEC). Together, M-SPEC and F-SPEC allow users to interact with data stored in multiple files as if the data were in a single file. For computational expensive tasks, a flexible, multi-dimensional, multi-type distributed array class allows users to process data in parallel using remote memory access. Both nodal and cell based interpolation is supported; users can choose between different interpolation libraries including ESMF and LibCF depending on the their particular needs.

  18. Clinical application of next-generation sequencing for Mendelian diseases.

    PubMed

    Jamuar, Saumya Shekhar; Tan, Ene-Choo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to an exponential increase in our understanding of the genetic basis of Mendelian diseases. NGS allows for the analysis of multiple regions of the genome in one single reaction and has been shown to be a cost-effective and efficient tool in investigating patients with Mendelian diseases. More recently, NGS has been successfully deployed in the clinics, with a reported diagnostic yield of ~25 %. However, recommendations on clinical implementation of NGS are still evolving with numerous key challenges that impede the widespread use of genetics in everyday medicine. These challenges include when to order, on whom to order, what type of test to order, and how to interpret and communicate the results, including incidental findings, to the patient and family. In this review, we discuss these challenges and suggest guidelines on implementing NGS in the routine clinical workflow. PMID:26076878

  19. Next generation limb development and evolution: old questions, new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Aimée

    2015-11-15

    The molecular analysis of limb bud development in vertebrates continues to fuel our understanding of the gene regulatory networks that orchestrate the patterning, proliferation and differentiation of embryonic progenitor cells. In recent years, systems biology approaches have moved our understanding of the molecular control of limb organogenesis to the next level by incorporating next generation 'omics' approaches, analyses of chromatin architecture, enhancer-promoter interactions and gene network simulations based on quantitative datasets into experimental analyses. This Review focuses on the insights these studies have given into the gene regulatory networks that govern limb development and into the fin-to-limb transition and digit reductions that occurred during the evolutionary diversification of tetrapod limbs. PMID:26577204

  20. Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werber, Jay R.; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-01

    Membrane-based separations for water purification and desalination have been increasingly applied to address the global challenges of water scarcity and the pollution of aquatic environments. However, progress in water purification membranes has been constrained by the inherent limitations of conventional membrane materials. Recent advances in methods for controlling the structure and chemical functionality in polymer films can potentially lead to new classes of membranes for water purification. In this Review, we first discuss the state of the art of existing membrane technologies for water purification and desalination, highlight their inherent limitations and establish the urgent requirements for next-generation membranes. We then describe molecular-level design approaches towards fabricating highly selective membranes, focusing on novel materials such as aquaporin, synthetic nanochannels, graphene and self-assembled block copolymers and small molecules. Finally, we highlight promising membrane surface modification approaches that minimize interfacial interactions and enhance fouling resistance.

  1. Next-Generation Navigational Infrastructure and the ATLAS Event Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemmeren, P.; Malon, D.; Nowak, M.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS event store employs a persistence framework with extensive navigational capabilities. These include real-time back navigation to upstream processing stages, externalizable data object references, navigation from any data object to any other both within a single file and across files, and more. The 2013-2014 shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider provides an opportunity to enhance this infrastructure in several ways that both extend these capabilities and allow the collaboration to better exploit emerging computing platforms. Enhancements include redesign with efficient file merging in mind, content-based indices in optimized reference types, and support for forward references. The latter provide the potential to construct valid references to data before those data are written, a capability that is useful in a variety of multithreading, multiprocessing, distributed processing, and deferred processing scenarios. This paper describes the architecture and design of the next generation of ATLAS navigational infrastructure.

  2. Scientific and Technical Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burg, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is part of the Origins program and is the key mission to discover the origins of galaxies in the Universe. It is essential that scientific requirements be translated into technical specifications at the beginning of the program and that there is technical participation by astronomers in the design and modeling of the observatory. During the active time period of this grant, the PI participated in the NGST program at GSFC by participating in the development of the Design Reference Mission, the development of the full end-to-end model of the observatory, the design trade-off based on the modeling, the Science Instrument Module definition and modeling, the study of proto-mission and test-bed development, and by participating in meetings including quarterly reviews and support of the NGST SWG. This work was documented in a series of NGST Monographs that are available on the NGST web site.

  3. Next generation of variable frequency drives and application guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, P.K.; Gjorvad, S.

    1999-11-01

    With the advent in power electronics, increase in power handling capacity of silicone controlled rectifiers and other power electronic devices and the use of high speed digital signal processor (DSP), new and better control principles are now utilized for the design of numerous variable frequency drives (VFDs) for large induction motors. One of the latest technologies developed is the direct torque control (DTC) devices which utilizes the electromagnetic state of the motor to control the flux in the magnetic core and hence, the torque. The response of the drive to changes in the required torque is dramatically improved. DTC provides a precise torque control without the need for a feedback device, such as an encoder or tachogenerator. This paper will discuss the next generation of VFDs utilizing DTC and its application considerations in electric power industry.

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing in Genetic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Denise; Tekin, Mustafa; Blanton, Susan H.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the $1000 genome has the potential to revolutionize the identification of genes and their mutations underlying genetic disorders. This is especially true for extremely heterogeneous Mendelian conditions such as deafness, where the mutation, and indeed the gene, may be private. The recent technological advances in target-enrichment methods and next generation sequencing offer a unique opportunity to break through the barriers of limitations imposed by gene arrays. These approaches now allow for the complete analysis of all known deafness-causing genes and will result in a new wave of discoveries of the remaining genes for Mendelian disorders. In this review, we describe commonly used genomic technologies as well as the application of these technologies to the genetic diagnosis of hearing loss (HL) and to the discovery of novel genes for syndromic and nonsyndromic HL. PMID:23738631

  5. Next-Generation Sequencing: Role in Gynecologic Cancers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tarra; Matulonis, Ursula

    2016-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has risen to the forefront of tumor analysis and has enabled unprecedented advances in the molecular profiling of solid tumors. Through massively parallel sequencing, previously unrecognized genomic alterations have been unveiled in many malignancies, including gynecologic cancers, thus expanding the potential repertoire for the use of targeted therapies. NGS has expanded the understanding of the genomic foundation of gynecologic malignancies and has allowed identification of germline and somatic mutations associated with cancer development, enabled tumor reclassification, and helped determine mechanisms of treatment resistance. NGS has also facilitated rationale therapeutic strategies based on actionable molecular aberrations. However, issues remain regarding cost and clinical utility. This review covers NGS analysis of and its impact thus far on gynecologic cancers, specifically ovarian, endometrial, cervical, and vulvar cancers. PMID:27587626

  6. Non-random DNA fragmentation in next-generation sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poptsova, Maria S.; Il'Icheva, Irina A.; Nechipurenko, Dmitry Yu.; Panchenko, Larisa A.; Khodikov, Mingian V.; Oparina, Nina Y.; Polozov, Robert V.; Nechipurenko, Yury D.; Grokhovsky, Sergei L.

    2014-03-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is based on cutting DNA into small fragments, and their massive parallel sequencing. The multiple overlapping segments termed ``reads'' are assembled into a contiguous sequence. To reduce sequencing errors, every genome region should be sequenced several dozen times. This sequencing approach is based on the assumption that genomic DNA breaks are random and sequence-independent. However, previously we showed that for the sonicated restriction DNA fragments the rates of double-stranded breaks depend on the nucleotide sequence. In this work we analyzed genomic reads from NGS data and discovered that fragmentation methods based on the action of the hydrodynamic forces on DNA, produce similar bias. Consideration of this non-random DNA fragmentation may allow one to unravel what factors and to what extent influence the non-uniform coverage of various genomic regions.

  7. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  8. Applications of Next-generation Sequencing in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiyangzi; Shi, Na; Li, Mengtao; Chen, Fei; Niu, Haitao

    2015-08-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Although numerous causal genes have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), these susceptibility genes are correlated to a relatively low disease risk, indicating that environmental factors also play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease. The intestinal microbiome, as the main symbiotic ecosystem between the host and host-associated microorganisms, has been demonstrated to regulate the development of the body's immune system and is likely related to genetic mutations in systemic autoimmune diseases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with high-throughput capacity and accuracy, provides a powerful tool to discover genomic mutations, abnormal transcription and intestinal microbiome identification for autoimmune diseases. In this review, we briefly outlined the applications of NGS in systemic autoimmune diseases. This review may provide a reference for future studies in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:26432094

  9. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production. PMID:21936941

  10. NASDA next generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Ishioka, N.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.

    2003-10-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grewto adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad ( Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

  11. Retinal prostheses: progress toward the next generation implants

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Diego

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, various clinical trials proved the capability of visual prostheses, in particular retinal implants, to restore a useful form of vision. These encouraging results promoted the emerging of several strategies for neuronal stimulation aiming at the restoration of sight. Besides the traditional approach based on electrical stimulation through metal electrodes in the different areas of the visual path (e.g., the visual cortex, the lateral geniculate nucleus, the optic nerve, and the retina), novel concepts for neuronal stimulation have been mostly exploited as building blocks of the next generation of retinal implants. This review is focused on critically discussing recent major advancements in the field of retinal stimulation with particular attention to the findings in the application of novel concepts and materials. Last, the major challenges in the field and their clinical implications will be outlined. PMID:26347602

  12. Building Scientific Community Support for the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Awad, A. A.; Robeck, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards offer an opportunity to teach Earth and space science in ways that are closer to how scientists practice, and more relevant to students and to societal issues. However, the level of scientific community involvement required to capitalize on this opportunity is high. Building on the results of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level , this presentation proposes a set of mechanisms and practices by which the NGSS Earth and space science community can support NGSS implementation at the national, state and local levels. Based on work with summit attendees, classroom teachers, informal educators and undergraduate faculty, this presentation proposes ways to build a network of practitioners with shared communication, approaches and resources. A set of mechanisms whereby the community can build relationships and share practices will be described, along with an emerging set of strategies for supporting groups as they take the first steps into implementation.

  13. Next generation: In-space transportation system(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Fredrick; Redus, Jerry; Kelley, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the next generation In-Space Transportation System presents a unique challenge to the design of a propulsion system for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Never before have the requirements for long-life, multiple mission use, space basing, high reliability, man-rating, and minimum maintenance come together with performance in one system that must protect the lives of space travelers, support the mission logistics needs, and do so at an acceptable cost. The challenge that is presented is to quantify the bounds of these requirements. The issue is one of degree. The length of acceptable life in space, the time it takes for reuse to pay off, and the degree to which space basing is practical (full, partial, or expended) are the issues that determine the reusable bounds of a design and include dependability, contingency capabilities, resilency, and minimum dependence on a maintenance node in preparation for and during a mission. Missions to planet earth, other non-NASA missions, and planetary missions will provide important but less demanding requirements for the transportation systems of the future. The mission proposed for the SEI require a family of transportation vehicles to meet the requirements for establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon and eventually on Mars. Specialized vehicles are needed to accomplish the different phases of each mission. These large scale missions require assembly in space and will provide the greatest usage of the planned integrated transportation system. The current approach to defining the In-Space Transportation System for the SEI Moon missions with later Mars mission applications is presented. Several system development options, propulsion concepts, current/proposed activities are reviewed, and key propulsion design criteria, issues, and technology challenges for the next generation In-Space Transportation System(s) are outlined.

  14. A Framework for the Next Generation of Risk Science

    PubMed Central

    Krewski, Daniel; Andersen, Melvin E.; Paoli, Gregory M.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Croteau, Maxine C.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Cote, Ila

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the NexGen project to develop a new paradigm for the next generation of risk science. Methods: The NexGen framework was built on three cornerstones: the availability of new data on toxicity pathways made possible by fundamental advances in basic biology and toxicological science, the incorporation of a population health perspective that recognizes that most adverse health outcomes involve multiple determinants, and a renewed focus on new risk assessment methodologies designed to better inform risk management decision making. Results: The NexGen framework has three phases. Phase I (objectives) focuses on problem formulation and scoping, taking into account the risk context and the range of available risk management decision-making options. Phase II (risk assessment) seeks to identify critical toxicity pathway perturbations using new toxicity testing tools and technologies, and to better characterize risks and uncertainties using advanced risk assessment methodologies. Phase III (risk management) involves the development of evidence-based population health risk management strategies of a regulatory, economic, advisory, community-based, or technological nature, using sound principles of risk management decision making. Conclusions: Analysis of a series of case study prototypes indicated that many aspects of the NexGen framework are already beginning to be adopted in practice. Citation: Krewski D, Westphal M, Andersen ME, Paoli GM, Chiu WA, Al-Zoughool M, Croteau MC, Burgoon LD, Cote I. 2014. A framework for the next generation of risk science. Environ Health Perspect 122:796–805; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307260 PMID:24727499

  15. Extreme Precision Environmental Control for Next Generation Radial Velocity Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, Gudmundur K.; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad; Nelson, Matt; Halverson, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Extreme radial velocity precisions of order 10cm/s will enable the discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. Temperature and pressure variations inside a spectrograph can lead to thermomechanical instabilities in the optics and mounts, and refractive index variations in both the optical elements as well as the surrounding air. Together, these variations can easily induce instrumental drifts of several tens to hundreds of meters per second. Enclosing the full optical train in thermally stabilized high-vacuum environments minimizes such errors. In this talk, I will discuss the Environmental Control System (ECS) for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrograph: a near infrared (NIR) facility class instrument we will commission at the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2016. The ECS will maintain the HPF optical bench stable at 180K at the sub milli-Kelvin level on the timescale of days, and at the few milli-Kelvin level over months to years. The entire spectrograph is kept under high-quality vacuum (<10-6 Torr), and environmental temperature fluctuations are compensated for with an actively controlled radiation shield outfitted with custom feedback electronics. High efficiency Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets, and a passive external thermal enclosure further isolate the optics from ambient perturbations. This environmental control scheme is versatile, suitable to stabilize both next generation NIR, and optical spectrographs. I will show how we are currently testing this control system for use with our design concept of the Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS), the next generation optical spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. Our most recent results from full-scale stability tests will be presented.

  16. Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Hidden Diversity of Zooplankton Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Rachel A.; Somerfield, Paul J.; Atkinson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Background Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. Methodology/Principle Findings Plankton net hauls (200 µm) were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. Conclusions Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may become increasingly

  17. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  18. A new parameter space study of cosmological microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    Cosmological gravitational microlensing is a useful technique for understanding the structure of the inner parts of a quasar, especially the accretion disc and the central supermassive black hole. So far, most of the cosmological microlensing studies have focused on single objects from ˜90 currently known lensed quasars. However, present and planned all-sky surveys are expected to discover thousands of new lensed systems. Using a graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated ray-shooting code, we have generated 2550 magnification maps uniformly across the convergence (κ) and shear (γ) parameter space of interest to microlensing. We examine the effect of random realizations of the microlens positions on map properties such as the magnification probability distribution (MPD). It is shown that for most of the parameter space a single map is representative of an average behaviour. All of the simulations have been carried out on the GPU Supercomputer for Theoretical Astrophysics Research.

  19. Next-Generation Anchor Based Phylogeny (NexABP): Constructing phylogeny from Next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Vishnoi, Anchal; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequences are ideally suited for deriving evolutionary relationship among organisms. With the availability of Next Generation sequencing (NGS) datasets in an unprecedented scale, it will be highly desirable if phylogenetic analysis can be carried out using short read NGS data. We described here an anchor based approach NexABP for phylogenetic construction of closely related strains/isolates from NGS data. This approach can be used even in the absence of a fully assembled reference genome and works by reducing the complexity of the datasets without compromising results. NexABP was used for constructing phylogeny of different strains of some of the common pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli. In addition to classification into distinct lineages, NexABP could resolve inner branches and also allow statistical testing using bootstrap analysis. We believe that there are some clear advantages of using NexABP based phylogenetic analysis as compared to other methods. PMID:24022334

  20. The Impact of Transiting Planet Science on the Next Generation of Direct-Imaging Planet Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Joseph C.

    2009-02-01

    Within the next five years, a number of direct-imaging planet search instruments, like the VLT SPHERE instrument, will be coming online. To successfully carry out their programs, these instruments will rely heavily on a-priori information on planet composition, atmosphere, and evolution. Transiting planet surveys, while covering a different semi-major axis regime, have the potential to provide critical foundations for these next-generation surveys. For example, improved information on planetary evolutionary tracks may significantly impact the insights that can be drawn from direct-imaging statistical data. Other high-impact results from transiting planet science include information on mass-to-radius relationships as well as atmospheric absorption bands. The marriage of transiting planet and direct-imaging results may eventually give us the first complete picture of planet migration, multiplicity, and general evolution.

  1. DNA Qualification Workflow for Next Generation Sequencing of Histopathological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for

  2. Impact of the next generation solvent on DWPF CPC processing

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, J. D.

    2013-02-21

    As part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic-side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and new strip acid will be deployed. Processing will begin with a blend of the current solvent and the NGS. Compositional changes in the NGS solvent and blending with the current solvent require review of previously performed work to determine if additional experimental work is required to address any impacts to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). The composition change involved the substitution of the N,N’-dicyclohexyl-N”-isotridecylguanidine LIX® 79 guanidine suppressor with N,N’,N”-tris (3,7-dimethyloctyl) guanidine (TiDG) guanidine suppressor. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by DWPF to evaluate any impacts to offgas generation, solvent buildup or carryover, chemical, thermal, and radiolytic stability of the blended and pure TiDG based NGS. Previous work has been performed by SRNL to evaluate impacts to CPC processing using the next generation solvent containing LIX® 79 suppressor with boric acid strip effluent. Based on previous experimental work and current literature, the following conclusions are made for processing in the CPC: No mechanism for a change in the catalytic hydrogen evolution in the CPC was identified for the NGS TiDG based solvent; The transition from the LIX® 79 based suppressor to the TiDG based suppressor is not expected to have any impact on solvent or Isopar® L accumulation; Transitioning from the current solvent to the TiDG based NGS is not expected to have an impact on solvent carryover or partitioning; No changes to the chemical stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; No changes to the thermal stability of the solvent in the CPC process are expected; A “worst case” scenario was examined in which all of the hydrogen atoms from the TiDG based NGS and blended solvent form hydrogen gas in the

  3. Designing the Next Generation Global Geodetic Network for GGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena; König, Daniel; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. National Research Council report "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure: National Requirements for a Shared Resource" (2010) recommended that we 'make a long-term commitment to maintain the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) to ensure its continuity and stability'. It further determined that to ensure this, a network of about ~30 globally distributed "core" observatories with state of the art equipment was necessary and should be deployed over the next decade or so. The findings were based on simulation studies using conceptual networks where Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) equipment of the next generation quality were deployed and operated 24/7. Since then, GGOS—the Global Geodetic Observing System, has embarked in an international effort to organize this future network, soliciting contributions from around the world, through an open solicitation "Call for Proposals—CfP". After a critical number of proposals were received, the results were evaluated and a data base was established where the likely sites are ranked in terms of the available equipment, local environment and weather, probability of completion and the relevant date, etc. The renewal process is expected to evolve smoothly over many years, from the current (legacy) state to the next generation ("GGOS-class") equipment. In order to design the optimal distribution of the proposed sites and to determine any gaps in the final network, simulations have been called for again, only this time the site locations are identical to those listed in the compiled data base, and the equipment at each site is in accordance to what is described in the data base for each point in time. The main objective of the simulations addresses the quality of the ITRF product from a network we expect to have in place about five and ten years after the NRC report (2016/2020). A secondary but equally important simulation task is the study of trade-offs when deploying new

  4. AgMIP: Next Generation Models and Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    Next steps in developing next-generation crop models fall into several categories: significant improvements in simulation of important crop processes and responses to stress; extension from simplified crop models to complex cropping systems models; and scaling up from site-based models to landscape, national, continental, and global scales. Crop processes that require major leaps in understanding and simulation in order to narrow uncertainties around how crops will respond to changing atmospheric conditions include genetics; carbon, temperature, water, and nitrogen; ozone; and nutrition. The field of crop modeling has been built on a single crop-by-crop approach. It is now time to create a new paradigm, moving from 'crop' to 'cropping system.' A first step is to set up the simulation technology so that modelers can rapidly incorporate multiple crops within fields, and multiple crops over time. Then the response of these more complex cropping systems can be tested under different sustainable intensification management strategies utilizing the updated simulation environments. Model improvements for diseases, pests, and weeds include developing process-based models for important diseases, frameworks for coupling air-borne diseases to crop models, gathering significantly more data on crop impacts, and enabling the evaluation of pest management strategies. Most smallholder farming in the world involves integrated crop-livestock systems that cannot be represented by crop modeling alone. Thus, next-generation cropping system models need to include key linkages to livestock. Livestock linkages to be incorporated include growth and productivity models for grasslands and rangelands as well as the usual annual crops. There are several approaches for scaling up, including use of gridded models and development of simpler quasi-empirical models for landscape-scale analysis. On the assessment side, AgMIP is leading a community process for coordinated contributions to IPCC AR6

  5. DNA qualification workflow for next generation sequencing of histopathological samples.

    PubMed

    Simbolo, Michele; Gottardi, Marisa; Corbo, Vincenzo; Fassan, Matteo; Mafficini, Andrea; Malpeli, Giorgio; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Histopathological samples are a treasure-trove of DNA for clinical research. However, the quality of DNA can vary depending on the source or extraction method applied. Thus a standardized and cost-effective workflow for the qualification of DNA preparations is essential to guarantee interlaboratory reproducible results. The qualification process consists of the quantification of double strand DNA (dsDNA) and the assessment of its suitability for downstream applications, such as high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We tested the two most frequently used instrumentations to define their role in this process: NanoDrop, based on UV spectroscopy, and Qubit 2.0, which uses fluorochromes specifically binding dsDNA. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used as the reference technique as it simultaneously assesses DNA concentration and suitability for PCR amplification. We used 17 genomic DNAs from 6 fresh-frozen (FF) tissues, 6 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 3 cell lines, and 2 commercial preparations. Intra- and inter-operator variability was negligible, and intra-methodology variability was minimal, while consistent inter-methodology divergences were observed. In fact, NanoDrop measured DNA concentrations higher than Qubit and its consistency with dsDNA quantification by qPCR was limited to high molecular weight DNA from FF samples and cell lines, where total DNA and dsDNA quantity virtually coincide. In partially degraded DNA from FFPE samples, only Qubit proved highly reproducible and consistent with qPCR measurements. Multiplex PCR amplifying 191 regions of 46 cancer-related genes was designated the downstream application, using 40 ng dsDNA from FFPE samples calculated by Qubit. All but one sample produced amplicon libraries suitable for next-generation sequencing. NanoDrop UV-spectrum verified contamination of the unsuccessful sample. In conclusion, as qPCR has high costs and is labor intensive, an alternative effective standard workflow for

  6. The MACHO Project HST Follow-Up: The Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Source Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.; Drake, A.J.; Cook, K.H.; Bennett, D.P.; Popowski, P.; Dalal, N.; Nikolaev, S.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C. Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Keller, S.C.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Stubbs, C.W.; Sutherland, W.; /Oxford U. /Oran, Sci. Tech. U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /McMaster U.

    2009-06-25

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 photometry of 13 microlensed source stars from the 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey conducted by the MACHO Project. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. None of these sources is coincident with a background galaxy, which rules out the possibility that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample is contaminated with misidentified supernovae or AGN in galaxies behind the LMC. This supports the conclusion that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample has only a small amount of contamination due to non-microlensing forms of variability. We compare the WFPC2 source star magnitudes with the lensed flux predictions derived from microlensing fits to the light curve data. In most cases the source star brightness is accurately predicted. Finally, we develop a statistic which constrains the location of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing source stars with respect to the distributions of stars and dust in the LMC and compare this to the predictions of various models of LMC microlensing. This test excludes at {approx}> 90% confidence level models where more than 80% of the source stars lie behind the LMC. Exotic models that attempt to explain the excess LMC microlensing optical depth seen by MACHO with a population of background sources are disfavored or excluded by this test. Models in which most of the lenses reside in a halo or spheroid distribution associated with either the Milky Way or the LMC are consistent which these data, but LMC halo or spheroid models are favored by the combined MACHO and EROS microlensing results.

  7. The Next Generation ARC Middleware and ATLAS Computing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipčič, Andrej; Cameron, David; Smirnova, Oxana; Konstantinov, Aleksandr; Karpenko, Dmytro

    2012-12-01

    The distributed NDGF Tier-1 and associated NorduGrid clusters are well integrated into the ATLAS computing environment but follow a slightly different paradigm than other ATLAS resources. The current paradigm does not divide the sites as in the commonly used hierarchical model, but rather treats them as a single storage endpoint and a pool of distributed computing nodes. The next generation ARC middleware with its several new technologies provides new possibilities in development of the ATLAS computing model, such as pilot jobs with pre-cached input files, automatic job migration between the sites, integration of remote sites without connected storage elements, and automatic brokering for jobs with non-standard resource requirements. ARC's data transfer model provides an automatic way for the computing sites to participate in ATLAS’ global task management system without requiring centralised brokering or data transfer services. The powerful API combined with Python and Java bindings can easily be used to build new services for job control and data transfer. Integration of the ARC core into the EMI middleware provides a natural way to implement the new services using the ARC components

  8. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards

    PubMed Central

    Lontok, Katherine S.; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards. PMID:26222583

  9. Clinical applications of next-generation sequencing in colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Min; Lee, Sug-Hyung; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Like other solid tumors, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a genomic disorder in which various types of genomic alterations, such as point mutations, genomic rearrangements, gene fusions, or chromosomal copy number alterations, can contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease. The advent of a new DNA sequencing technology known as next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the speed and throughput of cataloguing such cancer-related genomic alterations. Now the challenge is how to exploit this advanced technology to better understand the underlying molecular mechanism of colorectal carcinogenesis and to identify clinically relevant genetic biomarkers for diagnosis and personalized therapeutics. In this review, we will introduce NGS-based cancer genomics studies focusing on those of CRC, including a recent large-scale report from the Cancer Genome Atlas. We will mainly discuss how NGS-based exome-, whole genome- and methylome-sequencing have extended our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis. We will also introduce the unique genomic features of CRC discovered by NGS technologies, such as the relationship with bacterial pathogens and the massive genomic rearrangements of chromothripsis. Finally, we will discuss the necessary steps prior to development of a clinical application of NGS-related findings for the advanced management of patients with CRC. PMID:24187453

  10. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  11. Revealing the Complexity of Breast Cancer by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Verigos, John; Magklara, Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years the increasing usage of “-omic” platforms, supported by next-generation sequencing, in the analysis of breast cancer samples has tremendously advanced our understanding of the disease. New driver and passenger mutations, rare chromosomal rearrangements and other genomic aberrations identified by whole genome and exome sequencing are providing missing pieces of the genomic architecture of breast cancer. High resolution maps of breast cancer methylomes and sequencing of the miRNA microworld are beginning to paint the epigenomic landscape of the disease. Transcriptomic profiling is giving us a glimpse into the gene regulatory networks that govern the fate of the breast cancer cell. At the same time, integrative analysis of sequencing data confirms an extensive intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity and plasticity in breast cancer arguing for a new approach to the problem. In this review, we report on the latest findings on the molecular characterization of breast cancer using NGS technologies, and we discuss their potential implications for the improvement of existing therapies. PMID:26561834

  12. Next Generation Trusted Radiation Identification System (NG-TRIS).

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, Adam J.; Amai, Wendy A.; Merkle, Peter Benedict; Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Strother, Jerry D.; Weber, Thomas M.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2010-05-01

    The original Trusted Radiation Identification System (TRIS) was developed from 1999-2001, featuring information barrier technology to collect gamma radiation template measurements useful for arms control regime operations. The first TRIS design relied upon a multichannel analyzer (MCA) that was external to the protected volume of the system enclosure, undesirable from a system security perspective. An internal complex programmable logic device (CPLD) contained data which was not subject to software authentication. Physical authentication of the TRIS instrument case was performed by a sensitive but slow eddy-current inspection method. This paper describes progress to date for the Next Generation TRIS (NG-TRIS), which improves the TRIS design. We have incorporated the MCA internal to the trusted system volume, achieved full authentication of CPLD data, and have devised rapid methods to authenticate the system enclosure and weld seals of the NG-TRIS enclosure. For a complete discussion of the TRIS system and components upon which NG-TRIS is based, the reader is directed to the comprehensive user's manual and system reference of Seager, et al.

  13. Next generation tools for genomic data generation, distribution, and visualization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With the rapidly falling cost and availability of high throughput sequencing and microarray technologies, the bottleneck for effectively using genomic analysis in the laboratory and clinic is shifting to one of effectively managing, analyzing, and sharing genomic data. Results Here we present three open-source, platform independent, software tools for generating, analyzing, distributing, and visualizing genomic data. These include a next generation sequencing/microarray LIMS and analysis project center (GNomEx); an application for annotating and programmatically distributing genomic data using the community vetted DAS/2 data exchange protocol (GenoPub); and a standalone Java Swing application (GWrap) that makes cutting edge command line analysis tools available to those who prefer graphical user interfaces. Both GNomEx and GenoPub use the rich client Flex/Flash web browser interface to interact with Java classes and a relational database on a remote server. Both employ a public-private user-group security model enabling controlled distribution of patient and unpublished data alongside public resources. As such, they function as genomic data repositories that can be accessed manually or programmatically through DAS/2-enabled client applications such as the Integrated Genome Browser. Conclusions These tools have gained wide use in our core facilities, research laboratories and clinics and are freely available for non-profit use. See http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnomex/, http://sourceforge.net/projects/genoviz/, and http://sourceforge.net/projects/useq. PMID:20828407

  14. Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective.

    PubMed

    Potamias, George; Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Katsila, Theodora; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Topouzis, Stavros; Cooper, David N; Patrinos, George P

    2014-07-01

    In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic 'pharmacogenomics assistant'. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal. PMID:25030607

  15. Probe microscopy for metrology of next generation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphris, Andrew D. L.; Zhao, Bin; Bastard, David; Bunday, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    As device geometries shrink and the number of transistors on the wafer grows, new metrology solutions are required to support the development and production of next generation structures for the 10 nm node and beyond. This paper presents an innovative probe based microscope, the Rapid Probe Microscope (RPM), which is capable of obtaining nondestructive high resolution sub-nm information in all 3 dimensions and in a vacuum environment. The RPM is a platform supporting a novel probe detection and actuation system. It enables new imaging modes which are optimized for profiling narrow high aspect ratio structures as found in semiconductor devices. Additionally, the RPM can be operated in a vacuum environment allowing in-situ hybrid metrology solutions, for example operating alongside a CD or defect review SEM. Results are presented showing the imaging of thin lines and trenches, < 20 nm in width, using both a SEM and RPM to provide complementary information about the lateral and vertical dimensions of the structures. Comparison of images collected with different probes and at different sample locations demonstrates the ability of the RPM to operate consistently with long probe life and at high speed which is required for use in the High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) environment.

  16. RICOR development of the next generation highly reliable rotary cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regev, Itai; Nachman, Ilan; Livni, Dorit; Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Segal, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Early rotary cryocoolers were designed for the lifetime of a few thousands operating hours. Ricor K506 model's life expectancy was only 5,000 hours, then the next generation K508 model was designed to achieve 10,000 operating hours in basic conditions, while the modern K508N was designed for 20,000 operating hours. Nowadays, the new challenges in the field of rotary cryocoolers require development of a new generation cooler that could compete with the linear cryocooler reliability, achieving the lifetime goal of 30,000 operating hours, and even more. Such new advanced cryocooler can be used for upgrade existing systems, or to serve the new generation of high-temperature detectors that are currently under development, enabling the cryocooler to work more efficiently in the field. The improvement of the rotary cryocooler reliability is based on a deep analysis and understating of the root failure causes, finding solutions to reduce bearings wear, using modern materials and lubricants. All of those were taken into consideration during the development of the new generation rotary coolers. As a part of reliability challenges, new digital controller was also developed, which allows new options, such as discrete control of the operating frequency, and can extend the cooler operating hours due to new controlling technique. In addition, the digital controller will be able to collect data during cryocooler operation, aiming end of life prediction.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P.

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  18. Advancing the Next Generation of Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Anastas, Paul T.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Clark, Rebecca M.; Dix, David J.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Preuss, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past 20 years, knowledge of the genome and its function has increased dramatically, but risk assessment methodologies using such knowledge have not advanced accordingly. Objective: This commentary describes a collaborative effort among several federal and state agencies to advance the next generation of risk assessment. The objective of the NexGen program is to begin to incorporate recent progress in molecular and systems biology into risk assessment practice. The ultimate success of this program will be based on the incorporation of new practices that facilitate faster, cheaper, and/or more accurate assessments of public health risks. Methods: We are developing prototype risk assessments that compare the results of traditional, data-rich risk assessments with insights gained from new types of molecular and systems biology data. In this manner, new approaches can be validated, traditional approaches improved, and the value of different types of new scientific information better understood. Discussion and Conclusions: We anticipate that these new approaches will have a variety of applications, such as assessment of new and existing chemicals in commerce and the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Additionally, results of the effort are likely to spur further research and test methods development. Full implementation of new approaches is likely to take 10–20 years. PMID:22875311

  19. Glass Formulation for Next Generation Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Smith, Gary L.

    2011-12-21

    Transformational melter technologies are being considered to support mission acceleration within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. New glass formulations are required to take full advantage of the next generation melters, for example, the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The key advantage of CCIM technology over current reference technologies is its capability to provide higher processing temperatures, which can lead to an increased waste throughput rate by achieving higher waste loadings and by increasing the feed processing rate. Various waste compositions within the DOE complex were evaluated to determine their potential for successfully demonstrating the unique advantages of the CCIM technology. Glass formulations that satisfy a set of constraints for product quality and assumed CCIM processing conditions were developed for two Hanford waste streams, AZ-101 high-level waste (HLW) and AN-105 low-activity waste (LAW). Three glasses selected for AZ-101 HLW have waste loadings of 40, 42.5, and 45 wt%. The 45-wt% waste loading corresponds to a 22% increase from 37 wt%, which is the maximum expected waste loading based on the current reference formulation. One glass selected for AN-105 LAW has a waste loading of 31.3 wt% at 24 wt% Na2O in glass, which is a 14% increase from the current reference formulation maximum of 21 wt% Na2O. These four glasses are planned for scaled melter tests for initial demonstration of the CCIM technologies for Hanford wastes.

  20. Multicenter clinical trial using next-generation Internet technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingeholm, Mary-Lou; Levine, Betty A.; Eichler, Florian; Tu, Huacheng; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Moser, Hugo

    2001-08-01

    The capacity to evaluate therapies in a multi-center clinical trial for a rare disease like X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) can be improved by establishing a network for transmitting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using current Internet and Next Generation Internet (NGI) technologies. A Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) 3.0 application has been installed; it functions as a storage service class provider (SCP), query/retrieve SCP and central database. Sites with query/retrieve (Q/R) service class user (SCU) applications have access to the images. Using the DICOM Q/R SCU application, timing studies of image retrieval for a standard Internet connection and an NGI connection have been conducted. Standard Internet results indicate that performance is affected by bandwidth limitation and is constrained by network traffic, inhibiting the standard Internet as a useful tool for real-time therapy evaluation. NGI results indicate a higher and more consistent data throughput. The increased transmission speed along with the promise of improved quality of service offered by the NGI connection allows for physicians to discuss the images, correlate them with other disease findings, measure disease severity, and request additional MRI studies in real-time permitting a more efficient clinical evaluation strategy. The elimination of variability of transmission speed is no less significant, allowing the physicians to reserve the time needed for such consultations.

  1. Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST) system engineering trades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael J.; Moses, Stewart L.; Lillie, Charles F.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    1998-08-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope is intended to extend man's ability to observe the history of the universe to the time when galaxies were first forming. TRW is being funded by NASA to develop mission architectures that can achieve this and other science goals, while still remaining within a rigid cost cap. This paper presents the trade considerations for selecting the optimum NGST architecture. Mission architectures consist of combinations of technologies and mission design elements including different orbits and launch vehicles, aperture sizes, the wavelength bands, thermal control approaches, and observatory configurations. The systems engineering analyses involve defining and assessing the trade spaces for each possible architecture. For example, primary mirror approaches include single-piece, monolithic mirrors of about four meters diameter to much larger segmented mirrors employing advanced deployable technology. The performance of different configurations and mission architectures will be evaluated via end-to-end modeling, so that science utility will be balanced against system cost and risk for each technology. The trades presented suggest optimum directions for further NGST system studies.

  2. Impact of next generation sequencing techniques in food microbiology.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Baltasar; Rachid, Caio T C C; Alegría, Angel; Leite, Analy M O; Peixoto, Raquel S; Delgado, Susana

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequencing as the first generation, in recent years there has been an explosion of newly-developed sequencing strategies, which are usually referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS techniques have high-throughputs and produce thousands or even millions of sequences at the same time. These sequences allow for the accurate identification of microbial taxa, including uncultivable organisms and those present in small numbers. In specific applications, NGS provides a complete inventory of all microbial operons and genes present or being expressed under different study conditions. NGS techniques are revolutionizing the field of microbial ecology and have recently been used to examine several food ecosystems. After a short introduction to the most common NGS systems and platforms, this review addresses how NGS techniques have been employed in the study of food microbiota and food fermentations, and discusses their limits and perspectives. The most important findings are reviewed, including those made in the study of the microbiota of milk, fermented dairy products, and plant-, meat- and fish-derived fermented foods. The knowledge that can be gained on microbial diversity, population structure and population dynamics via the use of these technologies could be vital in improving the monitoring and manipulation of foods and fermented food products. They should also improve their safety. PMID:25132799

  3. Recommendations on e-infrastructures for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, Ola; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Dahlberg, Johan; Dahlö, Martin; Kallio, Aleksi; Pireddu, Luca; Vezzi, Francesco; Korpelainen, Eija

    2016-01-01

    With ever-increasing amounts of data being produced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments, the requirements placed on supporting e-infrastructures have grown. In this work, we provide recommendations based on the collective experiences from participants in the EU COST Action SeqAhead for the tasks of data preprocessing, upstream processing, data delivery, and downstream analysis, as well as long-term storage and archiving. We cover demands on computational and storage resources, networks, software stacks, automation of analysis, education, and also discuss emerging trends in the field. E-infrastructures for NGS require substantial effort to set up and maintain over time, and with sequencing technologies and best practices for data analysis evolving rapidly it is important to prioritize both processing capacity and e-infrastructure flexibility when making strategic decisions to support the data analysis demands of tomorrow. Due to increasingly demanding technical requirements we recommend that e-infrastructure development and maintenance be handled by a professional service unit, be it internal or external to the organization, and emphasis should be placed on collaboration between researchers and IT professionals. PMID:27267963

  4. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  5. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Teng; Tan, Meng-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic risk factors that underlie many rare and common neurological diseases remain poorly understood because of the multi-factorial and heterogeneous nature of these disorders. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully uncovered numerous susceptibility genes for these diseases, odds ratios associated with risk alleles are generally low and account for only a small proportion of estimated heritability. These results implicated that there are rare (present in <5% of the population) but not causative variants exist in the pathogenesis of these diseases, which usually have large effect size and cannot be captured by GWAS. With the decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) have enabled the rapid identification of rare variants with large effect size, which made huge progress in understanding the basis of many Mendelian neurological conditions as well as complex neurological diseases. In this article, recent NGS-based studies that aimed to investigate genetic causes for neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinocerebellar ataxias, have been reviewed. In addition, we also discuss the future directions of NGS applications in this article. PMID:25568878

  6. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2005-01-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  7. Toward robust AV conferencing on next-generation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haining; Cheng, Liang; El Zarki, Magda

    2004-12-01

    In order to enable a truly pervasive computing environment, next generation networks (including B3G and 4G) will merge the broadband wireless and wireline networking infrastructure. However, due to the tremendous complexity in administration and the unreliability of the wireless channel, provision of hard-guarantees for services on such networks will not happen in the foreseeable future. This consequently makes it particularly challenging to offer viable AV conferencing services due to their stringent synchronization, delay and data fidelity requirements. We propose in this paper a robust application-level solution for wireless mobile AV conferencing on B3G/4G networks. Expecting no special treatment from the network, we apply a novel adaptive delay and synchronization control mechanism to maintain the synchronization and reduce the latency as much as possible. We also employ a robust video coding technique that has better error-resilience capability. We investigate the performance of the proposed solution through simulations using a three-state hidden Markov chain as the generic end-to-end transport channel model. The results show that our scheme yields tight synchronization performance, relatively low end-to-end latency and satisfactory presentation quality. The scheme successfully provides a fairly robust AV conferencing service.

  8. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing Techniques in Food Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Baltasar; Rachid, Caio T. C. C; Alegría, Ángel; Leite, Analy M. O; Peixoto, Raquel S; Delgado, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the Maxam-Gilbert and Sanger sequencing as the first generation, in recent years there has been an explosion of newly-developed sequencing strategies, which are usually referred to as next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS techniques have high-throughputs and produce thousands or even millions of sequences at the same time. These sequences allow for the accurate identification of microbial taxa, including uncultivable organisms and those present in small numbers. In specific applications, NGS provides a complete inventory of all microbial operons and genes present or being expressed under different study conditions. NGS techniques are revolutionizing the field of microbial ecology and have recently been used to examine several food ecosystems. After a short introduction to the most common NGS systems and platforms, this review addresses how NGS techniques have been employed in the study of food microbiota and food fermentations, and discusses their limits and perspectives. The most important findings are reviewed, including those made in the study of the microbiota of milk, fermented dairy products, and plant-, meat- and fish-derived fermented foods. The knowledge that can be gained on microbial diversity, population structure and population dynamics via the use of these technologies could be vital in improving the monitoring and manipulation of foods and fermented food products. They should also improve their safety. PMID:25132799

  9. Applications of Next Generation Sequencing to Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Michael; Warren, Edus H.; Wu, Catherine J.

    2011-01-01

    Since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 2005, there has been an explosion of published studies employing the technology to tackle previously intractable questions in many disparate biological fields. This has been coupled with technology development that has occurred at a remarkable pace. This review discusses the potential impact of this new technology on the field of blood and marrow stem cell transplantation. Hematologic malignancies have been among the forefront of those cancers whose genomes have been the subject of NGS. Hence, these studies have opened novel areas of biology that can be exploited for prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic means. Because of the unprecedented depth, resolution and accuracy achievable by NGS, this technology is well-suited for providing detailed information on the diversity of receptors that govern antigen recognition; this approach has the potential to contribute important insights into understanding the biologic effects of transplantation. Finally, the ability to perform comprehensive tumor sequencing provides a systematic approach to the discovery of genetic alterations that can encode peptides with restricted tumor expression, and hence serve as potential target antigens of GvL responses. Altogether, this increasingly affordable technology will undoubtedly impact the future practice and care of patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID:22226099

  10. Solution processing of next-generation nanocrystal solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Embden, J.; Chesman, A. S. R.; Duffy, N. W.; Della Gaspera, E.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Next-generation solar cells will be fabricated from low-cost and earth abundant elements, using processes that are amenable to printing on a variety of light-weight substrates. The utilization of compositionally and structurally controlled colloidal nanocrystals as building blocks for such devices fulfills these criteria. Our recent efforts in developing kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals, one of the most promising materials to emerge in this area, enable the deposition of CZTS thin-films directly from a variety of solution-processed methods. Nanocrystalline thin films possess poor electronic properties, which precludes their use in solar cell devices. In order to overcome this, thermal treatment steps under an atmosphere of vaporous selenium are applied to induce large scale crystallite growth and the production of selenized CZTSSe films. This process results in a highly photoactive p-type layer. The n-type cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited from solution using chemical bath deposition. We will discuss each of these accomplishments in detail, highlighting the significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to fabricate working CZTSSe thin film solar cells.

  11. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS Diversity and Equity Team completed four major charges: (1) bias reviews of the NGSS, (2) Appendix D on diversity and equity, (3) inclusion of the topic of diversity and equity across Appendices, and (4) seven case studies of diverse student groups. This article starts with an overview of the NGSS Diversity and Equity charges, followed by a description of each of the four charges. This body of work addresses what science educators can and should do to ensure that the NGSS are accessible to all students, hence the title: " All Standards, All Students." In the coming years, the nation's student diversity will continue to grow rapidly while states adopt and implement the NGSS. Therefore, science teaching for non-dominant student groups equates to science teaching for all students.

  12. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Ludlow, Andrew T.; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library’s heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality. PMID:27048884

  13. Design reliability assurance program for Korean next generation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Beom-Su; Han, Jin-Kyu; Na, Jang Hwan; Yoo, Kyung Yeong

    1997-12-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) project is to develop standardized nuclear power plant design for the construction of future nuclear power plants in Korea. The main purpose of the KNGR project is to develop the advanced nuclear power plants, which enhance safety and economics significantly through the incorporation of design concepts for severe accident prevention and mitigation, supplementary passive safety concept, simplification and application of modularization and so on. For those, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and availability study will be performed at the early stage of the design, and the Design Reliability Assurance Program (D-RAP) is applied in the development of the KNGR to ensure that the safety and availability evaluated in the PSA and availability study at the early phase of the design is maintained through the detailed design, construction, procurement and operation of the plants. This paper presents the D-RAP concept that could be applied at the stage of the basic design of the nuclear power plants, based on the models for the reference plants and/or similar plants. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Next Generation Space Telescope Integrated Science Module Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnurr, Richard G.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Jurotich, Matthew M.; Whitley, Raymond; Kalinowski, Keith J.; Love, Bruce W.; Travis, Jeffrey W.; Long, Knox S.

    1999-01-01

    The Data system for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Integrated Science Module (ISIM) is the primary data interface between the spacecraft, telescope, and science instrument systems. This poster includes block diagrams of the ISIM data system and its components derived during the pre-phase A Yardstick feasibility study. The poster details the hardware and software components used to acquire and process science data for the Yardstick instrument compliment, and depicts the baseline external interfaces to science instruments and other systems. This baseline data system is a fully redundant, high performance computing system. Each redundant computer contains three 150 MHz power PC processors. All processors execute a commercially available real time multi-tasking operating system supporting, preemptive multi-tasking, file management and network interfaces. These six processors in the system are networked together. The spacecraft interface baseline is an extension of the network, which links the six processors. The final selection for Processor busses, processor chips, network interfaces, and high-speed data interfaces will be made during mid 2002.

  15. Application of next-generation sequencing technologies in virology

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David; Dixon, Linda; Chantrey, Julian; Darby, Alistair C.; Hall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The progress of science is punctuated by the advent of revolutionary technologies that provide new ways and scales to formulate scientific questions and advance knowledge. Following on from electron microscopy, cell culture and PCR, next-generation sequencing is one of these methodologies that is now changing the way that we understand viruses, particularly in the areas of genome sequencing, evolution, ecology, discovery and transcriptomics. Possibilities for these methodologies are only limited by our scientific imagination and, to some extent, by their cost, which has restricted their use to relatively small numbers of samples. Challenges remain, including the storage and analysis of the large amounts of data generated. As the chemistries employed mature, costs will decrease. In addition, improved methods for analysis will become available, opening yet further applications in virology including routine diagnostic work on individuals, and new understanding of the interaction between viral and host transcriptomes. An exciting era of viral exploration has begun, and will set us new challenges to understand the role of newly discovered viral diversity in both disease and health. PMID:22647373

  16. Advanced Video Guidance Sensor and Next Generation Autonomous Docking Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granade, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, NASA's interest in spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations has grown. Additional instrumentation is needed to improve manned docking operations' safety, as well as to enable telerobotic operation of spacecraft or completely autonomous rendezvous and docking. To address this need, Advanced Optical Systems, Inc., Orbital Sciences Corporation, and Marshall Space Flight Center have developed the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) under the auspices of the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) program. Given a cooperative target comprising several retro-reflectors, AVGS provides six-degree-of-freedom information at ranges of up to 300 meters for the DART target. It does so by imaging the target, then performing pattern recognition on the resulting image. Longer range operation is possible through different target geometries. Now that AVGS is being readied for its test flight in 2004, the question is: what next? Modifications can be made to AVGS, including different pattern recognition algorithms and changes to the retro-reflector targets, to make it more robust and accurate. AVGS could be coupled with other space-qualified sensors, such as a laser range-and-bearing finder, that would operate at longer ranges. Different target configurations, including the use of active targets, could result in significant miniaturization over the current AVGS package. We will discuss these and other possibilities for a next-generation docking sensor or sensor suite that involve AVGS.

  17. Next-generation sequencing in the clinic: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiekun; Yu, Ying; Qing, Tao; Guo, Lei; Shi, Leming

    2013-11-01

    The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling fast and cost-effective generation of genome-scale sequence data with exquisite resolution and accuracy. Over the past years, rapid technological advances led by academic institutions and companies have continued to broaden NGS applications from research to the clinic. A recent crop of discoveries have highlighted the medical impact of NGS technologies on Mendelian and complex diseases, particularly cancer. However, the ever-increasing pace of NGS adoption presents enormous challenges in terms of data processing, storage, management and interpretation as well as sequencing quality control, which hinder the translation from sequence data into clinical practice. In this review, we first summarize the technical characteristics and performance of current NGS platforms. We further highlight advances in the applications of NGS technologies towards the development of clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Common issues in NGS workflows are also discussed to guide the selection of NGS platforms and pipelines for specific research purposes. PMID:23174106

  18. The Next Generation Heated Halo for Blackbody Emissivity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P.; Taylor, J. K.; Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; Adler, D. P.; Ciganovich, N. N.; Dutcher, S. T.; Garcia, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of radiance measurements from space-based infrared spectrometers is contingent on the quality of the calibration subsystem, as well as knowledge of its uncertainty. Future climate benchmarking missions call for measurement uncertainties better than 0.1 K (k=3) in radiance temperature for the detection of spectral climate signatures. Blackbody cavities impart the most accurate calibration for spaceborne infrared sensors, provided that their temperature and emissivity is traceably determined on-orbit. The On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) has been developed at the University of Wisconsin to meet the stringent requirements of the next generation of infrared remote sensing instruments. It provides on-orbit determination of both traceable temperature and emissivity for calibration blackbodies. The Heated Halo is the component of the OARS that provides a robust and compact method to measure the spectral emissivity of a blackbody in situ. A carefully baffled thermal source is placed in front of a blackbody in an infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated. We present the results from the Heated Halo methodology implemented with a new Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI), which is a prototype space-based infrared spectrometer designed for climate benchmarking that was developed under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). We compare our findings to models and other experimental methods of emissivity determination.

  19. High-Throughput Microdissection for Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Armani, Michael D.; Fetsch, Patricia A.; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Tina Thu; Raffeld, Mark; Chen, Yun; O’Flaherty, Neil; Stussman, Rebecca; Blackler, Adele R.; Du, Qiang; Hanson, Jeffrey C.; Roth, Mark J.; Filie, Armando C.; Roh, Michael H.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Hipp, Jason D.; Tangrea, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine promises to enhance patient treatment through the use of emerging molecular technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. However, current tools in surgical pathology lack the capability to efficiently isolate specific cell populations in complex tissues/tumors, which can confound molecular results. Expression microdissection (xMD) is an immuno-based cell/subcellular isolation tool that procures targets of interest from a cytological or histological specimen. In this study, we demonstrate the accuracy and precision of xMD by rapidly isolating immunostained targets, including cytokeratin AE1/AE3, p53, and estrogen receptor (ER) positive cells and nuclei from tissue sections. Other targets procured included green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing fibroblasts, in situ hybridization positive Epstein-Barr virus nuclei, and silver stained fungi. In order to assess the effect on molecular data, xMD was utilized to isolate specific targets from a mixed population of cells where the targets constituted only 5% of the sample. Target enrichment from this admixed cell population prior to next-generation sequencing (NGS) produced a minimum 13-fold increase in mutation allele frequency detection. These data suggest a role for xMD in a wide range of molecular pathology studies, as well as in the clinical workflow for samples where tumor cell enrichment is needed, or for those with a relative paucity of target cells. PMID:26999048

  20. Next-generation phenomics for the Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, J. Gordon; Alphonse, Kenzley; Alverson, Andrew J; Bik, Holly M; Blank, Carrine; Cirranello, Andrea L; Cui, Hong; Daly, Marymegan; Dietterich, Thomas G; Gasparich, Gail; Irvine, Jed; Julius, Matthew; Kaufman, Seth; Law, Edith; Liu, Jing; Moore, Lisa; O'Leary, Maureen A; Passarotti, Maria; Ranade, Sonali; Simmons, Nancy B; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Thacker, Robert W; Theriot, Edward C; Todorovic, Sinisa; Velazco, Paúl M.; Walls, Ramona L; Wolfe, Joanna M; Yu, Mengjie

    2013-01-01

    The phenotype represents a critical interface between the genome and the environment in which organisms live and evolve. Phenotypic characters also are a rich source of biodiversity data for tree building, and they enable scientists to reconstruct the evolutionary history of organisms, including most fossil taxa, for which genetic data are unavailable. Therefore, phenotypic data are necessary for building a comprehensive Tree of Life. In contrast to recent advances in molecular sequencing, which has become faster and cheaper through recent technological advances, phenotypic data collection remains often prohibitively slow and expensive. The next-generation phenomics project is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to leverage advances in image analysis, crowdsourcing, and natural language processing to develop and implement novel approaches for discovering and scoring the phenome, the collection of phentotypic characters for a species. This research represents a new approach to data collection that has the potential to transform phylogenetics research and to enable rapid advances in constructing the Tree of Life. Our goal is to assemble large phenomic datasets built using new methods and to provide the public and scientific community with tools for phenomic data assembly that will enable rapid and automated study of phenotypes across the Tree of Life. PMID:23827969

  1. On the next generation of reliability analysis tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Philip S., IV; Leong, Frank; Gai, Eli

    1987-01-01

    The current generation of reliability analysis tools concentrates on improving the efficiency of the description and solution of the fault-handling processes and providing a solution algorithm for the full system model. The tools have improved user efficiency in these areas to the extent that the problem of constructing the fault-occurrence model is now the major analysis bottleneck. For the next generation of reliability tools, it is proposed that techniques be developed to improve the efficiency of the fault-occurrence model generation and input. Further, the goal is to provide an environment permitting a user to provide a top-down design description of the system from which a Markov reliability model is automatically constructed. Thus, the user is relieved of the tedious and error-prone process of model construction, permitting an efficient exploration of the design space, and an independent validation of the system's operation is obtained. An additional benefit of automating the model construction process is the opportunity to reduce the specialized knowledge required. Hence, the user need only be an expert in the system he is analyzing; the expertise in reliability analysis techniques is supplied.

  2. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglieri, M.; Briscoe, B. J.; Celentano, A.; Chung, S.-U.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Döring, M.; Dudek, J.; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, S.; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, D. I.; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, F. J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, V.; McKinnon, B.; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, A.; Salgado, C.; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Sato, T.; Schlüter, T.; [Silva]da Silva, M. L. L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, I.; Szczepaniak, A.; Vassallo, A.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Zana, L.

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.

  3. California Framework for the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Alessio, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2013, the California State Board of Education approved a revision to the state's science education standards, adopting the Next Generation Science Standards for the nation's most populous state. That action began a multi-year transition process that is ongoing. While the standards have been formally adopted, instructional materials and assessments that align with these standards have not yet been approved by the state. The approval process includes adopting a framework document that lays out the criteria for insructional materials and provides guidance to districts and teachers about how NGSS can be implemented effectively (not to be confused with the 2012 NRC Framework document). This document is currently available in draft form and has been approved by an appointed subcommittee, will undergo two periods of public comment, and is expected to be finalized by September 2016. We provide a summary of the process California is taking to implement NGSS, present highlights of the current document, and give a summary of the first public comment period.

  4. Next generation radiotherapy biomaterials loaded with high-Z nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifter, Gizem

    This research investigates the dosimetric feasibility of using high-Z nanoparticles as localized radiosensitizers to boost the dose to the residual tumor cells during accelerated partial breast irradiation while minimizing the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Analytical microdosimetry calculations were carried out to calculate dose enhancement (DEF) in the presence of high-Z nanoparticles. It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. In vitro release of GNPs was monitored over time by optical/spectroscopy methods as a function of various design parameters. The prototype smart biomaterials displayed sustained customizable release of NPs in-vitro, reaching a burst release profile approximately after 25 days. The results also show that customizable release profiles can be achievable by varying GNP concentrations that are embedded within smart biomaterials, as well as other design parameters. This would potentially allow customizable local dose boost resulting in diverse treatment planning opportunities for individual cases. Considered together, the results provide preliminary data for development of next generation of RT biomaterials, which can be employed at no additional inconvenience to RT patients.

  5. Next generation sequencing and its applications in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-09-01

    It has been almost a decade since the first next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies emerged and quickly changed the way genetic research is conducted. Today, full genomes are mapped and published almost weekly and with ever increasing speed and decreasing costs. NGS methods and platforms have matured during the last 10 years, and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially in the last year, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific articles and presentations at conferences with forensic aspects of NGS. These contributions have demonstrated that NGS offers new possibilities for forensic genetic case work. More information may be obtained from unique samples in a single experiment by analyzing combinations of markers (STRs, SNPs, insertion/deletions, mRNA) that cannot be analyzed simultaneously with the standard PCR-CE methods used today. The true variation in core forensic STR loci has been uncovered, and previously unknown STR alleles have been discovered. The detailed sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this review, we will give an introduction to NGS and single-molecule sequencing, and we will discuss the possible applications of NGS in forensic genetics. PMID:25704953

  6. Design of the next generation cognitive mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Ali; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Xiaoming

    Cognition capability has been seen by researchers as the way forward for the design of next generation of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). The reason why a cognitive paradigm would be more suited to a MANET is because MANETs are highly dynamic networks. The topology may change very frequently during the operation of a MANET. Traffic patterns in MANETs can vary from time to time depending on the need of the users. The size of a MANET and node density is also very dynamic and may change without any predictable pattern. In a MANET environment, most of these parameters may change very rapidly and keeping track of them manually would be very difficult. Previous studies have shown that the performance of a certain routing approach in MANETs is dependent on the size of the network and node density. The choice of whether to use a reactive or proactive routing approach comes down to the network size parameter. Static or offline approaches to fine tune a MANET to achieve certain performance goals is hence not very productive as a lot of these parameters keep changing during the course of operation of MANETs. Similarly, the performance of MANETs would improve greatly if the MAC layer entity could operate in a more flexible manner. In this paper we propose a cognitive MANET design that will ensure that all these dynamic parameters are automatically monitored and decisions are based on the current status of these parameters.

  7. Smooth migration technologies towards next-generation access systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naoto

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of next-generation optical access network (NG-OAN) systems as well as the corresponding standardization activities has been steadily progressing. In the near future, whenever such a NG-OAN system is deployed to meet the bandwidth demands, the smooth migration from the existing system is indispensable because current PON systems such as 1G-EPON/G-PON have been massively deployed all over the world. NGA systems should be deployed so as not to interrupt existing system operation or degrade in-service user availability. I introduce recent technical topics related to co-existence with 1G/10G-EPON as an example. In particular, a 1G/10G dual-rate dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) technique and a 1G/10G dual-rate burst-mode transceiver are key technologies enabling 1G- and 10Gdata to be handled simultaneously. Furthermore, from the CAPEX/OPEX reduction viewpoint, longer lifetime system is preferable. NGA systems will, therefore, be more flexible to meet later bandwidth demands, wide coverage requirement, and energy-efficient operation. WDM technology is an attractive approach to meeting these goals.

  8. Pattern Recognition on Read Positioning in Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Boseon; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness and the utility of the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology are based on the assumption that the DNA or cDNA cleavage required to generate short sequence reads is random. Several previous reports suggest the existence of sequencing bias of NGS reads. To address this question in greater detail, we analyze NGS data from four organisms with different GC content, Plasmodium falciparum (19.39%), Arabidopsis thaliana (36.03%), Homo sapiens (40.91%) and Streptomyces coelicolor (72.00%). Using machine learning techniques, we recognize the pattern that the NGS read start is positioned in the local region where the nucleotide distribution is dissimilar from the global nucleotide distribution. We also demonstrate that the mono-nucleotide distribution underestimates sequencing bias, and the recognized pattern is explained largely by the distribution of multi-nucleotides (di-, tri-, and tetra- nucleotides) rather than mono-nucleotides. This implies that the correction of sequencing bias needs to be performed on the basis of the multi-nucleotide distribution. Providing companion software to quantify the effect of the recognized pattern on read positioning, we exemplify that the bias correction based on the mono-nucleotide distribution may not be sufficient to clean sequencing bias. PMID:27299343

  9. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  10. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    PubMed

    Guttikonda, Satish K; Marri, Pradeep; Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions. PMID:26908260

  11. [The application of next generation sequencing on epigenetic study].

    PubMed

    Shen, Sheng; Qu, Yanchun; Zhang, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) technique has a great impact on epigenetic studies. Coupled with NGS, a number of sequencing-based methodologies have been developed and applied in epigenetic studies, such as Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS), Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS), Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (MeDIP-seq), Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-Sequencing (ChIP-seq), TAB-seq (Tet-assisted Bisulfite Sequencing), Chromosome Conformation Capture Sequencing (3C-seq) and various of 3C-seq de-rivatives, DNase1-seq/MNase-seq/FAIRE-seqand RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq). These new techniques were used to iden-tify DNA methylation patterns and a broad range of protein/nucleic acid interactions, and to analyze chromatin conforma-tion.With these new technologies, researchers have gained a broader view and better tools to investigate the distributions and dynamic changes of epigenetic markers affected by both internal and external factors. The principles and characteristics of major applications of NGS technologies on epigenetics were summarized; and the recent advances and the future direc-tions in NGS-based epigenetic studies were further discussed. PMID:24846966

  12. Transforming the NAS: The Next Generation Air Traffic Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    The next-generation air traffic control system must be designed to safely and efficiently accommodate the large growth of traffic expected in the near future. It should be sufficiently scalable to contend with the factor of 2 or more increase in demand expected by the year 2020. Analysis has shown that the current method of controlling air traffic cannot be scaled up to provide such levels of capacity. Therefore, to achieve a large increase in capacity while also giving pilots increased freedom to optimize their flight trajectories requires a fundamental change in the way air traffic is controlled. The key to achieving a factor of 2 or more increase in airspace capacity is to automate separation monitoring and control and to use an air-ground data link to send trajectories and clearances directly between ground-based and airborne systems. In addition to increasing capacity and offering greater flexibility in the selection of trajectories, this approach also has the potential to increase safety by reducing controller and pilot errors that occur in routine monitoring and voice communication tasks.

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing for Cancer Diagnostics: a Practical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Cliff; Doyle, Maria A; Tothill, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is arguably one of the most significant technological advances in the biological sciences of the last 30 years. The second generation sequencing platforms have advanced rapidly to the point that several genomes can now be sequenced simultaneously in a single instrument run in under two weeks. Targeted DNA enrichment methods allow even higher genome throughput at a reduced cost per sample. Medical research has embraced the technology and the cancer field is at the forefront of these efforts given the genetic aspects of the disease. World-wide efforts to catalogue mutations in multiple cancer types are underway and this is likely to lead to new discoveries that will be translated to new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. NGS is now maturing to the point where it is being considered by many laboratories for routine diagnostic use. The sensitivity, speed and reduced cost per sample make it a highly attractive platform compared to other sequencing modalities. Moreover, as we identify more genetic determinants of cancer there is a greater need to adopt multi-gene assays that can quickly and reliably sequence complete genes from individual patient samples. Whilst widespread and routine use of whole genome sequencing is likely to be a few years away, there are immediate opportunities to implement NGS for clinical use. Here we review the technology, methods and applications that can be immediately considered and some of the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:22147957

  14. The HST/STIS Next Generation Spectral Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, M. D.; Silva, D.; Rayner, J.; Worthey, G.; Valdes, F.; Pickles, A.; Rose, J.; Carney, B.; Vacca, W.

    2006-01-01

    During Cycles 10, 12, and 13, we obtained STIS G230LB, G430L, and G750L spectra of 378 bright stars covering a wide range in abundance, effective temperature, and luminosity. This HST/STIS Next Generation Spectral Library was scheduled to reach its goal of 600 targets by the end of Cycle 13 when STIS came to an untimely end. Even at 2/3 complete, the library significantly improves the sampling of stellar atmosphere parameter space compared to most other spectral libraries by including the near-UV and significant numbers of metal poor and super-solar abundance stars. Numerous calibration challenges have been encountered, some expected, some not; these arise from the use of the E1 aperture location, non-standard wavelength calibration, and, most significantly, the serious contamination of the near-UV spectra by red light. Maximizing the utility of the library depends directly on overcoming or at least minimizing these problems, especially correcting the UV spectra.

  15. Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Colton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses a proposed system for mounting loaded pallets in the cargo bay of a next-generation space-shuttle-like spacecraft, such that the center of mass of the cargo would lie within a 1-in. (2.54-cm) cube that would also contain the center of mass of the spacecraft. The system would include (1) an algorithm for planning the locations of the pallets, given the geometric and weight properties of the pallets, and the geometric restrictions of the cargo bay; (2) quick-connect/quick-disconnect mounting mechanisms similar to those now used on air hoses; (3) other mounting mechanisms, comprising mostly spring-loaded pins, in a locking subsystem that would prevent shifting of the pallets under load; and (4) mechanisms for performing fine position adjustments to satisfy the center-of-mass requirement. The position- adjusting mechanisms would be motor-driven lead-screw mechanisms in groups of three - one for positioning each pin of the locking subsystem along each of three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes. The system also would include a triple-threaded screw that would provide compensation for thermal expansion or contraction of the spacecraft.

  16. A repetitive sequence assembler based on next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lian, S; Tu, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, X; Wang, L

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive sequences of variable length are common in almost all eukaryotic genomes, and most of them are presumed to have important biomedical functions and can cause genomic instability. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide the possibility of identifying capturing these repetitive sequences directly from the NGS data. In this study, we assessed the performances in identifying capturing repeats of leading assemblers, such as Velvet, SOAPdenovo, SGA, MSR-CA, Bambus2, ALLPATHS-LG, and AByss using three real NGS datasets. Our results indicated that most of them performed poorly in capturing the repeats. Consequently, we proposed a repetitive sequence assembler, named NGSReper, for capturing repeats from NGS data. Simulated datasets were used to validate the feasibility of NGSReper. The results indicate that the completeness of capturing repeat is up to 99%. Cross validation was performed in three real NGS datasets, and extensive comparisons indicate that NGSReper performed best in terms of completeness and accuracy in capturing repeats. In conclusion, NGSReper is an appropriate and suitable tool for capturing repeats directly from NGS data. PMID:27525861

  17. The Next Generation of Positron Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Samuel L.; Roney, Celeste A.; Daumar, Pierre; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is still the most widely used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer, there are a few well-known limitations to its use. The last decade has seen the development of new PET probes for in vivo visualization of specific molecular targets, along with important technical advances in the production of positron-emitting radionuclides and their related labeling methods. As such, a broad range of new PET tracers are in preclinical development or have recently entered clinical trials. The topics covered in this review include labeling methods, biological targets, and the most recent preclinical or clinical data of some of the next generation of PET radiopharmaceuticals. This review, which is by no means exhaustive, has been separated into sections related to the PET radionuclide used for radiolabeling: fluorine-18, for the labeling of agents such as FACBC, FDHT, choline, and Galacto-RGD; carbon-11, for the labeling of choline; gallium-68, for the labeling of peptides such as DOTATOC and bombesin analogs; and the long-lived radionuclides iodine-124 and zirconium-89 for the labeling of monoclonal antibodies cG250, and J591 and trastuzumab, respectively. PMID:21624561

  18. Developing the Next Generation Shell Buckling Design Factors and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project was established in the spring of 2007 by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) in collaboration with the Constellation Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The SBKF project has the current goal of developing less-conservative, robust shell buckling design factors (a.k.a. knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for light-weight stiffened metallic launch vehicle (LV) structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s LV development and performance risks. In particular, it is expected that the results from this project will help reduce the reliance on testing, provide high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. The SBKF project objectives and approach used to develop and validate new design technologies are presented, and provide a glimpse into the future of design of the next generation of buckling-critical launch vehicle structures.

  19. Reproducibility of Variant Calls in Replicate Next Generation Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Wang, Bailing; Hess, Kenneth R.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Shi, Weiwei; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide alterations detected by next generation sequencing are not always true biological changes but could represent sequencing errors. Even highly accurate methods can yield substantial error rates when applied to millions of nucleotides. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of nucleotide variant calls in replicate sequencing experiments of the same genomic DNA. We performed targeted sequencing of all known human protein kinase genes (kinome) (~3.2 Mb) using the SOLiD v4 platform. Seventeen breast cancer samples were sequenced in duplicate (n=14) or triplicate (n=3) to assess concordance of all calls and single nucleotide variant (SNV) calls. The concordance rates over the entire sequenced region were >99.99%, while the concordance rates for SNVs were 54.3-75.5%. There was substantial variation in basic sequencing metrics from experiment to experiment. The type of nucleotide substitution and genomic location of the variant had little impact on concordance but concordance increased with coverage level, variant allele count (VAC), variant allele frequency (VAF), variant allele quality and p-value of SNV-call. The most important determinants of concordance were VAC and VAF. Even using the highest stringency of QC metrics the reproducibility of SNV calls was around 80% suggesting that erroneous variant calling can be as high as 20-40% in a single experiment. The sequence data have been deposited into the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) with accession number EGAS00001000826. PMID:26136146

  20. Comparison of DNA Quantification Methods for Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Ludlow, Andrew T; LaRanger, Ryan; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2016-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool that depends on loading a precise amount of DNA onto a flowcell. NGS strategies have expanded our ability to investigate genomic phenomena by referencing mutations in cancer and diseases through large-scale genotyping, developing methods to map rare chromatin interactions (4C; 5C and Hi-C) and identifying chromatin features associated with regulatory elements (ChIP-seq, Bis-Seq, ChiA-PET). While many methods are available for DNA library quantification, there is no unambiguous gold standard. Most techniques use PCR to amplify DNA libraries to obtain sufficient quantities for optical density measurement. However, increased PCR cycles can distort the library's heterogeneity and prevent the detection of rare variants. In this analysis, we compared new digital PCR technologies (droplet digital PCR; ddPCR, ddPCR-Tail) with standard methods for the titration of NGS libraries. DdPCR-Tail is comparable to qPCR and fluorometry (QuBit) and allows sensitive quantification by analysis of barcode repartition after sequencing of multiplexed samples. This study provides a direct comparison between quantification methods throughout a complete sequencing experiment and provides the impetus to use ddPCR-based quantification for improvement of NGS quality. PMID:27048884

  1. Next Generation Sequencing in Predicting Gene Function in Podophyllotoxin Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Kim, Kye-Won; Lee, Choonseok; Costa, Michael A.; May, Gregory D.; Crow, John A.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllum species are sources of (−)-podophyllotoxin, an aryltetralin lignan used for semi-synthesis of various powerful and extensively employed cancer-treating drugs. Its biosynthetic pathway, however, remains largely unknown, with the last unequivocally demonstrated intermediate being (−)-matairesinol. Herein, massively parallel sequencing of Podophyllum hexandrum and Podophyllum peltatum transcriptomes and subsequent bioinformatics analyses of the corresponding assemblies were carried out. Validation of the assembly process was first achieved through confirmation of assembled sequences with those of various genes previously established as involved in podophyllotoxin biosynthesis as well as other candidate biosynthetic pathway genes. This contribution describes characterization of two of the latter, namely the cytochrome P450s, CYP719A23 from P. hexandrum and CYP719A24 from P. peltatum. Both enzymes were capable of converting (−)-matairesinol into (−)-pluviatolide by catalyzing methylenedioxy bridge formation and did not act on other possible substrates tested. Interestingly, the enzymes described herein were highly similar to methylenedioxy bridge-forming enzymes from alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas candidates more similar to lignan biosynthetic enzymes were catalytically inactive with the substrates employed. This overall strategy has thus enabled facile further identification of enzymes putatively involved in (−)-podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and underscores the deductive power of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to probe and deduce medicinal plant biosynthetic pathways. PMID:23161544

  2. Next-generation transfer reaction studies with JENSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipps, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    Next generation radioactive ion beam facilities are being planned and built across the globe, and with them an incredible new array of exotic isotopes will be available for study. To keep pace with the state of nuclear physics research, both new detector systems and new target systems are needed. The Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) gas jet target is one of these new target systems, designed to provide a target of light gas that is localized, dense, and pure. The JENSA gas jet target was originally constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for testing and characterization, and has now moved to the ReA3 reaccelerated beam hall at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University for use with radioactive beams. The availability of a pure, localized target of light gases will enable exceptional scattering and transfer reaction studies with these exotic beams. Some examples will be given, and future plans will be discussed. This work is supported by the US DOE Office of Science (Office of Nuclear Physics) and the NSF.

  3. Modeling Pilot State in Next Generation Aircraft Alert Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlin, Alan S.; Alexander, Amy L.; Schurr, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit that must convey a large number of potentially complex alerts. Our work focuses on the challenges associated with prioritizing aircraft sensor alerts in a quick and efficient manner, essentially determining when and how to alert the pilot This "alert decision" becomes very difficult in NextGen due to the following challenges: 1) the increasing number of potential hazards, 2) the uncertainty associated with the state of potential hazards as well as pilot slate , and 3) the limited time to make safely-critical decisions. In this paper, we focus on pilot state and present a model for anticipating duration and quality of pilot behavior, for use in a larger system which issues aircraft alerts. We estimate pilot workload, which we model as being dependent on factors including mental effort, task demands. and task performance. We perform a mathematically rigorous analysis of the model and resulting alerting plans. We simulate the model in software and present simulated results with respect to manipulation of the pilot measures.

  4. Deciphering next-generation pharmacogenomics: an information technology perspective

    PubMed Central

    Potamias, George; Lakiotaki, Kleanthi; Katsila, Theodora; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Topouzis, Stavros; Cooper, David N.; Patrinos, George P.

    2014-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, the rapid evolution of high-throughput genotyping technologies and the increased pace of production of genetic research data are continually prompting the development of appropriate informatics tools, systems and databases as we attempt to cope with the flood of incoming genetic information. Alongside new technologies that serve to enhance data connectivity, emerging information systems should contribute to the creation of a powerful knowledge environment for genotype-to-phenotype information in the context of translational medicine. In the area of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine, it has become evident that database applications providing important information on the occurrence and consequences of gene variants involved in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug efficacy and drug toxicity will become an integral tool for researchers and medical practitioners alike. At the same time, two fundamental issues are inextricably linked to current developments, namely data sharing and data protection. Here, we discuss high-throughput and next-generation sequencing technology and its impact on pharmacogenomics research. In addition, we present advances and challenges in the field of pharmacogenomics information systems which have in turn triggered the development of an integrated electronic ‘pharmacogenomics assistant’. The system is designed to provide personalized drug recommendations based on linked genotype-to-phenotype pharmacogenomics data, as well as to support biomedical researchers in the identification of pharmacogenomics-related gene variants. The provisioned services are tuned in the framework of a single-access pharmacogenomics portal. PMID:25030607

  5. Next generation sequencing technologies: tool to study avian virus diversity.

    PubMed

    Kapgate, S S; Barbuddhe, S B; Kumanan, K

    2015-03-01

    Increased globalisation, climatic changes and wildlife-livestock interface led to emergence of novel viral pathogens or zoonoses that have become serious concern to avian, animal and human health. High biodiversity and bird migration facilitate spread of the pathogen and provide reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Current classical diagnostic methods designed to be virus-specific or aim to be limited to group of viral agents, hinder identifying of novel viruses or viral variants. Recently developed approaches of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provide culture-independent methods that are useful for understanding viral diversity and discovery of novel virus, thereby enabling a better diagnosis and disease control. This review discusses the different possible steps of a NGS study utilizing sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics approaches to identify novel avian viruses and their diversity. NGS lead to the identification of a wide range of new viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, orthoreovirus and avian gamma coronavirus associated with fulminating disease in guinea fowl and is also used in describing viral diversity among avian species. The review also briefly discusses areas of viral-host interaction and disease associated causalities with newly identified avian viruses. PMID:25790045

  6. First Results with the Next Generation Geodetic VLBI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niell, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation geodetic VLBI instrument is being developed with a goal of 1 mm position uncertainty in twenty-four hours. The broadband signal chain, which is essential for obtaining the required delay accuracy from a network of relatively small antennas, has been implemented on the 12 meter antenna at Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, USA, and on the 18 meter Westford antenna at Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts, USA. The first geodetic-style observing session has been completed. Data were recorded from four 512 MHz bands spanning the range 3.2 to 9.9 GHz at a total rate of 8 Gigabits/second. The signal chain was composed of commercially available broadband feeds, low noise amplifiers, digital back ends, and recorders. The six hour session demonstrated that the broadband hardware performs as expected, achieving delay precisions of a few picoseconds. The position uncertainties for the 12m antenna of ~9mm in vertical and 2mm in horizontal, obtained in a preliminary analysis from only 100 30-second observations, are probably dominated by incomplete modeling of the atmosphere. A potentially serious conflict of the broadband VLBI frequency coverage with the SLR aircraft-avoidance radars, which transmit at 9.4 GHz, and with the DORIS transmission near 2 GHz has become apparent during the implementation and testing of the VLBI2010 system. Mitigation efforts are being studied, but for this initial geodetic session, 20 percent of scheduled observations had to be dropped to avoid potential damage from the SLR radar.

  7. Genetic markers, genotyping methods & next generation sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Srinidhi; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology (ME) is one of the main areas in tuberculosis research which is widely used to study the transmission epidemics and outbreaks of tubercle bacilli. It exploits the presence of various polymorphisms in the genome of the bacteria that can be widely used as genetic markers. Many DNA typing methods apply these genetic markers to differentiate various strains and to study the evolutionary relationships between them. The three widely used genotyping tools to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spacer oligotyping (Spoligotyping), and mycobacterial interspersed repeat units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). A new prospect towards ME was introduced with the development of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, where the entire genome is sequenced that not only helps in pointing out minute differences between the various sequences but also saves time and the cost. NGS is also found to be useful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), comparative genomics and also various aspects about transmission dynamics. These techniques enable the identification of mycobacterial strains and also facilitate the study of their phylogenetic and evolutionary traits. PMID:26205019

  8. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; Chung, Suh-Urk; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Vita, Rafaella; Döring, Michael; Dudek, Jozef; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, Stuart; et al

    2015-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopymore » in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.« less

  9. Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglieri, Marco; Briscoe, William; Celentano, Andrea; Chung, Suh-Urk; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Vita, Rafaella; Döring, Michael; Dudek, Jozef; Eidelman, S.; Fegan, Stuart; Ferretti, J.; Filippi, A.; Fox, G.; Galata, G.; García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Glazier, Derek; Grube, B.; Hanhart, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, David G.; Ketzer, B.; Klein, Franz J.; Kubis, B.; Liu, B.; Masjuan, P.; Mathieu, Vincent; McKinnon, Brian; Mitchel, R.; Nerling, F.; Paul, S.; Peláez, J. R.; Rademacker, J.; Rizzo, Alessandro; Salgado, Carlos; Santopinto, E.; Sarantsev, Andrey V.; Sato, Toru; Schlüter, T.; da Silva, M. L.L.; Stankovic, I.; Strakovsky, Igor; Szczepaniak, Adam; Vassallo, A.; Walford, Natalie K.; Watts, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    The series of workshops on New Partial-Wave Analysis Tools for Next-Generation Hadron Spectroscopy Experiments was initiated with the ATHOS 2012 meeting, which took place in Camogli, Italy, June 20-22, 2012. It was followed by ATHOS 2013 in Kloster Seeon near Munich, Germany, May 21-24, 2013. The third, ATHOS3, meeting is planned for April 13-17, 2015 at The George Washington University Virginia Science and Technology Campus, USA. The workshops focus on the development of amplitude analysis tools for meson and baryon spectroscopy, and complement other programs in hadron spectroscopy organized in the recent past including the INT-JLab Workshop on Hadron Spectroscopy in Seattle in 2009, the International Workshop on Amplitude Analysis in Hadron Spectroscopy at the ECT*-Trento in 2011, the School on Amplitude Analysis in Modern Physics in Bad Honnef in 2011, the Jefferson Lab Advanced Study Institute Summer School in 2012, and the School on Concepts of Modern Amplitude Analysis Techniques in Flecken-Zechlin near Berlin in September 2013. The aim of this document is to summarize the discussions that took place at the ATHOS 2012 and ATHOS 2013 meetings. We do not attempt a comprehensive review of the field of amplitude analysis, but offer a collection of thoughts that we hope may lay the ground for such a document.

  10. Next-generation ionomer encapsulants for thin film technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyzewicz, Robin; Smith, C. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    The characteristic properties of newly developed ionomer-based encapsulants are highlighted along with an in-depth analysis of moisture ingress, electrical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of these encapsulants with their high stiffness and strength have been found to allow the use of thinner glass and a possible shift from tempered to annealed glass. Lower-cost mounting options may be explored through full-module stress/deflection measurement capability and competencies developed in world-class finite-element modeling of system parameters. The superior electrical and moisture properties may allow modules to be produced without the use of an additional edge seal. These new materials have improved melt flow properties when compared to other encapsulant families such as EVA or PVB. This allows for faster processing which reduces production cost by shortening the lamination cycle. During the lamination process the sheets show excellent dimensional stability and low shrinkage behavior; and there is no need for curing, thus energy costs are lower due to lower lamination temperature. As advancement of technology proceeds across the entire PV industry, next generation ionomer encapsulants have been developed to keep up with the pace.

  11. The impact of next-generation sequencing on genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Chiodini, Rod; Badr, Ahmed; Zhang, Genfa

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews basic concepts, general applications, and the potential impact of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies on genomics, with particular reference to currently available and possible future platforms and bioinformatics. NGS technologies have demonstrated the capacity to sequence DNA at unprecedented speed, thereby enabling previously unimaginable scientific achievements and novel biological applications. But, the massive data produced by NGS also presents a significant challenge for data storage, analyses, and management solutions. Advanced bioinformatic tools are essential for the successful application of NGS technology. As evidenced throughout this review, NGS technologies will have a striking impact on genomic research and the entire biological field. With its ability to tackle the unsolved challenges unconquered by previous genomic technologies, NGS is likely to unravel the complexity of the human genome in terms of genetic variations, some of which may be confined to susceptible loci for some common human conditions. The impact of NGS technologies on genomics will be far reaching and likely change the field for years to come. PMID:21477781

  12. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  13. Unraveling genomic variation from next generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the content of a DNA sequence is critical to deeper understand and decode the genetic information for any biological system. As next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have become cheaper and more advanced in throughput over time, great innovations and breakthrough conclusions have been generated in various biological areas. Few of these areas, which get shaped by the new technological advances, involve evolution of species, microbial mapping, population genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAs), comparative genomics, variant analysis, gene expression, gene regulation, epigenetics and personalized medicine. While NGS techniques stand as key players in modern biological research, the analysis and the interpretation of the vast amount of data that gets produced is a not an easy or a trivial task and still remains a great challenge in the field of bioinformatics. Therefore, efficient tools to cope with information overload, tackle the high complexity and provide meaningful visualizations to make the knowledge extraction easier are essential. In this article, we briefly refer to the sequencing methodologies and the available equipment to serve these analyses and we describe the data formats of the files which get produced by them. We conclude with a thorough review of tools developed to efficiently store, analyze and visualize such data with emphasis in structural variation analysis and comparative genomics. We finally comment on their functionality, strengths and weaknesses and we discuss how future applications could further develop in this field. PMID:23885890

  14. NG6: Integrated next generation sequencing storage and processing environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing platforms are now well implanted in sequencing centres and some laboratories. Upcoming smaller scale machines such as the 454 junior from Roche or the MiSeq from Illumina will increase the number of laboratories hosting a sequencer. In such a context, it is important to provide these teams with an easily manageable environment to store and process the produced reads. Results We describe a user-friendly information system able to manage large sets of sequencing data. It includes, on one hand, a workflow environment already containing pipelines adapted to different input formats (sff, fasta, fastq and qseq), different sequencers (Roche 454, Illumina HiSeq) and various analyses (quality control, assembly, alignment, diversity studies,…) and, on the other hand, a secured web site giving access to the results. The connected user will be able to download raw and processed data and browse through the analysis result statistics. The provided workflows can easily be modified or extended and new ones can be added. Ergatis is used as a workflow building, running and monitoring system. The analyses can be run locally or in a cluster environment using Sun Grid Engine. Conclusions NG6 is a complete information system designed to answer the needs of a sequencing platform. It provides a user-friendly interface to process, store and download high-throughput sequencing data. PMID:22958229

  15. Next-Generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Wright, C W; Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K; Schirtzinger, C R

    2001-01-20

    The complete design and flight test of the next-generation Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3) is detailed. The application of new technology has allowed major reductions in weight, volume, and power requirements compared with the earlier AOL sensor. Subsystem designs for the new AOL sensor include new technology in fiber optics, spectrometer detector optical train, miniature photomultiplier modules, dual-laser wavelength excitation from a single small laser source, and new receiver optical configuration. The new design reduced telescope size and maintained the same principal fluorescence and water Raman bands but essentially retained a comparable measurement accuracy. A major advancement is the implementation of single-laser simultaneous excitation of two physically separate oceanic target areas: one stimulated by 532 nm and the other by 355 nm. Backscattered fluorescence and Raman signals from both targets are acquired simultaneously by use of the same telescope and spectrometer-detector system. Two digital oscilloscopes provide temporal- and depth-resolved data from each of seven spectral emission bands. PMID:18357006

  16. Optical Communications Study for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceniceros, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), part of NASA's Origins program, is a follow on to the Hubble Space Telescope expected to provide timely new science along with answering fundamental questions. NGST is a large diameter, infrared optimized telescope with imaging and spectrographic detectors which will be used to help study the origin of galaxies. Due to the large data NGST will collect, Goddard Space Flight Center has considered the use of optical communications for data downlink. The Optical Communications Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has performed a study on optical communications systems for NGST. The objective of the study was to evaluate the benefits gained through the use of optical communication technologies. Studies were performed for each of four proposed NGST orbits. The orbits considered were an elliptical orbit about the semi stable second Lagrangian point, a 1 by 3 AU elliptic orbit around the sun, a 1 AU drift orbit, and a 1 AU drift orbit at a 15 degree incline to the ecliptic plane. An appropriate optical communications system was determined for each orbit. Systems were evaluated in terms of mass, power consumption, size, and cost for each of the four proposed orbits.

  17. Introduction and comparison of next-generation mobile wireless technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Syed R.; Hussain, Shahab; Ali, M. A.; Sana, Ajaz; Saddawi, Samir; Carranza, Aparicio

    2010-01-01

    Mobile networks and services have gone further than voice-only communication services and are rapidly developing towards data-centric services. Emerging mobile data services are expected to see the same explosive growth in demand that Internet and wireless voice services have seen in recent years. To support such a rapid increase in traffic, active users, and advanced multimedia services implied by this growth rate along with the diverse quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by these services, mobile operator need to rapidly transition to a simple and cost-effective, flat, all IP-network. This has accelerated the development and deployment of new wireless broadband access technologies including fourth-generation (4G) mobile WiMAX and cellular Long-Term Evolution (LTE). Mobile WiMAX and LTE are two different (but not necessarily competing) technologies that will eventually be used to achieve data speeds of up to 100 Mbps. Speeds that are fast enough to potentially replace wired broadband connections with wireless. This paper introduces both of these next generation technologies and then compares them in the end.

  18. Next-Generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.; Schirtzinger, Carl R.

    2001-01-01

    The complete design and flight test of the next-generation Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3) is detailed. The application of new technology has allowed major reductions in weight, volume, and power requirements compared with the earlier AOL sensor. Subsystem designs for the new AOL sensor include new technology in fiber optics, spectrometer detector optical train, miniature photomultiplier modules, dual-laser wavelength excitation from a single small laser source, and new receiver optical configuration. The new design reduced telescope size and maintained the same principal fluorescence and water Raman bands but essentially retained a comparable measurement accuracy. A major advancement is the implementation of single-laser simultaneous excitation of two physically separate oceanic target areas: one stimulated by 532 nm and the other by 355 nm. Backscattered fluorescence and Raman signals from both targets are acquired simultaneously by use of the same telescope and spectrometer -detector system. Two digital oscilloscopes provide temporal- and depth-resolved data from each of seven spectral emission bands.

  19. BING: biomedical informatics pipeline for Next Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kriseman, Jeffrey; Busick, Christopher; Szelinger, Szabolcs; Dinu, Valentin

    2010-06-01

    High throughput parallel genomic sequencing (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) shifts the bottleneck in sequencing processes from experimental data production to computationally intensive informatics-based data analysis. This manuscript introduces a biomedical informatics pipeline (BING) for the analysis of NGS data that offers several novel computational approaches to 1. image alignment, 2. signal correlation, compensation, separation, and pixel-based cluster registration, 3. signal measurement and base calling, 4. quality control and accuracy measurement. These approaches address many of the informatics challenges, including image processing, computational performance, and accuracy. These new algorithms are benchmarked against the Illumina Genome Analysis Pipeline. BING is the one of the first software tools to perform pixel-based analysis of NGS data. When compared to the Illumina informatics tool, BING's pixel-based approach produces a significant increase in the number of sequence reads, while reducing the computational time per experiment and error rate (<2%). This approach has the potential of increasing the density and throughput of NGS technologies. PMID:19925883

  20. Methods in virus diagnostics: from ELISA to next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Boonham, Neil; Kreuze, Jan; Winter, Stephan; van der Vlugt, René; Bergervoet, Jan; Tomlinson, Jenny; Mumford, Rick

    2014-06-24

    Despite the seemingly continuous development of newer and ever more elaborate methods for detecting and identifying viruses, very few of these new methods get adopted for routine use in testing laboratories, often despite the many and varied claimed advantages they possess. To understand why the rate of uptake of new technologies is so low, requires a strong understanding of what makes a good routine diagnostic tool to begin. This can be done by looking at the two most successfully established plant virus detection methods: enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and more recently introduced real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By examining the characteristics of this pair of technologies, it becomes clear that they share many benefits, such as an industry standard format and high levels of repeatability and reproducibility. These combine to make methods that are accessible to testing labs, which are easy to establish and robust in their use, even with new and inexperienced users. Hence, to ensure the establishment of new techniques it is necessary to not only provide benefits not found with ELISA or real-time PCR, but also to provide a platform that is easy to establish and use. In plant virus diagnostics, recent developments can be clustered into three core areas: (1) techniques that can be performed in the field or resource poor locations (e.g., loop-mediated isothermal amplification LAMP); (2) multiplex methods that are able to detect many viruses in a single test (e.g., Luminex bead arrays); and (3) methods suited to virus discovery (e.g., next generation sequencing, NGS). Field based methods are not new, with Lateral Flow Devices (LFDs) for the detection being available for a number of years now. However, the widespread uptake of this technology remains poor. LAMP does offer significant advantages over LFDs, in terms of sensitivity and generic application, but still faces challenges in terms of establishment. It is likely that the main barrier to the

  1. Nanostructured photovoltaic devices for next generation solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Jin

    2008-10-01

    As the search for alternative sources of energy other than petroleum continues to expand, solar energy conversion has already been identified as one of the most promising technologies. In the past few years there has been extensive research focused on the next generation solar cells that can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit (a model that predicts the maximum achievable efficiency for a given material with a given bandgap). Moreover, nanoengineering approaches to enhance solar power conversion efficiency have started to receive considerable interest. Even in the most efficient commercially available solar devices utilizing crystalline silicon, a major portion of the absorbed ultraviolet photon energy is wasted as heat. Furthermore, this heat is detrimental to device reliability. Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) offer the exciting prospect of simultaneously manipulating device and material structures and processes to enable more efficient solar energy conversion. Most importantly, these colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots are amenable to inexpensive fabrication techniques such as dip coating or spray coating of the constituent nanoscale materials onto various substrates. This dissertation focuses on the development of nanostructured photovoltaic devices, that exhibit multiple exciton generation, and that exploit the wide absorption spectra enabled by the quantum dots for next generation highly efficient, low cost, solar cells. Firstly, multiple exciton generation and subsequent electrical extraction from a thin film photoconductive device constructed from PbSe NQDs is demonstrated. As an extension of this work, this PbSe NQD photoconductor was used in a tandem structure with a polymer solar cell to demonstrate multiple carrier extraction the application of an external electric field. This structure exhibited improved device durability from UV irradiation due to the self-passivating effect provided by the PbSe layer. In order to achieve better exciton

  2. Preparing for the Next Generation of Direct Broadcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, H.; Friedman Dubey, K.; Baptiste, E.; Prasad, K.; Lawrence, D.

    2010-12-01

    With the anticipated launch of NPP, JPSS-1 and GOES-R in the next five years, the flow of weather data to users will rise ten times (Berchoff, 2009). This volume of data will put a strain on the government infrastructure tasked for data distribution, which could limit real-time data distribution to government users only, forcing others to retrieve their data days to weeks later. In order to receive real-time data, direct reception will become a necessity. SeaSpace Corporation has created a complete solution in anticipation of the forthcoming needs of data users. This solution is made up of four parts: 1) ground reception stations, 2) software to process the data into products, 3) data storage hardware, and 4) data cataloging software and server. The ground station component consists of two systems, an X/L/S-band tracking system and an L-band geostationary system. The combined X-, L-, and S-band reception capabilities are included to ensure the user can receive the maximum amount of data. The X-band receiver in this system can receive data from Terra, Aqua, NPP, JPSS, Oceansat-2, and FY-3. The L-band receiver can currently receive NOAA and MetOp. The follow-on to MetOp will be assigned the mid-morning orbit in the next generation constellation, ensuring L-band reception will continue to be a necessity. The S-band is used for DMSP reception, which may, in the near-future, become more widely available to non-defense clients. The L-band stationary antenna in the proposed solution is used for reception of geostationary satellites, such as GOES, COMS, and MTSAT. Upon launch, GOES-R data can be received with hardware/software upgrade. Once the data is received by the ground stations, TeraScan’s Rapid Environmental Processing System (REPS) automatically processes the data through level 3 products using the official NOAA and NASA algorithms. REPS can process large amounts of satellite data incredibly quickly: for instance, all MODIS products are produced in less than

  3. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  4. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards: Impacts on Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.

  5. NGS-Trex: Next Generation Sequencing Transcriptome profile explorer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has exceptionally increased the ability to sequence DNA in a massively parallel and cost-effective manner. Nevertheless, NGS data analysis requires bioinformatics skills and computational resources well beyond the possibilities of many "wet biology" laboratories. Moreover, most of projects only require few sequencing cycles and standard tools or workflows to carry out suitable analyses for the identification and annotation of genes, transcripts and splice variants found in the biological samples under investigation. These projects can take benefits from the availability of easy to use systems to automatically analyse sequences and to mine data without the preventive need of strong bioinformatics background and hardware infrastructure. Results To address this issue we developed an automatic system targeted to the analysis of NGS data obtained from large-scale transcriptome studies. This system, we named NGS-Trex (NGS Transcriptome profile explorer) is available through a simple web interface http://www.ngs-trex.org and allows the user to upload raw sequences and easily obtain an accurate characterization of the transcriptome profile after the setting of few parameters required to tune the analysis procedure. The system is also able to assess differential expression at both gene and transcript level (i.e. splicing isoforms) by comparing the expression profile of different samples. By using simple query forms the user can obtain list of genes, transcripts, splice sites ranked and filtered according to several criteria. Data can be viewed as tables, text files or through a simple genome browser which helps the visual inspection of the data. Conclusions NGS-Trex is a simple tool for RNA-Seq data analysis mainly targeted to "wet biology" researchers with limited bioinformatics skills. It offers simple data mining tools to explore transcriptome profiles of samples investigated taking advantage of NGS technologies

  6. Astrophysics and the Next Generation of Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Douglas G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G.; Zacny, K.; Behr, B.

    2012-05-01

    The unique science results addressing Gravitational Science and General Relativity (GR) that have been produced by the Lunar Laser Ranging Program (LLRP) to date will be described. While the Apollo retroreflector arrays are still operation and continue to produce new state-of-the-art science results, the combination of the lunar librations and the design of the arrays currently limit the range accuracy obtained for each single photo-electron return to 20 mm. A next generation lunar retroreflector (e.g., the Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector for the 21st Century or LLRRA-21) holds promise for great improvements in the existing values on the various tests of General Relativity. This is critical due to: 1) the inconsistency between GR and Quantum Mechanics and 2) our lack of understanding of Dark Energy. These puzzles have engendered a variety of alternate theories of gravitation which need to be tested against GR. The magnitude of these improvements will depend critically on the method of robotic deployment of the LLRRA-21. The deployment will be reviewed, especially those that can be supported by the Google Lunar X Prize flights of the next couple of years. The expected magnitude of the return signal from the optical/thermal simulations will be described in detail. This expected signal return will be similar to signal return that is currently being obtained from the Apollo 15 array, so we can evaluate the capability of various ground stations to conduct regular ranging programs. This will address number of ground stations that can contribute and the frequency of observations what would be available for the science analysis. Finally, the lifetime issues related to the Apollo arrays and the projection to the current design of the LLRRA-21 will be discussed. This work has been supported by the LUNAR team of the NASA/NLSI and the INFN-LNF and ASI.

  7. Using next generation transcriptome sequencing to predict an ectomycorrhizal metabolome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mycorrhizae, symbiotic interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems. The fungi contribute phosphorous, nitrogen and mobilized nutrients from organic matter in the soil and in return the fungus receives photosynthetically-derived carbohydrates. This union of plant and fungal metabolisms is the mycorrhizal metabolome. Understanding this symbiotic relationship at a molecular level provides important contributions to the understanding of forest ecosystems and global carbon cycling. Results We generated next generation short-read transcriptomic sequencing data from fully-formed ectomycorrhizae between Laccaria bicolor and aspen (Populus tremuloides) roots. The transcriptomic data was used to identify statistically significantly expressed gene models using a bootstrap-style approach, and these expressed genes were mapped to specific metabolic pathways. Integration of expressed genes that code for metabolic enzymes and the set of expressed membrane transporters generates a predictive model of the ectomycorrhizal metabolome. The generated model of mycorrhizal metabolome predicts that the specific compounds glycine, glutamate, and allantoin are synthesized by L. bicolor and that these compounds or their metabolites may be used for the benefit of aspen in exchange for the photosynthetically-derived sugars fructose and glucose. Conclusions The analysis illustrates an approach to generate testable biological hypotheses to investigate the complex molecular interactions that drive ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. These models are consistent with experimental environmental data and provide insight into the molecular exchange processes for organisms in this complex ecosystem. The method used here for predicting metabolomic models of mycorrhizal systems from deep RNA sequencing data can be generalized and is broadly applicable to transcriptomic data derived from complex systems. PMID:21569493

  8. AB118. Validation of next generation sequencing by Sanger sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Low, Meow Hong Wendy; Lai, Hwei Meeng Angeline; Jamuar, Saumya Shekhar; Law, Hai Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Development of the next generation sequencing (NGS) platform was driven by the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003. With the availability of NGS, the time taken for sequencing of humongous genomic regions was greatly reduced and data generated per unit DNA was also significantly increased. Though the cost to use NGS in a clinically setting is far from ideal, economically speaking, there is a significant decrease in the average cost per sequenced base. To validate findings of NGS on mutation detected for FBN1, TGFBR2, RAF1, RTEL1, LMNA, MID2, KCNK9, DMD, SMARCA2 and IQSEC2 by using gold standard, Sanger Sequencing. Methods The coordinate of the mutation identified by NGS was used to retrieve the adjacent genomic sequence in UCSC Genome Browser (Available from URL: https://genome.ucsc.edu/). Targeted primers were designed with Primer 3 software (Available from URL: http://primer3.ut.ee/) based on the genomic sequence obtained from UCSC. The following step involves the optimization of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with the designed primers to amplify the desired DNA template for the targeted region. Upon optimization, the template is purified and subjected to dye terminator sequencing to generate multiple DNA fragments of varying sizes. Lastly, the DNA fragments will be purified and analysed with an automated sequencer. The sequencer separates the DNA fragments based on their size by carrying out capillary electrophoresis. Results A total of 28 cases were validated with Sanger sequencing. Of them, 25 (89.3%) cases concur with the findings from NGS and 3 (10.7%) cases were false-positive calls. Conclusions NGS shows promise in the future molecular diagnostic regime, however, at the present moment, it needs to be done concurrently with Sanger sequencing for clinical applications.

  9. Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy to control via a shunt regulator and shunt radiator. They produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. These properties have made RTGs ideally suitable for autonomous missions in the extreme environments of outer space and on planetary surfaces. More advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) with higher specific power (W/kg) and/or power output are desirable for future NASA missions, including the Europa Geophysical Orbiter mission. For the past few years, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing more efficient thermoelectric materials and has demonstrated significant increases in the conversion efficiency of high temperature thermocouples, up to 14% when operated across a 975K to 300K temperature differential. In collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center, universities (USC and UNM), Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation and industrial partners, JPL is now planning to lead the research and development of advanced thermoelectric technology for integration into the next generations of RPS. Preliminary studies indicate that this technology has the potential for improving the RPS specific power by more than 50% over the current state-of-the-art multi-mission RTG being built for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. A second generation advanced RPS is projected at more than doubling the specific power.

  10. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  11. Mark 6: A Next-Generation VLBI Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, A. R.; Lapsley, D. E.; Taveniku, M.

    2011-07-01

    A new real-time high-data-rate disk-array system based on entirely commercial-off-the-shelf hardware components is being evaluated for possible use as a next-generation VLBI data system. The system, developed by XCube Communications of Nashua, NH, USA was originally developed for the automotive industry for testing/evaluation of autonomous driving systems that require continuous capture of an array of video cameras and automotive sensors at ~8Gbps from multiple 10GigE data links and other data sources. In order to sustain the required recording data rate, the system is designed to account for slow and/or failed disks by shifting the load to other disks as necessary in order to maintain the target data rate. The system is based on a Linux OS with some modifications to memory management and drivers in order to guarantee the timely movement of data, and the hardware/software combination is highly tuned to achieve the target data rate; data are stored in standard Linux files. A kit is also being designed that will allow existing Mark 5 disk modules to be modified to be used with the XCube system (though PATA disks will need to be replaced by SATA disks). Demonstrations of the system at Haystack Observatory and NRAO Socorro have proved very encouraging; some modest software upgrades/revisions are being made by XCube in order to meet VLBI-specific requirements. The system is easily expandable, with sustained 16 Gbps likely to be supported before end CY2011.

  12. Simulation of MEMS for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mott, Brent; Kuhn, Jonathan; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing optical micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) components for potential application in Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) science instruments. In this work, we present an overview of the electro-mechanical simulation of three MEMS components for NGST, which include a reflective micro-mirror array and transmissive microshutter array for aperture control for a near infrared (NIR) multi-object spectrometer and a large aperture MEMS Fabry-Perot tunable filter for a NIR wide field camera. In all cases the device must operate at cryogenic temperatures with low power consumption and low, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible, voltages. The goal of our simulation efforts is to adequately predict both the performance and the reliability of the devices during ground handling, launch, and operation to prevent failures late in the development process and during flight. This goal requires detailed modeling and validation of complex electro-thermal-mechanical interactions and very large non-linear deformations, often involving surface contact. Various parameters such as spatial dimensions and device response are often difficult to measure reliably at these small scales. In addition, these devices are fabricated from a wide variety of materials including surface micro-machined aluminum, reactive ion etched (RIE) silicon nitride, and deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) bulk single crystal silicon. The above broad set of conditions combine to be a formidable challenge for space flight qualification analysis. These simulations represent NASA/GSFC's first attempts at implementing a comprehensive strategy to address complex MEMS structures.

  13. Experimental demonstration of next-generation FSO communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaura, Kamugisha; Omae, Kazunori; Suzuki, Toshiji; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Mutafungwa, Edward; Asatani, Koichi; Murakami, Tadaaki; Takahashi, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2006-10-01

    Free-space optical communication has emerged as a competitive and viable technology for offering high data rates, improved capacity, cost-effective and an easy to deploy solution for providing connectivity between two points which are up to a few kilometers apart. In this paper we present experimental work which demonstrates the practicality of next generation free-space optical (FSO) communication systems suitable for short-haul, high-speed and robust data links. This experimental system is placed between two buildings in the Waseda University campus area for a communication link spanning a distance of 1 km. We outline the design of the optical antenna which uses 1550 nm wavelength and directly coupling a freespace optical beam to a single-mode fiber without the need for OE/EO conversion, to offer a communication link with data rates from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps. The antenna is capable of overcoming most common limitations inherent in FSO communication systems, such as atmospheric induced beam wander and scintillation effects. A high-speed tracking mechanism which utilizes a fine positioning mirror (FPM) capable of tracking and controlling the received beam and focusing/steering most of beam power into the fiber is presented. This FPM is capable of suppressing the frequent power fluctuations caused by beam angle-of-arrival (AOA) variations. This paper presents experimental results of the FSO communication system capable offering stable performance in terms of measured bit-error-rate (BER). Performance results showing increasing the systems data rate from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gpbs are also presented.

  14. Single Stage Contactor Testing Of The Next Generation Solvent Blend

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D. T.; Peters, T. B.; Duignan, M. R.; Williams, M. R.; Poirier, M. R.; Brass, E. A.; Garrison, A. G.; Ketusky, E. T.

    2014-01-06

    The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is actively pursuing the transition from the current BOBCalixC6 based solvent to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS)-MCU solvent to increase the cesium decontamination factor. To support this integration of NGS into the MCU facility the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed testing of a blend of the NGS (MaxCalix based solvent) with the current solvent (BOBCalixC6 based solvent) for the removal of cesium (Cs) from the liquid salt waste stream. This testing utilized a blend of BOBCalixC6 based solvent and the NGS with the new extractant, MaxCalix, as well as a new suppressor, tris(3,7dimethyloctyl) guanidine. Single stage tests were conducted using the full size V-05 and V-10 liquid-to-liquid centrifugal contactors installed at SRNL. These tests were designed to determine the mass transfer and hydraulic characteristics with the NGS solvent blended with the projected heel of the BOBCalixC6 based solvent that will exist in MCU at time of transition. The test program evaluated the amount of organic carryover and the droplet size of the organic carryover phases using several analytical methods. The results indicate that hydraulically, the NGS solvent performed hydraulically similar to the current solvent which was expected. For the organic carryover 93% of the solvent is predicted to be recovered from the stripping operation and 96% from the extraction operation. As for the mass transfer, the NGS solvent significantly improved the cesium DF by at least an order of magnitude when extrapolating the One-stage results to actual Seven-stage extraction operation with a stage efficiency of 95%.

  15. Next generation sequencing and the future of genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) has led to an exponential increase of elucidated genetic causes in both extremely rare diseases and common but heterogeneous disorders. It can be applied to the whole or to selected parts of the genome (genome or exome sequencing, gene panels). NGS is not only useful in large extended families with linkage information, but may also be applied to detect de novo mutations or mosaicism in sporadic patients without a prior hypothesis about the mutated gene. Currently, NGS is applied in both research and clinical settings, and there is a rapid transition of research findings to diagnostic applications. These developments may greatly help to minimize the "diagnostic odyssey" for patients as whole-genome analysis can be performed in a few days at reasonable costs compared with gene-by-gene analysis based on Sanger sequencing following diverse clinical tests. Despite the enthusiasm about NGS, one has to keep in mind its limitations, such as a coverage and accuracy of < 100%, resulting in missing variants and false positive findings. In addition, variant interpretation is challenging as there is usually more than one candidate variant found. Therefore, there is an urgent need to define standards for NGS with respect to run quality and variant interpretation, as well as mechanisms of quality control. Further, there are ethical challenges including incidental findings and how to guide unaffected probands seeking direct-to-customer testing. However, taken together, the application of NGS in research and diagnostics provides a tremendous opportunity to better serve our patients. PMID:25052068

  16. Anomaly Detection for Next-Generation Space Launch Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Hall, David R.; Taylor, William M.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Brown, Barbara; Ferrell, Bob A.; Waterman, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing new capabilities that will enable future human exploration missions while reducing mission risk and cost. The Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) project aims to demonstrate the utility of integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) tools in the domain of ground support equipment (GSE) to be used for the next generation launch vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the utility of IVHM tools for GSE, FDIR aims to mature promising tools for use on future missions and document the level of effort - and hence cost - required to implement an application with each selected tool. One of the FDIR capabilities is anomaly detection, i.e., detecting off-nominal behavior. The tool we selected for this task uses a data-driven approach. Unlike rule-based and model-based systems that require manual extraction of system knowledge, data-driven systems take a radically different approach to reasoning. At the basic level, they start with data that represent nominal functioning of the system and automatically learn expected system behavior. The behavior is encoded in a knowledge base that represents "in-family" system operations. During real-time system monitoring or during post-flight analysis, incoming data is compared to that nominal system operating behavior knowledge base; a distance representing deviation from nominal is computed, providing a measure of how far "out of family" current behavior is. We describe the selected tool for FDIR anomaly detection - Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), how it fits into the FDIR architecture, the operations concept for the GSE anomaly monitoring, and some preliminary results of applying IMS to a Space Shuttle GSE anomaly.

  17. Subgrid Combustion Modeling for the Next Generation National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Stone, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In the first year of this research, a subgrid turbulent mixing and combustion methodology developed earlier at Georgia Tech has been provided to researchers at NASA/GRC for incorporation into the next generation National Combustion Code (called NCCLES hereafter). A key feature of this approach is that scalar mixing and combustion processes are simulated within the LES grid using a stochastic 1D model. The subgrid simulation approach recovers locally molecular diffusion and reaction kinetics exactly without requiring closure and thus, provides an attractive feature to simulate complex, highly turbulent reacting flows of interest. Data acquisition algorithms and statistical analysis strategies and routines to analyze NCCLES results have also been provided to NASA/GRC. The overall goal of this research is to systematically develop and implement LES capability into the current NCC. For this purpose, issues regarding initialization and running LES are also addressed in the collaborative effort. In parallel to this technology transfer effort (that is continuously on going), research has also been underway at Georgia Tech to enhance the LES capability to tackle more complex flows. In particular, subgrid scalar mixing and combustion method has been evaluated in three distinctly different flow field in order to demonstrate its generality: (a) Flame-Turbulence Interactions using premixed combustion, (b) Spatially evolving supersonic mixing layers, and (c) Temporal single and two-phase mixing layers. The configurations chosen are such that they can be implemented in NCCLES and used to evaluate the ability of the new code. Future development and validation will be in spray combustion in gas turbine engine and supersonic scalar mixing.

  18. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2007-01-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.