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Sample records for nickel morphologie tridimensionnelle

  1. Nickel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  2. U Modele pour L'enregistrement et L'interpretation Physique D'images Tridimensionnelles EN Couleur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribeau, Rejean

    Le modele propose dans cette these repose sur l'utilisation d'un capteur de vision tridimensionnelle, couple a un laser RGB, pour la saisie des coordonnees surfaciques d'un objet de meme que des couleurs associees. Une calibration du capteur et l'exploitation des donnees 3D permettent la recuperation des facteurs de reflectance spectrale des elements de surface. On montre que la performance du systeme est limitee par le speckle, et une analyse quantitative du phenomene est proposee. Divers modeles de reflexion sont ensuite etablis puis appliques a l'extraction des parametres physiques intrinseques d'objets dans des scenes 3D en couleur. Une telle modelisation physique facilite la tache d'interpretation et permet plus de souplesse dans la manipulation des objets sous forme de realites virtuelles.

  3. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  4. Nickel subsulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel subsulfide ; CASRN 12035 - 72 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  5. Nickel carbonyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel carbonyl ; CASRN 13463 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Nickel allergy and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Rahilly, G; Price, N

    2003-06-01

    Nickel is the most common metal to cause contact dermatitis in orthodontics. Nickel-containing metal alloys, such as nickel-titanium and stainless steel, are widely used in orthodontic appliances. Nickel-titanium alloys may have nickel content in excess of 50 per cent and can thus potentially release enough nickel in the oral environment to elicit manifestations of an allergic reaction. Stainless steel has a lower nickel content (8 per cent). However, because the nickel is bound in a crystal lattice it is not available to react. Stainless steel orthodontic components are therefore very unlikely to cause nickel hypersensitivity. This article discusses the diagnosis of nickel allergy in orthodontics and describes alternative products that are nickel free or have a very low nickel content, which would be appropriate to use in patients diagnosed with a nickel allergy. PMID:12835436

  7. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  8. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  9. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  10. Biological monitoring of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Aitio, A.; Morgan, L.G.; Norseth, T.

    1986-07-01

    Measurements of nickel in body fluids, excreta, and tissues from humans with occupational, environmental, and iatrogenic exposures to nickel compounds are comprehensively reviewed. Correlations between levels of human exposures to various classes of nickel compounds via inhalation, oral, or parenteral routes and the corresponding concentrations of nickel in biological samples are critically evaluated. Major conclusions include the following points: Measurements of nickel concentrations in body fluids, especially urine and serum, provide meaningful insights into the extent of nickel exposures, provided these data are interpreted with knowledge of the exposure routes, sources, and durations, the chemical identities and physical-chemical properties of the nickel compounds, and relevant clinical and physiological information, such as renal function. Nickel concentrations in body fluids should not be viewed as indicators of specific health risks, except in persons exposed to nickel carbonyl, for whom urine nickel concentrations provide prognostic guidance on the severity of the poisoning. In persons exposed to soluble nickel compounds (e.g., NiCl/sub 2/, NiSO/sub 4/), nickel concentrations in body fluids are generally proportional to exposure levels; absence of increased values usually indicates non-significant exposure; presence of increased values should be a signal to reduce the exposure. In persons exposed to less soluble nickel compounds (e.g., Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/,NiO), increased concentrations of nickel in body fluids are indicative of significant nickel absorption and should be a signal to reduce the exposures to the lowest levels attainable with available technology; absence of increased values does not necessarily indicate freedom from the health risks (e.g., cancers of lung and nasal cavities) associated with exposures to certain relatively insoluble nickel compounds. 315 references.

  11. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF{sub 2}O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  12. Nickel Hydride Complexes.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Nathan A; Guan, Hairong

    2016-08-10

    Nickel hydride complexes, defined herein as any molecules bearing a nickel hydrogen bond, are crucial intermediates in numerous nickel-catalyzed reactions. Some of them are also synthetic models of nickel-containing enzymes such as [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The overall objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of this specific type of hydride complexes, which has been studied extensively in recent years. This review begins with the significance and a very brief history of nickel hydride complexes, followed by various methods and spectroscopic or crystallographic tools used to synthesize and characterize these complexes. Also discussed are stoichiometric reactions involving nickel hydride complexes and how some of these reactions are developed into catalytic processes. PMID:27437790

  13. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  14. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  15. Welding and brazing of nickel and nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortland, J. E.; Evans, R. M.; Monroe, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The joining of four types of nickel-base materials is described: (1) high-nickel, nonheat-treatable alloys, (2) solid-solution-hardening nickel-base alloys, (3) precipitation-hardening nickel-base alloys, and (4) dispersion-hardening nickel-base alloys. The high-nickel and solid-solution-hardening alloys are widely used in chemical containers and piping. These materials have excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, and retain useful strength at elevated temperatures. The precipitation-hardening alloys have good properties at elevated temperature. They are important in many aerospace applications. Dispersion-hardening nickel also is used for elevated-temperature service.

  16. Low Nickel Diet in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashimav D

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and the commonest cause of metal allergy among the people. Nickel allergy is a chronic, recurring problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient. PMID:23723488

  17. Pulse plating of nickel deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.; Stevenson, M.F.

    1980-02-01

    Pulse plated and conventional nickel deposits have been compared for differences in morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure. The deposits were obtained from nickel sulfamate, nickel chloride, and Watts nickel plating solutions. No significant differences were found in the direct and pulse current deposits from the sulfamate and chloride solutions; however, significant differences in microstructure, yield strength, and microhardness were observed in deposits from the Watts nickel solution.

  18. Nickel Curie point engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient heat source. A simple but elegant device illustrates this phenomenon beautifully.

  19. Soil, nickel and low nickel food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Mimiola, Giancarlo; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Nickel is an ubiquitous trace element and occurs in soil, water, air and in the biosphere. Ni is an essential element for several plants, microorganisms and vertebrates. Human requirement for Ni has not been conclusively demonstrated. Nickel is normally present in human tissues at low concentration and, under conditions of high exposure, these levels may increase significantly. Food is the major source of Ni exposure. Nickel is present in many food products, especially vegetables. The amount of Ni present in vegetables is increasing because of environmental contamination and cultural practices. It has been demonstrated that the consumption of a Ni-rich diet can cause an increase of immunological disorders including Systemic Ni Allergy Syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS patients are currently treated with a diet that is closely Ni-free. Therefore, there is a need to produce certified and guaranteed vegetables with a low Ni concentration in the market. The proposed research aims to develop new methods for vegetable production and innovative cultural practices through a suitable choice of agricultural soil, cultivar, amendments and fertilizers as well as good agricultural practices in order to reduce Ni plant uptake and its translocation to the edible plant parts and therefore to produce Ni-free food products for SNAS patients.

  20. Nickel release from nickel particles in artificial sweat.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; Pan, Jinshan; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Heim, Katherine; Leygraf, Christofer

    2007-06-01

    Nickel is widely used in a broad range of products, primarily made of alloys, used by humans on a daily basis. Previous assessments have shown that skin contact with some such products may cause nickel allergic contact dermatitis, induced by the release of nickel. However, data on nickel release from small nickel particles in artificial sweat for assessment of potential risks of workers in nickel-producing and nickel-using facilities are not available. The objective of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by determining nickel release from fine nickel powder ( approximately 4 microm diameter) of different loadings varying from 0.1 to 5 mg/cm(2), when immersed in artificial sweat. The amount of nickel released increased with increasing particle loading, whereas the highest release rate per surface area of particles was observed for the medium particle loading, 1 mg/cm(2), at current experimental conditions. All particle loadings showed time-dependent release rates, reaching a relative steady-state level of less than 0.1 microg/cm(2)/hr after 12 hr of immersion, whereby less than 0.5% of the nickel particle loading was released. Nickel release from particles was influenced by the surface composition, the active surface area for corrosion, particle size, and loading. PMID:17577373

  1. Determination of nickel-63

    SciTech Connect

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample.

  2. Lightweight Cathodes For Nickel Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    Lightweight cathodes for rechargeable nickel-based electrochemical cells undergoing development. In cathodes, mats of nickel fibers are substrates providing structural support of, and electrical contact with, active cathode material. Offers specific energies greater than sintered nickel plaque cathodes. Electrodes used in rechargeable batteries for applications in which weight major concern, including laptop computers, cellular phones, flashlights, soldiers' backpacks, and electric vehicles.

  3. Nickel requirement of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Diekert, G; Ritter, M

    1982-08-01

    Growth of Acetobacterium woodii on H2 and CO2 rather than on fructose was dependent on nickel. Nickel-deprived cultures growing on fructose did not synthesize acetate from CO2; under these conditions hydrogen formation was used as the electron sink. The data indicate that nickel is involved in CO2 reduction to acetate in A. woodii. PMID:6807954

  4. Nickel requirement of Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, G; Ritter, M

    1982-01-01

    Growth of Acetobacterium woodii on H2 and CO2 rather than on fructose was dependent on nickel. Nickel-deprived cultures growing on fructose did not synthesize acetate from CO2; under these conditions hydrogen formation was used as the electron sink. The data indicate that nickel is involved in CO2 reduction to acetate in A. woodii. PMID:6807954

  5. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  6. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Nickel refinery dust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel refinery dust ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  8. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  9. Real and potential nickel hydrogen superiority

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    Events from the development and orbital flight experience with a nickel hydrogen battery are described. The events highlight characteristics of nickel hydrogen which afford superior capability in overcharge, overdischarge and state of charge evaluation, when compared to the nickel cadmium electrochemical system. Some developments in nickel hydrogen technology that provide the potential of furthering nickel hydrogen superiority for satellite applications are also discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  11. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  12. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  13. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  14. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  15. Nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, E. J.; Turchan, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    A high energy density nickel cadmium cell of aerospace quality was designed. The approach used was to utilize manufacturing techniques which produce highly uniform and controlled starting materials in addition to improvements in the overall design. Parameters controlling the production of plaque and both positive and negative plate were studied. Quantities of these materials were produced and prototype cells were assembled to test the proposed design.

  16. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOEpatents

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  17. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, D.A.; Roggli, V.L. )

    1989-05-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predicted nickel concentrations that were in the range of those of persons without known nickel exposure. Nickel is a suspected carcinogen and has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among nickel workers. However, before the nickel content of cigarettes can be implicated in the etiology of lung cancer, further studies are needed to evaluate the independent effects of smoking and exposure to nickel.

  18. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  19. Lightweight Electrode For Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1994-01-01

    Improved substrate for nickel electrode increases specific energy of nickel/hydrogen cell. Consists of 50 percent by weight nickel fiber, 35 percent nickel powder, and 15 percent cobalt powder. Porosity and thickness of nickel electrodes affect specific energy, initial performance, and cycle life of cell. Substrate easily manufactured with much larger porosities than those of heavy-sintered state-of-art nickel substrate.

  20. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  1. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  2. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels. PMID:7842681

  3. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-04-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  4. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  5. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  6. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  7. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  8. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  9. Nickel: Impact on horticultural characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge by practitioners regarding the potential impact of nickel nutritional physiology on pecan orchard profitability is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recogni...

  10. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  11. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  12. Electroformed Nickel-Graphite Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong-Skiba, Pei

    2005-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomy will demand larger optics than Chandra, currently in orbit. Ways must be devised to produce cheaper and lighter x-ray mirrors to save the cost of manufacturing and launching this future telescope. One technique, being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center and elsewhere, is electroformed nickel replication technique, wherein mirror shells are electroformed (using pure nickel or a nickel alloy) onto super-polished and figured aluminum mandrels and are subsequently released by cooling. This technique can produce relatively inexpensive mirrors, but is hampered by the high density of nickel (8.9 g / cm3). An alternative is to develop a composite, with lower mass density and compatible mechanical properties to the nickel cobalt alloy, as the mirror shell material.

  13. Nickel-Free Alternatives Raise Awareness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Sheehan, Michael Patrick; Patel, Amy; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel is a global health problem. Worldwide, nickel continues to be the most prevalent and relevant contact allergen detected in tested populations for the last 30 years. Thus, the need for nickel-free products is palpable. We present a sustainable resource to aid providers and consumers in locating a wide variety of nickel free alternatives. PMID:26551602

  14. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  15. Bioaccumulation of nickel by algae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.K.; Wood, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Six strains of algae and one Euglena sp. were tested for their ability to bioaccumulate nickel. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni was used together with a microplate technique to determine the conditions for nickel removal by axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, green algae, and one euglenoid. The cyanobacteria tested were found to be more sensitive to nickel toxicity than the green algae or the Euglena sp. The concentration factor (CF) for nickel was determined under a variety of conditions and found to be in the range from 0 to 3.0 x 10/sup 3/. The effect of environmental variables on nickel uptake was examined, and a striking pH effect for biaccumulation was observed, with most of the algal strains accumulating nickel optimally at approximately pH 8.0. Competition experiments for binding sites between nickel and other cations as well as with other complexing anions, showed that /sup 63/Ni uptake was affected only by cobalt and by humic acids.

  16. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between 'cauliflower' like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  17. Recent Advances in Nickel Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Standley, Eric A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Preface The field of nickel catalysis has made tremendous advances in the past decade. There are several key properties of nickel that have allowed for a broad range of innovative reaction development, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and leveraged to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Herein, we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism. PMID:24828188

  18. Technique for manufacturing nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Yamane, T.; Kumano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A method of manufacturing nickel electrodes distinctive for its use of a composite material for the electrode made up of nickel compound, electrode material, cobalt in metal form or cobalt in compound form is investigated. The composite is over-discharged (same as reverse charging) in an alkaline solution. After dealkalization, synthetic resin adhesive is added and the electrode is formed. Selection of the cobalt compound is made from a group consisting of cobalt oxide, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt carbonate and cobalt sulfate. The method upgrades plate characteristics by using an active material in a non-sintered type nickel electrode, which is activated by electro-chemical effect.

  19. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  20. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  1. Nickel accumulation and nickel oxalate precipitation by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Magyarosy, A; Laidlaw, R D; Kilaas, R; Echer, C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2002-07-01

    A strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from a metal-contaminated soil was able to grow in the presence of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, and unusually high levels of nickel on solid (8.0 mM) and in liquid (6.5 mM) media. This fungus removed >98% of the nickel from liquid medium after 100 h of growth but did not remove the other metals, as determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Experiments with non-growing, live fungal biomass showed that nickel removal was not due to biosorption alone, as little nickel was bound to the biomass at the pH values tested. Furthermore, when the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoremetoxy) phenyl hydrazone (FCCP) was added to the actively growing fungus nickel removal was inhibited, supporting the hypothesis that energy metabolism is essential for metal removal. Analytical electron microscopy of thin-sectioned fungal biomass revealed that metal removed from the broth was localized in the form of small rectangular crystals associated with the cell walls and also inside the cell. X-ray and electron diffraction analysis showed that these crystals were nickel oxalate dihydrate. PMID:12111174

  2. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  3. Sealed nickel-zinc battery

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, H. F.; Menard, C. J.; Murray Jr., R. C.; Putt, R. A.; Valentine, T. W.

    1985-11-12

    A sealed, rechargeable nickel-zinc cell includes a zinc electrode active mass essentially free of zinc metal when at full discharge, a carboxylated styrene-butadiene binder retaining the zinc electrode mixture in a coherent structure, a predetermined amount of cadmium being included in the zinc electrode mixture, a separator preferably comprising at least two layers of material free of any adhesive binding the layers together and a wicking layer positioned between the nickel positive electrode and the separator.

  4. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  5. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; McCall, Kurt E.

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  6. Oxidation investigation of nickel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengxiang; Wen, Dongsheng; Guo, Z X; Korakianitis, Theodosios

    2008-09-01

    This work reported an experimental investigation of complete oxidation of nickel nanoparticles using simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nickel nanoparticles and their elemental compositions were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The oxidation experiments were performed under isoconversion conditions for seven heating rates, varying from 2 to 20 K min(-1), with temperatures up to 1000 degrees C. The experiments revealed unique oxidation behaviour of nickel at the nanometre scale, such as early oxidation and melting phenomena, variable activation energies and different oxidation kinetics between low and high conversion ratios. Unlike its bulk counterpart where the activation energy is a constant, the activation energy of nickel nanoparticles depended on the conversion ratio, ranging between 1.4 and 1.8 eV. The oxidation kinetics of nickel nanoparticles changed from the classical diffusion controlled mechanism to a pseudo-homogeneous reaction as conversion ratios were over 50%. The oxidation mechanisms of nickel nanoparticles were further discussed and future studies to enhance understanding were identified. PMID:18701953

  7. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  8. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  9. Influence des paramètres de dépôt sur la morphologie de films minces de tétraborate de lithium obtenus par le procédé ``PYROSOL"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornand, V.; El Bouchikhi, A.; Papet, Ph.; Philippot, E.

    1997-04-01

    Li2B4O7 piezo-electric thin films were prepared by “PYROSOL" process which is a useful method for the elaboration of thin films. Morphological development and crystallization of thin films are very dependent on the experimental parameters like the substrate temperature, the concentration and the relative proportion of the precursors in methyl alcohol. The effect of these various parameters were studied in order to obtain homogeneous, crystallized and oriented thin films. La réalisation de couches minces de matériaux piézo-électriques de Li2B4O7 par le procédé “PYROSOL" révèle une grande diversité de conditions de dépôt. La température du substrat, la composition des solutions de précurseurs et leur concentration conditionnent la morphologie et l'état de cristallisation des films. En particulier, l'obtention de couches minces denses, homogènes et présentant une orientation préférentielle nécessite des températures de substrat supérieures à 620 ^{circ}C. L'influence de ces divers paramètres expérimentaux a été étudiée dans le but d'obtenir des dépôts homogènes, cristallisés et orientés.

  10. The effects of platinum on nickel electrodes in the nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions of platinum and platinum compounds with the nickel electrode that are possible in the nickel hydrogen cell, where both the nickel electrode and a platinum catalyst hydrogen electrode are in intimate contact with the alkaline electrolyte, are examined. Additionally, a mechanism of nickel cobalt oxyhydroxide formation in NiH2 cells is presented.

  11. Thermodynamics of nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Challingsworth, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters for Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) and Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries are calculated for temperatures ranging from 273.15K (0 C) to 373.15K (100 C). For both systems, we list equilibrium and thermoneutral voltages for the cells, and in the case of the NiH2 battery, these data are provide for hydrogen fugacities ranging from 0.01 to 100 (atm) to simulate the full discharged and charged states. The quality of the input thermodynamic data are assessed and the effect of assuming different cell reactions is analyzed.

  12. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  13. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance, thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder. The second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested, and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  14. Advances in lightweight nickel electrode technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Paul, Gary; Wheeler, James R.; Daugherty, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to further the development of lightweight nickel electrode technology. Work is focused primarily on the space nickel-hydrogen system and nickel-iron system but is also applicable to the nickel-cadmium and nickel-zinc systems. The goal is to reduce electrode weight while maintaining or improving performance thereby increasing electrode energy density. Two basic electrode structures are being investigated. The first is the traditional nickel sponge produced from sintered nickel-carbonyl powder and the second is a new material for this application which consists of a non-woven mat of nickel fiber. Electrodes are being manufactured, tested and evaluated at the electrode and cell level.

  15. Nickel hydrogen cells, an historic overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the nickel hydrogen battery system was primarily for replacement of the nickel cadmium battery and for space power systems. A chronological review of the major events and milestones leading up to the current system status is summarized.

  16. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  17. Didymium compound improves nickel-cadmium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Nickel electrodes impregnated with an additive solution of didymium hydrate and nitric acid mixed with nickel nitrate increases ampere-hour capacity of cells and does not affect the voltage characteristics.

  18. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness.

    PubMed

    Imran Din, Muhammad; Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods. PMID:27413375

  19. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods. PMID:27413375

  20. Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from... oxide (NiO). The oxide is then reduced with carbon to give elemental nickel. (b) The ingredient must...

  5. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  6. Method of Making a Nickel Fiber Electrode for a Nickel Based Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to develop a high specific energy nickel electrode for a nickel based battery system. The invention discloses a method of producing a lightweight nickel electrode which can be cycled to deep depths of discharge (i.e., 40% or greater of electrode capacity). These deep depths of discharge can be accomplished by depositing the required amount of nickel hydroxide active material into a lightweight nickel fiber substrate.

  7. Nickel and cobalt allergy before and after nickel regulation--evaluation of a public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2011-09-01

    Over the 20th century, the frequent use of nickel in consumer products resulted in an increasing prevalence of nickel allergy. Risk items included suspenders in the 1950s-1960s; buttons, zippers and rivets in the 1970s; and ear-piercing jewellery in the 1980s. When subjects allergic to nickel were exposed to nickel in high concentrations, it often resulted in allergic nickel contact dermatitis and hand eczema. In 1990, the Danish government began to regulate consumer nickel exposure as a response to the increasing nickel allergy problem. In 1994, the EU Nickel Directive was passed, a regulation that was based on the Danish and Swedish nickel regulations. These major public health interventions were expected to change the epidemiology of nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europe. Furthermore, it was debated whether nickel would be replaced by cobalt in inexpensive jewellery and result in higher prevalence of cobalt allergy. An evaluation of the possible effects of the European nickel regulations is of importance to ensure protection of consumers and dermatitis patients. This doctoral thesis aimed to evaluate the effects of regulatory interventions on nickel exposure by investigating the development of nickel allergy and dermatitis before and after nickel regulation. Furthermore, a change in the association between nickel allergy and hand eczema was evaluated. The nickel spot test was validated to determine its value when used for screening purposes. Possible explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy were explored including genetic predisposition and consumer nickel exposure from jewellery and accessories. A cobalt spot test was developed and validated. Finally, it was evaluated whether a cobalt allergy epidemic had replaced the nickel allergy epidemic after nickel regulation in terms of increasing cobalt sensitization and cobalt exposure. The thesis showed that the prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly after nickel regulation in young Danish

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  9. Nickel cadmium battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of artificial intelligence methodologies for the automation of energy storage management, in this case, nickel cadmium batteries, is demonstrated. With the Hubble Space Telescope Electrical Power System (HST/EPS) testbed as the application domain, an expert system was developed which incorporates the physical characterization of the EPS, in particular, the nickel cadmium batteries, as well as the human's operational knowledge. The expert system returns not only fault diagnostics but also status and advice along with justifications and explanations in the form of decision support.

  10. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, Norman F.; Williams, Joe L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  11. Nickel isotopes and methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubeck, A.; Ivarsson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Methanogens require Ni for their growth and as a consequence the microbial fractionation of Ni isotopes can be used as a biomarker for activity of methanogenic communities1. Anaerobic laboratory experiments was performed using methanogens to investigate methanogenic growth in a modified nutrient media2 with olivine Fo91 (5g/l) added as an additional mineral nutrient source and as the only H2 provider. One of the investigated methanogens showed an increased growth in the experiments with added olivine. There were also a close relationship between the mobilized Ni and the growth of the methanogen. Ni is an element that previously has been neglected in the study of fossilized microorganisms and their interaction with mineral substrates and, thus, there are no records or published data of Ni in association with microfossils. However, we have detected enrichments of Ni in fossilized microorganisms and ichno-fossils, respectively, from three separate locations. Ni is not present in the host rock in any of the samples. Thus, Ni is present in association with fossilized microorganisms from environments and more extensive analysis is required to understand the magnitude, uptake, preservation and fractionation of Ni in microfossils. In order to analyze Ni isotope fractionation from microbe-mineral interaction, we plan to use a high-resolution Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS)3. In situ profile ablation will provide detailed and localized data on fractionation patterns between microfossils and their host rock. Also, this technique will allow us to identify the change in Ni isotopic fractionation in rock samples caused by abiotic and biogenic processes in a faster and easier way and with less risk for contamination compared to the wet chemistry analyses of Ni isotopes. 1. Cameron, V., Vance, D., Archer, C. & House, C. H. A biomarker based on the stable isotopes of nickel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 10944-10948 (2009). 2. Schn

  12. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells are currently being manufactured on a semi-experimental basis. Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This has been stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  14. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  15. Rechargeable nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Device proves superiority in having two and one half to three times the energy content of popular lead-zinc or nickel-cadmium batteries. Application to electric utility vehicles improved acceleration rate and nearly doubled driving range between rechargings. Unit contributes substantially toward realization of practical urban electrical automobiles.

  16. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 μg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 μg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  17. Assaying Environmental Nickel Toxicity Using Model Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler D.; Huffnagle, Ian M.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species. PMID:24116204

  18. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Windt, N.F.; Williams, J.L.

    In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel contianing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  19. Selective decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Martis, P.; Venugopal, B.R.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2011-05-15

    A simple route to selective decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using nickel acetylacetonate (NAA) was successfully achieved for the first time. The homogeneously decorated nanocrystals on MWCNTs were investigated for their structure and morphology by various techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the size distributions of the nanocrystals on MWCNTs ranged from 8 to 15 nm and they were well resolved. The precursor, NAA, was effectively employed to impregnate the MWCNTs, which on calcination at suitable temperatures and in the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen atmosphere gave rise to nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: Nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals were selectively and homogeneously decorated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nickel acetylacetonate, as a precursor in a simple and efficient route. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} A simple route for decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on MWCNTs. {yields} Nickel acetylacetonate used as nickel source for the first time to impregnate on MWCNTs. {yields} Selective decoration was achieved by calcination in hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres. {yields} The as-decorated nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals are in the range of 8-15 nm.

  20. Polymer-templated mesoporous carbons synthesized in the presence of nickel nanoparticles, nickel oxide nanoparticles, and nickel nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choma, Jerzy; Jedynak, Katarzyna; Marszewski, Michal; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2012-02-01

    Mesoporous carbon composites, containing nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles, were obtained by soft-templating method. Samples were synthesized under acidic conditions using resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock co-polymer Lutrol F127 as a soft template and nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles, and nickel nitrate as metal precursors. In addition, a one set of samples was obtained by impregnation of mesoporous carbons with a nickel nitrate solution followed by further annealing at 400 °C. Wide angle X-ray powder diffraction along with thermogravimetric analysis proved the presence of nickel nanoparticles in the final composites obtained using nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles, and Ni(NO3)2 solution. Whereas, the impregnation of carbons with a nickel nitrate solution followed by annealing at 400 °C resulted in needle-like nickel oxide nanoparticles present inside the composites’ pores. Low-temperature (-196 °C) nitrogen physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed good adsorption and structural properties of the synthesized nickel-carbon composites, in particular, the samples possessed high surface areas (>600 m2/g), large total pore volumes (>0.50 cm3/g), and maxima of pore size distribution functions at circa 7 nm. It was found that the composites were partially graphitized during carbonization process at 850 °C. The samples are stable in an air environment below temperature of 500 °C. All these features make the synthesized nickel-carbon composites attractive materials for adsorption, catalysis, energy storage, and environmental applications.

  1. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  2. Electrochemical impregnation and cycle life of lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at NASA-Lewis. The approach was to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Lightweight plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. The electrodes are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 40 and 80 percent depths-of-discharge.

  3. Removal of nickel by chelating drugs from the organs of nickel poisoned rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, P.P.; Athar, M.; Hasan, S.K.; Srivastava, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The chelating drugs namely ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,2,cyclohexylenediamine tetraacetic acid (CDTA), hydroxyethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and triethylenetetraamine hexaacetic acid (TTHA), were examined for the mobilization of nickel from body organs of sham operated and partially hepatectomized rats in early nickel poisoning. These chelating drugs successfully reduced the body burden of nickel from both the nickel treated experimental groups. EDTA was relatively more effective in reducing the hepatic content of nickel while CDTA and HEDTA were more effective in reducing its renal content. These drugs also reduced nickel burden in heart and lung to variable degrees.

  4. Welding studies of nickel aluminide and nickel-iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.; David, S.A.; Horton, J.A.; White, C.L.; Liu, C.T.

    1985-08-01

    Because welding is often used during the fabrication of structural components, one of the key issues in the development of nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for engineering applications is their weldability. The goals of this study were to characterize weldment microstructures and to identify some of the factors controlling weldability of ductile Ni/sub 3/Al alloys. The alloys used in this initial study were Ni/sub 3/Al containing 500 wppm boron and Ni/sub 3/Al containing 10 at. % iron and either 500 wppm or 20 wppm boron. Full-penetration autogenous welds were made in sheet shock by the electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) processes. The main process variables were travel speed and preheat. The as-welded coupons were examined visually and in detail by the usual optical and electron metallographic methods. Weldments of boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al were composed of nearly 100% ordered ..gamma..' phase. Weldments of the nickel-iron aluminides were ..gamma..' + ..beta..' phase mixtures, with martensitic ..beta..' distributed interdendritically in the fusion zone and decorating grain boundaries in the heat-affected zone. All welds made in this particular boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al alloy contained cracks. Weldability improved with the addition of iron, and defect-free welds were made in the nickel-iron aluminides by both EB and GTA welding. Nevertheless, the iron-containing alloys were susceptible to cracking, and their weldability was affected by boron concentration, welding speed, and (for GTA) gas shielding. Defect-free welds were found to have good tensile properties relative to those of the base metal. 34 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Nickel nanofibers synthesized by the electrospinning method

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Yi; Zhang, Xuebin; Zhu, Yajun; Li, Bin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingcheng; Feng, Yi

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► The nickel nanofibers have been obtained by electrospinning method. ► The nickel nanofibers had rough surface which was consisted of mass nanoparticles. ► The average diameter of nickel nanofibers is about 135 nm and high degree of crystallization. ► The Hc, Ms, and Mr were estimated to be 185 Oe, 51.9 and 16.9 emu/g respectively. - Abstract: In this paper, nickel nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning polyvinyl alcohol/nickel nitrate precursor solution followed by high temperature calcination in air and deoxidation in hydrogen atmosphere. The thermal stability of the as-electrospun PVA/Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} composite nanofibers were characterized by TG–DSC. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electronmicroscope (FE-SEM) and field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). The hysteresis loops (M–H loops) were measured by Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). The results indicate that: the PVA and the nickel nitrate were almost completely decomposed at 460 °C and the products were pure nickel nanofibers with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared nickel nanofibers had a continuous structure with rough surface and high degree of crystallization. The average diameter of nickel nanofibers was about 135 nm. The nanofibers showed a stronger coercivity of 185 Oe than value of bulk nickel.

  6. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  7. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors. PMID:21199602

  8. Lightweight nickel electrodes for nickel/hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S.; Zelter, Gabriela R.

    1993-01-01

    Thick nickel electrodes with lightweight substrate material have been prepared and tested in Ni/H2 boilerplate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte. Lightweight substrates used were either 85 or 90 percent in porosity and either 0.8 or 2 mm in thickness, respectively, compared with 80 to 82 percent porosity and 0.75 to 0.8 mm thickness of the state-of-the-art sintered plaque substrate. All of these thick electrodes had substantially improved theoretical (or chemical) capacity over that of state-of-the-art sintered nickel plaque electrodes. However, utilization of the active material was low (65 to 80 percent) compared with that of the state-of-the-art electrodes (approximately 90 percent) in 26 percent KOH. Due to this low utilization, the electrodes using 85 percent porous substrates did not show any advantage over the state-of-the-art ones. The electrodes using a 90 percent porous substrate, however, showed 17 percent higher usable specific capacity (about 0.13 Ah/g in 26 percent KOH) than that of the state-of-the-art nickel electrodes despite the low utilization. These electrodes achieved up to 4860 cycles at 40 percent depth-of-discharge with neither capacity loss nor any significant changes of rate capability and charging efficiency with cycling.

  9. Ultrafast magnetoacoustics in nickel films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Wan; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-19

    We report about the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic nickel film at room temperature excited by acoustic pulses generated with femtosecond laser pulses. The ultrafast change of magnetization is detected from both the front and back sides of the nickel film. The propagating strain associated with the acoustic pulses modifies the magnetic anisotropy and induces a precession of the magnetization. We model the time-dependent magnetoacoustic response of the metallic film by combining a three temperature model for the temperatures of the charges, the spins, and the lattice, the wave equation for the strain, and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the magnetization. It is shown that the precession dynamics can be controlled by matching the precession period with the round trip time of the acoustic echoes. The calculation of the time-dependent precession torque τ=|M×H(eff)| allows understanding the underlying physics. PMID:23215104

  10. Processing technology for nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Ductile ordered intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminum or nickel aluminum chromium have been developed by optimized additions of boron. These alloys show excellent elevated temperature mechnical properties and corrosion properties. However, in order for the alloys to find use in various applications, they should be fabricable by either the well established or innovative processing technologies. This paper discusses the details of fabrication technology being pursued at ORNL. The processes being investigated include powder consolidation by extrusion, powder consolidation by capping, isothermal forging of powder compacted material, twin-roller casting to thin sheet followed by cold-rolling, direct casting rod from liquid, extrusion of billets made by argon-induction melting and electroslag remelting processes, injection molding of powders, and hot isostatic pressing of powders. Relative merits of each process are discussed. Mechanical properties data on products made by various processes are also presented and compared.

  11. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  12. Cation Ordering in Layered Nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Zhou, Hua; Cammarata, Antonio; Hoffman, Jason; Balachandran, Prasanna; Rondinelli, James; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2013-03-01

    The single layer Ruddlesden-Popper nickelates present a model system to understand how the effects of digital dopant cation ordering may affect the properties of 2-dimensional conducting sheets. We investigate the effects of aliovalent A-site cation order on LaSrNiO4 films. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we interleave full layers of SrO and LaO in a series of chemically equivalent films, varying the pattern of SrO and LaO layers relative to the NiO2 layers. Through synchrotron surface x-ray diffraction and Coherant Bragg Rod Analysis (COBRA), we directly investigate the A-site cation order and the resulting atomic displacements for each ordering pattern. We correlate these results with theoretical calculations and transport measurements of the layered nickelate films.

  13. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1988-03-15

    Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides treated with hafnium or zirconium, boron and cerium to which have been added chromium to significantly improve high temperature ductility, creep resistance and oxidation properties in oxidizing environments.

  14. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  15. Electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkar, Tushar

    Pulse electrodeposition (PC) and pulse reverse electrodeposition (PRC) bring a new era in improving the surface properties of metals. These processes are associated with many advantages, such as reduction in porosity, low level of inclusions, and higher deposition rates compared to direct current (DC) electrodeposition process. There is much more flexibility in varying three basic parameters which are, pulse current density, on time, and off time in pulse electrodeposition resulting in unique composition and microstructure of coating being deposited. In this work, nickel matrix composite coatings were synthesized by co-depositing nano particles (Al2O3, SiC, and ZrO2) from Watts bath. To get detailed insight into effect of processing parameters on the microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties of the composite coatings, the coatings were also fabricated using DC, PC, and PRC techniques. Also, the effect of bath loading on the level of reinforcement in the coating was investigated for Ni-Al2O 3 composite coatings. Furthermore an attempt was made to produce Ni-CNT coatings by pulse electrodeposition method. Pure nickel coatings were also prepared for comparison. Composite coatings deposited using PC and PRC techniques exhibited significant improvement in microhardness and wear resistance. The presence of nanoparticles in the composite coating seems to prohibit the columnar growth of the nickel grains resulting in random/weak texture and smaller thickness of the composite coatings. Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings show maximum hardness and wear resistance compared to Ni-SiC and Ni-ZrO 2 composite coatings. As Al2O3 content in electroplating bath increases, Microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings increases but thickness of the coatings decreases due to nanoparticles obstructing grain growth. The Ni-CNT composite coatings exhibited significantly improved microhardness compared to pure nickel coatings.

  16. Nickel cobalt phosphorous low stress electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolytic plating process is provided for electrodepositing a nickel or nickel cobalt alloy which contains at least about 2% to 25% by atomic volume of phosphorous. The process solutions contains nickel and optionally cobalt sulfate, hypophosphorous acid or a salt thereof, boric acid or a salt thereof, a monodentate organic acid or a salt thereof, and a multidentate organic acid or a salt thereof. The pH of the plating bath is from about 3.0 to about 4.5. An electroplating process is also provided which includes electroplating from the bath a nickel or nickel cobalt phosphorous alloy. This process can achieve a deposit with high microyield of at least about 84 kg/mm.sup.2 (120 ksi) and a density lower than pure nickel of about 8.0 gm/cc. This process can be used to plate a deposit of essentially zero stress at plating temperatures from ambient to 70.degree. C.

  17. Self discharge of nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.

    1977-01-01

    Values for the capacity loss with time, naturally on open circuit stand, and information regarding the minimum amount of circuit charge needed to keep the cell charged can be determined from the self-discharge behavior of nickel hydrogen cells. Furthermore, the rate of reaction between hydrogen and a charged nickel electrode is also open for nickel cadmium batteries. In a nickel hydrogen cell, the hydrogen is stored as pressurized gas and the cell stack with the charge that is oxidized nickel-hydroxide electrode is in direct contact with the hydrogen. Therefore, the rate of reaction can be measured easily and precisely by monitoring the charge, the change in hydrogen pressure with time. Measures made on twelve 15 ampere hour nickel hydrogen cells of different stack configurations built for COMSAT are discussed.

  18. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  19. Analysis of nickel refinery dusts.

    PubMed

    Draper, M H; Duffus, J H; John, P; Metcalfe, L; Morgan, L; Park, M V; Weitzner, M I

    1994-06-01

    After characterization of bulk samples by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopic (ICP-ES) quantitative analysis and X-ray powder diffraction studies, single particle techniques using quantitative image analysis, scanning electron microscopy--energy dispersive analysis by X-ray, and finally laser beam ionization mass spectrometry analysis (LIMA) for surface analysis have been applied to historical nickel refinery dust samples from the nickel refining plant at Clydach in Wales. There were two historical samples of processed material from 1920 and 1929. These samples had a remarkably small particle size range, mean 3 microns and range, 0.75-24 microns. The most significant difference in elemental composition was the presence of 10% arsenic in the 1920 sample compared with 1% in the 1929 sample. The X-ray spectra revealed the presence of NiO in both. However, surprisingly, CuO was identified only in the 1929 sample. Of particular interest was the presence of a component, in the 1920 sample only, identified as the mineral orcelite, a copper-iron-nickel-arsenide-sulphide mineral, predominantly, Ni5-XAs2. Using the LIMA technique, it was found that in both samples, arsenic and arsenic derivative peaks are prominent, indicating the surface availability of arsenic compounds. PMID:8029701

  20. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys. 5 figs.

  1. Nickel-cadmium cell life test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. R.; Coates, D. K.

    1985-01-01

    Over 6,9000 Low Earth Orbit cycles were accumulated at 30% Depth of Discharge on twelve INTELSAT-design nickel-hydrogen cells. Physical equipment and cells are described. Performance characteristics are seen to be uniform. Further testing is planned to seek a failure mode, and also to investigate the effects of a new additive for nickel-hydrogen cells. Initial results indicate improved performance at higher temperatures and diminished swelling of positive nickel plates.

  2. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Goodwin, Gene M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys.

  3. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  4. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  5. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  6. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  7. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  8. PROCESS OF COATING WITH NICKEL BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF NICKEL CARBONYL

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.

    1959-04-01

    An improved process is presented for the deposition of nickel coatings by the thermal decomposition of nickel carbonyl vapor. The improvement consists in incorporating a small amount of hydrogen sulfide gas in the nickel carbonyl plating gas. It is postulated that the hydrogen sulfide functions as a catalyst. i

  9. Leukocyte migration inhibition in nickel dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mirza, A M; Perera, M G; Maccia, C A; Dziubynskyj, O G; Bernstein, I L

    1975-01-01

    Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor assay was employed as an in vitro diagnostic aid in nickel dermatitis, the second most common contact dermatitis in North America. 15 patch test-positive and 5 patch test-negative patients, all giving a past history suggestive of nickel dermatitis, were investigated. Significant inhibition of leukocyte migration in both groups of patients was obtained only with nickel sulfate-albumin conjugate and not with unconjugated nickel sulfate. Specificity of this system was tested by utilizing an unrelated metallic albumin complex, and no inhibition was found. When patch testing is equivocal or contraindicated, this in vitro technique may be a practical alternative. PMID:1102460

  10. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  11. Hydrogen diffusion and trapping in nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of hydrogen transport in pure polycrystalline nickel foils and rods at 300-550 K shows that both trapping and short-circuit diffusion are present and have small yet significant effects on permeation, evolution, and absorption. Both effects appear to be associated primarily with the dislocation substructure of nickel. Relations describing hydrogen transport in nickel are obtained using the data on deuterium permeation, tritium absorption, and outgassing in pure polycrystalline nickel together with earlier measurements of diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen isotopes.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: nickel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuck, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Together with chromium, nickel makes steel more resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel thus accounts for more than 65 percent of primary nickel consumption in the world. One of the more common grades of stainless steel is Type 304, which contains 18 to 20 percent chromium and 10.5 to 12 percent nickel. Owing to their high corrosion resistance, nickel-bearing stainless steels are widely used in the transportation sector, the energy sector, the food preparation and processing industry, the beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the medical community.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  14. Progress in the development of lightweight nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the lightweight nickel electrode, in place of the heavy-sintered state-of-the-art nickel electrode, will lead to improvements in specific energy and performance of the nickel-hydrogen cell. Preliminary testing indicates that a nickel fiber mat is a promising support candidate for the nickel hydroxide active material. Nickel electrodes made from fiber mats, with nickel and cobalt powder added to the fiber, were tested at LeRC. To date, over 8000 cycles have been accumulated, at 40 percent depth-of-discharge, using the lightweight fiber electrode, in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell.

  15. Factors Affecting Nickel-oxide Electrode Capacity in Nickel-hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The nickel-oxide electrode common to the nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell is by design the limiting or capacity determining electrode on both charge and discharge. The useable discharge capacity from this electrode, and since it is the limiting electrode, the useable discharge capacity of the cell as well, can and is optimized by rate of charge, charge temperature and additives to electrode and electrolyte. Recent tests with nickel hydrogen cells and tests performed almost 25 years ago with nickel cadmium cells indicate an improvement of capacity as a result of using increased electrolyte concentration.

  16. Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Tsai, Mon-Che; Zhou, Jigang; Guan, Mingyun; Lin, Meng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotube sidewalls. The metal ion-carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves ~20 mA cm-2 at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts.

  17. Development of a micro-fiber nickel electrode for nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy nickel electrode is the main goal of the lightweight nickel electrode program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  18. Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Tsai, Mon-Che; Zhou, Jigang; Guan, Mingyun; Lin, Meng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotube sidewalls. The metal ion-carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves ~20 mA cm(-2) at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts. PMID:25146255

  19. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1995-01-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99 gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  20. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOEpatents

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1990-07-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99% gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184... it to nickel sulfide (Ni3S2). The sulfide is roasted in air to give nickel oxide (NiO). The oxide is... limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The affirmation of this ingredient as...

  2. Formation of alumina-nickel-molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Erofeev, V.I.; Basov, V.G.; Vagin, A.I.; Kalechits, I.V.

    1982-06-01

    On the basis of the results obtained in physical and chemical studies of alumina-nickel-molybdenum oxide catalysts as well as binary system and the individual oxides, the conclusions show that the commercial catalyst consists mainly of nickel and aluminium molybdates, aluminium molybdates, molybdenum oxide, and the alumina support. 4 figures.

  3. Reactive spraying of nickel-aluminide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deevi, S. C.; Sikka, V. K.; Swindeman, C. J.; Seals, R. D.

    1997-09-01

    Reactive spraying of nickel aluminides was accomplished via reaction synthesis techniques in which nickel and aluminum powders were fed through a direct- current plasma torch onto carbon steel substrates. The as- sprayed coatings obtained by reactive spraying were characterized by x- ray diffraction and microscopic techniques. Reactive spraying of nickel and aluminum resulted in coatings consisting of Ni, Al, Ni 3Al, NiAl3, Ni5Al3, NiAl, and Al2O3, depending on the experimental conditions. Nickel aluminide phases observed in plasma spray depositions were compared with the phases obtained by combustion synthesis techniques, and the formation of phases in reactive spraying was attributed to the exothermic reaction between splats of aluminum and nickel. Primary and secondary reactions leading to the formation of nickel aluminides were also examined. The splat thickness and the reaction layer suppressed the formation of desired equilibrium phases such as Ni3Al and NiAl. As- sprayed coatings were annealed to enhance the diffusional reactions between the product phases and aluminum and nickel. Coatings obtained by reactive spraying of elemental powders were compared with as- sprayed and annealed coatings obtained with a bond coat material in which nickel was deposited onto aluminum particles.

  4. Beneficial effects of nickel in pecan production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nickel was combined with standard fungicide sprays and applied to foliage and fruit of Wichita, Apache, Desirable, Oconee, and Kiowa Pecan. Treatments reduced scab severity on all varieties, with those best most susceptible to scab being most influenced. The preliminary data indicates that nickel ...

  5. Study made of Raney nickel technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Raney nickel study indicates that its improved storage life is due to gaseous hydrogen and that the mechanism of its ignitions is catalytic and due to chemisorbed hydrogen atoms. It shows that reacted Raney nickel powder can be reactivated and can introduce multiple ignitions in a hydrogen gas stream.

  6. Graphene-nickel interfaces: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Arjun; Batzill, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Graphene on nickel is a prototypical example of an interface between graphene and a strongly interacting metal, as well as a special case of a lattice matched system. The chemical interaction between graphene and nickel is due to hybridization of the metal d-electrons with the π-orbitals of graphene. This interaction causes a smaller separation between the nickel surface and graphene (0.21 nm) than the typical van der Waals gap-distance between graphitic layers (0.33 nm). Furthermore, the physical properties of graphene are significantly altered. Main differences are the opening of a band gap in the electronic structure and a shifting of the π-band by ~2 eV below the Fermi-level. Experimental evidence suggests that the ferromagnetic nickel induces a magnetic moment in the carbon. Substrate induced geometric and electronic changes alter the phonon dispersion. As a consequence, monolayer graphene on nickel does not exhibit a Raman spectrum. In addition to reviewing these fundamental physical properties of graphene on Ni(111), we also discuss the formation and thermal stability of graphene and a surface-confined nickel-carbide. The fundamental growth mechanisms of graphene by chemical vapor deposition are also described. Different growth modes depending on the sample temperature have been identified in ultra high vacuum surface science studies. Finally, we give a brief summary for the synthesis of more complex graphene and graphitic structures using nickel as catalyst and point out some potential applications for graphene-nickel interfaces.

  7. Nickel: Impact on leaf morphology and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  8. Satellite spectra of heliumlike nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsuan, H.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S. Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.C.; Sesnic, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Karim, K.R.

    1987-02-01

    Spectra of heliumlike nickel, NiXXVII, have been observed from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The experimental arrangement permits simultaneous observation of the heliumlike resonance line, the intercombination and forbidden lines, and all the associated satellites due to transitions 1s/sup 2/nl - 1s2l'nl'' with N greater than or equal to 2. Relative wavelengths and line intensities can thus be determined very accurately. The observed spectral data are in good agreement with results from the present Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic model calculations and predictions from the Z-expansion method.

  9. Nickel hydrogen cell tests. [recharging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1981-01-01

    Some parametric tests followed by cycling tests are described for the characterization of the service life of nickel hydrogen cells. Three cells were automatically cycled in simulated low Earth orbit in 35 minute discharge, 55 minute charge, with charging voltage limited, temperature compensated. The cells were mounted in a fixture that conducts heat to an aluminum baseplate. The baseplate in turn, is bounded in a temperature controlled bath to remove the heat from the mounted fixture. One cell was tested with a zircar separator, which failed after 2473 cyles. Two other cells were tested one with a zircar separator; the other with asbestos. More than 400 cycles were achieved.

  10. Nickel-hydrogen separator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1986-01-01

    The separator technology is a critical element in the nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) systems. Previous research and development work carried out at NASA Lewis Research Center has determined that separators made from zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and potassium titanate (PKT) fibers will function satisfactorily in Ni-H2 cells without exhibiting the problems associated with the asbestos separators. A program has been established to transfer the separator technology into a commercial production line. A detailed plan of this program will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen separator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1986-01-01

    The separator technology is a critical element in the nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) systems. Previous research and development work carried out at NASA Lewis Research Center has determined that separators made from zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and potassium titanate (PKT) fibers will function satisfactorily in Ni-H2 cells without exhibiting the problems associated with the asbestos separators. These separators and their characteristics were previously discussed. A program was established to transfer the separator technology into a commercial production line. A detailed plan of this program will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  12. Designer Magnetoplasmonics with Nickel Nanoferromagnets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new perspective on magnetoplasmonics in nickel nanoferromagnets by exploiting the phase tunability of the optical polarizability due to localized surface plasmons and simultaneous magneto-optical activity. We demonstrate how the concerted action of nanoplasmonics and magnetization can manipulate the sign of rotation of the reflected light’s polarization (i.e., to produce Kerr rotation reversal) in ferromagnetic nanomaterials and, further, how this effect can be dynamically controlled and employed to devise conceptually new schemes for biochemosensing. PMID:22029387

  13. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  14. Nickel deposition on silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beleznai, Cs.; Nanai, Laszlo; Leppaevuori, Seppo; Remes, Janne; Moilanen, Hannu; George, Thomas F.

    1998-08-01

    Experimental results of laser assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from Ni(CO)4 and theoretical treatment of deposition process are presented. The nickel deposition has ben realized by scanning of Ar+ laser beam (100 - 400 mW, (lambda) equals 515 nm and 488 nm) on Si surfaces in atmosphere of Ni(CO)4 with 0.2 - 2.0 mbars with scanning speeds of 20 - 700 micrometers /s. As a result homogeneous Ni lines on Si have been deposited with a typical volumetric growth rate of 250 micrometers 3/s and widths of 10 - 20 micrometers and thickness of 0.2 - 0.5 micrometers . The electrical resistivity of lines deposited was cca 7 (mu) (Omega) cm. The theoretical treatment includes computations of the temperature distribution in both gas- phase and solid substrate. The reaction rate is computed on base of local concentration and local temperatures, within the frame of finite element methods using triangles as a base of computing.

  15. Nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed at MSFC uses the Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Battery Expert System (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performance of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort is summarized which was used to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) battery environment now in MSFC testbed. The NICBES-2 is implemented on a Sun Microsystem and is written in SunOS C and Quintus Prolog. The system now operates in a multitasking environment. NICBES-2 spawns three processes: serial port process (SPP); data handler process (DHP); and the expert system process (ESP) in order to process the telemetry data and provide the status and action advice. NICBES-2 performs orbit data gathering, data evaluation, alarm diagnosis and action advice and status and history display functions. The adaptation of NICBES-2 to work with NiH2 battery environment required modification to all of the three component processes.

  16. Shaped pulse electroforming of nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kam Po

    Although pulse current electroforming has been demonstrated to be a powerful means for the fabrication of many micro-devices, there are still some key issues such as surface finish and grain size that needed to be tackled before this technique can be widely used for micro-electroforming of premium products. As far as pulse current electroforming is concerned, most of the published works have focused on conventional rectangular waveform, there is only a limited amount of work reported on the use of non-conventional shaped waveforms. Since nickel coatings enhance the value and usefulness of industrial equipment and components, investigations on improving the properties of nickel electroforms are of high significance. The present study therefore aims to investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the effect of different types of shaped waveforms on surface finishing and grain size development of electroformed nickel. A mathematical model is established for formulating the effects of different types of waveform on surface finishing in pulse current electroforming of nickel. The model describes the change of concentration profile of electroactive ions, micro-current distribution and the rate of protrusion growth at cathodic surfaces. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results: within the range of the study, a maximum discrepancy of 10% on surface roughness values between the two was found. This discrepancy could be due to the evolution of hydrogen gases at the cathodic surface during electrodeposition. Both theoretical predictions and experimental results show that the quality of the electroforms, in terms of surface roughness improvement, influenced by the types of waveform is of the order of ramp-down waveform > triangular waveform > ramp-up waveform > rectangular waveform, all with relaxation time. This is also supported by the study of the surface morphology of the electroforms by scanning electron microscopy. Another mathematical

  17. Role of nickel in membrane-bound hydrogenase and nickel metabolism in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound hydrogenase of Rhizobium japonicum requires nickel for activity. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni co-migrates with hydrogenase activity in native gel systems and co-elutes with purified hydrogenase form an affinity matrix column. A simplified scheme for the purification of hydrogenase has been developed and constitutes the first report of the aerobic purification of this enzyme from R. japonicum. The aerobic purification utilizes the general affinity matrix. Reactive Red 120-agarose and results in higher specific activity and yield of enzyme than previously reported. The stability of aerobically purified hydrogenase to oxygen is substantially greater than that reported for anaerobically isolated enzyme. Reduction of the aerobically purified enzyme in the presence of oxygen, however, results in the rapid loss of activity. R. japonicum cells accumulate nickel during heterotrophic growth and as non-growing cells. The hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 accumulates substantially greater amounts of nickel under both conditions. Kinetic studies indicate that the nickel uptake system in the hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 is upregulated relative to SRwt cells. The uptake system is specific for nickel, although a 10-fold excess (relative to nickel) of copper or zinc inhibits nickel uptake. The nickel uptake system appears to require energy. Under nickel-free conditions hydrogenase protein is not synthesized as determined by cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against hydrogenase, indicating that nickel regulates the formation of the enzyme as well as being a constituent of the active protein.

  18. Nickel oral hyposensitization in patients with systemic nickel allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioacchino, Mario; Ricciardi, Luisa; De Pità, Ornella; Minelli, Mauro; Patella, Vincenzo; Voltolini, Susanna; Di Rienzo, Valerio; Braga, Marina; Ballone, Enzo; Mangifesta, Rocco; Schiavino, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This is the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (EUDRACT No. 2009-013923-43) evaluating nickel oral hyposensitizing treatment (NiOHT) in patients with “systemic nickel allergy syndrome” (SNAS), characterized by Ni-allergic contact dermatitis and systemic reactions after eating Ni-rich food. Methods: Adults with positive Ni-patch test, who reported symptoms suggesting SNAS, which improved after Ni-poor diet, and were positive to Ni-oral challenge were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to three treatments (1.5 μg, 0.3 μg, or 30 ng Ni/week) or placebo for a year, with progressive reintroduction of Ni-rich foods form the 5th month. Out of 141 patients randomized, 113 completed the trial. Endpoints were efficacy and tolerability of treatment. Results: During Ni-rich food re-introduction, the 1.5 μg Ni/week group had a mean VAS score significantly higher than placebo (p = 0.044), with significant improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms (p = 0.016;) and significantly fewer rescue medications. Cutaneous manifestations also improved but without reaching statistical significance. After the treatment, oral challenge with higher Ni doses than at baseline were needed to cause symptoms to flare-up in significantly more patients given 1.5 μg Ni/week than placebo (p = 0.05). Patients reported no side-effects. Conclusions: NiOHT is effective in SNAS, in particular on gastrointestinal manifestations, with trend toward improvement of cutaneous symptoms. PMID:24256166

  19. Nickel Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    This account is a selective review and synthesis of the technical literature on nickel and nickel salts in the environment and their effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources, The subtopics include nickel sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties of nickel; nickel concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; nickel deficiency effects; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; currently proposed nickel criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  20. Transient Influx of Nickel in Root Mitochondria Modulates Organic Acid and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Nickel Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Sparks, Donald L.; Bais, Harsh P.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation. PMID:23322782

  1. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  2. Distribution of nickel hydroxide in sintered nickel plaques measured by radiotracer method during electroimpregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, P.K.; Schneider, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered nickel positive electrodes were prepared by electroimpregnating nickel hydroxide inside a porous nickel plaque in a nickel nitrate solution. The distribution of nickel hydroxide inside the plaque was measured using a radio-tracer method with /sup 63/Ni as the radioactivity source. Autoradiography and ..beta.. counting were used to follow qualitative and quantitative distributions, respectively, of the pore filling process. Relatively uniform distribution was observed at low current density, and the precipitation of Ni(OH)/sub 2/ extends to the center of the plaque. At high current density, most of the Ni(OH)/sub 2/ aggregated in the region just underneath the plaque surface, causing a somewhat nonuniform distribution. Nickel hydroxide also precipitates heavily on the surface of the plaque at high current density, reducing the penetration of electrolyte to the inside of the plaque.

  3. Nickel vacancy behavior in the electrical conductance of nonstoichiometric nickel oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Hee Chul

    2012-08-01

    Nickel vacancy behavior in electrical conductance is systematically investigated using various analysis methods on nickel oxide films deposited at different oxygen partial pressures. The results of Rutherford backscattering, x-ray diffraction, and Auger electron spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the sputtered nickel oxide films are nickel-deficient. Through the deconvolution of Ni2p and O1s spectra in the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the number of Ni{sup 3+} ions is found to increase with the O{sub 2} ratio during the deposition. According to the vacancy model, nickel vacancies created from the non-stoichiometry are concluded to produce Ni{sup 3+} ions which lead to an increment of the conductivity of the nickel oxide films due to the increase of the hole concentration.

  4. Nickel-aluminum dry charge reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, W.; Buzzelli, E.S.

    1986-08-12

    A nickel-aluminum reserve battery is described which consists of: (1) a case within which are disposed at least one bipolar plate comprising: (i) an electrode comprising battery material, the battery material consisting essentially of nickel hydroxide, the material containing --OH groups, and (ii) and electrode comprising aluminum, (2) a storage reservoir containing aqueous alkali hydroxide electrolyte near the case, and (3) means to transfer stored electrolyte to the electrodes where the nickel hydroxide containing electrode is connected to a current collector, which current collector is in turn connected to the aluminum electrode of the bipolar plate by means of an electrically conducting bonding medium.

  5. Nickel porphyrins for memory optical applications

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Jia, Songling; Medforth, Craig; Holten, Dewey; Nelson, Nora Y.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nickel-porphyrin derivative in a matrix, the nickel-porphyrin derivative comprising at least two conformational isomers, a lower-energy-state conformer and a higher-energy-state conformer, such that when the higher-energy-state conformer is generated from the lower-energy-state conformer following absorption of a photon of suitable energy, the time to return to the lower-energy-state conformer is greater than 40 nanoseconds at approximately room temperature. The nickel-porphyrin derivative is useful in optical memory applications.

  6. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimova, K. A.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Orshanskaya, E. G.

    2015-09-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density.

  7. Crystallization of nickel nanoclusters by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamati, H.; Gaminchev, K.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the melting properties of bulk nickel and the crystallization of nickel nanocrystals via molecular dynamics using a potential in the framework of the second moment approximation of tight-binding theory. The melting behavior was simulated with the hysteresis approach by subsequently heating and cooling gradually the system over a wide range of temperatures. The crystallization of nickel nanoclusters consisting of 55, 147 and 309 atoms was achieved after repeatedly annealing and quenching the corresponding quasicrystals several times to avoid being trapped in a local energy minimum. The time over which the global minimum was reached was found to increase with the cluster size.

  8. From carbon nanobells to nickel nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, S.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Maik, D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Staedler, T.; Jiang, X.

    2009-01-05

    A generic strategy is proposed to prepare one dimensional (1D) metallic nanotubes by using 1D carbon nanostructures as the initial templates. Following the strategy, nickel (Ni) nanotubes are prepared by using carbon nanobells (CNBs) as the initial templates. CNBs are first prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Carbon/nickel core/shell structures are then prepared by electroplating the CNBs in a nickel-Watts electrolytic cell. In the final step, the carbon core is selectively removed by employing hydrogen plasma etching to obtain Ni nanotubes. The mechanism leading to Ni nanotubes is briefly discussed.

  9. Small scale bipolar nickel-hydrogen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, ranging in capacity from 6 to 40 A-hr, have been tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center over the past six years. Small scale tests of 1 A-hr nickel-hydrogen stacks have been initiated as a means of screening design and component variations for bipolar nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries. Four small-scale batteries have been built and tested. Characterization and limited cycle testing were performed to establish the validity of test results in the scaled down hardware. The results show characterization test results to be valid. LEO test results in the small scale hardware have limited value.

  10. Corrosion of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, coated nickel-titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Johnson, J W

    1999-02-01

    Orthodontic wires containing nickel have been implicated in allergic reactions. The potential for orthodontic wires to cause allergic reactions is related to the pattern and mode of corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions, such as nickel, into the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in the corrosive potential of stainless steel, nickel titanium, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium orthodontic wires. At least two specimens of each wire were subjected to potentiostatic anodic dissolution in 0.9% NaCl solution with neutral pH at room temperature. Using a Wenking MP 95 potentiostat and an electrochemical corrosion cell, the breakdown potential of each wire was determined. Photographs were taken of the wire speci mens using a scanning electron microscope, and surface changes were qualitatively evaluated. The breakdown potentials of stainless steel, two nickel titanium wires, nitride-coated nickel titanium, epoxy-coated nickel titanium, and titanium were 400 mV, 300 mV, 750 mV, 300 mV, 1800 mV, and >2000 mV, respectively. SEM photographs revealed that some nickel titanium and stainless steel wires were susceptible to pitting and localized corrosion. The results indicate that corrosion occurred readily in stainless steel. Variability in breakdown potential of nickel titanium alloy wires differed across vendors' wires. The nitride coating did not affect the corrosion of the alloy, but epoxy coating decreased corrosion. Titanium wires and epoxy-coated nickel titanium wires exhibited the least corrosive potential. For patients allergic to nickel, the use of titanium or epoxy-coated wires during orthodontic treatment is recommended. PMID:10022183

  11. Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Engineering processing and properties of nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic compounds of iron, nickel, and titanium are materials recently under development for structural applications. Among these, Ni/sub 3/Al has been made reasonably ductile by the addition of small amounts of boron. Further additions of zirconium and chromium have been utilized for enhancement of high temperature strength and intermediate temperature ductility. Nickel aluminide alloys based on Ni/sub 3/Al are near commercialization. This paper describes the melting, processing, mechanical properties, physical properties, corrosion, and weldability of these alloys. Applications for nickel aluminides have been identified. Potential suppliers who have recently licensed the nickel aluminide technology from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are also listed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Copper/nickel eutectic brazing of titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutchera, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Technique joins titanium or one of its alloys to materials, such as iron, nickel or cobalt base material, or to refractory metals. To ensure formation of a satisfactory bond, the temperature, time, environment and pressure must be controlled.

  14. Long life, rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.

    1974-01-01

    A production version of the inorganic separator was evaluated for improving the life of the nickel-zinc system. Nickel-zinc cells (7-10 Ah capacities) of different electrode separator configurations were constructed and tested. The nickel-zinc cells using the inorganic separator encasing the zinc electrode, the nickel electrode, or both electrodes had shorter lives than cells using Visking and cellophane separation. Cells with the inorganic separation all fell below 70% of their theoretical capacity within 30 cycles, but the cells constructed with organic separation required 80 cycles. Failure of the cells using the ceramic separator was irreversible capacity degradation due to zinc loss through cracks developed in the inorganic separator. Zinc loss through the separator was minimized with the use of combinations of the inorganic separator with Visking and cellophane. Cells using the combined separation operated 130 duty cycles before degrading to 70% of their theoretical capacity.

  15. Abnormal grain growth in TD-nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrovic, J. J.; Ebert, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the coarse grain transformation occurring in TD-nickel 1 in. bar under certain conditions of deformation and annealing were examined. The transformation exhibits Avrami-type kinetics, with an activation energy of 250 kcal per mole. Characteristics of untransformed regions are like those of the as-received state. The transformed grain size increases with increasing deformation and decreasing annealing temperature. The coarse grain transformation is significantly different from primary recrystallization in pure nickel. Its characteristics cannot be rationalized in terms of primary recrystallization concepts, but may be explained in terms of an abnormal grain growth description. The coarse grain transformation in TD-nickel is abnormal grain growth rather than primary recrystallization. The analysis suggests an explanation for the effect of thermomechanical history on the deformation and annealing behavior of TD-nickel.

  16. Wetlife Study of Nickel Hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the residual Nickel Precharge, and to understand the Performance and Cycle Life of Aged Nickel Hydrogen cells that were in cold storage up to thirteen (13) years. Comsat Technical Services, Aerospace Corporation, and NSWC/Crane test data to date indicate a nominal electrical performance with a small second plateau and the presence of Nickel Precharge in the cells: Cell Teardown, Plate (active Nickel Precharge determination), and Electrolyte Analyses are in progress. Preliminary Thermal Imaging data indicates that older the cell greater the heat generation, but cell over charge (capacity) could dominate heat generation. U.S. Govt. cells has completed 1150 nominal 60% LEO cycles. The completion date for this study is January 31, 2008.

  17. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  18. Nickel metal hydride LEO cycle testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Eric

    1995-01-01

    The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is working to characterize aerospace AB5 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells. The cells are being evaluated in terms of storage, low earth orbit (LEO) cycling, and response to parametric testing (high rate charge and discharge, charge retention, pulse current ability, etc.). Cells manufactured by Eagle Picher are the subjects of the evaluation. There is speculation that NiMH cells may become direct replacements for current Nickel Cadmium cells in the near future.

  19. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  20. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  1. Cobalt and nickel content of Asian cements.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Kwok, S F; Gan, S L

    1986-09-01

    The total cobalt and nickel concentration of 11 brands of Asian cement ranged from 8.1 to 14.2 micrograms/g and 14.9 to 28.5 micrograms/g, respectively. These metals exist mainly as insoluble salts; the water-soluble concentration of cobalt and nickel in the cements ranged from 0.39 to 0.65 micrograms/g and from 0-1.2 micrograms/g, respectively. 1.5% (4/272) of construction workers in a prefabrication construction factory had cobalt sensitivity. All had allergic contact dermatitis from chromate in cement. No worker had isolated cobalt sensitivity and cement dermatitis. It appeared that sensitization to cobalt in cement occurs only secondarily to an existing cement dermatitis. 1.8% (5/272) workers had nickel sensitivity: 2 with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in their watches, 2 were asymptomatic and 1 had allergic contact dermatitis to chromate and cobalt in cement. The low prevalence of cobalt and nickel sensitivity from cement was probably related to the low concentration of soluble cobalt and nickel salts in the cement. However, these insoluble salts can form soluble complexes with body fluids on eczematous skin and sensitize the skin. PMID:2946537

  2. Relation of Nickel Concentrations in Tree Rings to Groundwater Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanosky, Thomas M.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    1992-08-01

    Increment cores were collected from trees growing at two sites where groundwater is contaminated by nickel. Proton-induced X ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the nickel concentrations in selected individual rings and in parts of individual rings. Ring nickel concentrations were interpreted on the basis of recent concentrations of nickel in aquifers, historical information about site use activities, and model simulations of groundwater flow. Nickel concentrations in rings increased during years of site use but not in trees outside the contaminated aquifers. Consequently, it was concluded that trees may preserve in their rings an annual record of nickel contamination in groundwater. Tulip trees and oaks contained higher concentrations of nickel than did sassafras, sweet gum, or black cherry. No evidence was found that nickel accumulates consistently within parts of individual rings or that nickel is translocated across ring boundaries.

  3. Market Available Virgin Nickel Analysis Data Summary Interpretation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, Steve; Volpe, John

    2004-10-01

    Collection, analysis, and assessment of market available nickel samples for their radionuclide content is being conducted to support efforts of the Purchase Area Community Reuse Organization (PACRO) to identify and implement a decontamination method that will allow for the sale and recycling of contaminated Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) nickel-metal stockpiles. The objectives of the Nickel Project address the lack of radionuclide data in market available nickel metal. The lack of radionuclide data for commercial-recycled nickel metal or commercial-virgin nickel metal has been detrimental to assessments of the potential impacts of the free-release of recycled PGDP nickel on public health. The nickel project, to date, has only evaluated "virgin" nickel metal which is derived form non-recycled sources.

  4. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  5. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  6. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  7. Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Lidén, C

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for finishing anodized aluminium was introduced during the 1980s--cold impregnation with nickel. Nickel is available on the surface of cold-impregnated aluminium, as shown by the dimethylglyoxime test. Chemical analysis with EDXA showed that nickel was in the form of NiSO4. A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. It transpired that the patient was exposed to nickel in connection with aluminium. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure, probably previously unknown to dermatologists. PMID:7924288

  8. Nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals selectively grafting on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Yendrapati Taraka; Rao, Kalagadda Venkateswara; Kumari, Bandla Siva; Sai, Vemula Sesha; Pavani, Tambur

    2015-01-01

    Nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals in their pure phase are carefully embellished by a facial method on oxygen-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) using nickel nitrate (NN) was effectively accomplished for the first time by calcining them in hydrogen, nitrogen and air, respectively, at suitable temperatures. Nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals impregnated O-MWCNTs were examined for its structure and morphology by various techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The nanocrystals on the O-MWCNTs were determined of 15-20 nm size. Decorated nanocrystals on CNT's have potential applications in semiconductor industries.

  9. Flight Weight Design Nickel-Hydrogen Cells Using Lightweight Nickel Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Willis, Bob; Pickett, David F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode for advanced aerospace nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries with improved specific energy and specific volume. The lightweight nickel electrode will improve the specific energy of a nickel-hydrogen cell by >50%. These near-term advanced batteries will reduce power system mass and volume, while decreasing the cost, thus increasing mission capabilities and enabling small spacecraft missions. This development also offers a cost savings over the traditional sinter development methods for fabrication. The technology has been transferred to Eagle-Picher, a major aerospace battery manufacturer, who has scaled up the process developed at NASA GRC and fabricated electrodes for incorporation into flight-weight nickel-hydrogen cells.

  10. Electrochromism in nickel oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Optical absorption in a thin-film nickel oxide electrode depends on the state of charge of the electrode; the effect has been called electrochromism, and it may have practical applications in low-speed light modulation devices. In this dissertation, the physical and chemical processes which lead to the change in optical properties are investigated. Preparation of NiO film electrodes by reactive sputtering of a Ni target in an Ar + O[sub 2] gas mixture is described, and the electrochromic response is correlated to film growth conditions. Structural, electronic, and electrochemical properties of the NiO films are characterized by x-ray diffraction, infrared absorption, x-ray photoemission, optical absorption, electrical conductivity, and electrochemical measurements. It is proposed that the electrochromism results from the adsorption and desorption of protons at the oxygen-rich surface of a granular and porous NiO film. The surface electronic levels are then modified by the presence or absence of the O-H bonds, and the effect on the film electronic properties is discussed. A general discussion is also given of the current-limiting processes at the NiO film electrodes.

  11. The Archean Nickel Famine Revisited.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Robbins, Leslie J; Pecoits, Ernesto; Peacock, Caroline; Kappler, Andreas; Lalonde, Stefan V

    2015-10-01

    Iron formations (IF) preserve a history of Precambrian oceanic elemental abundance that can be exploited to examine nutrient limitations on early biological productivity. However, in order for IF to be employed as paleomarine proxies, lumped-process distribution coefficients for the element of interest must be experimentally determined or assumed. This necessitates consideration of bulk ocean chemistry and which authigenic ferric iron minerals controlled the sorption reactions. It also requires an assessment of metal mobilization reactions that might have occurred in the water column during particle descent and during post-depositional burial. Here, we summarize recent developments pertaining to the interpretation and fidelity of the IF record in reconstructions of oceanic trace element evolution. Using an updated compilation, we reexamine and validate temporal trends previously reported for the nickel content in IF (see Konhauser et al., 2009 ). Finally, we reevaluate the consequences of methanogen Ni starvation in the context of evolving views of the Archean ocean-climate system and how the Ni famine may have ultimately facilitated the rise in atmospheric oxygen. PMID:26426143

  12. Nickel Base Superalloy Turbine Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Gauda, John (Inventor); Telesman, Ignacy (Inventor); Kantzos, Pete T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A low solvus, high refractory alloy having unusually versatile processing mechanical property capabilities for advanced disks and rotors in gas turbine engines. The nickel base superalloy has a composition consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 3.0-4.0 N, 0.02-0.04 B, 0.02-0.05 C, 12.0-14.0 Cr, 19.0-22.0 Co, 2.0-3.5 Mo, greater than 1.0 to 2.1 Nb, 1.3 to 2.1 Ta,3.04.OTi,4.1 to 5.0 W, 0.03-0.06 Zr, and balance essentially Ni and incidental impurities. The superalloy combines ease of processing with high temperature capabilities to be suitable for use in various turbine engine disk, impeller, and shaft applications. The Co and Cr levels of the superalloy can provide low solvus temperature for high processing versatility. The W, Mo, Ta, and Nb refractory element levels of the superalloy can provide sustained strength, creep, and dwell crack growth resistance at high temperatures.

  13. Mechanism and kinetics of sodium borohydride hydrolysis over crystalline nickel and nickel boride and amorphous nickel-boron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhijie; Mao, Xikang; Zi, Qin; Zhang, Rongrong; Dou, Tao; Yip, Alex C. K.

    2014-12-01

    The initial hydrogen generation turnover rates during the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride over nickel catalysts (crystalline nickel (Ni), crystalline nickel boride (Ni3B), and amorphous nickel-boron (Ni-B) nanoparticles) were measured to investigate the reaction kinetics and mechanisms by varying the reactant concentrations and reaction temperatures. Nickel catalysts with and without boron follow different hydrolysis pathways; hydroxide ions are involved in the activation of reactant molecules over Ni3B and Ni-B catalysts. This study explicitly reports the zero-order and first-order reaction kinetics with respect to the reactant concentration over Ni, Ni3B and Ni-B catalysts. The initial hydrogen generation turnover rates and activation energies determined from the experimental data indicate that the amorphous Ni-B nanoparticles exhibit the highest turnover rate and lowest activation energy for the hydrolysis of borohydride among the investigated catalysts. This study provides a general strategy for the development of borohydride hydrolysis catalysts via the modification of a metal catalyst using boron, which causes the crystalline structure to become amorphous and leads to electron-rich, highly undercoordinated metal atoms at the surface.

  14. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is also suggested that some confounding factors such as cigarette smoking cannot be neglected. The determination of nickel concentration in lung tissue may be conducive to estimating the nickel exposure level, but it is uncertain whether the high nickel content in lung tissue indicates high lung cancer risk in nickel-exposed workers. Immunologic studies suggest that the suppressive effect of nickel on NK cell activity and interferon production may also be involved in the mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis. As a potential mutagen, nickel can cause chromosome damage both in vitro and in vivo; and on a molecular basis, nickel is found to induce DNA damage (DNA strandbreaks and crosslinks, infidelity of DNA replication, inhibition of DNA repair, and the helical transition of B-DNA to Z-DNA) by binding of nickel ions to DNA and nuclear proteins. The discovery of oncogene promises both a challenge and an opportunity for nickel carcinogenesis research. It can be predicted that, with the rapid development of molecular biology and oncology, new approaches will be established for both understanding and controlling nickel-induced occupational lung cancer. PMID:8187719

  15. Nickel aluminides: Breaking into the marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1995-12-31

    Nurtured by ORNL researchers for almost 15 years, nickel aluminides may have found their niche. ORNL`s modified nickel aluminides are receiving considerable attention by the heat-treating industry in the United States and may have arrived just in the nick of time to make some companies more competitive. Nickel aluminides are intermetallic materials that have long been considered potentially useful because, thanks to their ordered crystal structure, they are very strong and hard and melt only at very high temperatures. But they had a serious weakness: they were too brittle to be shaped into reliable components. Then, in 1982, ORNL researchers led by Chain T. Liu in the Metals and Ceramics Division found the secret recipe for producing a ductile nickel aluminide alloy: add trace amounts of a few alloying elements in the right proportion. It was like turning peanut brittle into taffy. Their most important discovery was that the addition of a small amount of boron (200 parts per million) to a nickel aluminide alloy (Ni{sub 3}Al) makes the alloy highly ductile at room temperature. To address the safety concerns of the alloy preparation industry, Vinod Sikka and Joseph Vought developed a new process in collaboration with Seetharama Deevi, who was on a 1-year sabbatical at ORNL from the Research Center at Philip Morris in Richmond, Virginia. The development is called the Exo-Melt process.

  16. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R

    2004-07-12

    Nickel can dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while still maintaining its austenitic structure. That is, nickel based alloys can be tailored for specific applications. The family of nickel alloys is large, from high temperature alloys (HTA) to corrosion resistant alloys (CRA). In general, CRA are less susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) than stainless steels. The environments where nickel alloys suffer EAC are limited and generally avoidable by design. These environments include wet hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated alkalis. Not all nickel alloys are equally susceptible to cracking in these environments. For example, commercially pure nickel is less susceptible to EAC in hot concentrated alkalis than nickel alloyed with chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo). The susceptibility of nickel alloys to EAC is discussed by family of alloys.

  17. Plating Repair Of Nickel-Alloy Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steve K.; Chagnon, Kevin M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure for localized electrodeposition of nickel enables repair of small damaged nickel-based pressure vessels. Electrodeposition restores weakened areas of vessel wall to at least their former strength.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of electrowinning for nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.M.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    Purification of the 70,000 to 245,000 tons of diffusion plant nickel scrap permit its use in a variety of DOE and, with establishment of de minimus standards, foreign and domestic industrial applications. Nickel recycle would also substantially decrease DOE legacy wastes. This report presents data on electrolytes and separations which could be used in electrolytic purification of radiologically contaminated nickel scrap from first generation diffusion plants. Potentiometric scans and plating tests indicate that both industrial electrolytes, buffered nickel sulfate-sodium chloride and nickel chloride, provide good current densities. Electrolytes which contain ammonium thiocyanate or ammonium chloride also perform well. Nickel does not plate appreciably from nitrate solutions because the nitrate was preferentially reduced to nitrite. Solvent extractions of cobalt, a common contaminant in commercial nickel, and pertechnate, a radiological contaminant expected in DOE nickel scrap, are also successful.

  19. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-04-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni{sub 2}P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni{sub 2}P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni{sub 2}P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N{sub 2}-sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni{sub 2}P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, θ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni{sub 3}P, Ni{sub 12}P{sub 5}, Ni{sub 2}P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni{sub 2}P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy.

  20. Mechanical strength of carbon nanotube nickel nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Sun, Jianren; Liu, Miao; Chen, Quanfang

    2007-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-walled CNT (SWCNT) and multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), have been regarded as the stiffest and strongest materials ever developed and are promising reinforcement fillers for developing nanocomposites. However, the scientific community has been puzzled about the reinforcement efficiency. Here we report CNT-reinforced nickel nanocomposites fabricated with an innovative electrochemical co-deposition process for achieving good interfacial bonding between CNT and metallic matrices. Test results show that Ni/SWCNT composite produces a tensile strength as high as 2 GPa, which is more than three times stronger than that of pure nickel. The mechanical strength of Ni/CNT nanocomposites is dependent on CNT addition, while the fracture strain remains similar or better than that of pure nickel. The good reinforcement of CNT/metal nanocomposites is attributed to the good interfacial bonding as well as the stiffer matrix nature.

  1. A dual anode nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1992-02-01

    A dual anode cell with decreased polarization effects provides improved performance characteristics, such as voltage characteristics and depth-of-discharge characteristics. A hydrogen electrode is placed on both sides of a nickel electrode. An electrolyte saturated separator is placed between each hydrogen electrode and the nickel electrode. The electrolyte saturated separator can be a layered-type separator consisting of one layer of zirconia knit cloth next to the hydrogen electrode and a layer of radiation-grafted polyethylene film next to the nickel electrode. These layers of the electrochemical cell are cut in a pineapple-slice configuration. Both hydrogen electrodes are connected in parallel to form a single electrical node. The electrochemical cell is placed in a vessel pressurized with hydrogen and saturated with a potassium hydroxide electrolyte. A gas screen is placed on the outer surface of each of the hydrogen electrodes.

  2. Corrosion of nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Scarberry, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The volume consists of three tutorial lectures and 18 contributed papers. The three tutorial lectures provide state-of-the-art background on the physical metallurgy of nickel-base alloys as it relates to corrosion. Also featured are the mechanisms and applications of these alloys and an insight into the corrosion testing techniques. The three tutorial lecture papers will help acquaint newcomers to this family of alloys with a thorough overview. The contributed papers are categorized into four major topics: general corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, fatigue and localized corrosion. Each topic is key-noted by one invited lecture followed by several contributed papers. The papers in the general corrosion section are wide ranging and cover the aspects of material selection, development of galvanic series in corrosive environments, corrosion resistance characteristics, hydrogen permeation and hydrogen embrittlement of nickel and some nickel-base alloys.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  4. Prototype nickel component demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1994-11-14

    We have been developing a process to produce high-purity nickel structures from nickel carbonyl using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The prototype demonstration effort had been separated into a number of independent tasks to allow Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) the greatest flexibility in tailoring the project to their needs. LANL selected three of the proposed tasks to be performed--Task 1- system modification and demonstration, Task 2-stainless steel mandrel trials, and Task 4-manufacturing study. Task 1 focused on converting the CVD system from a hot-wall to a cold-wall configuration and demonstrating the improved efficiency of the reactor type by depositing a 0.01-inch-thick nickel coating on a cylindrical substrate. Since stainless steel substrates were preferred because of their low {alpha}-emitter levels, Task 2 evaluated mandrel configurations which would allow removal of the nickel tube from the substrate. The manufacturing study was performed to develop strategies and system designs for manufacturing large quantities of the components needed for the Sudbury Nuetrino Observatory (SNO) program. Each of these tasks was successfully completed. During these efforts, BIRL successfully produced short lengths of 2-inch-diameter tubing and 6-inch-wide foil with levels of {alpha}-radiation emitting contaminants lower than either conventional nickel alloys or electroplated materials. We have produced both the tubing and foil using hot-substrate, cold-wall reactors and clearly demonstrated the advantages of higher precursor efficiency and deposition rate associated with this configuration. We also demonstrated a novel mandrel design which allowed easy removal of the nickel tubing and should dramatically simplify the production of 1.5-meter-long tubes in the production phase of the program.

  5. FETOTOXIC EFFECTS OF NICKEL IN DRINKING WATER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nickel chloride was administered in drinking water to pregnant mice from the 2nd through the 17th day of gestation at nickel doses of 0, 500, or 1000 ppm. Fetal or maternal toxicity was not seen after administration of 500 ppm of nickel. However, the higher dose caused spontaneou...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5325 - Nickel acrylate complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel acrylate complex. 721.5325... Substances § 721.5325 Nickel acrylate complex. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014... nickel acrylate complex (PMN P-85-1034) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10388 - Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10388 Bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as bisphospite nickel cyanoalkyl complex (PMN P-10-364) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10460 - Azo nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo nickel complex (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10460 Azo nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as azo nickel complex (PMN...

  15. Electrospinning of nickel oxide nanofibers: Process parameters and morphology control

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Abdullah Hashaikeh, Raed

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, nickel oxide nanofibers with varying morphology (diameter and roughness) were fabricated via electrospinning technique using a precursor composed of nickel acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. It was found that the diameter and surface roughness of individual nickel oxide nanofibers are strongly dependent upon nickel acetate concentration in the precursor. With increasing nickel acetate concentration, the diameter of nanofibers increased and the roughness decreased. An optimum concentration of nickel acetate in the precursor resulted in the formation of smooth and continuous nickel oxide nanofibers whose diameter can be further controlled via electrospinning voltage. Beyond an optimum concentration of nickel acetate, the resulting nanofibers were found to be ‘flattened’ and ‘wavy’ with occasional cracking across their length. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the obtained nanofibers are polycrystalline in nature. These nickel oxide nanofibers with varying morphology have potential applications in various engineering domains. - Highlights: • Nickel oxide nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning. • Fiber diameter and roughness depend on nickel acetate concentration used. • With increasing nickel acetate concentration the roughness of nanofibers decreased. • XRD and TEM revealed a polycrystalline structure of the nanofibers.

  16. Dual-Anode Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Use of two hydrogen anodes in nickel/hydrogen cell reduces ohmic and concentration polarizations contributing to internal resistance, yielding cell with improved discharging performance compared to single-anode cell. Dual-anode concept incorporated into nickel/hydrogen cells of individual pressure-vessel type (for use aboard spacecraft) and common pressure-vessel type, for use on Earth to store electrical energy from photovoltaic sources, "uninterruptible" power supplies of computer and telephone systems, electric vehicles, and load leveling on power lines. Also applicable to silver/hydrogen and other metal/gas batteries.

  17. Program Diagnoses Nickel/Cadmium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Bykat, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2 (NICBES2) computer program is prototype expert-system program for diagnosis and management of health of nickel/cadmium batteries. Intended to support evaluation of performance of batteries in Hubble Space Telescope spacecraft and to alert personnel to possible malfunctions. Oversees status of batteries by evaluating data gathered in orbit packets, and when so merits, raises alarm and provides diagnosis of faults as well as advice on actions to be taken to remedy condition giving rise to alarm. Provides history of statuses of batteries pertaining to health of batteries, and graphical display to help operator assimilate information generated. Written in C language.

  18. Lightweight porous plastic plaque. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M.

    1978-01-01

    The porosity and platability of various materials were investigated to determine a suitable substrate for nickel-plated electrodes. Immersion, ultrasonics, and flow-through plating techniques were tried using nonproprietary formulations, and proprietary phosphide and boride baths. Modifications to the selected material include variations in formulation and treatment, carbon loading to increase conductivity, and the incorporation of a grid. Problems to be solved relate to determining conductivities and porosities as a function of amount of nickel plated on the plastics; loading; charge and discharge curves of electrodes at different current densities; cell performance; and long-term degradation of electrodes.

  19. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  20. Study of high performance alloy electroforming. [nickel manganese and nickel cobalt manganese alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-manganese alloy electrodeposits from an electrolyte containing more manganese ion than previously used is being evaluated at two bath operating temperatures with a great variety of pulse plating conditions. Saccharine was added as a stress reducing agent for the electroforming of several of the samples with highest manganese content. All specimens for mechanical property testing have been produced but are not through the various heat treatments as yet. One of the heat treatment will be at 343 C (650 F), the temperature at which the MCC outer electroformed nickel shell is stress relieved. A number of retainer specimens from prior work have been tested for hardness before and after heat treatment. There appears to be a fairly good correlation between hardness and mechanical properties. Comparison of representative mechanical properties with hardnesses are made for nickel-manganese electrodeposits and nickel-cobalt-manganese deposits.

  1. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  2. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed. PMID:26804335

  3. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmo; da Silva, Wilson Jose; Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid; Jang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A comparison study on organic light emitting diodes and organic solar cells, using commercially available ITO, silver nanowires, and nickel nanowires, are also discussed.

  4. Colloidal nickel boride catalyst for hydrogenation of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, Y.; Fujishige, S.

    1981-04-01

    Colloidal nickel boride was prepared from nickel(II) chloride by reduction with sodium borohydride in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone in ethanol. Hydrogenation of various olefins was examined over the colloidal catalyst at 30/sup 0/C and atmospheric pressure. The colloidal nickel boride was much more effective than the precipitated nickel boride prepared in the absence of polyvinylpyrrolidone as a hydrogenation catalyst, especially for isopropenyl compounds. Additional amines and sodium acetate were slightly inhibitive to the colloidal catalyst, while, being strongly promotive to the precipitated catalyst. The colloidal nickel boride was superior to the charcoal-supported metals of the platinum group in catalytic activity for ..cap alpha..-methylstyrene.

  5. Sequential desorption energy of hydrogen from nickel clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Deepika,; Kumar, Rakesh; R, Kamal Raj.; Kumar, T. J. Dhilip

    2015-06-24

    We report reversible Hydrogen adsorption on Nickel clusters, which act as a catalyst for solid state storage of Hydrogen on a substrate. First-principles technique is employed to investigate the maximum number of chemically adsorbed Hydrogen molecules on Nickel cluster. We observe a maximum of four Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom, but the average Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom decrease with cluster size. The dissociative chemisorption energy per Hydrogen molecule and sequential desorption energy per Hydrogen atom on Nickel cluster is found to decrease with number of adsorbed Hydrogen molecules, which on optimization may help in economical storage and regeneration of Hydrogen as a clean energy carrier.

  6. Nickel availability and urease expression in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Rando, D; Steglitz, U; Mörsdorf, G; Kaltwasser, H

    1990-01-01

    Cells of Proteus mirabilis, previously grown in nutrient broth (NB), exhibited an increase in urease activity during subsequent incubation in mineral medium even when protein biosynthesis was inhibited. During growth in NB, degradation of amino acids obviously led to the formation of nickel-complexing metabolites, and nickel ions were therefore unavailable for maximal expression of enzymatically active urease; this inhibition of urease biosynthesis was overcome by the addition of nickel to the growth medium, and also by added glucose. Experiments concerning the incorporation of radioactive nickel into urease finally indicated that the observed increase in urease activity was caused by posttranslational insertion of nickel into performed apo-urease. PMID:2256779

  7. Quantitative adhesion data for electroless nickel deposited on various substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on quantitative adhesion of electroless nickel coatings is given and recent ring shear quantitative data for the electroless nickel deposited on a variety of substrates are presented. Procedures for obtaining good adhesion between electroless nickel coatings and a variety of aluminum alloys (1100, 2024, 5083, 6061 and 7075), beryllium-copper, 4340 steel and HP 9-4-20 steel are outlined. In addition, data are presented on a procedure for activating electroless nickel for subsequent coating with electrodeposited nickel.

  8. The failure mechanism of a nickel electrode in a nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on a number of types of nickel electrodes after cycle failure in a Ni/H2 cell showed that the failure is due to the loss of high rate discharge capability rather than an absolute capacity loss. The failure mechanism is speculated to be a combination of migration of the active material away from the current collecting nickel sinter, increased porosity of the active material caused by cycling, and an electrical isolation process of the active material during discharge.

  9. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  10. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1992-01-01

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition.

  11. NICKEL SPECIATION OF RESIDUAL OIL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827649C002
    Title: Nickel Speciation Of Residual Oil Ash
    Investigators: Kevin C. Galbreath, John Won, Frank E. Huggins, Gerald P. Huffman, Christopher J. Zygarlicke, Donald L. Toman
    Institution: University of North Dakota<...

  12. NICKEL RECOVERY FROM ELECTROPLATING RINSEWATERS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A program to demonstrate the feasibility of metal salt recovery and pollution control on a Watts-type nickel plating line by electrodialysis was conducted. Each of two reclaim rinse tanks, arranged in series following plate tanks, was treated by recirculating the rinse solutions ...

  13. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  14. Hydrogen embrittlement in nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Sidney

    1989-01-01

    It was long known that many strong metals can become weakened and brittle as the result of the accumulation of hydrogen within the metal. When the metal is stretched, it does not show normal ductile properties, but fractures prematurely. This problem can occur as the result of a hydrogen evolution reaction such as corrosion or electroplating, or due to hydrogen in the environment at the metal surface. High strength alloys such as steels are especially susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Nickel-hydrogen cells commonly use Inconel 718 alloy for the pressure container, and this also is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Metals differ in their susceptibility to embrittlement. Hydrogen embrittlement in nickel-hydrogen cells is analyzed and the reasons why it may or may not occur are discussed. Although Inconel 718 can display hydrogen embrittlement, experience has not identified any problem with nickel-hydrogen cells. No hydrogen embrittlement problem is expected with the 718 alloy pressure container used in nickel-hydrogen cells.

  15. Ir Spectroscopy and Nickel (II) Hexammines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reedijk, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment, for the general chemistry laboratory, intended to introduce the student to infrared spectroscopy. After being introduced to the theory of molecular vibrations on an elementary level, each student receives a list of 5-7 nickel (II) ammines to be prepared, analyzed and characterized by infrared spectoscopy. (MLH)

  16. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  17. Growth of hollow nickel fluoride whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S. V.; Orekhov, Yu. F.; Fedorov, P. P.

    2009-07-15

    Hollow nickel fluoride whiskers have been obtained by condensation from the vapor phase onto a platinum substrate in a flow of hydrogen fluoride. Crystals up to 5 mm in length have a square cross section with a 300 {+-} 30-{mu}m side. The wall thickness is 85 {+-} 20 {mu}m.

  18. Nickel hydrogen cell characterization test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.

    1980-01-01

    Charge control studies on nickel hydrogen cells are discussed. Characterization test data for the cells are presented in graphical form. The test areas covered were capacity versus temperature, ampere-hour cycling efficiency, and the charge method which involved voltage level with current limiting.

  19. Nickel hydrogen cell design: A designer's aspect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehm, Raymond

    1992-01-01

    Information is given to give insight into the methodology of nickel hydrogen cell design and the decipherment of the battery cell reference guide that was distributed to many of Gates Energy Products' customers. Cell design, stacking design, charge capacity, and dynamic response are discussed in general terms.

  20. Configuration analysis of nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of various stack configurations and components on the cycle life for nickel hydrogen cells for synchronous orbit used was evaluated. Failure modes of electrolyte management and 02 management were solved by modifications in the reservoir, the wick, and/or the stack configuration.

  1. Insights into the nutritional physiology of nickel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nickel (Ni) is essential for plants, yet its physiological role is poorly understood. Ni-deficient and Ni-sufficient pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees were compared regarding the impact of Ni nutritional status on reduced nitrogen (N) forms present in xylem sap at spring bud brea...

  2. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  3. Tests Of Advanced Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Individual-pressure-vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology adanced with intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another to modify state-of-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes.

  4. Amalgam containing nickel or tungsten dispersions. I.

    PubMed

    Reisbick, M H; Bunshah, R F; Agarwal, N

    1977-12-01

    Wetting tests were conducted to determine compatability between select dispersion powders and Ag3Sn. Subsequently, a method was perfected for incorporating nickel or tungsten powder into the Ag3 Sn ingot. Initial studies reveal good distributions of the dispersed phase in the ingots and the comminuted alloys, after amalgamation, appear to retain their normal working characteristics. PMID:277462

  5. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  6. Nickel-iron spherules from aouelloul glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Dwornik, E.J.; Merrill, C.W.

    1966-01-01

    Nickel-iron spherules, ranging from less than 0.2 to 50 microns in diameter and containing 1.7 to 9.0 percent Ni by weight, occur in glass associated with the Aouelloul crater. They occur in discrete bands of siliceous glass enriched in dissolved iron. Their discovery is significant tangible evidence that both crater and glass originated from terrestrial impact.

  7. Suppression of pecan scab by nickel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic cost of scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum, can substantially limit the profitability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivation in humid environments. Field and greenhouse experiments assessed the influence of nickel (Ni) on scab severity on fruit and foliage of Ni...

  8. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOEpatents

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  9. NICKEL ABSORPTION AND KINETICS IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mathematical modelling was performed of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution and elimination in healthy human volunteers, who ingested NiS04 in drinking water or added food. ickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and f...

  10. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-04-28

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition. 4 figs.

  11. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  12. Liquid Nickel Salts: Synthesis, Crystal Structure Determination, and Electrochemical Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Jeroen; Verguts, Ken; Brooks, Neil R; Schaltin, Stijn; Phan, Thanh Hai; Trung Huynh, Thi Mien; Van Meervelt, Luc; De Feyter, Steven; Seo, Jin Won; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2016-01-18

    New nickel-containing ionic liquids were synthesized, characterized and their electrochemistry was investigated. In addition, a mechanism for the electrochemical synthesis of nanoparticles from these compounds is proposed. In these so-called liquid metal salts, the nickel(II) cation is octahedrally coordinated by six N-alkylimidazole ligands. The different counter anions that were used are bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Tf2 N(-) ), trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf(-) ) and methanesulfonate (OMs(-) ). Several different N-alkylimidazoles were considered, with the alkyl sidechain ranging in length from methyl to dodecyl. The newly synthesized liquid metal salts were characterized by CHN analysis, FTIR, DSC, TGA and viscosity measurements. An odd-even effect was observed for the melting temperatures and viscosities of the ionic liquids, with the complexes with an even number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the imidazole having a higher melting temperature and a lower viscosity than the complexes with an odd number of carbons. The crystal structures of several of the nickel(II) complexes that are not liquid at room temperature were determined. The electrochemistry of the compounds with the lowest viscosities was investigated. The nickel(II) cation could be reduced but surprisingly no nickel deposits were obtained on the electrode. Instead, nickel nanoparticles were formed at 100 % selectivity, as confirmed by TEM. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles were investigated by SQUID measurements. PMID:26643274

  13. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  14. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) is a general term that includes phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement (HE), sulfide stress cracking (SSC), liquid metal embrittlement (LME), etc. EAC refers to a phenomenon by which a normally ductile metal looses its toughness (e.g. elongation to rupture) when it is subjected to mechanical stresses in presence of a specific corroding environment. For EAC to occur, three affecting factors must be present simultaneously. These include: (1) Mechanical tensile stresses, (2) A susceptible metal microstructure and (3) A specific aggressive environment. If any of these three factors is removed, EAC will not occur. That is, to mitigate the occurrence of EAC, engineers may for example eliminate residual stresses in a component or limit its application to certain chemicals (environment). The term environment not only includes chemical composition of the solution in contact with the component but also other variables such as temperature and applied potential. Nickel alloys are in general more resistant than stainless steels to EAC. For example, austenitic stainless steels (such as S30400) suffer SCC in presence of hot aqueous solutions containing chloride ions. Since chloride ions are ubiquitous in most industrial applications, the use of stressed stainless steels parts is seriously limited. On the other hand, nickel alloys (such as N10276) are practically immune to SCC in presence of hot chloride solutions and therefore an excellent alternative to replace the troubled stainless steels. Nonetheless, nickel alloys are not immune to other types of EAC. There are several environments (such as hot caustic and hot hydrofluoric acid) that may produce embrittlement in nickel alloys (Crum et al, 2000) (Table 1). The conditions where nickel alloys suffer EAC are highly specific and therefore avoidable by the proper design of the industrial components.

  15. Electroless Nickel Phosphorus Plating on AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shartal, Kh. M.; Kipouros, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    One of the major drawbacks to using magnesium parts in automotive applications is poor corrosion resistance, which can be improved with a nickel-boron coating placed on a nickel-phosphorus coating, which, in turn, is placed on a phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer produced on the magnesium alloy AZ31. This work reports on the determination of the optimum kinetic parameters for producing a coherent nickel-phosphorus coating using an electroless-procedure phosphate-permanganate conversion-coating layer and for studying the effects of the experimental variables of the electroless plating process on the phosphorus content, surface morphology, and structure of the electroless nickel-phosphorus (EN-P) coatings produced. Measurements of the plating rate as a function of experimental variables such as the compositions of the plating bath constituents, temperature, and pH were implemented using the weight-gain method; the phosphorus content of the EN-P coatings was measured using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The surface morphology of the coating was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM); X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the structure of each coating. An empirical rate law was determined for EN-P plating on a phosphate-permanganate conversion coating. It is found that the deposition rate of the EN-P coating increases by increasing the deposition temperature, the concentration of free nickel ions, and the concentration of hypophosphite ions in the plating bath. In addition, the deposition rate decreases by increasing both the plating bath pH and the concentration of citric acid in the plating bath.

  16. Microfibrous nickel substrates and electrodes for battery system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Durben, Peter J.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The use of microfibrous nickel substrates is advantageous for increasing the surface area available for the deposition of active material and reducing the substrate weight and consequently, yields a higher specific capacity for nickel hydroxide electrodes. Porous, microfiber-based nickel substrates were produced by sintering a composite preform. The preforms, consisting of nickel fibers with diameters as small as 2 μm and cellulose fibers, were formed using a papermaking process. The fabricated nickel electrodes that included a supporting nickel mesh in the substrate tested in a 26% KOH half-cell delivered a specific capacity of more than 250 mAh/g of the electrode weight (i.e. fibrous substrate, nickel mesh, and active material) at a 1.0 C discharge rate. An Auburn electrode without a nickel mesh tested in the same half-cell attained a higher specific capacity of 268 mAh/g at a 1.37 C discharge rate. The substrates used in these electrodes had porosities of 95-97%, and greatly improved the specific capacity of the nickel electrode. With the use of the microfibrous electrode, improved specific energies of nickel-based cell and battery designs are possible. When assembled in a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H 2) boilerplate cell, the specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh/g was observed for the nickel electrode at a 0.5 C rate during the 127th cycle test. The results of high specific capacity and quick rise in utilization of microfibrous nickel hydroxide electrodes make these electrodes good candidates for significantly improving the energy density and performance of nickel-hydrogen cells.

  17. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  18. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  19. 40 CFR 421.240 - Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... secondary nickel subcategory. 421.240 Section 421.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory § 421.240 Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel... nickel by secondary nickel facilities processing slag, spent acids, or scrap metal raw materials....

  20. 40 CFR 421.240 - Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secondary nickel subcategory. 421.240 Section 421.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory § 421.240 Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel... nickel by secondary nickel facilities processing slag, spent acids, or scrap metal raw materials....

  1. 40 CFR 421.240 - Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secondary nickel subcategory. 421.240 Section 421.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory § 421.240 Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel... nickel by secondary nickel facilities processing slag, spent acids, or scrap metal raw materials....

  2. 40 CFR 421.240 - Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary nickel subcategory. 421.240 Section 421.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory § 421.240 Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel... nickel by secondary nickel facilities processing slag, spent acids, or scrap metal raw materials....

  3. 40 CFR 421.240 - Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... secondary nickel subcategory. 421.240 Section 421.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory § 421.240 Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel... nickel by secondary nickel facilities processing slag, spent acids, or scrap metal raw materials....

  4. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoogstraten, I. M. W.; Andersen, K. E.; Von Blomberg, B. M. E.; Boden, D.; Bruynzeel, D. P.; Burrows, D.; Camarasa, J. G.; Dooms-Goossens, A.; Kraal, G.; Lahti, A.; Menne, T.; Rycroft, R. J. G.; Shaw, S.; Todd, D.; Vreeburg, K. J. J.; Wilkinson, J. D.; Scheper, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    From animal studies we know that oral administration of T-dependent antigens before sensitization effectively induces systemic immune unresponsiveness. Such `oral tolerance' is persistent, dose-dependent, antigen-specific and presumably T suppressor cell-mediated. Oral tolerance induction could be an effective way to prevent undesired T cell-mediated immune functions, such as playing a role in allograft reaction, autoimmune and allergic diseases. In the present study allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH) to nickel, currently presenting the most frequent contact allergy in man, was chosen to establish the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency of nickel hypersensitivity. Frequencies of other hypersensitivities, in particular to fragrance, were not affected. These results support our view that induction of specific systemic immunologic tolerance by timely oral administration of antigens is feasible in man. PMID:1893625

  5. Amorphous nickel boride membrane on a platinum–nickel alloy surface for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    He, Daping; Zhang, Libo; He, Dongsheng; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Yue; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    The low activity of the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is a major barrier for electrocatalysis, and hence needs to be optimized. Tuning the surface electronic structure of platinum-based bimetallic alloys, a promising oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, plays a key role in controlling its interaction with reactants, and thus affects the efficiency. Here we report that a dealloying process can be utilized to experimentally fabricate the interface between dealloyed platinum–nickel alloy and amorphous nickel boride membrane. The coating membrane works as an electron acceptor to tune the surface electronic structure of the platinum–nickel catalyst, and this composite catalyst composed of crystalline platinum–nickel covered by amorphous nickel boride achieves a 27-times enhancement in mass activity relative to commercial platinum/carbon at 0.9 V for the oxygen reduction reaction performance. Moreover, this interactional effect between a crystalline surface and amorphous membrane can be readily generalized to facilitate the 3-times higher catalytic activity of commercial platinum/carbon. PMID:27503412

  6. Significantly improved electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of magnesium nickel hydride modified with nano-nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yunfeng; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Menghuai; Li, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium nickel hydride (Mg2NiH4) used as negative electrode material in nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) secondary battery is modified by nano-nickel via mechanical milling. In this paper, we systematically investigate the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the modified system with different milling durations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses confirm the amorphous transformation of Mg2Ni-based hydride and a novel NiH0.75 nanocrystalline with a diameter of about 5 nm embedding or covering on the surface of the base particle has been observed. Its formation mechanism and positive effects on electrochemical properties of the Mg2NiH4 have also been elaborated. Electrochemical measurements show that the 5 h milled composite possesses markedly increased discharge capacity up to 896 mAh g-1. With prolonging the milling duration from 5 h to 40 h, the discharge capacity at the 10th cycle increases from 99 mAh g-1 to 359 mAh g-1. Besides, the discharging procedure changes from stepwise processes to one single-step process with increasing the milling duration. Tafel polarization test shows that the nano-nickel modified system exhibits a much better anti-corrosion ability during charging/discharging cycles. Meanwhile, both the charge-transfer reaction on the alloy surface and hydrogen diffusion inside the alloy bulk are enhanced with nano-nickel modification.

  7. Amorphous nickel boride membrane on a platinum-nickel alloy surface for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daping; Zhang, Libo; He, Dongsheng; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Yue; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2016-08-01

    The low activity of the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is a major barrier for electrocatalysis, and hence needs to be optimized. Tuning the surface electronic structure of platinum-based bimetallic alloys, a promising oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, plays a key role in controlling its interaction with reactants, and thus affects the efficiency. Here we report that a dealloying process can be utilized to experimentally fabricate the interface between dealloyed platinum-nickel alloy and amorphous nickel boride membrane. The coating membrane works as an electron acceptor to tune the surface electronic structure of the platinum-nickel catalyst, and this composite catalyst composed of crystalline platinum-nickel covered by amorphous nickel boride achieves a 27-times enhancement in mass activity relative to commercial platinum/carbon at 0.9 V for the oxygen reduction reaction performance. Moreover, this interactional effect between a crystalline surface and amorphous membrane can be readily generalized to facilitate the 3-times higher catalytic activity of commercial platinum/carbon.

  8. Amorphous nickel boride membrane on a platinum-nickel alloy surface for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    He, Daping; Zhang, Libo; He, Dongsheng; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Yue; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Hong, Xun; Wu, Yuen; Chen, Chen; Li, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    The low activity of the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is a major barrier for electrocatalysis, and hence needs to be optimized. Tuning the surface electronic structure of platinum-based bimetallic alloys, a promising oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, plays a key role in controlling its interaction with reactants, and thus affects the efficiency. Here we report that a dealloying process can be utilized to experimentally fabricate the interface between dealloyed platinum-nickel alloy and amorphous nickel boride membrane. The coating membrane works as an electron acceptor to tune the surface electronic structure of the platinum-nickel catalyst, and this composite catalyst composed of crystalline platinum-nickel covered by amorphous nickel boride achieves a 27-times enhancement in mass activity relative to commercial platinum/carbon at 0.9 V for the oxygen reduction reaction performance. Moreover, this interactional effect between a crystalline surface and amorphous membrane can be readily generalized to facilitate the 3-times higher catalytic activity of commercial platinum/carbon. PMID:27503412

  9. Advanced nickel hydrogen cell configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, E.; Perez, F.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the current nickel hydrogen cell design is presented. The IPV, or the Individual Pressure Vessel, is the state of the art right now. The present design, 3 1/2 inch cell, has a current limit of 50 ampere-hours. The nickel hydrogen cell design is the state of the art. Its size is 3 1/2 inches which limits it to 50 hours. The probable limits of that are probably 160 amphere IPV cell remaining in the passive cooling mode. The IPV stacks is a parallel connection of electrodes. Positive electrodes are connected with leads to the top portion of the stack and negative electrodes are connected with leads and pulled down to the bottom. So it is a combination connection of paralleling series electrostacking--parallel inside each individual stack, and series connected from one stack to the next. It offers, in the analysis, improvements in packaging, cost, energy density, and specific energy.

  10. Lightweight, direct-radiating nickel hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Two battery module configurations were developed which, in addition to integrating cylindrical nickel hydrogen (NiH2) cells into batteries, provide advances in the means of mounting, monitoring and thermal control of these cells. The main difference between the two modules is the physical arrangement of the cells: vertical versus horizontal. Direct thermal radiation to deep space is accomplished by substituting the battery structure for an exterior spacecraft panel. Unlike most conventional nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and NiH2 batteries, the cells are not tightly packed together; therefore ancillary heat conducting media to outside radiating areas, and spacecraft deck reinforcements for high mass concentration are not necessary. Testing included electrical characterization and a comprehensive regime of environmental exposures. The designs are flexible with respect to quantity and type of cells, orbit altitude and period, power demand profile, and the extent of cell parameter monitoring. This paper compares the characteristics of the two battery modules and summarizes their performance.

  11. Metal dusting of nickel-containing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1998-12-31

    Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of carburization which leads to pitting and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon, metallic particles, and possibly oxides and carbides. This high temperature carburization mode is not yet well understood and while relatively infrequent, can be economically disastrous when it does occur in large and complex chemical and petrochemical process streams. References in the literature show that all classes of heat resistant alloys are prone to metal dusting, given the necessary and specific environmental conditions. These same references describe the environments that plague nickel-containing alloys and are used as the basis for postulation on the probable corrosion mechanisms responsible for metal dusting. Using alloy 800 and other nickel-containing alloys and metal dusting atmospheres, an effort is made to examine the steps in the metal dusting process and the temperature ranges over which metal dusting occurs.

  12. Electrocomposite of Alumina in Nickel Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong-Skiba, Pei; Hulguin, Ryan; Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Nickel/aluminum oxide composite was electroformed in a sulfamate bath with 50 g/L of 0.05-micron aluminum oxide powder. Different plating methods including direct current plating, periodic pulse plating, and periodic reverse pulse plating were used. With conventional direct current plating, the maximum particle inclusion in the nickel matrix remains about 2% (wt). However, much higher percentile particle inclusions were achieved when a specific pulse reversal plating technique was applied. The particle incorporation approaches theoretical maximum when the deposit thickness per cycle approaches the particle diameter size at lower duty cycle. The highest particle incorporation achieved is 23% (by weight). Conceptual models interpreting the dramatic differences in the results of these plating methods were also proposed.

  13. International Strategic Minerals Inventory summary report; nickel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Sutphin, D.M.; Werner, A.B.T.; Foose, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    Major world resources of nickel, a strategic mineral commodity, are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory {ISMI}. ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States of America. This report, designed to be of benefit to policy analysts, contains two parts. Part I presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of nickel on the basis of inventory information. Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource and production data that were collected by ISMI participants.

  14. High weldability nickel-base superalloy

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, Robert C.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    This is a nickel-base superalloy with excellent weldability and high strength. Its composition consists essentially of, by weight percent, 10-20 iron, 57-63 nickel, 7-18 chromium, 4-6 molybdenum, 1-2 niobium, 0.2-0.8 silicon, 0.01-0.05 zirconium, 1.0-2.5 titanium, 1.0-2.5 aluminum, 0.02-0.06 carbon, and 0.002-0.015 boron. The weldability and strength of this alloy give it a variety of applications. The long-time structural stability of this alloy together with its low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, make it especially suitable for use as a duct material and controlling element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors.

  15. Composite overwrapped nickel-hydrogen pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, John; Lewis, Joe

    1992-01-01

    The presentation is made in viewgraph format, the first of which states the purpose, which is to stimulate interest in composite overwrapped pressure vessel technology as applied to nickel hydrogen battery pressure vessels. The next viewgraph presents the history of nickel hydrogen pressure vessels over the last 15 years including materials, operating conditions, and market expansion to internationals. Basic materials properties are itemized such as thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strength to weight ratio. The monolithic and composite overwrapped construction approaches are compared. A detailed description is presented of the advantages of composite overwrapped pressure vessels showing weight savings, manufacturing schedule reductions, and improved fatigue life. A discussion is also presented of B-1 application, the wide range of usable materials, and a sketch of a possible optimized design.

  16. Role of cobalt in nickel base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, R.; Barefoot, J.; Tien, J.; Sanchez, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt or substituting for cobalt on the mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys is discussed. Waspaloy, UDIMET 700, and NIMONIC 115, which are representative of Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Ti-Mo superalloys having different gamma prime contents which are strengthened by a heavily alloyed matrix, coherent gamma prime precipitates, and carbides at the grain boundaries. Microstructure and in situ and extracted phase STEM micro-analysis were used to evaluate the three alloys.

  17. Nickel-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze-Sze; Ho, Chun-Yu; Schleicher, Kristin D.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Several reactions of simple, unactivated alkenes with electrophiles under nickel(0) catalysis are discussed. The coupling of olefins with aldehydes and silyl triflates provides allylic or homoallylic alcohol derivatives, depending on the supporting ligands and, to a lesser extent, the substrates employed. Reaction of alkenes with isocyanates yields N-alkyl acrylamides. In these methods, alkenes act as the functional equivalents of alkenyl- and allylmetal reagents. PMID:21814295

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed Stereoselective Dicarbofunctionalization of Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaodong; García-Domínguez, Andrés; Nevado, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    A nickel-catalyzed three-component reaction involving terminal alkynes, boronic acids, and alkyl halides is presented herein. Trisubstituted alkenes can be obtained in a highly regio- and stereocontrolled manner by the simultaneous addition of both aryl and alkyl groups across the triple bond in a radical-mediated process. The reaction, devoid of air- and moisture-sensitive organometallic reagents and catalysts, is operationally simple and offers a broad scope and functional-group tolerance. PMID:27111115

  19. Nickel in high-alumina basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedge, C.E.

    1971-01-01

    New analyses of high-alumina basalts reveal an average nickel content higher than previously indicated. Ni in high-alumina basalts correlates with magnesium in the same way as it does in other basalt types. There is therefore no reason, based on Ni contents, to hypothesize a special origin for high-alumina basalts and it is permissible (based on Ni contents) to form andesites by fractional crystallization from high-alumina basalts. ?? 1971.

  20. Nanoindentation study of size effects in nickel-graphene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Nair, Arun K.; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-04-01

    Metal-graphene nanocomposites find applications in nanoscale devices, as functional materials and can serve as a test bed to gain insight into fundamental deformation mechanisms of metals under geometric confinement. Here, we report full atomistic nanoindentation simulations for nickel-graphene nanocomposites with varied numbers of layers of graphene sheets to investigate the size effects on the hardness, and to understand how emerging dislocation loops interact with the nickel-graphene interface under varied geometric confinements. A detailed analysis of the plastic deformation mechanism shows that as dislocation loops reach the nickel-graphene interface, the local bending of the graphene sheet is altered and further dislocation propagation is blocked. An increase in the number of graphene layers decreases the hardness, but increases the maximum elastic deformation of the nickel-graphene nanocomposites. These findings indicate that the mechanical properties of nickel-graphene nanocomposites can be engineered by controlling the thickness of nickel and graphene layers, respectively.

  1. Peptide and carbohydrate complexes of nickel in human kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, D M; Sarkar, B

    1985-01-01

    The predominant renal and urinary forms of nickel consist of low-Mr complexes. Similarities in the nature of these complexes have been found in kidneys of rats exposed parenterally to NiCl2 and in rat kidneys treated with NiCl2 in vitro. Similar complexes have also been identified after treatment of bovine and human renal soluble fractions with NiCl2. The bulk of nickel in all cases is associated with sulphated oligosaccharide fractions containing uronic acids and neutral sugars. This binding is non-specific, and nickel is readily displaced from these fractions by copper. Smaller amounts of nickel are bound to an acidic peptide, which was purified from human kidneys and partially characterized. Nickel was not displaced from this material by copper at physiological pH. These nickel complexes have not been found in plasma, suggesting that ligand exchange occurs during or after glomerular filtration of the metal. PMID:4052044

  2. Hyperaccumulation, complexation and distribution of nickel in Sebertia acuminata.

    PubMed

    Sagner, S; Kneer, R; Wanner, G; Cosson, J P; Deus-Neumann, B; Zenk, M H

    1998-02-01

    The nickel content in different parts of the hyperaccumulating tree Sebertia acuminata was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Nickel was found to be mainly located in laticifers. The total nickel content of a single mature tree was estimated to be 37 kg. By gel filtration and NMR spectroscopy, citric acid was unequivocally identified as counter ion for about 40% of this metal present. Nitrate was assumed to be a further partner for a complete ionic balance. Phytochelatins were not found to be involved in nickel detoxification in Sebertia. The localization of nickel complexes inside the laticifers was demonstrated by light microscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy in combination with an EDX system for the analysis of elements. A repellent effect of the plant sap was observed on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster indicating that in hyperaccumulating plants nickel functions as an agent to prevent predation. PMID:9433812

  3. Gyroid nickel nanostructures from diblock copolymer supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Ivana; Punzhin, Sergey; Voet, Vincent S D; Vukovic, Zorica; de Hosson, Jeff Th M; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous metal foams possess a unique combination of properties - they are catalytically active, thermally and electrically conductive, and furthermore, have high porosity, high surface-to-volume and strength-to-weight ratio. Unfortunately, common approaches for preparation of metallic nanostructures render materials with highly disordered architecture, which might have an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures and can be applied as templates for the preparation of well-ordered metal nanofoams. Here we describe the application of a block copolymer-based supramolecular complex - polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(pentadecylphenol) PS-b-P4VP(PDP) - as a precursor for well-ordered nickel nanofoam. The supramolecular complexes exhibit a phase behavior similar to conventional block copolymers and can self-assemble into the bicontinuous gyroid morphology with two PS networks placed in a P4VP(PDP) matrix. PDP can be dissolved in ethanol leading to the formation of a porous structure that can be backfilled with metal. Using electroless plating technique, nickel can be inserted into the template's channels. Finally, the remaining polymer can be removed via pyrolysis from the polymer/inorganic nanohybrid resulting in nanoporous nickel foam with inverse gyroid morphology. PMID:24797367

  4. Electrospinning of Ceria and Nickel Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerasi, Jyothi Swaroop Reddy

    Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine fibers from a liquid. It has very high potential for industrial processing. Electrospinning is cost effective, repeatable and it can produce long, continuous nanofibers. Polymers such as polyalcohol, polyamides, and PLLA can be easily electrospun. The increase in demand for clean energy combined with the research work in progress and the potential advantages of electrospun electrodes over conventionally fabricated SOFCs makes electrospinning a strong candidate. In this thesis, ceramic nanofibers (ceria and nickel oxide) that can potentially be used in SOFCs are fabricated. A three-phase approach is implemented in the fabrication of ceria and nickel oxide nanofibers. The first phase involves the preparation of the composite ceramic-polymer solution to be electrospun. The second phase gives the processing conditions such as voltage applied, feed rate, and gauge of syringe tip used for successfully electrospinning composite ceramic-polymer fibers. The final stage demonstrates the temperature cycles used to burn out the polymer and calcine the ceramic particles in the ceramic-polymer nanofibers leaving behind ceria and nickel oxide nanofibers. Techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to measure the average diameter of the fibers formed and to understand the chemical composition and crystallanity of the nanofibers after calcination. This thesis also discusses the advantages and possibility of fabricating side-by-side nanofibers and oriented nanofiber mats.

  5. Gyroid Nickel Nanostructures from Diblock Copolymer Supramolecules

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Ivana; Punzhin, Sergey; Voet, Vincent S. D.; Vukovic, Zorica; de Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous metal foams possess a unique combination of properties - they are catalytically active, thermally and electrically conductive, and furthermore, have high porosity, high surface-to-volume and strength-to-weight ratio. Unfortunately, common approaches for preparation of metallic nanostructures render materials with highly disordered architecture, which might have an adverse effect on their mechanical properties. Block copolymers have the ability to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures and can be applied as templates for the preparation of well-ordered metal nanofoams. Here we describe the application of a block copolymer-based supramolecular complex - polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine)(pentadecylphenol) PS-b-P4VP(PDP) - as a precursor for well-ordered nickel nanofoam. The supramolecular complexes exhibit a phase behavior similar to conventional block copolymers and can self-assemble into the bicontinuous gyroid morphology with two PS networks placed in a P4VP(PDP) matrix. PDP can be dissolved in ethanol leading to the formation of a porous structure that can be backfilled with metal. Using electroless plating technique, nickel can be inserted into the template's channels. Finally, the remaining polymer can be removed via pyrolysis from the polymer/inorganic nanohybrid resulting in nanoporous nickel foam with inverse gyroid morphology. PMID:24797367

  6. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell. I Initial performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.; Blaser, C.; Keener, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, an investigation was begun to study the effects of sinter structure and active material loading level on the long life performance of nickel electrodes. This paper is a report on the initial performance of these electrodes as a part of an accelerated life test program. Seven different types of nickel plaques were made which included three levels of both their mechanical strength and median pore size. These plaques were impregnated with three levels of active material loading. The resultant electrodes were tested by a 200-cycle stress test which was conducted in flooded electrolyte, and also for initial performance in a Ni/H2 boiler plate cell. An interesting and unexpected observation was that an increased initial utilization of the active material was due more to its complete discharge to the lower average oxidation state than its increased charge acceptance in the charged state.

  7. Structural, optical and electrochromic properties of nickel oxide thin films grown from electrodeposited nickel sulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uplane, M. M.; Mujawar, S. H.; Inamdar, A. I.; Shinde, P. S.; Sonavane, A. C.; Patil, P. S.

    2007-10-01

    Nickel oxide thin films were grown onto FTO-coated glass substrates by a two-step process: electrodeposition of nickel sulphide and their thermal oxidation at 425, 475 and 525 °C. The influence of thermal oxidation temperature on structural, optical, morphological and electrochromic properties was studied. The structural properties undoubtedly revealed NiO formation. The electrochromic properties were studied by means of cyclic voltammetry. The films exhibited anodic electrochromism, changing from a transparent state to a coloured state at +0.75 V versus SCE, i.e. by simultaneous ion and electron ejection. The transmittance in the coloured and bleached states was recorded to access electrochromic quality of the films. Colouration efficiency and electrochromic reversibility were found to be maximum (21 mC/cm 2 and 89%, respectively) for the films oxidized at 425 °C. The optical band gap energy of nickel oxide slightly varies with increase in annealing temperature.

  8. Analysis for nickel (3 and 4) in positive plates from nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard procedure for destructive physical analysis (DPA) of nickel-cadmium cells contains a method for analysis of residual charged nickel as NiOOH in the positive plates at complete cell discharge, also known as nickel precharge. In the method, the Ni(III) is treated with an excess of an Fe(II) reducing agent and then back titrated with permanganate. The Ni(III) content is the difference between Fe(II) equivalents and permanganate equivalents. Problems have arisen in analysis at NAVSURFWARCENDIV, Crane because for many types of cells, particularly AA-size and some 'space-qualified' cells, zero or negative Ni(III) contents are recorded for which the manufacturer claims 3-5 percent precharge. Our approach to this problem was to reexamine the procedure for the source of error, and correct it or develop an alternative method.

  9. Toxicity, uptake, and mutagenicity of particulate and soluble nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, G G; Rossetto, F E; Turnbull, J D; Nieboer, E

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity testing in AS52 cells (24-hr exposures) gave LC50 values of 2 to 130 micrograms Ni/ml for particulate nickel compounds and 45 to 60 micrograms Ni/ml for water-soluble salts (NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(CH3COO)2). The Ni(OH)2, NiCO3, and sulfides (Ni3S2, Ni7S6, "amorphous NiS") exhibited similar toxicities (LC50's of 2 to 8 micrograms Ni/ml), while three nickel oxides were more variable and less toxic (LC50's of 18 to 130 micrograms Ni/ml). Most compounds displayed nuclear to cytoplasmic nickel ratios of approximately 1:1.5 to 1:5 (except approximately 1:20 for nickel salts). At the LC50's, a 75-fold range in exposure levels occurred compared to a 10-fold range in cytoplasmic and nuclear nickel concentrations, [Ni]. Cellular nickel distribution indicated three groupings: inert compounds (green NiO, lithium nickel oxide, relatively low nuclear and cytosolic [Ni]); water-soluble salts (very low nuclear [Ni]; high cytosolic [Ni]), and slightly soluble compounds (relatively high cytosolic and nuclear [Ni]). Nickel compounds are considered to be only weak or equivocal mutagens. In this study, a low but significant increase in mutation rate at the gpt locus was shown. Although the results would not be sufficient to deem nickel compounds mutagenic by traditional criteria, characterization by PCR analysis indicated that the spontaneous and nickel-induced mutants exhibited different and compound-specific mutational spectra (thus confirming nickel compound involvement). The results reported illustrate some of the methodologic problems involved in testing "weak" mutagens and indicate that alternative approaches may be necessary in classifying the mutagenicity of nickel and other compounds. PMID:7843140

  10. Directionally solidified eutectic gamma plus beta nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma + beta nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature strength and oxidation resistance properties is provided. This comprises a two phase eutectic structure containing, on a weight percent basis, 5.0-15.0 tungsten, 8.5-14.5 aluminum, 0.0-35.0 cobalt and the balance being nickel. Embedded within the gamma phase nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic beta phase (primarily (NiCo)Al reinforcing lamellae.

  11. Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy

    DOEpatents

    Guilinger, Terry R.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

  12. Performance of a dual anode nickel-hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to characterize the voltage performance of a nickel hydrogen cell containing a hydrogen electrode on both sides of the nickel electrode. The dual anode cell was compared with a convenient single anode cell using the same nickel electrode. Higher discharge voltages and lower charge voltages were obtained with the dual anode cell during constant current discharges to 10C, pulse discharges to 8C, and polarization measurements at 50 percent of charge.

  13. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Sealock, John L.

    1998-01-01

    A method of hydrogenation using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions.

  14. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  15. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube’s magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization.

  16. Nickel-Based Superalloy Resists Embrittlement by Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan; Chen, PoShou

    2008-01-01

    A nickel-based superalloy that resists embrittlement by hydrogen more strongly than does nickel alloy 718 has been developed. Nickel alloy 718 is the most widely used superalloy. It has excellent strength and resistance to corrosion as well as acceptably high ductility, and is recognized as the best alloy for many high-temperature applications. However, nickel alloy 718 is susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and to delayed failure and reduced tensile properties in gaseous hydrogen. The greater resistance of the present nickel-based superalloy to adverse effects of hydrogen makes this alloy a superior alternative to nickel alloy 718 for applications that involve production, transfer, and storage of hydrogen, thereby potentially contributing to the commercial viability of hydrogen as a clean-burning fuel. The table shows the composition of the present improved nickel-based superalloy in comparison with that of nickel alloy 718. This composition was chosen to obtain high resistance to embrittlement by hydrogen while maintaining high strength and exceptional resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The most novel property of this alloy is that it resists embrittlement by hydrogen while retaining tensile strength greater than 175 kpsi (greater than 1.2 GPa). This alloy exhibits a tensile elongation of more than 20 percent in hydrogen at a pressure of 5 kpsi (approximately equal to 34 MPa) without loss of ductility. This amount of elongation corresponds to 50 percent more ductility than that exhibited by nickel alloy 718 under the same test conditions.

  17. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube's magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization. PMID:26459370

  18. Ab Initio Coordination Chemistry for Nickel Chelation Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Jesu Jaya Sudan, R.; Lesitha Jeeva Kumari, J.; Sudandiradoss, C.

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies. PMID:25985439

  19. Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Niranjan, Ram Rout, R. K. Srivastava, R. Gupta, Satish C.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Patel, N. N.; Alex, P.

    2014-04-24

    Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

  20. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets

    PubMed Central

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube’s magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization. PMID:26459370

  1. Quantitative chemical analysis of nickel-chromium dental casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, K; Kuroiwa, A; Ando, Y; Hashimoto, H

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-nine brands of dental casting nickel-chromium alloys made in Japan for small castings were analyzed by electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. Nickel-chromium alloys for metal-ceramic application were composed primarily of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum with the exception of one brand. Of the nickel-chromium alloys for inlay, crown, and bridgework applications, 11 of the 22 alloys were up to the standard of the Ministry of Welfare specifications. And additive metal elements of these alloys were molybdenum, iron, copper, manganese, aluminum, silicon, tin, indium, silver, titanium, and gallium. PMID:2134288

  2. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    To assist groups interested in inventorying air emissions of various potentially toxic substances, EPA is preparing a series of documents such as this to compile available information on sources and emissions of these substances. This document deals specifically with nickel. Its intended audience includes Federal, State and local air pollution personnel and others interested in locating potential emitters of nickel and in making gross estimates of air emissions therefrom. This document presents information on (1) the types of sources that may emit nickel, (2) process variations and release points that may be expected within these sources, and (3) available emissions information indicating the potential for nickel release into the air from each operation.

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer 1965 DETAILPLASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer 1965 DETAIL-PLASTER FRIEZE SOUTHEAST CORNER, THIRD FLOOR - Isidore Heller House, 5132 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer 1965 MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer 1965 MAIN HALL (FIRST FLOOR) LOOKING EAST INTO LIVINGROOM - Isidore Heller House, 5132 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces A. Exempt Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials...

  10. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  11. The measurement of the stacking fault energy in copper, nickel and copper-nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, H. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship of hydrogen solubility and the hydrogen embrittlement of high strength, high performance face centered cubic alloys to the stacking fault energy of the alloys was investigated. The stacking fault energy is inversely related to the distance between the two partial dislocations which are formed by the dissociation of a perfect dislocation. The two partial dislocations define a stacking fault in the crystal which offers a region for hydrogen segregation. The distance between the partial dislocations is measured by weak beam, dark field transmission electron microscopy. The stacking fault energy is calculated. Pure copper, pure nickel and copper-nickel single crystals are used to determine the stacking fault energy.

  12. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  13. Thermal and mechanical treatments for nickel and some nickel-base alloys: Effects on mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, A. M.; Beuhring, V. F.

    1972-01-01

    This report deals with heat treating and working nickel and nickel-base alloys, and with the effects of these operations on the mechanical properties of the materials. The subjects covered are annealing, solution treating, stress relieving, stress equalizing, age hardening, hot working, cold working, combinations of working and heat treating (often referred to as thermomechanical treating), and properties of the materials at various temperatures. The equipment and procedures used in working the materials are discussed, along with the common problems that may be encountered and the precautions and corrective measures that are available.

  14. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  15. Nickel nanoparticles in hydrogen transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Francisco; Riente, Paola; Yus, Miguel

    2011-05-17

    The transfer hydrogenation of organic compounds is a much safer and more environmentally benign process than reduction reactions involving molecular hydrogen, metal hydrides, or dissolving metals. In transfer hydrogenation, 2-propanol is often preferred as the source of hydrogen because it is cheap, easy to remove, and environmentally friendly. This class of transformation has been mostly pursued through the use of expensive noble metals, such as Ru, Pd, and so forth; research involving cheaper catalytically active metals has been relatively neglected. On the other hand, alcohols have recently emerged as desirable alkylating agents, a useful alternative to organic halides, in reactions of hydrogen autotransfer, also known as the "borrowing of hydrogen" methodology. For instance, the α-alkylation of ketones with alcohols is an atom-efficient process that produces water as the only byproduct in the presence of a noble metal catalyst. Hydrogen autotransfer is also successful in the synthesis of amines through a reductive aza-Wittig reaction, which involves an iminophosphorane and primary alcohol under iridium catalysis. The in situ oxidation-Wittig olefination of primary alcohols with stabilized phosphorus ylides is a commonly practiced method in organic synthesis that precludes the necessity of handling aldehydes. These reactions are normally performed in one pot but sequentially; thus the course of the alcohol oxidation needs monitoring before the ylide addition. In this Account, we describe the development of our discovery that nickel(0), in the form of nanoparticles, can replace the more expensive noble metals in both transfer hydrogenation and hydrogen autotransfer reactions. These nanoparticles were found to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of olefins and carbonyl compounds, as well as the reductive amination of aldehydes, with 2-propanol as the hydrogen donor. All reactions proceeded in the absence of base, and the catalyst could be easily and successfully

  16. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  17. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Teh-Long; Lai, Yuan-Lung; Yu, Jen-Wei; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2009-10-15

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  18. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1988-03-15

    A nickel aluminide is described consisting essentially of: a Ni/sub 3/Al base; a sufficient concentration of a Group IVB element or mixtures thereof to increase high temperature strength; a sufficient concentration of boron to increase ductility; and a sufficient concentration of chromium to increase ductility at elevated temperatures in oxidizing environments.

  19. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.T.

    1988-03-15

    This patent describes a nickel aluminide consisting essentially of: a Ni{sub 3}Al base; a sufficient concentration of a Group IVB element or mixtures thereof to increase high temperature strength; a sufficient concentration of boron to increase ductility; and a sufficient concentration of chromium to increase ductility at elevated temperatures in oxidizing environments.

  20. Electrochemical investigation of the voltammetric determination of hydrochlorothiazide using a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Machini, Wesley B S; David-Parra, Diego N; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2015-12-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode as well as its behavior as electrocatalyst toward the oxidation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were investigated. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electrooxidation of HCTZ were explored using cyclic voltammetry. The voltammetric response of the modified electrode in the detection of HCTZ is based on the electrochemical oxidation of the Ni(II)/Ni(III) and a chemical redox process. The analytical parameters for the electrooxidation of HCTZ by the nickel hydroxide modified nickel electrode were obtained in NaOH solution, in which the linear voltammetric response was in the concentration range from 1.39×10(-5) to 1.67×10(-4)mol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 7.92×10(-6)mol L(-1) and a sensitivity of 0.138 μA Lmmol(-1). Tafel analysis was used to elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of HCTZ oxidation by the modified electrode. PMID:26354274

  1. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for a Nickel-hydrogen Cell: Cycle Life Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, cycle life tests of nickel electrodes were carried out in Hi/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45-minute low earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. The results show that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength did not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. The best plaque type appears to be one which is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has a median pore size of 13 micron.

  2. Chemical reactivity of nickel and nickel-based alloys with a SiAlON ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Vleugels, J.; Van Der Biest, O.

    1995-11-01

    At the high cutting speeds typical for machining with ceramics and the concomitant high temperatures generated at the cutting edge and the rake face of the tool, chemical interaction between tool and workpiece material becomes the predominant mode of tool wear. To obtain more information concerning this chemical interaction mechanism, the chemical interaction of a {beta}{prime}-O{prime} SiAlON ceramic with pure nickel, Inconel 600, and Nimonic 105 is studied. The chemical reactivity was assessed by studying ceramic-alloy interaction couples after exposure at elevated temperatures (1,100--1,200 C) for times long enough to be able to characterize the interaction layer. At 1,200 C, the {beta}{prime}-O{prime} SiAlON ceramic dissociates in contact with pure nickel. Silicon from the dissociation of the ceramic dissolves and diffuses into the nickel, whereas Al and O form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. At the interface, a nitrogen pressure is built up. Inconel 600 is very reactive with the SiAlON ceramic, with the formation of molten silicides at 1,200 C. Cr{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12} are the major reaction products. The reactivity of Nimonic 105 is less than that of pure nickel because of the formation of a continuous protective TiN layer at the ceramic-metal interface.

  3. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  4. High rate, large area laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paserin, Vlad

    High-power diode lasers (HPDL) are being increasingly used in industrial applications. Deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4 ) precursor by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied with emphasis on achieving high deposition rates. An HPDL system was used to provide a novel energy source facilitating a simple and compact design of the energy delivery system. Nickel deposits on complex, 3-dimensional polyurethane foam substrates were prepared and characterized. The resulting "nickel foam" represents a novel material of high porosity (>95% by volume) finding uses, among others, in the production of rechargeable battery and fuel cell electrodes and as a specialty high-temperature filtration medium. Deposition rates up to ˜19 mum/min were achieved by optimizing the gas precursor flow pattern and energy delivery to the substrate surface using a 480W diode laser. Factors affecting the transition from purely heterogeneous decomposition to a combined hetero- and homogeneous decomposition of nickel carbonyl were studied. High quality, uniform 3-D deposits produced at a rate more than ten times higher than in commercial processes were obtained by careful balance of mass transport (gas flow) and energy delivery (laser power). Cross-flow of the gases through the porous substrate was found to be essential in facilitating mass transport and for obtaining uniform deposits at high rates. When controlling the process in a transient regime (near the onset of homogenous decomposition), unique morphology features formed as part of the deposits, including textured surface with pyramid-shape crystallites, spherical and non-spherical particles and filaments. Operating the laser in a pulsed mode produced smooth, nano-crystalline deposits with sub-100 nm grains. The effect of H2S, a commonly used additive in nickel carbonyl CVD, was studied using both polyurethane and nickel foam substrates. H2S was shown to improve the substrate coverage and deposit

  5. Development of nickel-iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Cathcart, J.V.; Goodwin, G.M.; Horton, J.A.; Lee, E.H.; Campbell, J.

    1987-09-01

    The objective of this program is to design and characterize new, improved high-temperature materials based on boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al + Fe for structural use in advanced coal conversion systems. Chromium is a key alloying element that improves resistance to oxidation, corrosion, and environmental embrittlement in nickel-iron aluminides by promoting the rapid formation of protective oxide scales. Alloying with 3 to 7 at.% Cr dramatically reduces dynamic embrittlement in oxidizing environments at 400 to 800/sup 0/C. Chromium and iron additions increase the stability of the ordered body-centered cubic phase that is brittle at room temperature and weak at elevated temperatures. The formation of the B2 phase in the aluminides leads to lowering the tensile ductility at lower temperatures and the strength at higher temperatures. This study of alloying effects has led to the development of an aluminide with the composition: Ni-18.5 +- 0.5% Al-10.5 +- 0.5% Fe-7 +- 0.5% Cr-0.2% Zr-0.7% Mo-0.1% B( at.%). Corrosion studies have demonstrated that chromium additions of 7 at.% or greater were very effective in minimizing the sulfur attack on nickel-iron aluminides. Sulfidation protection can also be afforded by oxide films produced in air; however, the oxidation temperature should be 1000 to 1050/sup 0/C, and the alloys must contain 3 at.% or greater chromium. The nickel-iron aluminides developed were weldable using both the electron beam and gas tungsten arc processes. 19 refs., 24 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Real time monitoring of electroless nickel plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rains, Aaron E.; Kline, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the design and manufacturing of the heat and chemical resistant transducer case required for on-line immersion testing, experimental design, data acquisition and signal processing. Results are presented for several depositions with an accuracy of two ten-thousandths of an inch in coating thickness obtained. Monitoring the deposition rate of Electroless Nickel (EN) plating in-situ will provide measurement of the accurate dimensions of the component being plated, in real time. EN is used as for corrosion and wear protection for automotive an - Electroless Nickel (EN) plating is commonly used for corrosion and wear protection for automotive and aerospace components. It plates evenly and symmetrically, theoretically allowing the part to be plated to its final dimension. Currently the standard approach to monitoring the thickness of the deposited nickel is to remove the component from the plating bath and physically measure the part. This can lead to plating problems such as pitting, non-adhesion of the deposit and contamination of the plating solution. The goal of this research effort is to demonstrate that plating thickness can be rapidly and accurately measured using ultrasonic testing. Here a special housing is designed to allow immersion of the ultrasonic transducers directly into the plating bath. An FFT based signal processing algorithm was developed to resolve closely spaced echoes for precise thickness determination. The technique in this research effort was found to be capable of measuring plating thicknesses to within 0.0002 inches. It is expected that this approach will lead to cost savings in many EN plating operations.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  10. Nickel base alloy. [for gas turbine engine stator vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A nickel base superalloy for use at temperatures of 2000 F (1095 C) to 2200 F (1205 C) was developed for use as stator vane material in advanced gas turbine engines. The alloy has a nominal composition in weight percent of 16 tungsten, 7 aluminum, 1 molybdenum, 2 columbium, 0.3 zirconium, 0.2 carbon and the balance nickel.

  11. Process for producing nickel electrode having lightweight substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A nickel electrode having a lightweight porous nickel substrate is subjected to a formation cycle involving heavy overcharging and under-discharging in a KOH electrolyte having a concentration of 26% to 31%, resulting in electrodes displaying high active material utilization.

  12. High temperature adsorption of nitrogen on a polycrystalline nickel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughaba, S.; Auvert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel tetracarbonyl [Ni(CO)4] molecules were used as a probe to investigate the coverage of a heated polycrystalline nickel surface with nitrogen adspecies. For this purpose, the deposition kinetics of nickel (Ni) microstructures from the thermal decomposition of nickel tetracarbonyl was investigated as a function of the partial pressure of nitrogen (N2), used as buffer gas. The laser-induced chemical vapor deposition technique was used to produce polycrystalline nickel lines in an atmosphere of pure Ni(CO)4 or a [Ni(CO)4+N2] mixture. The deposition process was performed on polysilicon/silicon dioxide/<100> monosilicon substrates. As a heat source, a cw argon-ion laser was used. The laser-induced surface temperature was varied in the range 500-850 °C. For Ni(CO)4 partial pressures typically below 0.3 mbar, the nickel deposition rate was found to decrease as the N2 partial pressure increases. For higher Ni(CO)4 partial pressures, the deposition rate was found to be independent of the N2 partial pressure. On the basis of these results, the high temperature adsorption of nitrogen on a polycrystalline nickel surface was investigated. A model which accounts for the dependence of the nickel deposition rate and surface coverage with nitrogen adspecies on the N2 partial pressure was elaborated.

  13. Modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental design, parameters, and testing of a modified NASA standard nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. Modifications regarding positive plate loading levels and nickel attack levels, loading levels for the negative plates, interelectrode spacing, and the positive electrode impregnation process are addressed.

  14. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  15. Biocompatibility of Textile Titanium Nickel Implants with Fibroblast Culture.

    PubMed

    Kokorev, O V; Khodorenko, V N; Anikeev, S G; Gunther, V E

    2015-05-01

    The parameters of biocompatibility of titanium nickel implants of different design with fibroblast culture are studied. Colonization of textile and mesh implants with fibroblasts and tissue development depend on the size of mesh cells and thread diameter. Titanium nickel implants of different constructions do not inhibit the growth of fibroblast culture. PMID:26028231

  16. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  17. Fabrication and testing of large size nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and construction of nickel zinc cells, containing sintered nickel electrodes and asbestos coated inorganic separator materials, were outlined. Negative electrodes were prepared by a dry pressing process while various inter-separators were utilized on the positive electrodes, consisting of non-woven nylon, non-woven polypropylene, and asbestos.

  18. Nickel adsorbent for sulfur removal from hydrocarbon feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, G.W.; Swan, G.A.

    1987-01-06

    This patent describes which includes in combination a hydrofiner, sulfur trap, and reforming unit, the hydrofiner located upstream of the reforming unit, for hydrofining a sulfur-containing naptha to remove a major portion of the sulfur, the sulfur trap located downstream of the hydrofiner which contains a nickel catalyst constituted of from about 10 weight percent to about 70 weight percent nickel dispersed on a support. The low-sulfur naphtha from the hydrofiner is passed therethrough and contacted with the nickel catalyst to remove sulfur from the naphtha, the reforming unit for reforming, with hydrogen, the low-sulphur naphtha from the hydrofiner and nickel-containing sulfur trap. The reforming unit contains catalyst-containing on-stream reactors connected in series, the hydrogen and low-sulfur naphtha feed flowing from one reactor of the series to another to contact the catalyst contained therein at reforming conditions. The improvement described here is wherein the nickel catalyst contained in the sulfur trap is one wherein the average crystallite size of the nickel is greater than 92 A and nickel surface area ranges between about 3l m/sup 2//g and about 52 m/sup 2//g, and at least 50 percent of the nickel is in reduced state, based on the total weight of the supported component.

  19. Nickel and chromium isotopes in Allende inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birck, J. L.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-precision nickel and chromium isotopic measurements were carried out on nine Allende inclusions. It is found that Ni-62, Ni-64, excesses are present in at least three of the samples. The results suggest that the most likely mechanism for the anomalies is a neutron-rich statistical equilibrium process. An indication of elevated Ni-60 is found in almost every inclusion measured. This effect is thought to be related to the decay of now extinct Fe-60. An upper limit of 1.6 X 10 to the -6th is calculated for the Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio at the time these Allende inclusions crystallized.

  20. Nickel-hydrogen Cell Test Program Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1985-01-01

    Three prototype 50 ampere-hour (Ah) nickel-hydrogen cells of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AWFAL) design were cycled to failure. A summary of the life cycling tests and failure analyses of the cells are presented. The cells were cycled in a simulated low earth orbit regime at depths of discharge ranging from 25 to 80 percent. Trend data, such as end of discharge voltage and cell capacity, was recorded during test. Cells 1, 2, and 3 completed 17167, 2473, and 10080 charge/discharge cycles, respectively, prior to failure. All failed due to internal shorts, and were disassembled to determine cause of failure.

  1. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation have been to define the structures of charged active mass, discharged active mass, and related precursor materials (alpha-phases), with the purpose of better understanding the chemical and electrochemical reactions, including failure mechanisms and cobalt incorporation, so that the nickel electrode may be improved. Although our primary tool has been Raman spectroscopy, the structural conclusions drawn from the Raman data have been supported and augmented by three other analysis methods: infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (in particular EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy).

  2. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  3. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, J.; Lucas, T. C.; Cairns, A. B.; Funnell, N. P.; Tucker, M. G.; Kleppe, A. K.; Hriljac, J. A.; Goodwin, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN)2. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN)2 does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  4. Pulsed electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Grimmett, D.L.; Schwartz, M.; Nobe, K. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on the effects of dc, pulse, and pulse reverse current waveforms on deposition of Fe-Ni alloys studied in unagitated solutions and with a rotating cylindrical electrode. A nickel sulfamate/ferrous chloride electrolyte system at pH 2 less than 2 A/dm{sup 2}. Pulse reverse plating led to a decrease in anomalous deposition at low current densities. Rotating cylindrical electrodes indicated significant mass transfer effects at high current densities. During pulse reverse plating an increase in anodic pulse magnitude decreased anomalous deposition; pulse frequency had its greatest effect in reducing anomalous deposition between 100 and 300 Hz.

  5. Structural models for nickel electrode active mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, B. C.; Karjala, P. J.; Loyselle, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data allow one to distinguish nickel electrode active mass, alpha and beta phase materials. Discharges active mass is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. This is contrary to the generally accepted model for the discharged beta phase of active mass. It is concluded that charged active mass displays a disordered and nonstoichiometric, nonclose packed structure of the R3 bar m, NiOOH structure type. Raman spectral data and X ray diffraction data are analyzed and shown to be consistent with this structural model.

  6. Structural models for nickel electrode active mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.; Karjala, P. J.; Loyselle, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic data allow one to distinguish nickel electrode active mass, alpha and beta phase materials. Discharges active mass is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. This is contrary to the generally accepted model for the discharged beta phase of active mass. It is concluded that charged active mass displays a disordered and nonstoichiometric, nonclose packed structure of the R3 bar m, NiOOH structure type. Raman spectral data and x ray diffraction data are analyzed and shown to be consistent with this structural model.

  7. Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Hansel; Hudson, Steve; Bhat, Biliyar; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules composed of carbon atoms in a regular hexagonal arrangement. If nanotubes can be uniformly dispersed in a supporting matrix to form structural materials, the resulting structures could be significantly lighter and stronger than current aerospace materials. Work is currently being done to develop an electrolyte-based self-assembly process that produces a Carbon Nanotube/Nickel composite material with high specific strength. This process is expected to produce a lightweight metal matrix composite material, which maintains it's thermal and electrical conductivities, and is potentially suitable for applications such as advanced structures, space based optics, and cryogenic tanks.

  8. Size-dependent thermopower of nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Jaiveer; Kaurav, N.; Okram, Gunadhor S.

    2014-04-24

    Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition method using Trioctylphosphine (TOP) and Oleylamine (OA). The average particle size (D) estimated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) using Scherrer equation, to be 1-10nm, systematically decreases with increasing concentration of TOP at constant OA concentration. The observed thermopower strongly depends on particle size particularly at low temperatures reaching a very high value of ∼ 10{sup 5} μV/K (at 20 K), and is attributed to the enhanced grain-boundary scattering combined with quantum confinement.

  9. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  10. An all-nickel magnetostatic MEMS scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Niklas; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The design, fabrication and detailed characterization of a fully electroplated, magnetostatic low-cost MEMS scanning mirror are presented. By electroplating bright nickel on a sacrificial substrate, robust soft-magnetic micromirrors may be fabricated. The technology is simpler and cheaper than the standard process using bulk silicon micromachining of silicon-on-insulator wafers for fabricating magnetostatic scanners. The presented Ni mirrors exhibit deflection angles of ±7° at resonance for small external magnetic fields of 0.23 mT. Such magnetic fields are easily generated by miniaturized solenoids, making integration, for instance, into endoscopic systems possible.

  11. Multikilowatt Bipolar Nickel/Hydrogen Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    High energy densities appear feasible. Nickel/hydrogen battery utilizing bipolar construction in common pressure vessel, addressing needs for multikilowatt storage for low-Earth-orbit applications, designed and 10-cell prototype model tested. Modular-concept-design 35-kW battery projected energy densities of 20 to 24 Wh/b (160 to 190 kj/kg) and 700 to 900 Wh/ft3 (90 to 110 MJ/m3) and incorporated significant improvements over state-of-the-art storage systems.

  12. Development of nickel-metal hydride cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwajima, Saburo; Kamimori, Nolimits; Nakatani, Kensuke; Yano, Yoshiaki

    1993-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has conducted the research and development (R&D) of battery cells for space use. A new R&D program about a Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) cell for space use from this year, based on good results in evaluations of commercial Ni-MH cells in Tsukuba Space Center (TKSC), was started. The results of those commercial Ni-MH cell's evaluations and recent status about the development of Ni-MH cells for space use are described.

  13. New separators for nickel-zinc batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flexible separators consisting of a substrate coated with a mixture of a polymer and organic and inorganic additives were cycle tested in nickel-zinc cells. By substituting a rubber-based resin for polyphenylene oxide in the standard inorganic-organic separator, major improvements in both cell life and flexibility were made. Substituting newsprint for asbestos as the substrate shows promise for use on the zinc electrode and reduces separator cost. The importance of ample electrolyte in the cells was noted. Cycle lives and the characteristics of these flexible, low-cost separators were compared with those of a standard microporous polypropylene separator.

  14. Advanced nickel-hydrogen cell configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, E.; Perez, F.

    1984-01-01

    Three nickel hydrogen battery designs, individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), and a bipolar battery module were studied. Weight, system complexity and cost were compared for a satellite operating in a 6 hour, 5600 nautical mile orbit. The required energy storage is 52 kWh. A 25% improvement in specific energy is observed by employing a bipolar battery versus a battery comprised of hundreds of IPV's. Further weight benefits are realized by the development of light weight technologies in the bipolar design.

  15. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOEpatents

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  16. Occupational handling of nickel nanoparticles: a case report.

    PubMed

    Journeay, W Shane; Goldman, Rose H

    2014-09-01

    A 26-year-old female chemist formulated polymers and coatings usually using silver ink particles. When she later began working with nickel nanoparticle powder weighed out and handled on a lab bench with no protective measures, she developed throat irritation, nasal congestion, "post nasal drip," facial flushing, and new skin reactions to her earrings and belt buckle which were temporally related to working with the nanoparticles. Subsequently she was found to have a positive reaction to nickel on the T.R.U.E. patch test, and a normal range FEV1 that increased by 16% post bronchodilator. It was difficult returning her to work even in other parts of the building due to recurrence of symptoms. This incident triggered the company to make plans for better control measures for working with nickel nanoparticles. In conclusion, a worker developed nickel sensitization when working with nanoparticle nickel powder in a setting without any special respiratory protection or control measures. PMID:24809594

  17. Bipolar Nickel-Metal Hydride Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has contracted with Electro Energy, Inc., to develop a bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery design for energy storage on low-Earth-orbit satellites. The objective of the bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery development program is to approach advanced battery development from a systems level while incorporating technology advances from the lightweight nickel electrode field, hydride development, and design developments from nickel-hydrogen systems. This will result in a low-volume, simplified, less-expensive battery system that is ideal for small spacecraft applications. The goals of the program are to develop a 1-kilowatt, 28-volt (V), bipolar nickel-metal hydride battery with a specific energy of 100 watt-hours per kilogram (W-hr/kg), an energy density of 250 W-hr/liter and a 5-year life in low Earth orbit at 40-percent depth-of-discharge.

  18. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOEpatents

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  19. Migration of Co in nickel oxide/hydroxide of a nickel electrode in a Ni/H2 cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Hong S.; Doty, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Cobalt redistribution in nickel active material has been reported. This redistribution was suspected to be related to capacity fading. The objective of this work is to establish a relationship between cobalt redistribution and capacity fading. Microscopic cobalt distribution in nickel active material was studied using three EDX techniques: line scan, point-by-point analysis, and dot maps. Results from this study are presented.

  20. Macroinvertebrate responses to nickel in multisystem exposures.

    PubMed

    Custer, Kevin W; Kochersberger, Jon P; Anderson, Padrick D; Fetters, Kyle J; Hummel, Steven; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Metals introduced to sediments undergo a variety of complexation and partitioning changes that affect metal bioavailability. Using simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)/acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic carbon (f(OC)) models, the authors examined nickel (Ni) toxicity and bioavailability in 2 field studies (using streamside mesocosm and in situ colonization) and 1 laboratory study. The streamside mesocosm experiments indicated that benthic communities (Ephemeroptera, abundance, and taxa richness) responded negatively to increasing SEM(Ni) /AVS and (SEM(Ni) -AVS)/f(OC) models. In the in situ colonization study, taxa richness, abundance, and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa decreased with increasing SEM(Ni) and SEM(Ni)/AVS values. Nickel-spiked sediments were tested in the laboratory with indigenous field-collected mayflies (Anthopotamus verticis, Isonychia spp., and Stenonema spp) and a beetle (Psephenus herricki), and with laboratory-cultured Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus. The amphipod H. azteca was the most sensitive organism tested, and the mayflies Anthopotamus verticis and Stenonema spp. were the most sensitive indigenous organisms to Ni-spiked sediments. These studies help discern which factors are important in determining Ni toxicity and bioavailability at the individual, population, and community levels. PMID:26178528

  1. Advanced nickel-hydrogen cell configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Long-term trends in the evolution of space power technology point toward increased payload power demand which in turn translates into both higher battery system charge storage capability and higher operating voltages. State of the art nickel-hydrogen cells of the 50 to 60 Wh size, packaged in individual pressure vessels, are capable of meeting the required cycle life for a wide range of anticipated operating conditions; however, they provided several drawbacks to battery system integrated efforts. Because of size, high voltage/high power systems require integrating hundreds of cells into the operating system. Packaging related weight and volume inefficiencies degrade the energy density and specific energy of individual cells currently at 30 Wh/cudm and 40 Wh/kg respectively. In addition, the increased parts count and associated handling significantly affect the overall battery related costs. Spacecraft battery systems designers within industry and Government realize that to reduce weight, volume, and cost requires increases in the capacity of nickel-hydrogen cells.

  2. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  3. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, D. A.; Lakshtanov, L. Z.; Carneiro, J. F.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface.

  4. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite.

    PubMed

    Belova, D A; Lakshtanov, L Z; Carneiro, J F; Stipp, S L S

    2014-12-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi=-1.12 on calcite and log KNi=-0.43 and -0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface. PMID:25300061

  5. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  6. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  7. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  8. Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Bingsen; Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng; Su, Dangsheng; Williams, Christopher T.; Liang, Changhai

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

  9. Electrodeposition of Low Stress Nickel Phosphorous Alloys for Precision Component Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell; Ramsey, Brian; Speegle, Chet; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nickel alloys are favored for electroforming precision components. Nickel phosphorous and nickel cobalt phosphorous are studied in this work. A completely new and innovative electrolytic process eliminates the fumes present in electroless processes and is suitable for electroforming nickel phosphorous and nickel cobalt phosphorous alloys to any desirable thickness, using soluble anodes, without stripping of tanks. Solutions show excellent performance for extended throughput. Properties include, cleaner low temperature operation (40 - 45 C), high Faradaic efficiency, low stress, Rockwell C 52 - 54 hardness and as much as 2000 N per square millimeter tensile strength. Performance is compared to nickel and nickel cobalt electroforming.

  10. Specification and prediction of nickel mobilization using artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Raoof; Ziaii, Mansour; Ardejani, Faramarz; Maleki, Shahoo

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater and soil pollution from pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage generation, and release and transport of toxic metals are common environmental problems associated with the mining industry. Nickel is one toxic metal considered to be a key pollutant in some mining setting; to date, its formation mechanism has not yet been fully evaluated. The goals of this study are 1) to describe the process of nickel mobilization in waste dumps by introducing a novel conceptual model, and 2) to predict nickel concentration using two algorithms, namely the support vector machine (SVM) and the general regression neural network (GRNN). The results obtained from this study have shown that considerable amount of nickel concentration can be arrived into the water flow system during the oxidation of pyrite and subsequent Acid Drainage (AMD) generation. It was concluded that pyrite, water, and oxygen are the most important factors for nickel pollution generation while pH condition, SO4, HCO3, TDS, EC, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu are measured quantities playing significant role in nickel mobilization. SVM and GRNN have predicted nickel concentration with a high degree of accuracy. Hence, SVM and GRNN can be considered as appropriate tools for environmental risk assessment.

  11. How much radioactive nickel does ASASSN-15lh require?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Hirschi, Raphael; Blinnikov, Sergey; den Hartogh, Jacqueline

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of the most luminous supernova ASASSN-15lh triggered a shock-wave in the supernova community. The three possible mechanisms proposed for the majority of other superluminous supernovae do not produce a realistic physical model for this particular supernova. In the present study we show the limiting luminosity available from a nickel-powered pair-instability supernova. We computed a few exotic nickel-powered explosions with a total mass of nickel up to 1500 solar masses. We used the hydrostatic configurations prepared with the GENEVA and MESA codes, and the STELLA radiative-transfer code for following the explosion of these models. We show that 1500 solar masses of radioactive nickel is needed to power a luminosity of 2 × 10 45 erg s - 1. The resulting light curve is very broad and incompatible with the shorter ASASSN-15lh time-scale. This rules out a nickel-powered origin of ASASSN-15lh. In addition, we derive a simple peak luminosity - nickel mass relation from our data, which may serve to estimate of nickel mass from observed peak luminosities.

  12. How much radioactive nickel does ASASSN-15lh require?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyreva, Alexandra; Hirschi, Raphael; Blinnikov, Sergey; den Hartogh, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of the most luminous supernova ASASSN-15lh triggered a shock-wave in the supernova community. The three possible mechanisms proposed for the majority of other superluminous supernovae do not produce a realistic physical model for this particular supernova. In this study, we show the limiting luminosity available from a nickel-powered pair-instability supernova. We computed a few exotic nickel-powered explosions with a total mass of nickel up to 1500 solar masses. We used the hydrostatic configurations prepared with the GENEVA and MESA codes, and the STELLA radiative-transfer code for following the explosion of these models. We show that 1500 solar masses of radioactive nickel is needed to power a luminosity of 2 × 10 45 erg s - 1. The resulting light curve is very broad and incompatible with the shorter ASASSN-15lh time-scale. This rules out a nickel-powered origin of ASASSN-15lh. In addition, we derive a simple peak luminosity-nickel mass relation from our data, which may serve to estimate of nickel mass from observed peak luminosities.

  13. [Nickel - role in human organism and toxic effects].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Popowicz, Ewa; Winiarski, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to familiarize the Role of nickel in the Environment and in living organisms. This metal is widely used in many fields such as electrical engineering, medicine, Jewellery or Automotive Industry. Furthermore, it's an important part of our food. As the central atom of bacterial enzymes it participates in degradation of urea.. Nickel is also an micronutritient essential for proper functioning of the human body, as it increases hormonal activity and is involved in lipid metabolism. This metal makes it's way to the human body through respiratory tract, digestive system and skin. Large doses of nickel or prolonged contact with it could cause a variety of side effects. Harmfull effects of Nickel are genotoxicity haematotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The population of people allergic to nickel is growing, it occcurs much more often to the women and it can appear in many way. Hypersensitivity to nickel can also be occupational. Due to the increasing prevalence of allergies to nickel. European regulations have been introduced to reduce the content of this metal in products of everyday usage. In countries which have fulfilled the above-mentioned law, the plunge of hypersensitivities has been observed. PMID:27591452

  14. [Nickel - role in human organism and toxic effects].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Popowicz, Ewa; Winiarski, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to familiarize the Role of nickel in the Environment and in living organisms. This metal is widely used in many fields such as electrical engineering, medicine, Jewellery or Automotive Industry. Furthermore, it's an important part of our food. As the central atom of bacterial enzymes it participates in degradation of urea.. Nickel is also an micronutritient essential for proper functioning of the human body, as it increases hormonal activity and is involved in lipid metabolism. This metal makes it's way to the human body through respiratory tract, digestive system and skin. Large doses of nickel or prolonged contact with it could cause a variety of side effects. Harmfull effects of Nickel are genotoxicity haematotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The population of people allergic to nickel is growing, it occcurs much more often to the women and it can appear in many way. Hypersensitivity to nickel can also be occupational. Due to the increasing prevalence of allergies to nickel. European regulations have been introduced to reduce the content of this metal in products of everyday usage. In countries which have fulfilled the above-mentioned law, the plunge of hypersensitivities has been observed. PMID:27590657

  15. Serum nickel concentrations in hemodialysis patients with environmental exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, S.M.; Fay, W.P.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum specimens from 22 healthy hospital workers and 30 patients with end-stage renal disease treated by extracorporeal hemodialysis, who resided in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, a city with extensive nickel mines and smelters. Samples of tap water from Sudbury contained 109 +/- 46 micrograms Ni per L (P less than 0.01 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding water samples from Hartford, Connecticut). Serum nickel concentrations averaged 0.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms Ni per L in Sudbury hospital workers (P less than 0.05 vs 0.2 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding serums from 43 healthy hospital workers in Hartford). In serums collected post-treatment from Sudbury hemodialysis patients, nickel concentrations averaged 8.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms Ni per L, (i.e., 14-times the corresponding mean in Sudbury hospital workers, P less than 0.01), but were not significantly higher than the nickel concentrations in serums from 42 Hartford hemodialysis patients (7.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms Ni per L). This study confirms the presence of hypernickelemia in hemodialysis patients, but does not suggest that hemodialysis patients have significantly increased risk of nickel toxicity in Sudbury, compared to Hartford, despite the high nickel concentrations in Sudbury tap water. This favorable outcome attests to the efficient deionization of water used to prepare hemodialysis solutions in Sudbury.

  16. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  17. Environmentally-enhanced cavity growth in nickel and nickel-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.M.; Delph, T.J.; Gao, M.; Wei, R.P.; Dwyer, D.J.

    1996-08-01

    Environmental factors have a strong effect on the elevated-temperature failure behavior of nickel-based alloys. It has been proposed that this effect is due to the reactions of oxygen with carbon in the interior of creep cavities. Such reactions can lead to quite high internal gas pressures, sufficient to result in substantial increases in the cavity growth rates. This hypothesis is investigated by carrying out detailed calculations for a simple system which take into account the coupled effects of oxygen diffusion into the cavity and concurrent cavity growth. The results show that creep cavity growth may or may not be affected by internal, gas-producing reactions, depending upon the nature of the carbon-containing particle, the ratio of the grain boundary oxygen diffusivity to the self-diffusivity of nickel, and upon other factors as well.

  18. Kinetics of gas phase reduction of nickel chloride in preparation for nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Yong Jae; Jang, Hee Dong . E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr; Chang, Han Kwon; Hwang, Dae Won; Kim, Heon Chang

    2005-12-08

    We investigated the chemical kinetics of NiCl{sub 2} reduction to apply to the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles in a tubular furnace reactor. The conversion of NiCl{sub 2} increased monotonically with reaction temperature up to 99% at 950 deg. C, and in turn, the rate constant of the reaction increased from 78 to 286 with an increase in the temperature from 800 to 950 deg. C. The reaction rate was estimated to be the first order with respect to chloride concentration, and the rate constant obeyed the Arrhenius law, of which the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 103.79 kJ/mol and 7.34 x 10{sup 6} min{sup -1}, respectively. Taking advantage of the kinetics, we synthesized crystalline nickel nanoparticles with average primary particle size ranging from 31 to 106 nm by systematically controlling the reactor temperature and chloride concentration.

  19. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, Jennifer; Chiappetti, Dennis; Coates, Dwaine

    1996-01-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  20. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  1. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-11-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (< 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  2. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-02-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  3. Nickel sensitization and dietary nickel are a substantial cause of symptoms provocation in patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Soana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Data in literature seem to show that, in patients with contact allergic dermatitis, dietary nickel might be a cause of systemic dermatitis, but little information exists in literature about the role of nickel sensitization and dietary nickel in patients with allergic-like chronic dermatitis syndromes. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with chronic allergic-like, non-IgE-mediated skin diseases, and the possible impact of dietary nickel on symptom provocation and persistence has been assessed in the present retrospective study on a case series of 1726 patients referred to our allergy unit for chronic allergic-like skin diseases. IgE-mediated pathogenesis and other differential diagnoses excluded, patients were patch tested. Nickel-positive patients underwent an elimination diet and double-blind placebo-controlled nickel challenge (DBPCNC) test. A total of 339 (20%) tested nickel-positive. Fifty-two patients (15%) recovered by avoiding sources of nickel contact and 29 (10%) dropped out. Out of the remaining nickel-sensitized patients, 277 (80%) achieved complete or near complete recovery with low-nickel content diet, and 185 of them (89%) were positive to DBPCNC. We conclude that nickel sensitization and dietary nickel seem to be the chief trigger for provocation and persistence of symptoms in an important part (∼11%) of patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes. PMID:25747857

  4. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Effect of nickel concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Velhal, Ninad B.; Patil, Narayan D.; Puri, Vijaya R.; Shelke, Abhijeet R.; Deshpande, Nishad G.

    2015-09-15

    Nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with composition Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) was synthesized using simple, low temperature auto combustion method. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of cubic phase spinel structure. The crystallite size varies from 30-44 nm with the nickel content. Porous and agglomerated morphology of the bulk sample was displayed in the scanning electron microscopy. Micro Raman spectroscopy reveals continuous shift of E{sub g} and E{sub g}(2) stokes line up to 0.8 Ni substitution. The dispersion behavior of the dielectric constant with frequency and the semicircle nature of the impedance spectra show the cobalt nickel ferrite to have high resistance. The ferromagnetic nature is observed in all the samples, however, the maximum saturation magnetization was achieved by the 0.4 Ni substituted cobalt ferrite, which is up to the 92.87 emu/gm at 30K.

  5. Mortality of nickel workers: experience of men working with metallic nickel.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, J E; Doll, R; Scott, W A; Smith, S

    1981-01-01

    The mortality of men employed in a plant manufacturing nickel alloys from metallic nickel and other metals has been examined. The plant has operated since May 1953, and 1925 men were identified who had been employed in the operating areas at the plant, other than as members of the staff, for a total of five or more years, excluding breaks. Analysis of samples of air obtained from personal samplers showed that since 1975 most of the men are likely to have been exposed to average concentrations of nickel of between 0.5 and 0.9 mg Ni/m3. All but 22 (1.1%) of the men were successfully traced to 1 April 1978 or until they died or emigrated. One hundred and seventeen had died. The numbers of deaths observed from cancers of respiratory and other sites, other respiratory disease, ischaemic heart disease, and other causes of death were compared with the numbers expected from national and local mortality rates. No evidence of the existence of any occupational hazard was obtained. The number of deaths from lung cancer (15) in men employed for five years or more is small. At 98% of the number expected at local rates it is statistically compatible with risks of between 0.5 and 2.2 times "normal." PMID:7272235

  6. Nickel-Catalyzed Aromatic C-H Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Junichiro; Muto, Kei; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-08-01

    Catalytic C-H functionalization using transition metals has received significant interest from organic chemists because it provides a new strategy to construct carbon-carbon bonds and carbon-heteroatom bonds in highly functionalized, complex molecules without pre-functionalization. Recently, inexpensive catalysts based on transition metals such as copper, iron, cobalt, and nickel have seen more use in the laboratory. This review describes recent progress in nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H functionalization reactions classified by reaction types and reaction partners. Furthermore, some reaction mechanisms are described and cutting-edge syntheses of natural products and pharmaceuticals using nickel-catalyzed aromatic C-H functionalization are presented. PMID:27573407

  7. Agglomeration behavior of solid nickel on polycrystalline barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K Scott; Mast, Eric S; Sprenkle, Vince

    2007-11-01

    This letter describes the phenomenon that takes place between nickel/barium titanate couples when heated under conditions employed in multilayer ceramic capacitor manufacturing practice: a 4hr, 1300°C isothermal anneal in 1% H2 – 99% N2. Dense, sputtered nickel films were observed to dewet the titanate and agglomerate into discrete or interconnected islands via a solid-state process. Up to a critical film thickness value of ~1.4 μm, the degree of agglomeration was found to display an exponential dependence on the thickness of the original nickel film.

  8. Compositional effects on processing and properties of nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    Compositional effects on hot and cold workability of ductile-ordered nickel aluminides are described. Compositional affects studied variation of chromium, aluminium, iron, and zirconium. The hot and cold workability of various nickel-aluminide alloys was ranked with respect to workability of stainless steel. The nickel-aluminide alloy containing chromium and low zirconium (IC-218LZr) had the best combination of hot and cold workability. This alloy also offered a good combination of strength and ductility values over a range of test temperatures. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. High-temperature ductility of electro-deposited nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dini, J. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Work done during the past several months on high temperature ductility of electrodeposited nickel is summarized. Data are presented which show that earlier measurements made at NASA-Langley erred on the low side, that strain rate has a marked influence on high temperature ductility, and that codeposition of a small amount of manganese helps to improve high temperature ductility. Influences of a number of other factors on nickel properties were also investigated. They included plating solution temperature, current density, agitation, and elimination of the wetting agent from the plating solution. Repair of a large nozzle section by nickel plating is described.

  10. A point defect model for nickel electrode structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyselle, Patricia L.; Karjala, Philip J.; Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1986-01-01

    The Raman spectra for nickel electrode active mass indicate a single formula-unit crystallographic unit cell of the layered NiOOH-type. Empirical stoichiometric formulas require that extensive point defects, cation dopants and nickel vacancies, be incorporated on nickel sites. Structural differences between the alpha/gamma and beta/beta cycles, and the influence of cobalt addition on the structure will be discussed in terms of the point defect model. Other empirical data supporting the point defect model will be considered.

  11. Vanadium and nickel in petroleums of bituminous Tatar rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Aigistova, S.Kh.; Safiullina, G.Kh.; Sadykov, A.N.; Kharlamov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The vanadium and nickel contents of petroleum obtained from bituminous rock of Ashal'chinsk, Akhmat, Gorskii, Katerchinsk, Klinsk (Studeno-Klyuchev), West-Chumachkin, Mordovian-Karmal' and Pokrov deposits, was determined polarographically. The vanadium concentration range in these petroleums is 0.01-0.09 and nickel 0.009-0.05 wt.%. According to results previously obtained, vanadium and nickel contents in ordinary petroleum of this country are no higher than 0.010 and 0.0014 wt.%, respectively. 3 references, 1 table.

  12. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, J.L.

    1998-09-29

    A method of hydrogenation is described using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions. 2 figs.

  13. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-20

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  14. Controlled synthesis of size-tunable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; De, Arnab; Shankar, Ravi; Mozumdar, Subho

    2013-06-01

    Industrial demands have generated a growing need to synthesize pure metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles of a desired size. We report a novel and convenient method for the synthesis of spherical, size tunable, well dispersed, stable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles by reduction of nickel nitrate at room temperature in a TX-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water system by a reverse microemulsion route. We determined that reduction with alkaline sodium borohydrate in nitrogen atmosphere leads to the formation of nickel nanoparticles, while the use of hydrazine hydrate in aerobic conditions leads to the formation of nickel oxide nanoparticles. The influence of several reaction parameters on the size of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles were evaluated in detail. It was found that the size can be easily controlled either by changing the molar ratio of water to surfactant or by simply altering the concentration of the reducing agent. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction analysis (EDA) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that synthesized nanoparticles are of high purity and have an average size distribution of 5-100 nm. The nanoparticles prepared by our simple methodology have been successfully used for catalyzing various chemical reactions.

  15. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activity 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.

  16. Nickel hydrogen low Earth orbit life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badcock, C. C.; Haag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A program to demonstrate the long term reliability of NiH2 cells in low Earth orbits (LEO) and support use in mid-altitude orbits (MAO) was initiated. Both 3.5 and 4.5 inch diameter nickel hydrogen cells are included in the test plan. Cells from all U.S. vendors are to be tested. The tests will be performed at -5 and 10 C at 40 and 60% DOD for LEO orbit and 10 C and 80% DOD for MAO orbit simulations. The goals of the testing are 20,000 cycles at 60% DOD and 30,000 cycles at 40% DOD. Cells are presently undergoing acceptance and characterization testing at Naval Weapons Systems Center, Crane.

  17. Nickel hydrogen low Earth orbit life testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badcock, C. C.; Haag, R. L.

    1986-09-01

    A program to demonstrate the long term reliability of NiH2 cells in low Earth orbits (LEO) and support use in mid-altitude orbits (MAO) was initiated. Both 3.5 and 4.5 inch diameter nickel hydrogen cells are included in the test plan. Cells from all U.S. vendors are to be tested. The tests will be performed at -5 and 10 C at 40 and 60% DOD for LEO orbit and 10 C and 80% DOD for MAO orbit simulations. The goals of the testing are 20,000 cycles at 60% DOD and 30,000 cycles at 40% DOD. Cells are presently undergoing acceptance and characterization testing at Naval Weapons Systems Center, Crane.

  18. Kinetics of pack aluminization of nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seigle, L. L.; Gupta, B. K.; Shankar, R.; Sarkhel, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of pack aluminization of unalloyed nickel in packs of varying aluminum activity with various halide activators were studied. Surface compositions of the coatings as functions of time, temperature, and pack composition were obtained in order to establish the boundary conditions for diffusion in the system. The structure of the packs was also examined in order to clarify the mechanism of aluminum transport. The results indicate that the kinetics of pack aluminization are controlled jointly by gas diffusion in the pack and solid diffusion in the coating. Levine and Caves' model for gas diffusion was combined with calculations of rates of diffusion in the solid to formulate a more complete theory for the kinetics of pack aluminization.

  19. Heater utilizing copper-nickel alloy core

    SciTech Connect

    Van Egmond, C.F.H.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a well heater. It comprises: at least one heating section which is capable of extending for at least a hundred feet within a well borehole adjacent to an interval of subterranean earth formation to be heated, contains at least one electrical heating cable, and contains a combination of heating cable core resistance and core cross-sectional areas capable of producing temperatures between about 600[degrees]C and 1000[degrees]C within the subterranean earth formation, wherein the heating cable is an electrical resistance heating cable comprising: a core consisting essentially of 6 percent by weight nickel and 94 percent by weight copper; electrical insulation surrounding the core; and surrounding the electrical insulation, a metal sheath; and a means of supplying electrical power to the heating cable core.

  20. Structural and optical properties of nanostructured nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; Pandey, J.; Gupta, R.; Kaurav, N.; Tripathi, J.

    2016-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles are attractive because of their special structure and better optical properties. Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-Np) have been synthesized successfully by thermal decomposition method in the presence of trioctyl phosphine (TOP) and oleylamine (OAm). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Zetapotential measurement and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 13.86 nm. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have hexagonal closed pack (hcp) cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD) prepared at 280°C. The possible formation mechanism has also been phenomenological proposed for as synthesized Ni-Np. The value of Zeta potential was found 12.25 mV.

  1. Nano oxide-dispersed nickel composite plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, So-Yeon; Jung, Myung-Won; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2013-11-01

    In this study, nickel based composite coatings were prepared by electroplating in baths with two different types of nano oxide powder, 20 nm SiO2 and 50 nm TiO2. The effects of pH, zeta potential, and current density on dispersing the nanopowder in the electroplated composite layer were studied. Zeta potential values were measured at different values of pH in the bath. The surface charge of the silica nanopowder increased negatively with an increasing pH value. The most effective current density for the surface morphology was 20 mA/cm2 for a NiFe-SiO2 composite coating and 40 mA/cm2 for a Ni-TiO2 composite coating. The surface hardness of the composite coating increased with addition of the nanopowder.

  2. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindemir, U.; Topalian, Z.; Österlund, L.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 °C.

  3. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pulse-Plated Nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Eggert D.; Von Bestenbostel, Wolfgang; Sebald, Torsten; Paronis, Georgios; Vanelli, Diego; Müller, Yves

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the European-funded project MultiHy (Multiscale modeling of hydrogen embrittlement in crystalline materials) is the development of multiscale models for hydrogen transport in complex microstructures. The validation and application of the models will be carried out by investigating the role of the microstructure in industrial problems involving hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of advanced materials. Pulse-plated nickel (PP-Ni) material, as used in various industrial applications, has shown a susceptibility to HE that may cause premature failure of a structure. Due to the nature of the pulse-plating process, H is incorporated into the microstructure of the material. This H may lead to crack initiation when combined with localized stress concentrations due to subsequent manufacturing steps, e.g., welding. This article provides an overview of experimental studies aimed at evaluating the influence of the microstructure on the susceptibility of PP-Ni to HE and, ultimately, at improving the plating process.

  4. Phases in lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Lanthanum-nickel-aluminum (LANA) alloys will be used to pump, store and separate hydrogen isotopes in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF). The aluminum content (y) of the primary LaNi{sub 5}-phase is controlled to produce the desired pressure-temperature behavior for adsorption and desorption of hydrogen. However, secondary phases cause decreased capacity and some may cause undesirable retention of tritium. Twenty-three alloys purchased from Ergenics, Inc. for development of RTF processes have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to determine the distributions and compositions of constituent phases. This memorandum reports the results of these characterization studies. Knowledge of the structural characteristics of these alloys is a useful first step in selecting materials for specific process development tests and in interpreting results of those tests. Once this information is coupled with data on hydrogen plateau pressures, retention and capacity, secondary phase limits for RTF alloys can be specified.

  5. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activitymore » 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.« less

  6. Statistically determined nickel cadmium performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Sidney

    1987-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed on sealed nickel cadmium cell manufacturing data and cell matching data. The cells subjected to the analysis were 30 Ah sealed Ni/Cd cells, made by General Electric. A total of 213 data parameters was investigated, including such information as plate thickness, amount of electrolyte added, weight of active material, positive and negative capacity, and charge-discharge behavior. Statistical analyses were made to determine possible correlations between test events. The data show many departures from normal distribution. Product consistency from one lot to another is an important attribute for aerospace applications. It is clear from these examples that there are some significant differences between lots. Statistical analyses are seen to be an excellent way to spot those differences. Also, it is now proven beyond doubt that battery testing is one of the leading causes of statistics.

  7. Functionally Graded Nickel Matrix Alumina Reinforced Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Austin; Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Hierarchical structured nanocomposites are of great interest particularly in the fields of defense, aeronautics, and metamaterials. Previous work has demonstrated the ability to create uniform nickel matrices embedded with aluminum oxide nanoparticles via electrodeposition using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). This process allows for controlled enhancement of yield strength without negatively affecting other properties. The speed of the RDE controls the rate of particle incorporation, and therefore, particle volume fraction. Hierarchical structures can be formed by simply changing the rotation rate during electrodeposition. This allows for controlled variations of composite structure throughout the material. Simply layered and functionally graded hierarchical materials have been produced using this method with structural resolution of the order of single microns. These layered structures produced unique mechanical properties, even exceeding those of uniformly dispersed composites.

  8. ESR Studies of a Reorienting Nickel Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowert, Bruce

    2007-03-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of the planar bis(maleonitriledithiolato)nickel anion radical (BMNT) in the intermediate motional region have been simulated in several polar solvents using axially symmetric reorientation. The rotational diffusion about the long in-plane axis is three to four times faster than that about the two axes perpendicular to it. The reorientational model needed to produce agreement with experiment is either in or close to the Brownian rotational diffusion limit. The solvents are 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (eugenol), dimethyl phthalate, tri-n-butyl phosphate, tris(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphate, and 2-methoxyethyl ether (diglyme), ethyl alcohol, and a dimethylformamide-chloroform mixed solvent. The reorientational rates from the simulations are in general agreement with those from line width analyses carried out from the fast to the slow motional regions. The temperature dependence of the diffusion rates is discussed in terms of the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) model and the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  9. Graphene-nickel interface: hybridization and magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Tesfaye; Shih, Bi-Ching; Zhang, Peihong

    2012-02-01

    The unique properties of graphene have opened up a new avenue for fundamental research as well as technological applications. Whereas the in-plane sp^2 bonding is primarily responsible for the overall structural stability and mechanical strength of graphene, the out-of-plane pp-π states control its transport and interfacing properties. In this talk, we present a first principles study of the of single layer graphene/Ni(111) interface. We discuss how hybridization between the carbon pp-π and nickel d orbitals modifies the electronic and magnetic properties of the interface. We acknowledge the computational support provided by the Center for Computational Research at the University at Buffalo, SUNY. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0002623 and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-0946404.

  10. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  11. Adiabatic charging of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Chuck; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, Jeff; Jackson, Lorna

    1995-01-01

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. The transition from nickel-cadium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their high self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, has made this aspect of spacecraft battery management even more challenging. The AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure efficient charging, was considered and proved to be difficult and expensive. Alternative approaches were evaluated. Optimized charging, in the absence of cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. Initial testing was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the 'Adiabatic Charging' approach. Feasibility was demonstrated and additional testing performed to provide a quantitative, parametric data base. The assumption that the battery is in an adiabatic environment during prelaunch charging is a conservative approximation because the battery will transfer some heat to its surroundings by convective air cooling. The amount is small compared to the heat dissipated during battery overcharge. Because the battery has a large thermal mass, substantial overcharge can occur before the cells get too hot to charge efficiently. The testing presented here simulates a true adiabatic environment. Accordingly the data base may be slightly conservative. The adiabatic charge methodology used in this investigation begins with stabilizing the cell at a given starting temperature. The cell is then fully insulated on all sides. Battery temperature is carefully monitored and the charge terminated when the cell temperature reaches 85 F. Charging has been evaluated with starting temperatures from 55 to 75 F.

  12. Corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement of nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Tapas

    Nanocrystalline (nc) materials have attracted the interest of the scientific community because of their unique physical and mechanical properties. However, limited research has been performed to analyze their electrochemical behavior. The majority of research in the field of electrochemical and corrosion behavior exists for electrodeposited nanocrystalline metals. This research studies the behavior of sputter-deposited nc Nickel films in corrosive and hydrogen environment by potentiodynamic polarization and microindentation. The surface morphology and composition of the samples was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy. Bulk Ni samples exhibit mild passivation in 3.5 % NaCl solution. The surface reveals a fine distribution of small pits and numerous large pits. However, nc Ni films show a higher corrosion potential, but lower corrosion rate. This can be attributed to the rapid formation of a passive film to resist the corrosion, and better purity of sputtered films. A very uniform and periodic corrosion pattern is observed on the surface, without any pitting. In 0.1 N H2 SO4 solution, active dissolution of Ni was observed in both bulk and nanocrystalline samples. This is due to the absence of passivation for Ni in this environment. Nc Ni shows a higher corrosion rate and higher anodic corrosion potential. This behavior is attributed to a higher density of grain boundaries that act as a catalyst to the hydrogen reduction reaction and increase the corrosion rate. Effect of electrochemically charged hydrogen was observed for bulk and nanocrystalline Nickel. Bulk Ni displayed a slight increase in hardness and signs of hydrogen induced plastic deformation. On the other hand, the nanocrystalline Ni shows brittle failure by buckling and spalling. This is attributed to its limited ductility and the high density that act as preferred sites for hydrogen adsorption and subsequently enhance hydrogen diffusion, leading to

  13. Toxicity of nickel ions and comprehensive analysis of nickel ion-associated gene expression profiles in THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; ZHANG, ZHI-WEI; XIE, YU-MEI; WANG, SHU-SHUI; QIU, QING-HUAN; ZHOU, YING-LING; ZENG, GUO-HONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of nickel ions during therapeutic nickel-based alloy-treatment in congenital heart disease by investigating the metal-induced cytotoxicity to the human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line THP-1. THP-1 cells were treated with NiCl2·6H2O (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µM) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. MTT was applied to detect THP-1 cell proliferation following NiCl2 treatment. Apoptosis of THP-1 cells was quantified using flow cytometry. Illumina sequencing was used for screening the associated genes, whose mRNA expression levels were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. High concentrations of nickel ions had a significant suppressive effect on cell proliferation at the three concentrations investigated (200, 400 and 800 µM). Treatment with nickel ions (25–400 µM) for 48 h reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of RELB, FIGF, SPI-1, CXCL16 and CRLF2 were significantly increased following nickel treatment. The results of the present study suggested that nickel ions exert toxic effects on THP-1 cell growth, which may indicate toxicity of the nickel ion during treatment of congenital heart disease. The identification of genes modified by the toxic effects of nickel on THP-1 cells (EPOR, RELB, FIGF, SPI-1, TGF-β1, CXCL16 and CRLF2) may aid in the development of interventional measures for the treatment/prevention of nickel ion-associated toxic effects during the treatment of congenital heart disease. PMID:26044615

  14. Copper and nickel adherently electroplated on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. E.

    1967-01-01

    Anodic treatment of titanium alloy enables electroplating of tightly adherent coatings of copper and nickel on the alloy. The alloy is treated in a solution of hydrofluoric and acetic acids, followed by the electroplating process.

  15. Accelerated test plan for nickel cadmium spacecraft batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated test matrix is outlined that includes acceptance, baseline and post-cycling tests, chemical and physical analyses, and the data analysis procedures to be used in determining the feasibility of an accelerated test for sealed, nickel cadmium cells.

  16. Radio-absorbing properties of nickel-containing schungite powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyn'kov, L. M.; Borbot'ko, T. V.; Krishtopova, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A nickel-containing shungite powder has been synthesized by means of chemical reduction from aqueous solutions. The chemical composition and radio-absorbing properties of this powder have been studied.

  17. Spectroscopic and thermogravimetric study of nickel sulfaquinoxaline complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailor, Sanjay M.; Patel, Urmila H.

    2016-05-01

    The ability of sulfaquinoxaline (4-Amino-N-2-quinoxalinylbenzenesulfonamide) to form metal complexes are investigated. The nickel complex of sulfaquinoxaline is prepared by reflux method and characterized by CHN analysis and IR spectra. The results of IR spectral data suggest that the binding of nickel atom to the sulfonamidic nitrogen are in good agreement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis of nickel sulfaquinoxaline are carried out from ambient temperature to 750°C in inert nitrogen atmosphere. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of nickel sulfaquinoxaline complex is determined from the thermal curves using Broido method. The results are reported in this paper.

  18. Reduction by monovalent zinc, cadmium, and nickel cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerstein, D.; Mulac, W. A.

    1969-01-01

    Understanding of chemical properties of monovalent transition metal cations in aqueous solutions was obtained by a study of kinetics of reduction of different inorganic substrates by zinc, cadmium, and nickel.

  19. Directionally solidified eutectic gamma-gamma nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma-gamma prime nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature properties was developed. The alloy is comprised of a two phase eutectic structure consisting essentially of on a weight percent base, 6.0 to 9.0 aluminum, 5.0 to 17.0 tantalum, 0-10 cobalt, 0-6 vanadium, 0-6 rhenium, 2.0-6.0 tungsten, and the balance being nickel, subject to the proviso that the sum of the atomic percentages of aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 19-22, and the ratio of atomic percentages of tantalum to aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 0.12 to 0.23. Embedded within the gamma nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic gamma prime phase (primarily nickel-aluminum-tantalum) reinforcing fibers.

  20. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  1. Diffusion formation of nickel silicide contacts in SiNWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beregovsky, M.; Katsman, A.; Hajaj, E. M.; Yaish, Y. E.

    2013-02-01

    Time and temperature dependencies of nickel silicide axial growth in Si nanowires (SiNWs) were studied for a temperature range of 300-440 °C and nanowire diameters of 30-60 nm. A square root time dependence of the total silicide intrusion length was found. It was concluded that formation of nickel silicides was controlled by diffusion of Ni along the nickel silicide surface or the nickel silicide/SiO2 interface to the Si/silicide interface. Subsequent annealing cycles at different temperatures revealed Arrhenius-type behavior for the increase of the intrusion length square (ΔLn2) with an activation energy of 1.45 ± 0.11 eV. Additional and significant silicide growth during heating and cooling of the wire was taken into account by using self consistent iteration procedure for ΔLn2 calculations. The resulted activation energy agrees well with previous results.

  2. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  3. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer July 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer July 1967 INTERIOR STAIRWAY DETAIL - Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store, 1 South State Street (1-19 South State Street 1-15 East Madison Street), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer, 1961 DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer, 1961 DETAIL OF ORNAMENT ON THE VAULT, INTERIOR WALL OF THE ORCHESTRA FLOOR, AND FORWARD EDGE OF THE BALCONY. - Schiller Building, 64 West Randolph Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer July 1967 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Nickel, Photographer July 1967 INTERIOR DETAIL OF COLUMN CAPITAL - Schlesinger & Mayer Department Store, 1 South State Street (1-19 South State Street 1-15 East Madison Street), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. High performance nickel electrodes for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adanuvor, Prosper K.; Pearson, Johnnie A.; Miller, Brian; Tatarchuk, Bruce; Britton, Doris L.

    1995-01-01

    The specific energy density and the performance of nickel electrodes are generally limited by the electrode microstructure and the nature of the active material within the electrode matrix. Progress is being made in our laboratory in a collaborative effort with NASA-LEWIS Research Center to develop lighter weight, mechanically stable and highly efficient nickel electrodes for aerospace applications. Our approach is based on an electrode microstructure fabricated from a mixture of nickel fibers as small as 2 micro m diameter and cellulose fibers. Results will be presented to show the optimum conditions for impregnating this electrode microstructure with nickel hydroxide active material. Performance data in half-cell tests and cycle life data will also be presented. The flexibility of this electrode microstructure and the significant advantages it offers in terms of weight and performance will be demonstrated, in particular its ability to accept charge at high rates and to discharge at high rates.

  7. Adsorption of Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in a Brazilian Oxisoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, José Carlos; Martins, Susian Christian; Soares, Marcio Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The adsorption reactions mechanisms provide the understanding of the pollutant fate metals and often control the bioavailability and transport of heavy metals ions in soil, indicating the preventive environmental control. The cadmium, nickel and zinc behavior in the soils are explained by the reactions of adsorption, influenced by pH and ionic strength. The objective of this work was to study the influence of those factors on cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption in an oxisol. It was studied the Cd, Ni and Zn adsorption in soil samples of the State of São Paulo (Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox), collected in surface and in depth and submitted to solutions of Ca(NO3)2 1,0; 0,1 and 0,01 mol L-1. The pH of the samples from 3,0 to 10,0 was varied adding NaOH or HCl 4 mol L-1 not surpassing 2% of the electrolyte volume. The soil samples received 5,0 mg dm-3 of cadmium, nickel and zinc, ratio 1:10 (2,0 g of soil: 20 solution ml) and were shacked for 24 hours. The cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption increased with pH, reaching it picks at pH 7,0 for cadmium and approximately at pH 6,0 for nickel and zinc. This indicates that zinc and nickel have higher affinity than cadmium with the soil colloids, because it reached the maximum adsorption in a small pH value. In other words, the amount of negative charges necessary to promote the maximum adsorption was small for zinc. The influence of ionic strengths was small for cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption, being similar from pH 3,0 to 10,0, in surface soil layer and in depth, demonstrating that competition with Ca2+ for the retention colloid sites of the soils didn't interfere in the adsorption. In that way, it is supposed that cadmium, nickel and zinc binding energy is high in a soil rich in Fe and Al oxides. Adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc was similar for the ionic strengths, not depending on PZSE. The cadmium, nickel and zinc adsorption increased with pH elevation, with small ionic strength influence. Nickel and zinc have

  8. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  9. Life cycle test results of a bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A history of low earth orbit laboratory test data on a 6.5 Ah bipolar nickel hydrogen battery designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center is presented. During the past several years the storage and Thermal Branch has been deeply involved in the design, development, and optimization of nickel hydrogen devices. The bipolar concept is a means of achieving the goal of producing an acceptable battery of higher energy density, able to withstand the demands of low earth orbiter regimes.

  10. Ductile tungsten-nickel-alloy and method for manufacturing same

    DOEpatents

    Ludwig, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    The tensile elongation of a tungsten-nickel-iron alloy containing essentially 95 weight percent reprocessed tungsten, 3.5 weight percent nickel, and 1.5 weight percent iron is increased from a value of less than about 1 percent up to about 23 percent by the addition of less than 0.5 weight percent of a reactive metal consisting of niobium and zirconium.

  11. Skin clips are contraindicated when there is nickel allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, A M; Ive, F A; Carr, M M

    1987-01-01

    Four patients are described who developed generalized dermatitis following surgical wound closure with disposable skin clips. In 3 of them a vesicular palmar eczema was a prominent feature. They were found to have contact allergy to nickel, a component of the clips. If skin clips are to be used to close a surgical wound, it should be established that the patient is not allergic to nickel. Images Figure 1. PMID:3612662

  12. Properties Of Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Coatings Produced By Reactive Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bange, Klaus; Baucke, Friedrich G.; Metz, Bernard

    1989-03-01

    Single films of nickel oxide deposited by reactive evaporation and all-solid-state devices (ASSDs) containing such films have been investigated. The as-deposited nickel oxide films were analysed by standard surface and thin film-sensitive methods (AES, ESCA, RBS, NRA), and the findings were correlated with deposition parameters. The electrochromism of single layers was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and photospectrometry and compared with optical and electrical data of electrochromic all-solid-state devices.

  13. Accounting for the Dynamic Oxidative Behavior of Nickel Anodes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rodney D L; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-02-10

    The dynamic behavior of the anodic peak for amorphous nickel oxy/hydroxide (a-NiOx) films in basic media was investigated. Chronocoulometry of films with known nickel concentrations reveals that a total of four electrons per nickel site comprise the signature anodic peak at 1.32 V during the first oxidative scan, and two electrons are passed through the associated cathodic peak on the reverse scan. The anodic and cathodic signals each contain two electrons on the successive scans. Catalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was detected within the anodic peak, which is at a lower potential than is widely assumed. In order to rationalize these experimental results, we propose that the four-electron oxidation event is the conversion of the film from nickel(II) hydroxide ([Ni(II)-OH](-)) to a higher valent nickel peroxide species (e.g., Ni(IV)-OO or Ni(III)-OO·). The subsequent reduction of the nickel peroxide species is confined by a chemical step resulting in the accumulation of [Ni(II)-OOH](-), which is then oxidized by two electrons to form Ni(IV)-OO during the subsequent oxidative scan on the time scale of a cyclic voltammetric experiment. Our proposed mechanism and the experimental determination that each nickel site is oxidized by four electrons helps link the myriad of seemingly disparate literature data related to OER catalysis by nickel electrodes. The faster catalysis that occurs at higher oxidative potentials is derived from a minority species and is not elaborated here. PMID:26829375

  14. Mathematical modeling of a nickel-cadmium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Deyuan; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    Extensions are presented for a mathematical model of an Ni-CD cell (Fan and White, 1991). These extensions consist of intercalation thermodynamics for the nickel electrode and oxygen generation and reduction reactions during charge and overcharge. The simulated results indicate that intercalation may be important in the nickel electrode and that including the oxygen reactions provides a means of predicting the efficiency of the cell on charge and discharge.

  15. Certain physical properties of cobalt and nickel borides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostetskiy, I. I.; Lvov, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity, the thermal conductivity, and the thermal emf of cobalt and nickel borides were studied. In the case of the nickel borides the magnetic susceptibility and the Hall coefficient were determined at room temperature. The results are discussed with allowance for the current carrier concentration, the effect of various mechanisms of current-carrier scattering and the location of the Fermi level in relation to the 3d band.

  16. [Remote results of prosthetic treatment of patients with nickel hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Spiechowicz, E; Grochowski, P; Glantz, P O; Axell, T

    1990-01-01

    Economic reasons are the cause that ever more frequently prosthetic replacements are made from alloys other than gold. The most widely used are: alloys based on nickel and chromium, and stainless steel. In some alloys the content of nickel may be over 80%. The studies carried out in early 1980s showed that these materials had a higher hardness, mechanical strength and elasticity module than gold alloys. Nickel is one of the main components of these alloys, and its compounds may exert a harmful toxic, and even more frequently, allergic effect on the human organism. In the light of a survey of the literature and own clinical, experimental and epidemiological investigations it was tried to trace the effect of dental replacements made of nickel-containing alloys on the mucous membranes and skin of subjects with confirmed hypersensitivity to nickel. The studied material comprised a group of patients selected at random from those attending the Allergology Outpatient Clinic at the Department of Dermatology, Medical Academy in Warsaw, who had verified hypersensitivity to nickel and had indications to preparation of crowns and bridges for wearing. In each case before and after prosthetic treatment and before any control stomatological examination patch tests were done for demonstrating nickel hypersensitivity. In all patients permanent prostheses were done from an allow containing up to 70% of nickel with baked porcelain. In most cases fragments of oral mucosa were taken for histological examination. The patients were examined twice yearly. The longest follow-up is presently over 8 years. In no case exacerbation of hypersensitivity reactions was noted. PMID:2103014

  17. Life cycle test results of a bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A history of low Earth orbit laboratory test data on a 6.5 Ah bipolar nickel hydrogen battery designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center is presented. During the past several years the Storage and Thermal Branch has been deeply involved in the design, development, and optimization of nickel hydrogen devices. The bipolar concept is a means of achieving the goal of producing an acceptable battery of higher energy density, able to withstand the demands of low Earth orbit regimes.

  18. The effect of surface treatment on nickel leaching from nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madamba, Daniel

    Nitinol is widely used as a biomaterial for implantable medical devices but can be susceptible to nickel leaching. Our research was aimed at determining nickel leaching from surface treated Nitinol samples, treated as follows: mechanical polishing (untreated), oxidation, and nitriding+oxidation (5 different nitriding temperatures). Five specimens from each category were immersed in 40 mL PBS solution and incubated at 37°C over 91 days. Nickel concentration readings were taken at regular intervals. After 91 days, the average nickel concentration in the PBS solution was (a) 0.223 mg/L, SD 0.017, untreated, (b) 7.68 mg/L, SD 6.405, 1000°C nitriding+oxidation, and (c) 3.914 mg/L, SD 1.78, oxidation-only. The concentration readings had large standard deviations implying differences in surface characteristics after treatment. The increased nickel leaching from treated samples was thought to be due to atomic diffusion and exposure of the nickel-rich sublayers to PBS after oxide layer delamination. These sublayers formed after formation of thick (>1 microm) TiO2 layers during oxidation.

  19. [The question of nickel release from stainless steel cooking pots].

    PubMed

    Vrochte, H; Schätzke, M; Dringenberg, E; Wölwer-Rieck, U; Büning-Pfaue, H

    1991-09-01

    For three items of foods (rhubarb, spinach, sauerkraut) the possible release of nickel (by means of AAS) was analysed, a release which may be caused by a possible corrosive effect of the concerned (oxalic-, milk-, vinegar-) acids (as well as common salt) within a normal domestic food-preparation. For this analysis stainless steel cooking pots of different manufacturers, various types and in a representative selection and quantity were taken into consideration; the detailed analyses were extended so far that clear statistical evaluations were possible. This method complies regulations for accuracy to determine traces of heavy metal. For all three analysed food-stuffs an identical result was reached that no nickel release from the stainless steel cooking pots into the food was found. Differences of the various stainless steel cooking pots with regard to their surfaces' quality or their origin (manufacturers) were not yielded, either. All detected concentrations of nickel are within the reach of the natural nickel content of the analysed food-stuffs and their amount is even much lower than other food's content of nickel. This leads up to the conclusion that the former view of a possible nickel release of stainless steel cooking pots has to be revised because these assumptions were not confirmed in the presented results of this analysis and therefore have to be regarded as not correct. PMID:1763555

  20. Nickel hydroxide and other nanophase cathode materials for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, David E.; Salkind, Alvin J.; Strutt, Peter R.; Xiao, T. Danny

    The staff of US Nanocorp, Inc. are developing unique nanostructured materials for a wide range of applications in the areas of energy storage (batteries and ultracapacitors) and energy conversion (fuel cells and thermoelectric) devices. Many of the preparations of these materials exploit a wet synthesis process (patent pending) that is scaleable to large volume manufacturing and anticipated to be low in cost. Specifically, both the β-form of nickel hydroxide and the hollandite form of manganese dioxide have been synthesized. The hexagonal Ni(OH) 2 is anticipated to significantly boost energy densities in nickel-alkaline batteries, including nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride and nickel/zinc. The nanophase MnO 2 microstructure exhibits an unusual tunnelled tubular geometry within a 'bird's nest' superstructure, and is expected to be of interest as an intercalation cathode material in lithium-ion systems as well as a catalyst for fuel cells. Characterization of these materials has been by the techniques of high resolution SEM and TEM, as well as XRD. Both Hg porosimetry and BET surface measurements for conventional and spherical nickel hydroxides are summarized. Pore distribution and electrochemical activity for the nanophase materials will be examined in the future.

  1. Passivity and electrocatalysis of nanostructured nickel encapsulated in carbon.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Gareth E; Chin, Xiao-Yao; Burstein, G Tim

    2011-07-28

    Metallic nickel is a powerful electrocatalyst in alkaline solution and is able to be used in the alkaline fuel cell. However, in acidic solution, electrocatalysis is impossible because the metal is subject to rapid corrosion at low pH for all potentials at which an acidic fuel cell would operate. Here we report the synthesis and passive nature of a nickel-carbon nanostructured material which shows electrocatalytic activity. A thin film composed of nickel and carbon prepared by co-sputtering a graphite target partially covered with a nickel foil shows remarkable passivity against corrosion when polarized in hot sulphuric acid. The film, which contains 21 atom-% nickel, also shows significant electrocatalysis of the hydrogen oxidation reaction, and therefore forms the basis of a new type of fuel cell anode catalyst. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals a nanostructure of carbon-encapsulated nickel nanocrystals of ≤ca. 4 nm diameter. The passive nature of the material against corrosion is due to protection generated by the presence of a very thin carbon-rich layer encapsulating the nanoparticulate catalyst: this is a new form of passivation. PMID:21695331

  2. Graphene/nickel nanoparticles composites from graphenide solutions.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Eduardo G C; Souza, Victor H R; Huang, Kai; Pénicaud, Alain; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposites between nickel nanoparticles and graphene were obtained starting from nickel cations and graphenide solutions (negatively charged graphene layers) as both reducing agent to nickel cations and graphene source. Different nanomaterials were obtained in two different solvents, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), with different nickel/graphene ratios. The nanomaterials were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). All the samples consist of large graphene layers highly decorated with crystalline nickel nanoparticles, of size ranging from 2 to 10 nm. Thin films of the samples were deposited on indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates and electrochemically characterized in alkaline medium, leading to Ni(OH)2/NiOOH redox pair, where the increase of the nickel proportion in the nanocomposites resulted in higher peak currents. The samples obtained in NMP showed the best performance with a fivefold increase of the peak currents, consistent with the lower charge transfer resistance as seen by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PMID:25965429

  3. Nickel and cobalt resistance engineered in Escherichia coli by overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi goesingense.

    PubMed

    Freeman, John L; Persans, Michael W; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E

    2005-12-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-L-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  4. Nickel and Cobalt Resistance Engineered in Escherichia coli by Overexpression of Serine Acetyltransferase from the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Thlaspi goesingense

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, John L.; Persans, Michael W.; Nieman, Ken; Salt, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The overexpression of serine acetyltransferase from the Ni-hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense causes enhanced nickel and cobalt resistance in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, overexpression of T. goesingense serine acetyltransferase results in enhanced sensitivity to cadmium and has no significant effect on resistance to zinc. Enhanced nickel resistance is directly related to the constitutive overactivation of sulfur assimilation and glutathione biosynthesis, driven by the overproduction of O-acetyl-l-serine, the product of serine acetyltransferase and a positive regulator of the cysteine regulon. Nickel in the serine acetyltransferase-overexpressing strains is not detoxified by coordination or precipitation with sulfur, suggesting that glutathione is involved in reducing the oxidative damage imposed by nickel. PMID:16332856

  5. Report of the international committee on nickel carcinogenesis in man. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, R.

    1990-02-01

    Ten cohorts of nickel exposed workers which had previously been studied in terms of total nickel exposure were updated and re-analyzed to evaluate the cancer risk from the various chemical forms of nickel to which they had been exposed. Industrial records were used to construct occupational histories of individual workers and to derive estimates of exposure to nickel and its compounds in their working environments. Subsequent mortality was then assessed in relation to exposure estimates. The major conclusion from the research is that risk to lung and nasal cancer is related to more than one form of nickel. Although increased risk in most workers can be attributed to mixtures of oxidic and sulfidic nickel, high exposures to nickel oxide in the absence of nickel subsulfide was also associated with increased risk. There was also evidence that soluble nickel increases cancer risk.

  6. Morphologie et syntaxe du francais (French Morphology and Syntax)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourdot, Marc

    1977-01-01

    A study of the relationship of morphology and syntax to the communication process from the functionalist viewpoint. Topics considered are: morphological processes, that is the distinction between functional and contingent language facts; the degree of necessity of syntax; the difference between functionalism and traditional grammar. (Text is in…

  7. Morphologie und Ultrastruktur der Koralle Cornularia cornucopiae (Anthozoa, Octocorallia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benke, H.; Hündgen, M.

    1984-03-01

    Cornularia cornucopiae is a colonial coral whose polyps arise singly from stolons. In contrast with other octocrallia C. cornucopiae lacks calcareous spicules. Therefore, tissue preparation for electron microscopic investigations can be performed. The presence of a calyx such as the theca of hydroids, in which the polyps may be completely retracted, is conspicuous. The calyx consists of three layers. The structure of the basal layer suggests massive collagen. The body wall is connected with the calyx by living desmocytes. The histology of the oral disc and the actinopharynx is identical. The ventral side of the polyps bears the siphonoglyph. Below the pharynx the inner edges of the mesenteries are free and form the mesenterial filaments. The two ventral mesenteries differ from the others; the one is long and exhibits a large and heavily flagellated filament, the other is short and lacks a filament. The muscular system is represented by gastrodermal circular fibres in the body wall and by radial and longitudinal fibres in the septa; a large septal retractor muscle is missing.

  8. Preparation of nickel oxide powder by decomposition of basic nickel carbonate in microwave field with nickel oxide seed as a microwave absorbing additive

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Ke, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) powder is prepared by decomposition of basic nickel carbonate (mNi(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}nNiCO{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O) in microwave field with NiO seed as a microwave absorbing additive. Basic nickel carbonate (BNC) can decompose completely to NiO powder in a short time. Firstly, the heat for BNC decomposition is provided by NiO seed which absorbs microwave and then by NiO product which also absorbs microwave. The decomposition process of BNC can be accelerated by increasing the amount of BNC, the amount of NiO seed or the microwave field power. The size of NiO powder product is about 180nm when the size of BNC used is about 160nm.

  9. Surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of nickel oxide and lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films, toward electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Jessica; Bister, Geoffroy; Simonis, Priscilla; Colson, Pierre; Maho, Anthony; Aubry, Philippe; Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Henrist, Catherine; Lardot, Véronique; Cambier, Francis; Cloots, Rudi

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-doped nickel oxide and undoped nickel oxide thin films have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by a surfactant-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The addition of polyethylene glycol in the sprayed solution has led to improved uniformity and reduced light scattering compared to films made without surfactant. Furthermore, the presence of lithium ions in NiO films has resulted in improved electrochromic performances (coloration contrast and efficiency), but with a slight decrease of the electrochromic switching kinetics.

  10. Welding procedure specification: gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-chromium-iron and nickel-chromium-molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    Procedure WPS-1303-ASME-8 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-chromium-iron, N06600 (P-43), with filler metal ERNiCrFe-5 (F-43); and nickel-chromium-molybdenum, N06625 (P-43), with filler metal ERNiCrMo-3 (F-43); thickness range is 0.020 to 0.432 in.; shielding gas is argon.

  11. Nickel-cobalt alloy nanosheets obtained from reductive hydrothermal-treatment of nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Jolagah, Ali; Afrasiabi, Hasan-ali

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An anionic layered material, nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor produced an alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloy is a bimetallic nanostructured nickel-cobalt and a soft magnet material. -- Abstract: Nickel-cobalt hydroxide carbonate, a layered material was synthesized by the co-precipitation method using urea as precipitant agent. This anionic layered material with hexagonal structure is constructed from nickel and cobalt ions within the layers and carbonate anions between the layers. Nickel-cobalt alloy with pure cubic phase was obtained by a reductive hydrothermal-treatment of the layered precursor. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the initial layered material and its metallic alloy product. That is, the nickel-cobalt alloy has really produced via a wet chemical route for the first time. Magnetic measurement revealed that the alloy sample is a soft magnet material.

  12. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of

  13. Nickel-rich layered microspheres cathodes: lithium/nickel disordering and electrochemical performance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chaochao; Li, Guangshe; Luo, Dong; Li, Qi; Fan, Jianming; Li, Liping

    2014-09-24

    Nickel-rich layered metal oxide materials are prospective cathode materials for lithium ion batteries due to the relatively higher capacity and lower cost than LiCoO2. Nevertheless, the disordered arrangement of Li(+)/Ni(2+) in local regions of these materials and its impact on electrochemistry performance are not well understood, especially for LiNi(1-x-y)Co(x)Mn(y)O2 (1-x-y > 0.5) cathodes, which challenge one's ability in finding more superior cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. In this work, Ni-Co-Mn-based spherical precursors were first obtained by a solvothermal method through handily utilizing the redox reaction of nitrate and ethanol. Subsequent sintering of the precursors with given amount of lithium source (Li-excess of 5, 10, and 15 mol %) yields LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2 microspheres with different extents of Li(+)/Ni(2+) disordering. With the determination of the amounts of Li(+) ions in transition metal layer and Ni(2+) ions in Li layer using structural refinement, the impact of Li(+)/Ni(2+) ions disordering on the crystal structure, valence state of nickel ions, and electrochemical performance were investigated in detailed. It is clearly demonstrated that with increasing the amount of lithium source, lattice parameters (a and c) and interslab space thickness of unit cell decrease, and more Li(+) ions incorporated into the 3a site of transition metal layer which leads to an increase of Ni(3+) content in LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2 as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a redox titration. Moreover, the electrochemical performance for as-prepared LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2 microspheres exhibited a trend of deterioration due to the changes of crystal structure from Li(+)/Ni(2+) mixing. The preparation method and the impacts of Li(+)/Ni(2+) ions disordering reported herein for the nickel-rich layered LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2 microspheres may provide hints for obtaining a broad class of nickel-rich layered metal oxide microspheres with

  14. Deposition of nickel microstructures by CO2 laser-assisted decomposition of nickel tetracarbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonneau, D.; Auvert, G.; Pauleau, Y.

    1989-07-01

    Nickel microstructures were produced from decomposition of Ni(CO)4 on quartz plates locally heated with a focused cw CO2 laser beam operating at 10.59 μm. The profile and deposition rate of Ni dots were determined as functions of irradiation time, reactant pressure, laser power, and laser-induced surface temperature. The kinetic data were found to be in good agreement with those of the visible laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ni dots and CVD of Ni films in furnace-type CVD reactors. The decomposition of Ni(CO)4 molecules irradiated with the infrared laser light occurred via a purely thermal process.

  15. Free ionic nickel accumulation and localization in the freshwater zooplankter, Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The processes which lead to the accumulation of free ionic nickel (radioactive) from solution by Daphnia magna were studied and incorporated into a model which describes accummulation at different concentrations. Adsorption proved to be a relatively small component of nickel accummulation. The accummulation rate eventually approached zero, which represented an equilibrium between uptake and loss of nickel. However, elimination experiments did reveal a pool of relatively static nickel. The appearance and distribution of nickel within five body parts (body fluid, carapace, gut, filtering appendages, and eggs) of D. magna supported the accummulation data and added to the understanding of the pathways of nickel through the organism.

  16. II. Electrodeposition/removal of nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Shirvanian, Pezhman A.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    An investigation is presented of nickel electrodeposition from acidic solutions in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on nickel removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion rate of deposited nickel on the cathodic particles were explored under galvanostatic operation. Nitrogen sparging was used to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration in the electrolyte in order to reduce the nickel corrosion rate, thereby increasing the nickel electrowinning rate and current efficiency. A numerical model of electrodeposition, including corrosion and mass transfer in the particulate cathode moving bed, is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental net nickel electrodeposition data quite well. PMID:22039317

  17. II. Electrodeposition/removal of nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Shirvanian, Pezhman A; Hradil, George

    2011-08-17

    An investigation is presented of nickel electrodeposition from acidic solutions in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on nickel removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion rate of deposited nickel on the cathodic particles were explored under galvanostatic operation. Nitrogen sparging was used to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration in the electrolyte in order to reduce the nickel corrosion rate, thereby increasing the nickel electrowinning rate and current efficiency. A numerical model of electrodeposition, including corrosion and mass transfer in the particulate cathode moving bed, is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental net nickel electrodeposition data quite well. PMID:22039317

  18. Nickel hydrogen low earth orbit life testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badcock, Charles C.; Haag, R. L.

    1988-02-01

    A program to demonstrate the long-term reliability of nickel hydrogen (NiH2) cells in low earth orbit (LEO) and support use in mid-altitude orbit (MAO) has been initiated. Both 3.5 and 4.5 in. diameter NiH2 cells are included in the test plan. Cells from all U.S. vendors are to be tested. The tests will be performed at -5 and 10 C at 40 and 60 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for LEO orbit and 10 C and 80 percent DOD for MAO orbit simulations. The goals of the testing are 20,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD and 30,000 cycles at 40 percent DOD. Cells are presently undergoing acceptance and characterization testing at Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana. Funding has been provided by the Air Force Space Technology Center (AFSTC) and two AF System Program Offices (SPO's) to initiate the testing, but additional funding must be acquired to complete the purchase of cells and to assure completion of the testing.

  19. Geometry and heterointerface engineered phases of nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhalian, Jak

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the spatial arrangement atoms in a crystal is the backbone of its properties that, along with the interactions, defines its ground state. Following this notion, several theoretical proposals exist to utilize a few unit cells of a correlated oxide heterostructured along the pseudo-cubic (111) direction. This geometrically engineered motif relies on the presence of correlated carriers placed on a buckled honeycomb (i.e., graphene-like) lattice, or dice lattices for bilayers and trilayers of ABO3 perovskites. The guiding principle is to use strong electronic correlations combined with quantum confinement and symmetry-breaking interfaces to enable access to new electronic band structures that may activate novel or latent quantum phases. In this talk, the current status of research in this field will be reviewed. The experimental challenges in realization and characterization of such heterostructures will be exemplified by rare earth nickelates heterostructures. Several promising examples of such geometrically engineered artificial Mott materials will be discussed. Work supported by DOD-ARO under the Grant Number 0402-17291 and funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS Initiative through Grant GBMF4534.

  20. A nickel-cadmium battery reconditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanier, R.

    1977-01-01

    The circuit presented is simple and small enough to be included in a typical battery charge/power control assembly, yet provides the advantage of a complete ground-type battery reconditioning discharge. Test results on the circuit when used to recondition two 24 cell, 20 A-h nickel-cadmium batteries are given. These results show that a battery reconditioned with this circuit returns to greater than 90 percent of its original capacity (greater than nameplate capacity) and follows a typical new battery degradation curve even after over 20,000 simulated orbital cycles for a 4 year period. Applications of the circuit are considered along with recommendations relative to its use. Its application in low voltage (22 to 36 Vdc) power systems and in high voltage (100 to 150 Vdc) power systems is discussed. The implications are that the high voltage systems have a greater need for battery reconditioning than their low voltage counterparts, and that using these circuit techniques, the expected life of a battery in low Earth orbit can be up to 5 years.

  1. Status of nickel-hydrogen cell technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel hydrogen cell technology has been developed which solves the problems of thermal management, oxygen management, electrolyte management, and electrical and mechanical design peculiar to this new type of battery. This technology was weight optimized for low orbit operation using computer modeling programs but is near optimum for other orbits. Cells ranging in capacity up to about 70 ampere-hours can be made from components of a single standard size and are available from two manufacturers. The knowledge gained is now being applied to the development of two extensions to the basic design: a second set of larger standard components that will cover the capacity range up to 150 ampere-hours; and the development of multicell common pressure vessel modules to reduce volume, cost and weight. A manufacturing technology program is planned to optimize the producibility of the cell design and reduce cost. The most important areas for further improvement are life and reliability which are governed by electrode and separator technology.

  2. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, Marius; Santos, Rafael M.; Chiang, Yi Wai; Vlad, Maria; Van Gerven, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP) as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags), on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting. PMID:24578669

  3. Shock induced crystallization of amorphous Nickel powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukara, Mathew; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental work has shown the efficacy of amorphous Ni/crystalline Al composites as energetic materials, with flame velocities twice that of a comparable crystalline Ni/crystalline Al system. Of further interest is the recrystallization mechanisms in the pure amorphous Ni powders, both thermally induced and mechanically induced. We present large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced recrystallization in loosely packed amorphous Nickel powders. We study the time dependent nucleation and growth processes by holding the shocked samples at the induced pressures and temperatures for extended periods following the passage of the shock (up to 6 ns). We find that the nanostructure of the recrystallized Ni and time scales of recrystallization are dependent on the piston velocity. At low piston velocities, nucleation events are rare, leading to long incubation times and a relatively coarse nanostructure. At higher piston velocities, local variations in temperature due to jetting phenomena and void collapse, give rise to multiple nucleation events on time scales comparable to the passage of the shock wave, leading to the formation of a fine-grained nanostructure. Interestingly, we observe that the nucleation and growth process occurs in two steps, with the first nuclei crystallizing into the BCC structure, before evolving over time into the expected FCC structure. U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, HDTRA1-10-1-0119 (Program Manager Suhithi Peiris).

  4. Metals essentials for plants: the nickel case.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The long period of research that preceded the discovery of nickel (Ni) essentiality for plants constitutes a paradigmatic case of doubts and uncertainties that often occur in experimental biology. The history of the essentiality of chemical elements that are present as traces in the plant ash (micronutrients) began in the mid-Nineteenth, but it had blurred outlines until Daniel Arnon, towards the mid-twentieth century, fixed the now historic 'criteria of essentiality'. During this rather long time, seven micronutrients were recognised, step by step, as essential for higher plants, (iron, manganese, boron, Zinc, copper, molybdenum, and chloride), at first thanks to meticulous observations of deficiency symptoms and then to the culture of plant on aqueous solutions. The last element to be recognised as essential for plant nutrition was Ni, which was considered a very toxic element for more than a century. Towards the Thirties, Ni became to be regarded as a useful element by some researchers, but the ultimate proof of its essentiality was obtained only in the Eighties, when the American group of Ross M. Welch demonstrated that Ni is a cofactor of the enzyme urease. More recent research shows that Ni improves the nitrogen (N) metabolism and appears to be important for the efficiency of N fixation. PMID:23757955

  5. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to empirically controlled nickel electrode structural variations, and has unique potential for structural characterization of these materials. How the structure relates to electrochemical properties is examined so that the latter can be more completely understood, controlled, and optimized. Electrodes were impregnated and cycled, and cyclic voltammetry is being used for electrochemical characterization. Structural variation was observed which has escaped detection using other methods. Structural changes are induced by: (1) cobalt doping, (2) the state of change or discharge, (3) the preparation conditions and type of buffer used, and (4) the formation process. Charged active mass has an NiOOH-type structure, agreeing with X-ray diffraction results. Discharged active mass, however, is not isostructural with beta-Ni(OH)2. Chemically prepared alpha phases are not isostructural either. A disordered structural model, containing point defects, is proposed for the cycled materials. This model explains K(+) incorporation. Band assignments were made and spectra interpreted for beta-Ni(OH)2, electrochemical NiOOH and chemically precipitated NiOOH.

  6. High temperature erosion of nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.

    1995-12-31

    High temperature erosion behavior was studied on three commercial nickel alloys, Inconel 718, Inconel 601 and Inconel X-750, using a vertical sand-blast type of erosion test rig. Effect of temperature on erosion was investigated by varying test temperature in six steps from ambient up to 800 C. Other erosion variables investigated included impingement angle, changed from 10{degree} to 90{degree}, and impingement velocity, covered a range of 40 to 90 m/s. Extensive studies on erosion surface morphological features were done on eroded or eroded-corroded specimen surfaces using scanning electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis and scratch test revealed corrosion rate, characteristics of oxide scale formed at high temperature, and some effects of corrosion on erosion. It was found that variation of erosion rate with temperature was directly related to temperature-dependent mechanical property changes of the materials. The mechanisms of the high-temperature erosion were analyzed based on test results. It was observed that erosion was dominant in temperature range up to 800 C, while corrosion played increased roles in upper portion of the temperature range tested.

  7. Nickel: a micronutrient essential for higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Welch, R.M.; Cary, E.E.

    1987-11-01

    Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. Grain from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Onda; containing 40 to 80 nanograms of Ni per gram dry weight) grown in solution culture with negligible Ni concentrations (<30 nanograms of Ni per liter) exhibited greatly reduced germination rates (i.e. 50% less than grain from Ni-adequate plants) and seeding vigor of the viable grain was greatly depressed. Grain containing less than 30 nanograms per gram dry weight was inviable. Under Ni-deficient conditions, barley plants fail to produce viable grain because of a disruption of the maternal plants normal grain-filling and maturation processes that occur following formation of the grain embryo. The observations that (a) barley plants fail to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni and (b) addition of Ni to the growth medium completely alleviates deficiency symptoms in the maternal plants satisfies the essentiality criteria; thus Ni should be considered a micronutrient for cereals. Because Ni is required by legumes, and is now established for cereals, the authors conclude that Ni should be added to the list of micronutrients essential for all higher plant growth.

  8. NASA Handbook for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, James D.; Gopalakrishna, M. Rao; Yi, Thomas Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries are finding more applications in the aerospace energy storage. Since 1983, NiH2 batteries have become the primary energy storage system used for Geosynchronous-Orbit (GEO) Satellites. The first NASA application for NiH2 batteries was the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Hubble Space Telescope Satellite launched in 1990. The handbook was prepared as a reference book to aid in the application of this technology. That is, to aid in the cell and battery design, procurement, testing, and handling of NiH2 batteries. The design of individual pressure vessel NiH2 cells is covered in Chapter l. LEO and GEO applications and their requirements are discussed in Chapter 2. The design of NiH2 batteries for both GEO and LEO applications is discussed in Chapter 3. Advanced design concepts such as the common pressure vessel and bipolar NiH2 batteries are described in Chapter 4. Performance data are presented in Chapter 5. Storage and handling of the NiH2 cells and batteries are discussed in Chapter 6. Standard test procedures are presented in Chapter 7. Cell and battery procurements are discussed in Chapter 8. Finally, safety procedures are discussed in Chapter 9.

  9. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  10. Nickel cadmium battery operations and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna; Prettyman-Lukoschek, Jill; Calvin, Richard; Berry, Thomas; Bote, Robert; Toft, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft are operated from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. On-board power subsystems for each satellite employ NASA Standard 50 Ampere-hour (Ah) nickel-cadmium batteries in a parallel configuration. To date, these batteries have exhibited degradation over periods from several months (anomalous behavior, UARS and CGRO (MPS-1); to little if any, EUVE) to several years (old age, normal behavior, ERBS). Since the onset of degraded performance, each mission's Flight Operations Team (FOT), under the direction of their cognizant GSFC Project Personnel and Space Power Application Branch's Engineers has closely monitored the battery performance and implemented several charge control schemes in an effort to extend battery life. Various software and hardware solutions have been developed to minimize battery overcharge. Each of the four sections of this paper covers a brief overview of each mission's operational battery management and its associated spacecraft battery performance. Also included are new operational procedures developed on-orbit that may be of special interest to future mission definition and development.

  11. Impacts of nickel nanoparticles on mineral carbonation.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Marius; Santos, Rafael M; Chiang, Yi Wai; Vlad, Maria; Van Gerven, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP) as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO₂ and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO₂ mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags), on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO₂ bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting. PMID:24578669

  12. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Breil, Nicolas; Lavoie, Christian; Ozcan, Ahmet; Baumann, Frieder; Klymko, Nancy; Nummy, Karen; Sun, Bing; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yu, Jian; Zhu, Frank; Narasimha, Shreesh; Chudzik, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of the nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.

  13. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jose E; Contreras, Maria F; Vilanova, Enrique; Felix, Laura P; Margineanu, Michael B; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation. PMID:26692167

  14. Rapid prototyped porous nickel-titanium scaffolds as bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Waldemar; Bormann, Therese; Rossi, Antonella; Müller, Bert; Schumacher, Ralf; Martin, Ivan; de Wild, Michael; Wendt, David

    2014-01-01

    While calcium phosphate-based ceramics are currently the most widely used materials in bone repair, they generally lack tensile strength for initial load bearing. Bulk titanium is the gold standard of metallic implant materials, but does not match the mechanical properties of the surrounding bone, potentially leading to problems of fixation and bone resorption. As an alternative, nickel-titanium alloys possess a unique combination of mechanical properties including a relatively low elastic modulus, pseudoelasticity, and high damping capacity, matching the properties of bone better than any other metallic material. With the ultimate goal of fabricating porous implants for spinal, orthopedic and dental applications, nickel-titanium substrates were fabricated by means of selective laser melting. The response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to the nickel-titanium substrates was compared to mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on clinically used titanium. Selective laser melted titanium as well as surface-treated nickel-titanium and titanium served as controls. Mesenchymal stromal cells had similar proliferation rates when cultured on selective laser melted nickel-titanium, clinically used titanium, or controls. Osteogenic differentiation was similar for mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on the selected materials, as indicated by similar gene expression levels of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin. Mesenchymal stromal cells seeded and cultured on porous three-dimensional selective laser melted nickel-titanium scaffolds homogeneously colonized the scaffold, and following osteogenic induction, filled the scaffold's pore volume with extracellular matrix. The combination of bone-related mechanical properties of selective laser melted nickel-titanium with its cytocompatibility and support of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells highlights its potential as a superior bone substitute as compared to clinically used titanium. PMID:25383165

  15. Hot corrosion of the B2 nickel aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The hot corrosion behavior of the B2 nickel aluminides was studied to determine the inherent hot corrosion resistance of the beta nickel aluminides and to develop a mechanism for the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides. The effects of the prior processing of the material, small additions of zirconium, stoichiometry of the materials, and preoxidation of the samples were also examined. Additions of 2, 5, and 15 w/o chromium were used to determine the effect of chromium on the hot corrosion of the beta nickel aluminides and the minimum amount of chromium necessary for good hot corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the beta nickel aluminides have inferior inherent hot corrosion resistance despite their excellent oxidation resistance. Prior processing and zirconium additions had no discernible effect on the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys. Preoxidation extended the incubation period of the alloys only a few hours and was not considered to be an effective means of stopping hot corrosion. Stoichiometry was a major factor in determining the hot corrosion resistance of the alloys with the higher aluminum alloys having a definitely superior hot corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the alloys stopped the hot corrosion attack in the alloys tested. From a variety of experimental results, a complex hot corrosion mechanism was proposed. During the early stages of the hot corrosion of these alloys the corrosion is dominated by a local sulphidation/oxidation form of attack. During the intermediate stages of the hot corrosion, the aluminum depletion at the surface leads to a change in the oxidation mechanism from a protective external alumina layer to a mixed nickel-aluminum spinel and nickel oxide that can occur both externally and internally. The material undergoes extensive cracking during the later portions of the hot corrosion.

  16. Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Pantuzo, Mariele Cristina Garcia; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; de Andrade Marigo, Helenice; Zenóbio, Madelon Aparecida Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil), in the period from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females), aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance) were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel), while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p=0.016). PMID:18060254

  17. Sinter of uniform, predictable, blemish-free nickel plaque for large aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiger, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    A series of nickel slurry compositions were tested. Important slurry parameters were found to be the nature of the binder, a pore former and the method of mixing. A slow roll mixing which is non-turbulent successfully eliminated entrapped air so that bubbles and pockets were avoided in the sinter. A slurry applicator was developed which enabled an equal quantity of slurry to be applied to both sides of the grid. Sintering in a furnace having a graded atmosphere characteristic, ranging from oxidizing to strongly reducing, improved adhesion of porous sinter to grid and resulted in a uniform welding of nickel particles to each other throughout the plaque. Sintering was carried out in a horizontal furnace having three heating zones and 16 heating control circuits. Tests used for plaque evaluation include (1) appearance, (2) grid location and adhesion, (3) mechanical strength, (4) thickness, (5) weight per unit area, (6) void volume per unit area, (7) surface area and (8) electrical resistance. Plaque material was impregnated using Heliotek proprietary processes and 100 AH cells were fabricated.

  18. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  19. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oller, Adriana R. Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann; Bates, Hudson K.

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

  20. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  1. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-11-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  2. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  3. Nanoscale investigation of the interface situation of plated nickel and thermally formed nickel silicide for silicon solar cell metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondon, A.; Wang, D.; Zuschlag, A.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of nickel silicide formation from plated nickel layers for solar cell metallization, there are several open questions regarding contact adhesion and electrical properties. Nanoscale characterization by transmission electron microscopy has been employed to support these investigations. Interfacial oxides and silicide phases were investigated on differently prepared samples by different analytical methods associated with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Processing variations included the pre-treatment of samples before nickel plating, the used plating solution and the thermal budget for the nickel-silicon solid-state reaction. It was shown that interface oxides of only few nm thickness on both silicon and nickel silicide are present on the samples, depending on the chosen process sequence, which have been shown to play an important role in adhesion of nickel on silicide in an earlier publication. From sample pretreatment variations, conclusions about the role of an interfacial oxide in silicide formation and its influence on phase formation were drawn. Such an oxide layer hinders silicide formation except for pinhole sites. This reduces the availability of Ni and causes a silicide with low Ni content to form. Without an interfacial oxide a continuous nickel silicide of greater depth, polycrystalline modification and expected phase according to thermal budget is formed. Information about the nature of silicide growth on typical solar cell surfaces could be obtained from silicide phase and geometric observations, which were supported by FIB tomography. The theory of isotropic NiSi growth and orientation dependent NiSi2 growth was derived. By this, a very well performing low-cost metallization for silicon solar cells has been brought an important step closer to industrial introduction.

  4. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Anderson, R. Rox; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 10% of the population in the USA suffer from nickel allergy, and many are unable to wear jewellery or handle coins and other objects that contain nickel. Many agents have been developed to reduce the penetration of nickel through skin, but few formulations are safe and effective. Here, we show that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin (in vitro) and on the skin of mice (in vivo) prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water. Approximately 11-fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Using nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 500 nm in topical creams may be an effective way to limit the exposure to metal ions that can cause skin irritation.

  5. Development and fabrication of large vented nickel-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnel, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary cell design for a 300AH vented nickel-zinc cell was established based on volume requirements and cell component materials selected by NASA Lewis Research Center. A 100AH cell configuration was derived from the 300AH cell design utilizing the same size electrodes, separators, and cell terminal hardware. The first cells fabricated were four groups of three cells each in the 100AH size. These 100AH experimental nickel-zinc cells had as common components the nickel positive electrodes (GFM), flexible inorganic separator (GFM) bags on the negative electrodes, pressed powder zinc oxide electrodes, and cell containers with hardware. The variations introduced were four differing electrolyte absorber (interseparator) systems used to encase the nickel positive electrodes of each cell group. The four groups of 100AH experimental vented nickel-zinc cells were tested to determine, based on cell performance, the best two interseparator systems. Using the two interseparator systems, two groups of experimental 300AH cells were fabricated. Each group of three cells differed only in the interseparator material used. The six cells were filled, formed and tested to evaluate the interseparator materials and investigate the performance characteristics of the 300AH cell configuration and its components.

  6. Biosorption of nickel in complex aqueous waste streams by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Corder, S L; Reeves, M

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determined if a suitable biosorbent could be found for removal of nickel at low concentrations (< 20 parts per million [ppm]) from a chemically complex wastewater effluent generated by electroplating operations. Algae and cyanobacteria were chosen as candidate biosorbent materials because they are easy to grow and they have the ability to withstand processing into biosorbent materials. Several species were screened for nickel-biosorption capacity initially, and three species of cyanobacteria were selected for further study based on their performance in the scoping tests. When compared to live controls, autoclaving improved the binding capacities of all three species, but usually biosorption data from experiments with live cells were more consistent. None of the three species was able to bind nickel efficiently in actual effluent samples. Further experimentation indicated that sodium ions, which were present in high concentrations in the effluent, were interfering with the ability of the cells to bind nickel. Adsorption isotherm plots for biosorption of nickel by two species of Anabaena in NiCl2-deionized water solutions were prepared. PMID:8010774

  7. Environmentally friendly process for nickel electroplating of ABS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaoui, M.; Martins, J. I.; Bazzaoui, E. A.; Albourine, A.

    2012-08-01

    Nickel electroplating of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic has been achieved successfully without any chromium or palladium pretreatment. Once the ABS is coated with polypyrrole (PPy), the sample may be electroplated. The process is fast, economic and involves three stages. Firstly, chemical deposition of PPy on ABS, secondly, copper deposition and finally nickel electroplating. A homogenous and adherent PPy has been synthesized chemically on ABS plate by using pyrrole as monomer and iron (III) chloride as oxidant. Copper and nickel were deposited galvanostatically from industrial plating baths. The metallic coatings were homogeneous and the adherence was estimated at 100%. The thickness of copper and nickel depend on the electrolysis time. As the current density increases, the Cu and Ni thickness raises. This result was confirmed from SEM characterization and RX map. The Ni coating is characterized by a globular structure with globules of different sizes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis shows the presence of Ni with some amount of carbon and oxygen due to the nickel oxides and contaminant from the bath solution.

  8. Pulse electrodeposition of adherent nickel coatings onto anodized aluminium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, Cédric; Vichery, Charlotte; Zechner, Johannes; Frey, Damian; Bürki, Gerhard; Cebeci, Halil; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium is one of the mostly used elements in the industry because of its abundance and low weight. However, the deposition of a metallic coating requires performing the so-called zincate pre-treatment in order to allow the formation of inter-metallic bonds and thereby achieving sufficient adherence. In this work, porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) is used as an anchoring intermediate layer for nickel coatings. AAO is grown anodically in sulfuric acid and nickel coatings are deposited by potentiostatic reverse pulse electrodeposition onto as-anodized aluminium surfaces. The electrodeposition of nickel is initiated onto the electrochemically thinned barrier layer of AAO and pursued until the complete covering of the oxide. The electrochemical behavior of Watts and sulfamate baths is investigated by cyclic voltammetry for different barrier layer thickness, allowing to validate the thinning conditions and to determine the appropriate deposition potential of nickel. GD-OES measurements show that low duty cycles are necessary to achieve high filling ratio of the AAO. SEM micrographs show that a smooth uniform coating is obtained when nickel is deposited in presence of additives.

  9. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions. PMID:25407529

  10. Geochemical field method for determination of nickel in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichen, L.E.

    1951-01-01

    The use of biogeochemical data in prospecting for nickel emphasizes the need for a simple, moderately accurate field method for the determination of nickel in plants. In order to follow leads provided by plants of unusual nickel content without loss of time, the plants should be analyzed and the results given to the field geologist promptly. The method reported in this paper was developed to meet this need. Speed is acquired by elimination of the customary drying and controlled ashing; the fresh vegetation is ashed in an open dish over a gasoline stove. The ash is put into solution with hydrochloric acid and the solution buffered. A chromograph is used to make a confined spot with an aliquot of the ash solution on dimethylglyoxime reagent paper. As little as 0.025% nickel in plant ash can be determined. With a simple modification, 0.003% can be detected. Data are given comparing the results obtained by an accepted laboratory procedure. Results by the field method are within 30% of the laboratory values. The field method for nickel in plants meets the requirements of biogeochemical prospecting with respect to accuracy, simplicity, speed, and ease of performance in the field. With experience, an analyst can make 30 determinations in an 8-hour work day in the field.

  11. Electrospun nickel oxide nanofibers: Microstructure and surface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abdullah; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2015-12-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanofibers with controlled microstructure were synthesized through the electrospinning technique using a solution composed of nickel acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. The microstructure of NiO nanofibers was found to be highly dependent on nickel acetate concentration in the solution and the post-heat treatment. As the nickel acetate concentration increases, the crystallinity index of NiO nanofibers increases from nearly 50 percent to 90 percent and the average crystallite size in the nanofibers increases from about 20 nm to 30 nm. Further, it was found that annealing the nanofibers at 1000 °C for 2 h leads to nearly full crystallization of nanofibers with significant increase in the crystallite size to about 50 nm while maintaining the fibrous shape. For low nickel acetate concentration, and because of the small nanofibers size, the surface of the calcined nanofibers showed oxygen deficiency which promises a superior activity of these NiO nanofibers for catalytic and sensing applications.

  12. Nanoparticles reduce nickel allergy by capturing metal ions.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Anderson, R Rox; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 10% of the population in the USA suffer from nickel allergy, and many are unable to wear jewellery or handle coins and other objects that contain nickel. Many agents have been developed to reduce the penetration of nickel through skin, but few formulations are safe and effective. Here, we show that applying a thin layer of glycerine emollient containing nanoparticles of either calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate on an isolated piece of pig skin (in vitro) and on the skin of mice (in vivo) prevents the penetration of nickel ions into the skin. The nanoparticles capture nickel ions by cation exchange, and remain on the surface of the skin, allowing them to be removed by simple washing with water. Approximately 11-fold fewer nanoparticles by mass are required to achieve the same efficacy as the chelating agent ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Using nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 500 nm in topical creams may be an effective way to limit the exposure to metal ions that can cause skin irritation. PMID:21460828

  13. Nickel-catalyzed oxidations: from hydrocarbons to DNA.

    PubMed

    Burrows, C J; Muller, J G; Poulter, G T; Rokita, S E

    1996-04-01

    Nickel(II) complexes of tetradentate ligands such as cyclam and salen are catalysts for olefin epoxidation using PhIO and NaOCl, respectively. In order to understand the lack of enantioselectivity observed with chiral cyclam and salen complexes, studies of DNA and RNA oxidation were carried out in which evidence for diffusible oxidants might be found. A variety of square-planar, tetradentate nickel(II) complexes were observed to mediate guanine-specific modification in the presence of KHSO5 or magnesium monoperphthalate. In particular, the cationic complex, [(2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo [11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),2,11,13,15-pentaenato)nickel]2+, [NiCR]2+, has been studied as a probe of nucleic acid folding. The extent of guanine reaction depends upon the exposure of N7, a good transition metal binding site, thus implicating nickel-guanine binding during DNA oxidation. If this is the case, related systems should be able to confer enantioselectivity during the use of chiral nickel complexes and achiral substrates for oxidation. Mechanistic studies, including radical quenching and DNA enantioselectivity, are described and their mechanistic implications discussed. PMID:8639377

  14. Biosorption of Nickel from Industrial Wastewater using Zygnema sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprakash, Kanchana; Blessi T. L., Adlin; Madhavan, Jeyanthi

    2015-12-01

    Contamination of water sources with heavy metals is a very important pollution problem in the current scenario. Biosorption is an effective method for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters. In this study, the removal of Nickel(II) ions from electroplating industrial wastewater using biosorbent prepared from fresh water algal biomass Zygnema was investigated under batch mode. The sorption efficiency of nickel on Zygnema sp. was evaluated as a function of time, pH and sorbent dosage. The Nickel(II) uptake was dependent on initial pH with pH 3 being the optimum value. For 100 mg/L initial Nickel(II) concentration, sorption equilibrium was attained at a contact time of 100 min. The sorbent dosage affected the biosorption efficiency and maximum removal of 76.4 % was obtained at a dosage of 7.5 g/L. From the performance studies, algal biosorbent Zygnema is found to be a valuable material for the removal of Nickel from industrial wastewater and a better substitute for the conventional adsorbents.

  15. Surfactant-free synthesis of nickel nanoparticles in near-critical water

    SciTech Connect

    Hald, Peter; Bremholm, Martin; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2008-10-15

    Nickel nanoparticles have been produced by combining two well-tested methods: (i) the continuous flow supercritical reactor and (ii) the reduction of a nickel salt with hydrazine. The normal precipitation of a nickel-hydrazine complex, which would complicate pumping and mixing of the precursor, was controlled by the addition of ammonia to the precursor solution, and production of nickel nanoparticles with average sizes from 40 to 60 nm were demonstrated. The method therefore provides some size control and enables the production of nickel nanoparticles without the use of surfactants. The pure nickel nanoparticles can be easily isolated using a magnet. - Graphical abstract: A surfactant-free synthesis route to nickel nanoparticles has been successfully transferred to near-critical water conditions reducing synthesis times from hours to seconds. Nickel nanoparticles in the 40-60 nm range have been synthesised from an ammonia stabilised hydrazine complex with the average size controlled by reaction temperature.

  16. Nickel coating on high strength low alloy steel by pulse current deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, S.; Patel, S. K.; Mahapatra, S. S.; Sharma, N.; Ghosh, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal mostly used to enhance the value, utility, and lifespan of industrial equipment and components by protecting them from corrosion. Nickel is commonly used in the chemical and food processing industries to prevent iron from contamination. Since the properties of nickel can be controlled and varied over broad ranges, nickel plating finds numerous applications in industries. In the present investigation, pulse current electro-deposition technique has been used to deposit nickel on a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel substrate.Coating of nickel is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDAX analysis. Optical microscopy and SEM is used to assess the coating characteristics. Electrochemical polarization study has been carried out to study the corrosion behaviour of nickel coating and the polarisation curves have revealed that current density used during pulse electro-deposition plays a vital role on characteristics of nickel coating.

  17. Corrosion characteristics of nickel alloys. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography cites 118 articles from the international literature concerning corrosion characteristics of nickel alloys. Articles dealing with corrosion resistance, corrosion tests, intergranular corrosion, oxidation resistance, and stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloys are included.

  18. CHROMIUM ELECTROANALYSIS AT SCREEN PRINTED ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY THIN FILMS OF NICKEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and potentially cost-effective electrochemical method is reported for analysis of chromium (VI) and Chromium(III) using a nickel modified screen printed carbon ink electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of nickel modified electrode as well voltammetric behavior f...

  19. Nickel-silver composition shows promise as catalyst for hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magerl, J. A.; Murray, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Carburized 3-1 nickel-silver preparation exhibits considerable catalytic activity, although not as high as platinum black. Cost and availability factors warrant further evaluation of nickel-silver materials.

  20. Reduction and sintering of a nickel-dispersed-alumina composite and its properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, Tohru; Nakajima, Toshio; Ueda, Satoru; Niihara, Koichi

    1997-05-01

    High-density nickel-dispersed-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/nickel) composites with superior mechanical properties were obtained by the hydrogen reduction and the hot pressing of alumina-nickel oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiO) mixed powders. The mixtures were prepared by using NiO or nickel nitrate (Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O) as a dispersion source of nickel metal. Microstructural investigations of the composite fabricated using nitrate powder revealed that fine nickel particles, {approximately}100 nm in diameter, dispersed homogeneously at the matrix grain boundaries, forming the intergranular nanocomposite. High strength (>1 GPa) and high-temperature hardness were registered for the composite that contained a small amount of nickel dispersion. The ferromagnetic properties of nickel, such as high coercive force, were observed, because of the tine magnetic dispersions, which indicates a functional value of structural composites.