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Sample records for nicolae popovici oleg

  1. Infinity Manifold in Popovici's Photogravitational Two-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioc, Vasile

    The two-body problem associated to the modified photogravitational law proposed by the Romanian astronomer Constantin Popovici is being resumed. After studying the equilibria and the collision manifold (Mioc and Blaga 2001) via the powerful tools of the qualitative analysis, here we tackle the escape/capture orbits. We start from the equations of motion established in the quoted paper, then we apply a mixed sequence of McGehee-type transformations of the first and second kind, obtaining new regular motion equations. In this way the infinity singularity is replaced by the infinity manifold, pasted on the phase space. The flow on this manifold is entirely described, pointing out special features.

  2. Calin Popovici (1910-1977): The Founder of Modern Astrophysics in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, A.; Maris, G.

    2007-03-01

    Connected to the development of astrophysics at the world level, animated by the wish to create a Romanian school of astrophysics and getting understanding and support from the director of the Observatory, the academician Gheorghe Demetrescu, Prof. Calin Popovici laid the basis of the new sector of solar researches, whose coordinator he became in 1955. After the launch of the first artificial satellite on 4 October 1957, Prof. C. Popovici, anticipating the importance of space research in the future, organized at Bucharest Observatory one of the first artificial satellites tracking station in Europe. Later, the group of artificial satellites was set up, whose research focused especially on two new research fields: cosmic triangulation and the study of high atmosphere by means of artificial satellites. It was also at the initiative of Prof. Popovici that in 1962 the second pavilion (after the solar one) was built and was endowed with the new Cassegrain telescope (50/750 cm) equipped with a high precision photoelectric photometer. Thus, the new research sector dedicated to variable stars study was set up. Due to his high professionalism, abnegation and passion for astronomy, Prof. C. Popovici managed to overcome some political difficulties, and his dream of creating a section of astrophysics had come true. Prof. C. Popovici had also an exceptional merit in the scientific training of his collaborators. His vast activity carried out throughout the years in the service of astronomy, education and culture was rewarded with the distinction of academician granted post-mortem.

  3. Nicolas Poussin: "The Holy Family."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blocker, Judith Sloane

    1987-01-01

    Nicolas Poussin's painting, "The Holy Family," is used to help secondary students comprehend the power, mystery, and significance of classical 17th century Western painting. Includes suggestions for classroom activities. (BR)

  4. An Alternate Route to Talent Development in Science: An Interview with Oleg Davydenko.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F.

    1995-01-01

    This interview with Oleg Davydenko, a geneticist in Belarus who also runs a club for adolescents interested in genetics, addresses his work, the origins of the club, self-selection by students, characteristics of the best student members, the club's financial support, his own development as a youth, and the role of contests like the Olympiads. (DB)

  5. Wind resource assessment: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, E.; Olsen, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    San Nicolas Island (SNI) is the site of the Navy Range Instrumentation Test Site which relies on an isolated diesel-powered grid for its energy needs. The island is located in the Pacific Ocean 85 miles southwest of Los Angeles, California and 65 miles south of the Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. SNI is situated on the continental shelf at latitude N33{degree}14` and longitude W119{degree}27`. It is approximately 9 miles long and 3.6 miles wide and encompasses an area of 13,370 acres of land owned by the Navy in fee title. Winds on San Nicolas are prevailingly northwest and are strong most of the year. The average wind speed is 7.2 m/s (14 knots) and seasonal variation is small. The windiest months, March through July, have wind speeds averaging 8.2 m/s (16 knots). The least windy months, August through February, have wind speeds averaging 6.2 m/s (12 knots).

  6. Nicolas and Eel submarine fans, California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.; Gorsline, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Nicolas and Eel Submarine Fans occur in the San Nicolas basin - an outer basin of the California continental borderland that has a low sedimentation rate. Nicolas Fan lies southeast of San Nicolas Island and the broad San Nicolas Bank. The upper fan is characterized by numerous channels. The midfan region may be divided into three distinct areas: a central midfan and two subfans. The central midfan deposition system is typical of Normark's suprafan. The subfans are essentially flat, sandy lobes. Eel Fan lies west of San Clemente Island and is fed by an erosional valley. Its midfan region may also be characterized as a flat, sandy lobe. Box-core data show that holocene turbidity currents have occurred on the central Nicolas Fan, whereas the subfans and Eel Fan are nearly inactive. The local tectonic regime influences these fans by determining slope trends, creating bathymetric obstacles, controlling canyon location, and triggering mass movements. Sea level changes affect sedimentation patterns of the fans by increasing the mean grain size and the amount of sediment delivered to the fan during lowstands. These changes may, in turn, affect the morphology of the fan. The characteristics of these fans represent variations of the generalized fan models described in the literature. 12 figures, 1 table.

  7. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  8. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  10. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from...

  11. Nicola gen. nov. with redescription of Nicola tetela (Borojevic & Peixinho, 1976) (Porifera: Calcarea: Calcinea: Clathrinida).

    PubMed

    Cóndor-Luján, B; Klautau, M

    2016-01-01

    Guancha tetela was originally described as a species having a peduncle and a skeleton exclusively composed of sagittal triactines. Therefore, according to the most recent phylogeny of Clathrinida, it should be placed in the genus Clathrina. This species was collected on the Northeastern Brazilian coast in 1968 and it was not collected again until 2011 in Curaçao. In this study, we reanalyzed the type material and the new specimens from Curaçao under a morphological-molecular approach. Morphological analysis revealed the presence of tetractines in the skeleton of all the studied specimens, including a slide of the holotype. In the molecular phylogeny G. tetela grouped with genera containing tetractines, but as an independent new lineage, different from all the other genera of Clathrinida. Based on these results, we propose the erection of a new genus, Nicola gen. nov., to include species whose body is composed of tubes without anastomosis nor branches but that run in parallel and coalesce at the apical and basal regions. Moreover, the skeleton is exclusively composed of sagittal triactines and tetractines. PMID:27394730

  12. Nicola Cusano e il foro astronomico al castello di Andraz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dona', G.

    Cardinal Nicolas from Cues (1401-1464) was friend of Paolo Toscanelli and one of the first supporters of heliocentrism. He carved a tube in the south western wall of a room of the castle of Andraz. It was possibly used to calculate the date of the winter solstice, in order to evaluate the corrections needed to the Julian calendar then in use. The astronomical use of this tube is described. The accuracy achievable in the measurement of the solstice is surprising. It is possible that the tubes made by Gerbert of Aurillac (945-1003) were used with similar awareness.

  13. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  14. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  15. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  16. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  17. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  18. Legends about Legends: Abraham Eleazar's Adaptation of Nicolas Flamel.

    PubMed

    Priesner, Claus

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the relationship between three illustrated alchemical treatises, all of which are associated with Jewish adepts: the famous Le Livre des figures hieroglyphiques attributed to Nicolas Flamel, and two treatises published in 1735 in Erfurt-the Uraltes Chymisches Werckh and the Donum Dei. The Werckh is supposedly written by Rabbi Abraham Eleazar, while the Donum Dei is attributed to an ancient alchemist-cabalist, Rabbi Samuel Baruch. I argue that these authors are fictitious, and that both works were in fact written in the early eighteenth century by their supposed editor, the probably pseudonymous Julius Gervasius. Gervasius connects the Werckh with the legend of Nicolas Flamel by suggesting that it is based on the original, Jewish manuscript which helped Flamel to find the Stone of the Sages. Gervasius used various strategies to confer a sense of Jewish "authenticity" on these works, borrowing from contemporary (non-Jewish) perceptions of Jewish ritual, Hebrew language, and Christian Cabala. The Werckh also borrows and adapts a sequence of allegorical illustrations from those in pseudo-Flamel's Livre, and I compare the two sets of figures and, where possible, interpret them. I conclude that the later works in fact teach us far more about the state of alchemy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than they do about either medieval alchemy or Judaism. PMID:27376176

  19. Nicolaes Tulp and the golden age of the Dutch Republic.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Donald

    2007-12-01

    In the seventeenth century, Holland and the allied provinces of the northern Netherlands won final independence from their Spanish overlords and formed a worldwide economic empire. Dutch ships dominated the seas from the Caribbean to Japan and reconnoitred the coasts of Australia and New Zealand. Dutch society was cosmopolitan and supported great painters, philosophers and scientists. In these astonishing years, the physician Nicolaes Tulp [1593-1674] practised medicine in Amsterdam and, in 1641, published a book of his medical observations. This book ran into many editions; the Cowlishaw collection contains one of the last, dated 1716. Tulp is best known as the chief figure in a famous painting by Rembrandt, but his book has been studied by medical historians as a source of early descriptions of cranial surgery, spina bifida, vesical calculi, beriberi and many other conditions. The book is also a mirror of Dutch society in a great period in European history. PMID:17973670

  20. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  1. 78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...By this direct final rule, the Coast Guard is amending the restricted anchorage areas of San Nicolas Island, California. At the request of the United States Navy, the Coast Guard will remove the west area anchorage restriction and decrease the size of the east area anchorage restriction (see figure 1 located in the docket). After these amendments are finalized, the restricted anchorage at San......

  2. [The anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp: The beginning of a medical utopia].

    PubMed

    Rosler, Roberto; Young, Pablo

    2011-04-01

    The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp was painted by Rembrandt Harmen-szoon van Rijn at the early age of 26 years. In the XVII century these paintings were very popular in the Netherlands, and in this country the cities flourished as cultural centers searching the anatomy knowledge. Nicolaes Tulp was one of the persons in the center of Amsterdam's scene during XVII century. In 1632 Tulp was 39 years old, and he was an anatomist and a surgeon. Rembrandt masterly shows an autopsy performed by Dr. Tulp. This picture is the description of the beginning of a medical intellectual utopia: the absolute visibility of the disease. Unfortunately this utopia is blind to the complete visibility of the psycho-socio-cultural dimensions of the ill. PMID:21879195

  3. Analysis and structural characterization of pigments and materials used in Nicolae Grigorescu heritage paintings.

    PubMed

    Rusu, R D; Simionescu, B; Oancea, A V; Geba, M; Stratulat, L; Salajan, D; Ursu, L E; Popescu, M C; Dobromir, M; Murariu, M; Cotofana, C; Olaru, M

    2016-11-01

    The combination of various mobile, non-invasive techniques (IR reflectography technique, optical microscopy, XRF, Raman and NIR spectroscopies) and lab-based devices (FTIR and XPS spectroscopies, SEM-EDX microscopy) lead to the first exhaustive investigation of pigments and materials used by the famous Romanian painter Nicolae Grigorescu in three cultural heritage paintings. The study of a large number of spots and samples allowed a rigorous analysis and a far-reaching insight into his work. PMID:27294551

  4. A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kenner, Michael C.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.; Cowen, Robert K.; Harrold, Christopher; Novak, Mark; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    San Nicolas Island is surrounded by broad areas of shallow subtidal habitat, characterized by dynamic kelp forest communities that undergo dramatic and abrupt shifts in community composition. Although these reefs are fished, the physical isolation of the island means that they receive less impact from human activities than most reefs in Southern California, making San Nicolas an ideal place to evaluate alternative theories about the dynamics of these communities. Here we present monitoring data from seven sampling stations surrounding the island, including data on fish, invertebrate, and algal abundance. These data are unusual among subtidal monitoring data sets in that they combine relatively frequent sampling (twice per year) with an exceptionally long time series (since 1980). Other outstanding qualities of the data set are the high taxonomic resolution captured and the monitoring of permanent quadrats and swaths where the history of the community structure at specific locations has been recorded through time. Finally, the data span a period that includes two of the strongest ENSO events on record, a major shift in the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the reintroduction of sea otters to the island in 1987 after at least 150 years of absence. These events provide opportunities to evaluate the effects of bottom-up forcing, top-down control, and physical disturbance on shallow rocky reef communities.

  5. Diurnal variation of marine stratocumulus over San Nicolas Island during July 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaskovic, Miriam; Davies, Roger; Snider, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    A study is presented of surface measurements made at San Nicolas Island during the intensive field observation marine stratocumulus phase of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program Regional Experiment, July 1987, to retrieve the average diurnal variation of marine stratocumulus and associated surface variables. The diurnal behavior of the cloud base appears to be consistent with model-predicted uncoupling of the cloud layer and the subcloud layer as the turbulent flux of moisture is limited by solar heating close to the cloud base. Also, variation in surface air temperature is consistent with the limitation of the turbulent flux of heat between the two layers, screening the surface from the effect of longwave cooling from the cloud top.

  6. Dr Nicolaes Tulp of Amsterdam, 1593-1674: anatomist and doctor of medicine.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2007-12-01

    The renowned Dr Nicolaes Tulp of seventeenth century was a practising surgeon and physician, a civic leader and an anatomist who was appointed Praelector in Anatomy to regularize public dissections, and he was also charged by the Surgeons' Guild to apprentice surgeons. Rembrandt's famous painting 'The Anatomy of Dr Tulp' brought growing recognition not only to the painter for his artistry, but also to the surgeon for it introduced a new dimension into anatomical paintings by displaying both anatomical detail and muscle function. Tulp's interests included botany, drug therapy and the production of the official Dutch Pharmacopoea. In civic affairs too, he played an important role, becoming the Mayor of Amsterdam as well as a judge - he was indeed a most noteworthy citizen of his time. PMID:17973671

  7. Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San Nicolas Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    1993-01-01

    Dense populations of black abalones (Haliotis cracherodii Leach) were monitored in permanent intertidal plots at nine sites on San Nicolas Island from 1981 through 1990. Densities were essentially constant at all four sites along the north shore of the island throughout the study period. Densities at five sites along the south shore were more variable, possibly reflecting asynchronous variation in recruitment, mortality resulting from wave disturbance, and removal by people. Temporal variation of abalone densities apparently was not influenced by sea otters or abalone withering syndrome during this study. Abalones were strongly aggregated in space. Highest densities occurred in areas of irregular substrata, apparently as a result of preference for crevices and vertical faces. The locations of dense patches were persistent in time.

  8. Annual and Spatial Variation of the Kelp Forest Fish Assemblage at San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowen, R.J.; Bodkin, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The kelp forest fishes of San Nicolas Island, California were studied from 1981-1986 to examine the causes of among-site and among-year variation in the fish assemblages. Fish counts and seven physical and biological variables were recorded at six sites around the island every spring and fall. Over the study period, a total of 45 fish species from 18 families were recorded, though members of nive families dominated at all sites. Among-site variation was considereable with two sites on the south side of the island having two to four times as many non-schooling fishes as the other four sites. Three variables, based on stepwise multiple regression techniques, were important predictors of site-specific fish abundance: 1) vertical relief; 2) sand cover and 3) understory algal cover. The total number of fishes varied interannually by a factor of three. Due to recruitment occuring each spring, there was a strong seasonal component to the variation in fish abundance. The extent of seasonal and interannual variaton of fish abundance is an indication of the variable nature of recruitment to this area. Over the 6 yr period, there were three distinct groupings of fish assemblages correspondong to pre- (Fall 1981 - Fall 1982), during spring (Spring 1983 - Spring 1984) and post El Nino (Fall 1984 - Fall 1986) sampling dates. During El Nino sampling period, there was considerable recruitment of southern affinity fish species, increasing both the abundance and diversity of the fish assemblages. Large-scale oceanographic processes, coupled with site-specific features of the reef habitat, produce a moderately diverse, though relatively abundant fish fauna at San Nicolas Island.

  9. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    More than 900 individually marked island night lizards (Xantusia riversiana) were captured on San Nicolas Island, California, between 1984 and 2007 as part of an ongoing study to monitor the status of this threatened species. Our data suggest that at least a few lizards are probably more than 20 years old, and one lizard would be 31.5 years old if it grew at an average rate for the population. Ages of 20 and 30 years seem reasonable given the remarkably slow growth during capture intervals of more than a decade for five of the lizards which we estimated to be 20 or more years old. Like other lizards, island night lizard growth rates vary by size, with larger lizards growing more slowly. In general, growth rates were somewhat greater on San Nicolas Island (compared with Santa Barbara Island), and this increase was sustained through all of the intermediate size classes. The higher growth rate may account for the somewhat larger lizards present on San Nicolas Island, although we cannot discount the possibility that night lizards on San Nicolas are merely living longer. The high percentage of small lizards in the Eucalyptus habitat might seem to reflect a healthy population in that habitat, but the high proportion of small lizards appears to be caused by good reproduction in the 1900s and substantially poorer reproduction in subsequent years. The Eucalyptus habitat has dried quite a bit in recent years. Night lizards in the Haplopappus/Grassland habitat have shown an increase in the proportion of larger lizards since 2000. There has also been an increase in the proportion of large lizards in the Rock Cobble habitat at Redeye Beach. However, there are has been some change in habitat with more elephant seals occupying the same area just above the high tide as do the night lizards. Southern alligator lizards and side-blotched lizards are both non-native on San Nicolas Island. Neither lizard causes obvious harm to island night lizards, and management time and effort should

  10. Searching for remains of a observation platform (pavimentum) of Nicolas Copernicus's astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamparski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    St. Stanislas's canonry in Frombork (northern Poland) was the last place of residence of the famous astronomer Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543). It is very probable that he conducted his astronomical observations from the garden using so-called pavimentum to arrange his instruments. Copernicus's pavimentum was a 2 by 1.5m pedestal, probably a floor based on a brick foundation with a rail. Ground penetrating radar examinations were carried out in the canonry's garden in January 2009 to obtain 3-D model of the 2 meter thick upper part of sediments and resulted in recognition of stratigraphy of the site and allowed to find some anomalies which are suspected to be a human origin. The analysis of historical sources enabled the researchers to limit the study area to a plot of land at the back of the St. Stanislaw's canonry building. As a result, the GPR probing was undertaken on the rectangular plot of ground of 43 m by 95 m, located to the south west of the canonry building. The searched object was a kind of a pavement, possibly made of bricks or stone and bricks, and the size from 1.5 m by 2 m, to 4 m by 4 m, or even 7 m by 3 m. During the field research the impulse GPR SIR SYSTEM-2000 GSSI™ was used. For the profiling a monostatic 400MHz central frequency antenna was used. The selected value of the dielectric constant was 15, which represents the velocity of 7.7 cm/ns of the electromagnetic wave propagation in the deposit. In practice this means that in the study area the vertical scale of the returning electromagnetic wave includes about 2.3 m (60 ns) of the deposit of diverse graining with a large content of humus and debris. The horizontal scale was measured in the real time with the use of the GSSI survey wheel. The construction of the three-dimensional block of the deposit was based on 95 vertical cross-sections at one-meter spaces and the SE-NW course. As a result, the 3-D model showed the horizontal extends of the geophysical anomalies. The GPR studies have

  11. The biological soil crusts of the San Nicolas Island: Enigmatic algae from a geographically isolated ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flechtner, V.R.; Johansen, J.R.; Belnap, J.

    2008-01-01

    Composite soil samples from 7 sites on San Nicolas Island were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for the presence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Combined data demonstrated a rich algal flora with 19 cyanobacterial and 19 eukaryotic microalgal genera being identified, for a total of 56 species. Nine new species were identified and described among the cyanobacteria and the eukaryotic microalgae that were isolated: Leibleinia edaphica, Aphanothece maritima, Chroococcidiopsis edaphica, Cyanosarcina atroveneta, Hassallia californica, Hassallia pseudoramosissima, Microchaete terrestre, Palmellopsis californiens, and Pseudotetracystis compactis. Distinct distributional patterns of algal taxa existed among sites on the island and among soil algal floras of western North America. Some algal taxa appeared to be widely distributed across many desert regions, including Microcoleus vaginatus, Nostoc punctiforme, Nostoc paludosum, and Tolypothrix distorta, Chlorella vulgaris, Diplosphaera cf. chodatii, Myrmecia astigmatica, Myrmecia biatorellae, Hantzschia amphioxys, and Luticola mutica. Some taxa share a distinctly southern distribution with soil algae from southern Arizona, southern California, and Baja California (e.g., Scenedesmus deserticola and Eustigmatos magnus). The data presented herein support the view that the cyanobacterial and microalgal floras of soil crusts possess significant biodiversity, much of it previously undescribed.

  12. Ground-water data for San Nicolas Island, California, 1989-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, Lowell F. W., Jr.; Kaehler, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to gain geohydrologic knowledge and to increase the availability of ground water to the U.S. Navy on San Nicolas Island, nine test wells were drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1989 and one production well was drilled by the U.S. Navy in 1990. One of the nine test wells was dry, five produced less than 10 gallons of water per day, two produced between 20 and 30 gallons per day, and one produced 400 gallons per day. The production well produced about 900 gallons per day. Water samples were collected from eight wells during 1989-90 and analyzed for concentrations of major dissolved inorganic ions and nutrients. Five of the sampled wells were constructed in 1989, one was constructed in 1990, and two were constructed prior to 1989. Data from the study are presented in tables and graphs. Included are geophysical, lithologic, and well-construction data and results obtained from well-pumping tests and from the chemical analysis of water from selected wells.

  13. [Nicolas Dobo and Pierre Jame about the army medical general Lucian Jame].

    PubMed

    Dobo, N; Jame, P

    1996-01-01

    Lucien Jame was born October the 20th 1891 at Gourdon (Lot). State Police Officer's son, he studied in Lyon at the Military Health School. Called up August the 6th 1914, he shined among many fights and wore a lot of medals. After the armistice he defended his thesis upon "Venereal diseases prophylaxis study". March the 9th 1921, medical Officer in South Algeria, he published some original articles regarding to leprosis, tuberculosis and malaria. After a competitive examination in France, Lucien Jame became a Medical Commanding Officer of Military Health Service in Toulouse where Nicolas Dobo was at his disposal. August the 6th 1943, in the same rank in Algier then in Rabat, Lucien Jame reached the top of his career as Chief Executive of Military Health Service. He planed First French army medical operations through Italy, France and Germany battles. "Grand-Officier de la Légion d'honneur", the Army Medical General Lucien Jame retired but kept on with works dedicated to hygiene and preventive medicine till he died, June the 16th, 1969. PMID:11624989

  14. Evidence of repeated wildfires prior to human occupation on San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Skipp, Gary L.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how early humans on the California Channel Islands might have changed local fire regimes requires a baseline knowledge of the frequency of natural wildfires on the islands prior to human occupation. A sedimentary sequence that was recently discovered in a small canyon on San Nicolas Island contains evidence of at least 24 burn events that date to between ~37 and 25 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), well before humans entered North America. The evidence includes abundant macroscopic charcoal, blackened sediments, and discrete packages of oxidized, reddish-brown sediments that are similar in appearance to sedimentary features called “fire areas” on Santa Rosa Island and elsewhere. Massive fine-grained sediments that contain the burn evidence are interpreted as sheetwash deposits and are interbedded with coarse-grained, clast-supported alluvial sediments and matrix supported sands, pebbles, and cobbles that represent localized debris flows. These sedimentary sequences suggest that the catchment area above our study site underwent multiple cycles of relative quiescence that were interrupted by fire and followed by slope instability and mass wasting events. Our 14C-based chronology dates these cycles to well before the arrival of humans on the Channel Islands and shows that natural wildfires occurred here, at a minimum, every 300–500 years prior to human occupation.

  15. Astronomy and Meteorology - Two Sciences Interconnected in Astrophysicist Nicolae Donici's Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Ancuta; Georgescu, Florinela; Tudorache, Gh.

    2015-10-01

    Brilliant minds of humanity have tried to understand both the heavenly events and the earthly phenomena. Scientist Nicolae Donici was one of the first researchers from the Bessarabian space who, due to his intense passion for astronomy, understood the deeper implications that cosmic processes can have on the aspect of the weather (and therefore climate) on planet Earth. Thus, along his career he founded the first point for meteorological observations within his Observatory from Bessarabia, in Dubasarii Vechi locality. His concerns about meteorology were not at all superfi- cial, as the scientist understood both the need to distribute weather stations in order to cover all forms of relief so that the meterological data will be able to describe the climatic regions of the territory, and the endowment requirement of such an observational point with specialized equipment used by the meteorological community. From a social perspective, he managed to popularize the importance of meteorology as a science by attracting the interest of teachers in Dubasarii Vechi town for making meteorological observations. The scientific development in the field has a

  16. [Universal elixir of Thomas-Nicolas Larcheret (1819) and his elixirian and normal doctrine].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Thomas-Nicolas Larcheret, teacher in singing, declamation, guitar or lyre and violin, author of music and books, but also inventor of the universal elixir by his name, is a good example of quack of the 19th century. His book Larcheregium ou Dictionnaires spéciaux de mon élixir, ainsi que toute ma doctrine et de mes adhérens (Larcheregium or special Dictionaries of my elixir, as well as all my doctrine and my adherents), published in 1819, deserves a deep study to show the most frequently used arguments by the ones who emphasize the value of their secret remedy. The opportunities are there to present themselves as victims of medical authorities, experts and authorities as a whole, that do not recognize the value of their product. The only acceptable judge for them is the experience reported by the patients who are able to demonstrate the efficacy of the product since they do buy it (probably at a very high price). From this viewpoint, the book of Larcheret is a good example of turning the authorities down and of diatribe against physicians and pharmacists. It is also the demonstration that, even with the Empire's new regulations against secret remedies and quacks, they will still persist for a large part of the 19th century in France. PMID:25090839

  17. Analysis of tethered balloon data from San Nicolas Island on 8 July 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Stephen K.; Duda, David P.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Johnson-Pasqua, Christopher M.; Schubert, Wayne H.; Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the 8 July 1987 (Julian Day 189) tethered balloon flight from San Nicolas Island is summarized. The flight commenced at about 14:30 UTC (7:30 Pacific Daylight Time) and lasted six and one-half hours. The position of the Colorado State University (CSU) instrument package as a function of time is shown. For the purpose of presentation of results, researchers divided the flight into 13 legs. These legs consist of 20 minute constant level runs, with the exception of leg 1, which is a sounding from the surface to just above 930 mb. The laser ceilometer record of cloud base is also shown. The cloud base averaged around 970 mb during much of the flight but was more variable near the end. Before the tethered balloon flight commenced, a Communications Link Analysis and Simulation System (CLASS) sounding was released at 12:11 UTC (5:11 PDT). Temperature and moisture data below 927 mb for this sounding is shown. The sounding indicates a cloud top around 955 mb at this time.

  18. Cloud and boundary layer structure over San Nicolas Island during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Syrett, William J.; Schubert, Wayne H.; Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the structure of the marine boundary layer and of the associated low-level clouds observed in the vicinity of the San Nicolas Island (SNI) is defined from data collected during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Marine Stratocumulus Intense Field Observations (IFO) (July 1 to 19). Surface, radiosonde, and remote-sensing measurements are used for this analysis. Sounding from the Island and from the ship Point Sur, which was located approximately 100 km northwest of SNI, are used to define variations in the thermodynamic structure of the lower-troposphere on time scales of 12 hours and longer. Time-height sections of potential temperature and equivalent potential temperature clearly define large-scale variations in the height and the strength of the inversion and periods where the conditions for cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) are met. Well defined variations in the height and the strength of the inversion were associated with a Cataline Eddy that was present at various times during the experiment and with the passage of the remnants of a tropical cyclone on July 18. The large-scale variations in the mean thermodynamic structure at SNI correlate well with those observed from the Point Sur. Cloud characteristics are defined for 19 days of the experiment using data from a microwave radiometer, a cloud ceilometer, a sodar, and longwave and shortwave radiometers. The depth of the cloud layer is estimated by defining inversion heights from the sodar reflectivity and cloud-base heights from a laser ceilometer. The integrated liquid water obtained from NOAA's microwave radiometer is compared with the adiabatic liquid water content that is calculated by lifting a parcel adiabatically from cloud base. In addition, the cloud structure is characterized by the variability in cloud-base height and in the integrated liquid water.

  19. Horizontal variability of the marine boundary layer structure upwind of San Nicolas Island during FIRE, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Douglas R.

    1990-01-01

    During the months of June and July 1987, the Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation Experiment of First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) was conducted in the Southern California offshore area in the vicinity of San Nicolas Island (SNI). The Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) airborne platform was utilized during FIRE to investigate the upwind low level horizontal variability of the marine boundary layer structure to determine the representativeness of SNI-based measurements to upwind open ocean conditions. The NOSC airborne meteorological platform made three flights during FIRE, two during clear sky conditions (19 and 23 July), and one during two stratus conditions (15 July). The boundary layer structure variations associated with the stratus clouds of 15 July 1987 are discussed. Profiles of air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) taken 'at' and 'upwind' of SNI do show differences between the so-called open ocean conditions and those taken near the island. However, the observed difference cannot be uniquely identified to island effects, especially since the upwind fluctuations of AT and RH bound the SNI measurements. Total optical depths measures at SNI do not appear to be greatly affected by any surface based aerosol effects created by the island and could therefore realistically represent open ocean conditions. However, if one were to use the SNI aerosol measurements to predict ship to ship EO propagation conditions, significant errors could be introduced due to the increased number of surface aerosols observed near SNI which may not be, and were not, characteristic of open ocean conditions. Sea surface temperature measurements taken at the island will not, in general, represent those upwind open ocean conditions. Also, since CTT's varied appreciably along the upwind radials, measurements of CTT over the island may not be representative of actual open ocean CTT's.

  20. Mesoscale variability of free tropospheric humidity near San Nicolas Island during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.; Thomson, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Humidity variability at the top of the marine boundary layer (MBL) and in the free troposphere was examined using a variety of measurements taken on and around San Nicolas Island (SNI) during the FIRE IFO in July, 1987. Doppler wind profiler reflectivity recorded at two minute time resolution has provided the most continuous record and detail of small scale humidity fluctuations. Rawinsonde data were available from both an island site and the research vessel Point Sur. The information extractable from these sources is somewhat limited due to the frequency of launches (3 to 4/day at SNI and 6/day on the Point Sur). Some additional data were available from instrumented aircraft although scheduling flights in the neighborhood of the island was difficult due to restrictions on the air space. Other relevant data were collected at SNI near the radar and rawinsonde launch sites. A continuous record of cloud base altitude was logged by a ceilometer. Doppler acoustic sounder (sodar) reflectivity data provided a good record of inversion height. The sodar also monitored turbulent temperature fluctuations in the MBL. A small ground station recorded hourly averages of solar irradiance and downward longwave irradiance. The analysis in progress of the various data sets for two adjacent two day periods from 11 July to 14 July is described. The earlier period was chosen because the marine inversion was unusually high and there was increased frequency of rawinsonde launches at SNI. The later period was chosen because of the significant descent with time of an elevated inversion indicated by the radar data. Throughout the four day period, but especially in the first half, the turbulent humidity structure calculated from Doppler radar reflectivity shows excellent agreement with humidity profiles evaluated from rawinsonde data.

  1. [Nicolas Houel and Michel Dusseau, apothecaries of the XVIth century in Paris].

    PubMed

    Warolin, C

    2000-01-01

    These two apothecaries of the XVIth century of Pharmacy in Paris were outstanding personalities. Nicolas Houel founded a charity in the south of Paris at Saint-Marcel suburb: The House of Christian Charity. It was a philanthropic organization composed of a chapel, an orphanage, a hospital, an apothecary's shop and a medicinal plants garden called Le Jardin des apothicaires. This institution is at the origin of the future Paris Pharmacy College (1777) and of the Paris School of Pharmacy (1803). This apothecary was also an artist, a poet, the author of artistic and scientific works. He wrote three pharmaceutical books between 1571 and 1573. The first one Pharmaceutices libri duo is about laxative and purgative medicines in accordance with Mésué's concepts, the second is a Plague Treatise and the third a Theriac and Mithridat Treatise. Michel Dusseau is the author of the first pharmaceutical book written in French prose. It was published in Lyon in 1561: l'Enchirid ou Manipul des miropoles. The life of Michel Dusseau had remained quite unknown but we recently managed to identify four generations of Dusseaus: Christofle, the ancestor, who lived in the XVth century and was not an apothecary, Michel a juror of the Paris apothecaries community and the author of the Enchirid, Pierre, Michel's son, also an apothecary, and lastly, Pierre's children who were the 4th generation. L'Enchirid is a "Manual for myrrh sellers ", a galenic pharmacy book divided into three parts. The first part shows how to prepare medicines, the second deals with pharmaceutical operations, the third is dedicated to the preparations of galenic forms. This book was well appreciated by French apothecaries in the XVIth-XVIIth centuries but sank into oblivion because of obsolescence. PMID:14653268

  2. NRL tethered balloon measurements at San Nicolas Island during FIRE IFO 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Hermann; Gathman, Stuart; James, Jeffrey; Smith, Mike; Consterdine, Ian; Brandeki, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the tethered balloon measurements made during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) marine stratocumulus intensive field observations (IFO) at San Nicolas Island in 1987. The instrument utilized on the balloon flights, the 17 flights over a 10 day period, the state of the data analysis, and some preliminary results are described. A goal of the measurements with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) balloon was to give a unique and greatly improved look at the microphysics of the clear and cloud-topped boundary layer. For this goal, collocated measurements were made of turbulence, aerosol, cloud particles, and meteorology. Two new instruments which were expected to make significant contributions to this effort were the saturation hygrometer, capable of measuring 95 percent less than RH 105 percent (with an accuracy of 0.05 percent near 100 percent) and used for the first time in clouds; and the forward scatter meter which gives in situ LWC measurements at more than 10 Hz. The data set, while unfortunately only partially simultaneous with the bulk of the FIRE stratocumulus observations, is unique and worthwhile in its own right. For the first time accurate RH measurements near 100 percent have been made in-cloud; although, the use of the saturation hygrometer reflected a learning experience which will result is substantially better performance the next time. These measurements were made in conjunction with other microphysical measurements such as aerosol and cloud droplet spectra, and perhaps most important of all, they were all collocated with bivane turbulence measurements thus permitting flux calculations. Thus the analysis of this data set, which consisted of about 50 percent stratocumulus cases including increasing and decreasing partial cloud cover, should lead to new insights on the physical mechanisms which drive the boundary-layer/cloud/turbulence system.

  3. Plastic surgery in 17th century Europe. case study: Nicolae Milescu, the snub-nosed.

    PubMed

    Dumbravă, Daniela; Luchian, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The rising and the existence of plastic and aesthetic surgery in early modern Europe did not have a specific pattern, but was completely different from one nation to another. Colleges of Physicians could only be found in some places in Europe; different Parliaments of Europe's nations did not always elevate being a surgeon to the dignity of a profession, and being a surgeon did not always come with corporate and municipal privileges, or with attractive stipends. Conversely, corporal punishments for treacherous surgeons were ubiquitous. Rhinoplasty falls into the category of what Ambroise Paré named "facial plastic surgery". The technique is a medical source from which many histories derive, one more fascinating than the other: the history of those whose nose was cut off (because of state betrayal, adultery, abjuration, or duelling with swords), the history of those who invented the surgery of nose reconstruction (e.g. SuSruta-samhita or Tagliacozzi?), the history of surgeries kept secret in early modern Europe (e.g. Tropea, Calabria, Leiden, Padua, Paris, Berlin), and so on. Where does the history of Nicolae Milescu the Snub-nosed fall in all of this? How much of this history do the Moldavian Chronicles record? Is there any "scholarly gossip" in the aristocratic and diplomatic environments at Constantinople? What exactly do the British ambassadors learn concerning Rhinoplasty when they meet Milescu? How do we "walk" within these histories, and why should we be interested at all? What is their stike for modernity? Such are the interrogations that this article seeks to provoke; its purpose is to question (and eventually, synchronise) histories, and not exclusively history, both in academic terms but also by reassessing the practical knowledge of the 17th century. PMID:24502038

  4. [The formation of scientific anatomy in Europe of XVII century: to the 375th anniversary of Nicolas Steno (1638-1686)].

    PubMed

    Jmurkin, V P; Chalova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The article, on the biography basis, systematizes the scientific directions in the activity of Nicolas Steno as one of leading creators of first scientific revolution in medicine (XVII century) which overwhelmed anatomical physiological Galen concept. The works of Nicolas Steno considering anatomy of excretory glands, cardiac and skeletal muscles and brain white substance are presented in the context of antecedent development of anatomy, content of anatomical physiological Galen concept and in interrelationship with underlying works of number European anatomist of XVII century (William Harvey, Thomas Bartholin, Jan Swammerdam, Marcello Malpighi, Willis, etc.). PMID:24772660

  5. Analysis of tethered balloon, ceilometer and class sounding data taken on San Nicolas Island during the FIRE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne H.; Ciesielski, Paul E.; Guinn, Thomas A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Mckee, Thomas B.

    1990-01-01

    During the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Program on San Nicolas Island, Colorado State University (CSU) and the British Meteorological Office (BMO) operated separate instrument packages on the NASA tethered balloon. The CSU package contained instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud droplet concentration, and long and short wave radiation. Eight research flights, performed between July 7 and July 14, are summarized. An analysis priority to the July 7, 8 and 11 flights was assigned for the purposes of comparing the CSU and BMO data. Results are presented. In addition, CSU operated a laser ceilometer for the determination of cloud base, and a CLASS radiosonde site which launched 69 sondes. Data from all of the above systems are being analyzed.

  6. [Nicolas and Camille Husson, chemists, archeologists, researchers ... in toul, during the second part of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P; Nodet, R

    1997-01-01

    Nicolas Husson (1814-1890) was chemist in Toul from 1843-1844 to 1875-1876. He was also a member of the town council and deputy of the mayor, in charge of questions interesting education and attendance. Collector, author of some 40 papers, he was very interested in archeology, geology and hygiene in the neighbourhood of Toul. He explored there holes such "Les Trous de Sainte-Reine" and "Le Trou des Celtes". His son Camille (1843-1886) was first a military chemist but he joined soon his father. He was essentially an independant researcher in chemical and alimentary analysis, toxicology and hygiene. Also the author of numerous papers and archeologist, he became national correspondent of the Academy of medicine and chairman of the "Société de pharmacie de Lorraine". PMID:11625174

  7. The use of microgravity technique in archaeology: A case study from the St. Nicolas Church in Pukanec, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pánisová, Jaroslava; Pašteka, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The detection of subsurface cavities, such as crypts, cellars and tunnels, in churches and castles belongs to successful applications of the employment of surface gravity measurement techniques in archaeo-prospecting. The old historic building exploration requires using of non-invasive methods, and hence the microgravity technique is a proper candidate for this task. On a case study from the Roman-Catholic Church of St. Nicolas in the town Pukanec the results of using microgravity for detection and delineation of local density variations caused by a near-surface void are shown. The acquired negative anomaly in the residual Bouguer anomalies field suggested the presence of a possible void feature. Euler deconvolution and 3D modelling were used to estimate the depth and shape of the anomalous source. Additionally, measurements of the vertical gravity gradient on several stations were performed. We tested how the use of a downward continuation of gravity, utilizing the real vertical gravity gradient, influences the shape and amplitude of the final Bouguer anomaly map.

  8. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  9. [The Le Camus apothecary-grocers in Paris from the XVth to the XVIIth century. Nicolas IV Le Camus owned the Pavillon des Singes in the Rue Saint-Honoré, the residence of the Pocquelin family].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Five members of the Le Camus family of Paris were apothecary-grocers, a situation passed down from father to son from the end of the reign of Charles VII up to the reign of Louis XIV, in other words for nearly two centuries. Four of them were called Nicolas and the fifth Jehan. Nicolas I practised his trade in the Rue Saint-Antoine; Nicolas II and Jehan lived in the district of Les Halles, on the corner of the Rue Saint-Denis and the Rue de la Chanvrerie. Nicolas IV was a tenant in a house at the crossroads of the Rue Saint-Honoré and the Rue des Poulies, later absorbed by the opening of the Rue du Louvre. In 1638, Nicolas IV bought the house known as "Le Pavillon des Singes" on the corner of the Rue Saint-Honoré and the Rue des Vieilles Etuves (now the Rue Sauval), the home of the family of Jean Pocquelin, father of Jean-Baptiste, the future Molière. When Nicolas IV died, his goods were divided between his son François, lawyer in Parliament, and his daughter Anne who inherited the "Pavillon des Singes". In 1680, she sold it to an administrator of the Hôtel-Dieu. Nicolas IV Le Camus was the last Parisian apothecary of this dynasty and no other Le Camus practised pharmacy in Paris until the Royal Declaration of 25th April 1777 which created the College of Pharmacy and the Master of Pharmacy. PMID:21661226

  10. Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742): the inventor of the word "orthopaedics" and the father of parasitology.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Remi

    2010-08-01

    This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called "L'orthopedie", which was soon after translated into English (1742) "Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children". His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed. PMID:21804898

  11. Sea-level history during the Last Interglacial complex on San Nicolas Island, California: implications for glacial isostatic adjustment processes, paleozoogeography and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Schumann, R. Randall; Groves, Lindsey T.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.; Laurel, DeAnna

    2012-03-01

    San Nicolas Island, California has one of the best records of fossiliferous Quaternary marine terraces in North America, with at least fourteen terraces rising to an elevation of ˜270 m above present-day sea level. In our studies of the lowest terraces, we identified platforms at 38-36 m (terrace 2a), 33-28 m (terrace 2b), and 13-8 m (terrace 1). Uranium-series dating of solitary corals from these terraces yields three clusters of ages: ˜120 ka on terrace 2a (marine isotope stage [MIS] 5.5), ˜120 and ˜100 ka on terrace 2b (MIS 5.5 and 5.3), and ˜80 ka (MIS 5.1) on terrace 1. We conclude that corals on terrace 2b that date to ˜120 ka were reworked from a formerly broader terrace 2a during the ˜100 ka sea stand. Fossil faunas differ on the three terraces. Isolated fragments of terrace 2a have a fauna similar to that of modern waters surrounding San Nicolas Island. A mix of extralimital southern and extralimital northern species is found on terrace 2b, and extralimital northern species are on terrace 1. On terrace 2b, with its mixed faunas, extralimital southern species, indicating warmer than present waters, are interpreted to be from the ˜120 ka high sea stand, reworked from terrace 2a. The extralimital northern species on terrace 2b, indicating cooler than present waters, are interpreted to be from the ˜100 ka sea stand. The abundant extralimital northern species on terrace 1 indicate cooler than present waters at ˜80 ka. Using the highest elevations of the ˜120 ka platform of terrace 2a, and assuming a paleo-sea level of +6 m based on previous studies, San Nicolas Island has experienced late Quaternary uplift rates of ˜0.25-0.27 m/ka. These uplift rates, along with shoreline angle elevations and ages of terrace 2b (˜100 ka) and terrace 1 (˜80 ka) yield relative (local) paleo-sea level elevations of +2 to +6 m for the ˜100 ka sea stand and -11 to -12 m for the ˜80 ka sea stand. These estimates are significantly higher than those reported for the

  12. Joseph-Nicolas Delisle's relations with German astronomers and scientists when travelling to and from Russia (1725-26 and 1747)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Simone

    Upon request by Peter-the-Great, the French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (1688-1768) left Paris in November 1725. During his voyage, he wanted to visit German colleagues and to have the opportunity to examine their instruments. His objective since several years was to collect original data of observations. When being in Nuremberg and Berlin, he made a search concerning the observations performed by Eimmart and G. Kirch, later in Danzig, he succeeded to buy Hevelius's manuscripts. After staying in Russia for 22 years, where he was the founder of the Petersburg Observatory, Delisle came back to France in the year 1747. During his return trip (two and a half months) he visited libraries in Prussia showing interest to their manuscripts and to some curiosities. Then in the surroundings of Wittenberg, he visited count von Löser's collection of instruments. In Berlin, he met the Feldmarschall von Schmettau and Grischow; but the previously seen colleagues were dead. During all these years, Delisle had enlarged the circle of his acquaintances, which has been very useful to launch the ``avertissements'' to recommend observations of some peculiar astronomical phenomena. The expeditions in 1761 for the transit of Venus owe a lot to him.

  13. Geochemical, petrographic and physical characterizations and associated alterations of the volcanic rocks of the Romanesque San Nicola Church (Ottana, central Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the volcanic rocks belonging to the Sardinia Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle (32 - 11 Ma) and building up the structure of the San Nicola church, one of the most representative churches of the Romanesque architecture, were studied. These stones were widely used in medieval architecture for the excellent workability, but they present some disadvantages, since they are greatly affected by alteration phenomena. The main objectives of this research are i) to focus the mineral, chemical and petrographic compositions of the San Nicola stones, ii) the chemical and physical alteration processes affecting these materials, and iii) to establish the exactly provenance of the volcanic rocks. Furthermore, a comparative study between the rocks from the ancient quarries and those forming the structure of the church was performed. In the ancient quarries, where presumably a more advanced alteration occurs due to the vertical alteration gradient, different facies of the same volcanic lithology, characterized by macroscopical evidences of chemical-physical degradation degree, were sampled. Petrographic, geochemical (both major elements that the traces) and physical-mechanical features of the collected samples were determined to highlight the compositional differences (density, porosity, water-absorption kinetics, mechanical resistance) as a function of the different alteration degree. Moreover, chemical-mineralogical analysis of the sample surfaces from the church, was performed, to highlight possible presence and nature of secondary newly-formed phases (e.g., salt efflorescence). Several methodologies were applied to carry out physical-chemical and petrographic analysis: X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for chemical and mineral composition; Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for textures, mineral assemblages and microstructures studies; He-picnometry, water-absorption and mechanical

  14. Flammarion, Nicolas Camille (1842-1925)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    French astronomer and geophysicist, born in Montigny-le-Roy, observed double stars, and planets from his observatory at Juvisy, south of Paris. Very well-known for his popularization of astronomy, including many lavishly illustrated books (for example L'Astronomie Populaire) and a journal L'Astronomie, still published. It was Flammarion who, as shown by Arthur Beer and Bruno Weber, drew, sometime...

  15. [Nicolas Lémery and acidity].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    After a recalling of Lémery's biography, the history of acidity before Lémery is evoked. The opinions of Theophrastus, Libavius, Otto Techenius, Robert Boyle and François André are compared. According to Lémery's theory points of acids enter the pores of alkalis, giving salts which are different from a simple mixture. This theory was approved by the scientific community. The examples of J. Morin and Baron are given. A short description of the evolution of the concept of acidity after Lémery's period is also given. PMID:12141323

  16. [Nicolas Lémery, salvation of bibliophiles].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    Very few science books circulated amongst the European scientists, with so efficiency as Lemery's. His Course of Chemistry has been published 18 times in French and has been translated in Latin, English, German, Spanish, Italian and Deutch. His Treaty or Dictionnary of Drugs has been published 14 times in French and translated in foreign languages. His Universal Pharmacopeia has not been published less than 17 times in French and has also been translated in foreign languages. The longevity of these books was quite unusual, because, for exemple, his Dictionnary, first published in 1698, was published again in 1807! PMID:20481122

  17. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Nicolas Slonimsky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Born in Russia in 1894, Nicholas Slonimsky founded the Chamber Orchestra of Boston and was the editor of the latest three editions of Baker's "Biographical Dictionary of Music." In this interview he talks about his life in music and his love of teaching music. (RM)

  18. Nicolas-Louis de La Caille: Astronomer and Geodesist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    La Caille was one of the observational astronomers and geodesists who followed Newton in developing ideas about celestial mechanics and the shape of the earth. He provided data to the great 18th-century mathematicians involved in understanding the complex gravitational effects that the heavenly bodies have on one another. Observing from the Cape of Good Hope, he made the first ever telescopic sky survey and gave many of the southern constellations their present-day names. He measured the paths of the planets and determined their distances by trigonometry. In addition, he made a controversial measurement of the radius of the earth that seemed to prove it was pear-shaped. On a practical level, La Caille developed the method of `Lunars' for determining longitudes at sea. He mapped the Cape. As an influential teacher he propagated Newton's theory of universal gravitation at a time when it was only beginning to be accepted on the European continent. This book gives the most comprehensive overview so far available of La Caille's life and work, showing how he interacted with his often difficult colleagues. It places special emphasis on his life at, and his observations and comments on, the Cape of Good Hope, where he spent the years 1751-53.

  19. The ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: Tissue engineering of bone and ligament: a 15-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, Cato T; Khan, Yusuf; Kofron, Michele; El-Amin, Saadiq; Botchwey, Edward; Yu, Xiaojun; Cooper, James A

    2006-06-01

    Musculoskeletal repair is a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The burden of repair is compounded by supply constraints and morbidity associated with autograft and allograft tissue. We report 15 years of research regarding tissue engineering and biological substitutes for bone and ligaments. Our approach has focused on biomaterial selection, scaffold development, cell selection, cell/material interaction, and growth factor delivery. We have extensively tested poly(ester), poly(anhydride), poly(phosphazene) derivatives, and composite materials using biocompatibility, degradation, and mechanical analyses for bone and ligament tissue engineering. We have developed novel three-dimensional matrices with a pore structure and mechanical properties similar to native tissue. We also have reported on the attachment, growth, proliferation, and differentiation of cells cultured on several scaffolds. Through extensive molecular analysis, in vitro culture condition analysis, and in vivo evaluation, our findings provide new methods of bone tissue regeneration using three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds, bioactive bone cement composite materials, and three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds for ligament regeneration. PMID:16741478

  20. Cosmic Rays in the "Urusvati" Institute from Archives of Nicolas Roerich Centre-Museum (Moscow)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Sidorov, V. I.

    2013-02-01

    The history of cosmic ray study by means of ground-based methods in the 1930s contains some gaps. The press barely covered the study of cosmic rays at the "Urusvati» Himalayan Research Institute that functioned in the Indian Himalayas in 1928-1939. Archival materials of the "Urusvati" Institute now stored at the International Centre-Museum named after N.K. Roerich (Moscow), give evidence to the active participation of the Institute staff in the study of cosmic rays. By the initiative of A.H. Compton, in 1932 several expeditions on the studies of cosmic rays were organized in different parts of the world. One of these expeditions passed through the Himalayas in the region of the South-Eastern Ladakh. The report on this highland expedition which took place at the altitude of 19,500 feet above the sea level was published by J.M. Benade in the "Urusvati Journal" (was issued during 1931-1933). Cooperation between George Roerich, the Institute Director, and Prof. J.M. Benade in expedition to Ladakh has been documented.

  1. 78 FR 70005 - Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... follows: Latitude Longitude Point H 33 20'01'' 119 32'02'' Point I 33 20'10'' 119 31'10'' Point K 33 17'40... shoreline to Point N Point N 33 17'04'' 119 32'02'' Point H 33 20'01'' 119 32'02'' BRAVO section is the... 14'20'' 119 37'40'' Point F 33 16'40'' 119 38'10'' Point G 33 19'10'' 119 37'10'' Point H 33...

  2. The ABJS 2005 Nicolas Andry Award: osteoarthritis and injury at the base of the human thumb: survival of the fittest?

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Vincent D

    2005-09-01

    The basal joint complex, consisting of four trapezial articulations providing a foundation for the thumb, defines our anatomic evolution from a Simian ancestry by providing an opposable member. Ironically, the trapeziometacarpal joint also is responsible for the most common malady leading to operative reconstruction in the upper limb for arthritic disease. The paradoxic relationship between these two facts has stimulated investigation that has defined the scientific basis for common surgical procedures and provided a foundation for the development of novel treatments for conditions at the base of the thumb. Patterns of articular surface degeneration are determined by areas of contact loading in the joint. Ligament reconstruction, metacarpophalangeal joint flexion splinting, and extension metacarpal osteotomy for early disease resulting from instability all have biomechanical justification for their clinical application. Likewise, percutaneous pinning of Bennett's fracture dislocation is predicated on reestablishing functional continuity of the beak ligament and unloading the palmar joint surfaces. For advanced disease, ligament reconstruction has become the cornerstone of arthroplasty. Perhaps most importantly, the trapeziometacarpal joint as an instability model can provide insight into the interplay of mechanical and biological factors in producing the primary lesion associated with osteoarthritis. PMID:16131901

  3. [Philippe-Nicolas Pia (1721-1799), creator of the first-aid service to rescue drowned people].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, F

    1997-01-01

    Ph.-N. Pia is known as a philanathropist. In 1770, this apothecary is elected at the board of the city of Paris. Then, he wishes to create a first-aid service to rescue drowned people. In wooden boxes, he gathers together the drugs and devices used at that time, as a fumigating machine to inject tobacco smoke into the intestine, bottles of spirit of camphor, ammonia, a long shirt of wool, wood canulas and flexible pipes made of thin sheep leather. In each of the fiveteen guard houses standing along the river, are deposited a box and a stretcher. As far as Pia is at the head of the military police, he is especially innovating when he decids to train the guards to apply the drugs and the resuscitation processes. With such a regulated way of functioning associated to medical education and granting of awards, within fiveteen years hundreds of people are rescued and resuscitated. Yearly, he publishes the results obtained in Paris and in several places in France, with comments on the situation in the Netherlands, Germany and Britain. In 1780, the king nominates him in the royal order of Saint-Michel. The Révolution supresses the Etablissement en faveur des noyés, and Pia died in 1799 as completely forgotten. In Paris, the first-aid services come back to their former efficiency around 1835, when Marc proposes a special medical training to the fire-men and the military police to form first-aid groups. In this field, the pionneering work of Pia is still of great value and can abe kept in mind as a worldwide reference. PMID:11625253

  4. Contact-Induced Changes in Word Order and Intonation in the Spanish of New York City Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera-Tobon, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist sociolinguistic analysis of the variable word order and prosody of copular constructions ("Nicolas es feliz" versus "'Feliz' es Nicolas," "Es Nicolas 'feliz,'" "Es 'feliz' Nicolas," "Nicolas is 'happy'") in the Spanish of first- and second-generation…

  5. Station Crew Celebrates Christmas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the orbiting International Space Station, Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford, Russian Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy, Evgeny Tarelkin and Roman Romanenko, NASA Flight Engineer Tom Marshburn...

  6. Expedition 31 Qualification Training Simulation Runs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineers Gennady Padalka, Sergei Revin and Joe Acaba, along with backup crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin, complete qualification training simulation...

  7. Expedition 33/34 Crew Departs for Kazakh Launch Site

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy, NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford and Russian Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin participated in traditional ceremonies at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training...

  8. Expedition 30 Departs for Launch Site

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Expedition 30 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers -- departed Star City, Russia on Thursday for t...

  9. Before the long journey. [the development of space biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G.

    1978-01-01

    One of the leading specialists in space biology and medicine Oleg Geogiyevich Gazenko discusses the development of space biology and medicine and the problems which its specialists solve. The application of space medicine discoveries to terrestrial medicine is also discussed.

  10. New Crewmates Welcomed Aboard Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Engineers Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin join their Expedition 33 crewmates after the hatches between the International Space Station and the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft opened ...

  11. Expedition 30 Hatch Opening

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineers Don Pettit, Oleg Kononenko and Andre Kuipers are welcomed aboard the International Space Station when the hatches between the station and the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft...

  12. Expedition 33/34 Crew Prelaunch Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 crew members Kevin Ford, Oleg Novitskiy and Evgeny Tarelkin participate in a variety of prelaunch activities at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are set to launch aboard...

  13. The Expedition 34 Crew Lands in Kazakhstan

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 34 Commander Kevin Ford and Flight Engineers Evgeny Tarelkin and Oleg Novitskiy landed their Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft in the steppe of Kazakhstan, northeast of the remote town of Arkalyk...

  14. Gene Test May Spare Some Breast Cancer Patients from Chemo

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage breast cancer who don't need chemotherapy, German researchers report. The test is called the 21- ... Oleg Gluz, a scientific coordinator of the West German Study Group in Monchengladbach. Oncotype Dx is currently ...

  15. Expedition 25 Crew Members Launch to Station - Duration: 2 minutes, 9 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and Russian cosmonauts Oleg Skripochka and Alexander Kaleri launched in their Soyuz TMA-01M spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan beginning a two-day jour...

  16. Expedition 34/35 Mission Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commander Kevin Ford leads Expedition 34 as the six-member crew conducts science and research that cannot be performed on Earth. Ford and the other five crew members Flight Engineers Oleg Novitskiy...

  17. Expedition 30 Prepares for Dec. 21 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers arrive at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to begin the final phase of preparation...

  18. Expedition 30 Docking

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft carrying NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers docks to the International Space Station’s Rass...

  19. Expedition 33/34 Crew Conducts Final Qualification Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford conducted qualification training at the G...

  20. New Expedition 30 Crew Members Launch to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Flight Engineers Don Pettit, Oleg Kononenko and Andre Kuipers launched at 8:16 a.m. EST on Wednesday (7:16 p.m. local time) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The three new I...

  1. Expedition 33/34 Crew Ceremonies in Moscow - Duration: 5 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33/34 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of the Russian Federal Space Agency and NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford participate in a variety of crew ceremoni...

  2. Back at the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    Back at the ISS is a rocking musical greeting to ESA Astronaut André Kuipers, Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko and the entire crew of the International Space Station on the occasion of the docking...

  3. 76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Nicola Solomon, Ph.D., University of Michigan Medical School: Based on an investigation conducted by the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and a preliminary analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Dr. Nicola Solomon, former postdoctoral scholar, Department of Human......

  4. Soviet Cineclubs: Baranov's Film/Media Education Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a historical form of media literacy education that is still insufficiently discussed in English language literature: Russian cineclubs. We focus on one particular cineclub that was created by a Soviet educator Oleg Baranov in the 1950s. We describe this cineclub's context and structure, and discuss its popularity among…

  5. Enhancing the Teaching and Learning Environment in the USSR. Annual Soviet-American Symposium on Teaching and Learning (2nd, Jacksonville, Florida, October 3-4, 1991). Special Publication Number 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.

    This publication contains papers contributed by Russian educators at a symposium on preparing Soviet youth and adults for the challenges and opportunities of an emerging market economy. The following presentations are included: "Conception of Kazan Community College" (Mirza I. Makhmoutov, Oleg E. Liseitchikov, and Viktor I. Lebedev); "Complex…

  6. Platinum Highlight Abstract - November 2013 | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Characterization and Favorable In Vivo Properties of Heterodimeric Soluble IL-15∙IL-15Rα Cytokine Compared to IL-15 Monomer Elena Chertova, Cristina Bergamaschi, Oleg Chertov, Raymond Sowder, Jenifer Bear, James D. Roser, Rachel K. Beach, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Barbara K. Felber, and George N. PavlakisJ Biol Chem 288(25):18093-18103, 2013

  7. The life and times of the LED - a 100-year history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    2007-04-01

    Many people believe that the LED was discovered by US researchers working in the 1960s. In fact, Henry Round at Marconi Labs noted the emission of light from a semiconductor diode 100 years ago and, independently, a forgotten Russian genius - Oleg Losev - discovered the LED.

  8. Career mobility integral to cancer nursing.

    PubMed

    2016-07-13

    Why do many nurses find career progression difficult? Nicola James, writing in Cancer Nursing Practice, encourages nurses to consider why they do not benefit from mobility as much as other health professionals, such as doctors. PMID:27406525

  9. 78 FR 42041 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... 216). Permit No. 17115-00, issued on September 24, 2012 (77 FR 63296), authorizes the permit holder to... seals (100 on San Nicolas, and 50 in Monterey Bay). The permit holder proposes to disentangle and...

  10. The Role of Nicholas Copernicus Planetarium and Observatory in astronomical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvinka, S.

    2006-02-01

    The cooperation of Masaryc University and Nicolas Copernicus Observatory and Planetarium in Brno, Czech republic is introduced. Students can use CCD camera and obtain precize photometric data for their practicums. Such possibility is unique in Czech republic.

  11. 50 CFR 216.153 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216.153... marine mammal specified in § 216.150(b) if such taking results in more than a negligible impact on...

  12. 50 CFR 216.153 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216.153... marine mammal specified in § 216.150(b) if such taking results in more than a negligible impact on...

  13. 50 CFR 216.153 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216.153... marine mammal specified in § 216.150(b) if such taking results in more than a negligible impact on...

  14. First minister pledges her commitment to bursaries.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    2016-06-22

    Scotland's first minister Nicola Sturgeon has blasted the UK government for its 'short-sighted' proposal to scrap nursing bursaries, while guaranteeing that Scotland's nursing students are safe from the plans. PMID:27332562

  15. Evidence for existence of different Escherichia coli populations in karst aquifer depending on hydrological conditions and the use of watershed. Fabienne Petit1*, Mehdy Ratajczak1, Nicolas Massei 1, Olivier Clermont 2, Erick Denamur 2, Thierry Berthe1,. 1CNRS UMR 6143 M2C, Université de Rouen, FED SCALE 4116, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan 2 INSERM U722, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot ,75018 Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabienne, P.; Mehdy, R.; Massei, N.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, even if the aquatic environment could be considered as a secondary habitat. During turbids events consecutive to the rainfall, E.coli are released from manure and feces in karstic hydrosystem with different settling velocities, related to their association to particles. In water, survival of E. coli, was dependant to the grazing by protozoans and their ability to overcome environmental stress. In these conditions, viable but non culturable (VNC) population of E. coli, could be observed. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a small well characterized rural karstic watershed (i) the structure of E. coli population based on the survival ability, the distribution in four main phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D), and the phenotypic characteristics, (ii) the fate and the distribution of viable non culturable E. coli according their settling velocities, from surface water to groundwater. For this purpose we combined microbiology and hydrology approaches, and solid phase cytometry (ChemScan°RDI) methodology was performed to numbered VNC E. coli. The distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D) shown that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions but also the use of the watershed (presence of cattle). Survival abilities of E. coli strains based on microcosm experiments, vary from 2 days to at least 14 days. Characterization of E. coli was performed by studying specific traits present in host-associated strains (virulence factors, antibiotic resistance) and those that could be involved in water persistence (growth temperature substrate range, biofilm formation and grazing by protozoa). Three major clusters of strains were defined by using a correspondence factor analysis. In water characterized by high level of fecal contamination a first cluster of E. coli strains was related to A and B2 phylo-group, presented a multiple-antibiotic-resistance profile, and had low survival abilities in water. In slightly contaminated water, E. coli strains were persistent in water, sensitive to antibiotics, and able to develop at low temperature (from 7°C to 20°C) and to degrade macromolecules. In the same karstic hydrosystem, whatever the hydrological conditions, a population of E. coli in VNC state was observed, even in dry period where VNC E. coli raised to 96% of the total viable E. coli population. The distribution of the E. coli VNC population according to their settling velocity varies along the transfer between the swallow hole to the spring. Thus rapid flow inside karstic aquifer supports the culturability of E. coli. In contrast, in during low-flow period with slow transport of contaminant, E. coli lose their culturability but could maintained inside in VNC state in such hydrosystem.

  16. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  17. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona

  18. Classification of central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2008-11-18

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as further developments of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. They are infinite dimensional Lie algebras of current type with meromorphic objects on compact Riemann surfaces (resp. algebraic curves) as elements. Here we report on joint work with Oleg Sheinman on the classification of their almost-graded central extensions. It turns out that in case that the finite-dimensional Lie algebra on which the Lax operator algebra is based on is simple there is a unique almost-graded central extension up to equivalence and rescaling of the central element.

  19. Designing Tomorrow's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza Reyna, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes presentations from a 2002 seminar on designing schools for tomorrow. The four presentations are: "Developing Digital Work Areas for Education in France" (Nicolas Chung); "The School of the Future: An Italian Perspective" (Giorgio Ponti); "Measures for School Facilities in Japan" (Naoto Fukabori); and "Mexico's Multifunctional Classroom…

  20. Degree Completion for Aboriginal People in British Columbia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Ruth; Burtch, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a First Nations educational initiative in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University's (SFU) Integrated Studies Program created two unique adult education programs in response to a request from the Aboriginal-operated Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT); this request involved the two institutions…

  1. NIH Study Finds Regular Aspirin Use May Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... studies examining whether use of these agents may influence ovarian cancer risk have been largely inconclusive. This is the largest study to date to assess the relationship between these drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Britton Trabert, Ph.D., and Nicolas Wentzensen, M.D., Ph.D., ...

  2. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  3. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  4. 78 FR 7907 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Island Night Lizard From the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996) and requesting that we delist the San Clemente and San Nicolas Island DPSs (Navy 2004, p. 12). In 2006, we published a 90-day finding (71 FR 48900) concluding that the Navy... temperatures, lower rainfall amounts, and rising sea level are important issues with potential effects to...

  5. Research revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    Valérie Pecresse has been a member of the French National Assembly (Yvelines department) since 2002. She rose to prominence as the combative spokeswoman for Nicolas Sarkozy's centre-right UMP party during the 2007 presidential race, after which she was appointed minister for higher education and research.

  6. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des matematiques. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, May 27-31, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira-Mendoza, Lionel, Ed.; Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These conference proceedings include two invited lectures, four working group reports, five topic group reports, a list of participants, and a list of previous proceedings. The invited lectures were: "Teaching Mathematical Proof: Relevance and Complexity of a Social Approach" (Nicolas Balacheff) and "Geometry Is Alive and Well!" (Doris…

  7. All about the Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the history of pencils. Graphite, which is the main component that makes pencils write, was first discovered to be useful in marking the sheep of local farmers in Borrowdale, England in 1954. This graphite left a much darker mark than lead, which made it ideal for use by writers and artists. Around, 1795, Nicolas-Jacques…

  8. Faith, Friendship and Learning: Intercultural Communication in the Republic of Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Kenneth; Anderson, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the renowned antiquarian Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637) as a case study to examine the intellectual and religious culture of the early seventeenth century. In particular, using his extensive correspondence, it investigates the manner in which the exchange of letters could be used to reinforce the identity of one…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (11th, New Brunswick, New Jersey, September 20-23, 1989), Volume 2: Plenary Lectures and Symposia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carolyn A., Ed.; Goldin, Gerald A., Ed.; Davis, Robert B., Ed.

    This document reports on the 11th annual conference of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME-NA). Plenary and response lectures and speakers include: "The Description and Analysis of Mathematical Processes" (Nicolas Herscovics); "To Know Mathematics is to Go Beyond Thinking That…

  10. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken...

  11. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken...

  12. 50 CFR 216.150 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities... engage in missile launch activities and associated aircraft and helicopter operations at the Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division facilities on San Nicolas Island, California. (b) The incidental take...

  13. 50 CFR 216.157 - Letters of Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216... impact on the species, its habitat, and on the availability of the species for subsistence uses (i.e... Letter of Authorization will be based on a determination that the total number of marine mammals taken...

  14. Modern Vernacular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the Nicola Valley Institute of Technology in British Columbia, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, consultants, and cost, as well as floor plans and photographs. Discusses how the design for this First Nations school blends aboriginal constructs and…

  15. The Impact of Dynamic Assessment: An Exploration of the Views of Children, Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Nicola; Cahill, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative research project was carried out to explore the views of children with special educational needs, their parents and teachers about one aspect of educational psychology practice: the dynamic assessment of cognitive skills. The research was carried out in a highly diverse and inclusive borough in East London, by Nicola Lawrence from…

  16. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  17. 77 FR 12246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... the specified activities was issued to VanBlaricom on September 23, 2003 (68 FR 57427; October 3, 2003); the most recent of these was issued on January 18, 2008 (73 FR 4841; January 28, 2008), expiring... Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Abalone Research on San Nicolas Island,...

  18. Teaching and Learning Tibetan: The Role of the Tibetan Language in Tibet's Future. Roundtable before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China. One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session (April 7, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This roundtable focused on issues related to the role of the Tibetan language in Tibet's future. A statement by Nicolas Tournadre, Associate Professor of Linguistics, the University of Paris, France, addresses "The Dynamics of Tibetan-Chinese Bilingualism: The Current Situation and Future Prospects" (e.g., the first regulation protecting Tibetan…

  19. 50 CFR 216.151 - Effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA §...

  20. 50 CFR 216.152 - Permissible methods of taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216..., take marine mammals by harassment, within the area described in § 216.150, provided the activity is...

  1. 50 CFR 216.153 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking Of Marine Mammals Incidental To Missile Launch Activities from San Nicolas Island, CA § 216.153... may: (a) Take any marine mammal not specified in § 216.150(b); (b) Take any marine mammal specified...

  2. The Cycle of Deprivation: Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welshman, John

    2008-01-01

    The year 2006 marked the 30th anniversary of the publication of Michael Rutter and Nicola Madge's Cycles of Disadvantage (1976). As such, it provides an opportunity to take stock of debates over an alleged cycle of deprivation, both in the 1970s, and more recently. This article seeks to use historical methods in order to outline some areas in…

  3. RaPAL Bulletin, Numbers 5-13, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RaPAL Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of a 3-year compilation (9 issues) of the RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy) Bulletin. Typical articles are: "Student Involvement in Research" (a report of a workshop by Alex Golightly, Nick Nicola, and Marilyn Stone); part of a dialogue between Paolo Freire and Ira Shor, writer/educators of Brazil and the…

  4. Uta stansburiana and Elgaria multicarinata on the California Channel Islands: Natural dispersal or artificial introduction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahoney, M.J.; Parks, D.S.M.; Fellers, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Uta stansburiana and Elgaria multicarinata occur on several California Channel Islands, and recent introduction of some populations has been suggested because of similarity in life-history traits and body size to mainland populations. We sequenced representatives of each species from mainland southern California and some of the islands on which they occur. For each species, cytochrome b sequence divergence is low across the narrow geographic area sampled. Analyses of 14 haplotypes of U. stansburiana suggest long-established residency on Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands but more recent arrival on San Nicolas and Santa Cruz Islands. Analyses of eight haplotypes of E. multicarinata suggest these lizards may have been recently transported to San Nicolas Island.

  5. Folk Theorems on the Correspondence between State-Based and Event-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, Michel A.; Willemse, Tim A. C.

    Kripke Structures and Labelled Transition Systems are the two most prominent semantic models used in concurrency theory. Both models are commonly believed to be equi-expressive. One can find many ad-hoc embeddings of one of these models into the other. We build upon the seminal work of De Nicola and Vaandrager that firmly established the correspondence between stuttering equivalence in Kripke Structures and divergence-sensitive branching bisimulation in Labelled Transition Systems. We show that their embeddings can also be used for a range of other equivalences of interest, such as strong bisimilarity, simulation equivalence, and trace equivalence. Furthermore, we extend the results by De Nicola and Vaandrager by showing that there are additional translations that allow one to use minimisation techniques in one semantic domain to obtain minimal representatives in the other semantic domain for these equivalences.

  6. HiRISE Observations of Dynamical Phenomena on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Thomas, Nicolas; McEwen, Alfred

    Candice Hansen, candice.j.hansen@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States Candice Hansen, candice.j.hansen@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States Nicolas Thomas, nicolas.thomas@space.unibe.ch University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Alfred McEwen, mcewen@pirl.lpl.arizona.edu Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona, United States The HiRISE Team Alan Delamere Eric Eliason John Grant Virginia Gulick Kenneth Herkenhoff Laszlo Keszthelyi Randolph Kirk Michael Mellon Steven Squyres Cathy Weitz Chris Okubo Shane Byrne Patrick Russell The presentation will provide a review of recent observations by the HiRISE imaging system onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Emphasis will be placed on dynamical phenomena such as avalanches, dune motion, and jet activity at the poles.

  7. Lacaille : Lacaille 250 years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian

    2002-04-01

    Brian Warner, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, tells the story of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille's sojourn in South Africa. Two hundred and fifty years ago French astronomer Nicolas Louis de la Caille spent two years at the Cape of Good Hope, carrying out astronomical and geodetic observations that had long-lasting repercussions. His measurements of the positions of nearly 10 000 southern stars led to the definition of the southern constellations which are used to this day; his discrepant measurement of the radius of the Earth provided a challenge that took much 19th-century labour to rectify, but led to an accurate trigonometric survey of South Africa that would otherwise not have occurred until much later.

  8. Argo Navis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Ship) a large southern constellation representing the ship Argo of Jason and the Argonauts in Greek mythology whose brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest. It was divided up by the French astronomer Nicolas L de Lacaille (1713-62), who charted the southern sky in 1751-2, into the constellations Carina (the Keel), Vela (the Sails), Puppis (the Poop or Stern)...

  9. ["The ludicrous judgement" by Boileau, Gui Patin and the Academy of Lamoignon].

    PubMed

    Albou, P

    1994-01-01

    L'Arrêt burlesque (The ludicrous judgement) by Boileau (1671) is a most striking work of satire with relation to medicine and literature. The circumstances of its composition call to mind the atmosphere prevailing at that time in the home of the famous magistrate Guillaume de Lamoignon, where Doctor Gui Patin and Later Nicolas Boileau were so warmly welcomed and greatly favoured. PMID:11640274

  10. Pyxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Compass; abbrev. Pyx, gen. Pyxidis; area 221 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Puppis and Antlia, and culminates at midnight in early February. It was introduced as Pyxis Nautica (the Mariner's Compass) by the French astronomer Nicolas L de Lacaille (1713-62), who charted the southern sky in 1751-2, from stars that formed the mast of the ancient constellation of Argo Navi...

  11. Claiming Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    The reputations of scientific heroes shift constantly, modified by politicians as well as by historians. Now that the Scientific Revolution has been reappraised, Nicolas Copernicus is portrayed as a friend of the Catholic Church rather than a scientific martyr. As a German-speaking Pole he has been claimed as a figure of national historical importance by both Germany and Poland, and since the early 20th century has been an important symbol of Polish independence. PMID:16271765

  12. Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Poop or Stern; abbrev. Pup, gen. Puppis; area 673 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Canis Major and Vela, and culminates at midnight in early January. It was introduced by the French astronomer Nicolas L de Lacaille (1713-62), who charted the southern sky in 1751-2, from stars that formed part of the ancient constellation of Argo Navis (the Ship), which had been included ...

  13. Mineral resource of the month: beryllium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses information about Beryllium. It notes that Beryllium is a light metal that has a gray color. The metal is used in the production of parts and devices including bearings, computer-chip heat sinks, and output windows of X-ray tubes. The article mentions Beryllium's discovery in 1798 by French chemist, Louis-Nicolas Vanquelin. It cites that bertrandite and beryl are the principal mineral components for the commercial production of beryllium.

  14. [Hommage to M.L. Girard: gestation and birth of biochemistry in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dreux, C

    1999-01-01

    Prof Claude Dreux pays hommage to Prof Maurice-Louis Girard and relates the gestation and the birth of biochemistry in hospitals. He successively evokes Hippocrates, Galen, Paracelsius, Robert Boyle, Nicolas Vauquelin, J.J. Von Scherer, J.F. Zeller, G.H. Esbach, Apollinaire Bouchardat, Georges Deniges, Paul Yvon, Ambard, Loiseleur, Leon Grimbert, Paul Fleury, Jean-Emile Courtois and last but not the least Maurice-Louis Girard. PMID:11625655

  15. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  16. The Uranium-trend dating method: Principles and application for southern California marine terrace deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Rosholt, J.N.; Bush, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium-trend dating is an open-system method for age estimation of Quaternary sediments, using disequilibrium in the 238U234U230Th decay series. The technique has been applied to alluvium, colluvium, loess, till, and marine sediments. In this study we tested the U-trend dating method on calcareous marine terrace deposits from the Palos Verdes Hills and San Nicolas Island, California. Independent age estimates indicate that terraces in these areas range from ???80 ka to greater than 1.0 Ma. Two low terraces on San Nicolas Island yielded U-trend plots that have a clustered array of points and the ages of these deposits are indeterminate or highly suspect. Middle Pleistocene terraces and one early Pleistocene terrace on San Nicolas Island and all terraces on the Palos Verdes Hills gave reasonably linear U-trend plots and estimated ages that are stratigraphically consistent and in agreement with independent age estimates. We conclude that many marine terrace deposits are suitable for U-trend dating, but U-trend plots must be carefully evaluated and U-trend ages should be consistent with independent geologic control. ?? 1989.

  17. [Family, professional, "meusian" and Parisian relationships between the pharmacists J. Bataille, J.-N. Trusson, N. D. Moutillard and T. Huraut].

    PubMed

    Owsiany-Alison, Julie; Maillard, René; Labrude, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Jean-Nicolas Trusson is well known in the history of Parisian pharmacy. Born in 1744 in Euville, in the vicinity of Commercy, in Lorraine, he was in near relations by his mother with Joseph Bataille, also well known and whose half-length portrait is exhibited in the "Salle des Actes" of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Paris. It seems that the extraction of Bataille is unknown. Our work indicates that he was born in october 1816 in Pagny-sur-Meuse, some kilometres from Euville towards Toul. Trusson was the successor of Bataille and he remained in his pharmacy until 1809 where his own successor was Nicolas Denis Moutillard. Moutillard's father was Joseph Moutillard, an apothecary of Commercy, whose mother was Jeanne Trusson, who was the first cousin of Jean-Nicolas Trusson's father. Then, Théodore Huraut, Moutillard's successor in Paris, was also born in Commercy, in year 1813. He studied pharmacy in Bar-le-Duc, then in Paris with Moutillard and at the school of pharmacy. Taking his place between 1840 and 1844, he became a member of the "Société d'émulation pour les sciences pharmaceutiques" and of the "Société de pharmacie de Paris". Beeing the author of more than twenty papers devoted to practical community pharmacy, Huraut died in Paris in 1855. PMID:21032928

  18. Applying Density Functional Theory for Atomic Vacancies in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaolan; Perdew, John P.

    2008-03-01

    We use a new generalized gradient approximation of density functional theory -- PBEsol, a revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof GGA, to calculate the vacancy formation energies and other properties of metals and semiconductors: Al, Pt, Pd, GaN [1], etc. By restoring the gradient expansion over a wide range of density gradients, PBEsol [2] yields excellent jellium exchange and correlation surface energies. We expect that this new functional will improve the description of vacancies in real materials, since the vacancy formation energy is essentially the work needed to create an interior surface. [1] Thomas R.Mattsson and Ann E. Mattson. Phys. Rev. B 66, 214410 (2002). [2] John P. Perdew, Adrienn Ruzsinszky, Gabor I. Csonka, Oleg A. Vydrov, Gustavo E. Scuseria, Lucian A. Constantin, Xiaolan Zhou, and Kieron Burke, Restoring the density-gradient expansion for exchange in solids and surfaces, http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.0156

  19. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  20. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  1. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  2. Astronomical researches in Poincaré's and Romanian works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mioc, V.

    2005-09-01

    Henri Poincaré was not only a honorary member of the Romanian Academy, but also an important collaborator of many Romanian mathematicians and astronomers. It is sufficient to mention Spiru Haret, the first doctor in mathematics at Sorbonne, or Nicolae Coculescu, the first director of the Astronomical Observatory of Bucharest. The 150th anniversary of the birth of the illustrious French personality offered us a good opportunity to study the relations he and two other Poincaré, Raymond and Lucien, had with Romania.

  3. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  4. The blossoms of loss: Ovid's floral metamorphoses and Poussin's realm of flora.

    PubMed

    Tutter, Adele

    2014-07-01

    Alluring and fertile, the flower connotes a locus of desire. The floral metamorphic myths narrated in Ovid's Metamorphoses (AD 8a) thematize the price of desire--the shame, grief, and rage of rejection and rivalrous defeat--and symbolize the generative transformation that frustrated desire and competitive loss can promote. In the deceptively beautiful painting Realm of Flora of 1631, Nicolas Poussin enlists these myths as allegories of his own great creative leap, an aesthetic metamorphosis that followed shattering defeats. Extending the association between creativity and object loss to competitive loss, Poussin holds a mirror to our powerful drive to prevail and create anew from the ashes of loss. PMID:25074053

  5. Projections of the revolutionary nation: French expeditions in the Pacific, 1791-1803.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Carol E

    2009-01-01

    Revolutionary France's two Pacific expeditions, under the command of Jean-Antoine Bruny d'Entrecasteaux (1792-94) and Nicolas Baudin (1801-1804), demonstrate the importance of scientific inquiry to the newly sovereign nation. France's scientific community adapted to the changed circumstances of revolutionary upheaval by describing its work in terms of national priorities. Individuals on board the expeditions, both naval and scientific personnel, behaved as scientific citizens, intent on composing an encyclopedic body of knowledge about the Pacific. Disputes over whose science mattered more and how credit should be assigned through publication, however, broke down the consensus that science should be a national project. PMID:20027768

  6. Water and its effects when drunk cold. The Physician's view (1576-1751).

    PubMed

    Bonfante, L; Calò, L; D'Angelo, A; Favaro, S; Abaterusso, C; Mennella, G; Normanno, M; Spinello, M; Antonello, A

    1999-01-01

    Starting with Baldassare Pisanelli's book Trattato della natura de' cibi et del bere, published in Venice in 1586, the controversies that have kept physicians busy over the centuries regarding the relative importance of water in human health are traced. These controversies were of considerable importance as the Latin word for water 'aqua' is derived from the phrase 'a qua vinimus' (from whence we come). However, until the studies of Nicolas Lemery, one of the most important pharmacologists of the 18th century, the controversies were debated using more theoretical, philosophical arguments. Lemery's studies shifted the debates from those based on philosophical arguments to more physiologically and scientifically based arguments. PMID:10213816

  7. A "slingshot" laser-driven acceleration mechanism of plasma electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Gaetano; De Nicola, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We briefly report on the recently proposed Fiore et al. [1] and Fiore and De Nicola [2] electron acceleration mechanism named "slingshot effect": under suitable conditions the impact of an ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulse against the surface of a low-density plasma is expected to cause the expulsion of a bunch of superficial electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to that of the pulse propagation; this is due to the interplay of the huge ponderomotive force, huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation, and the finite size of the laser spot.

  8. Music, Mechanism, and the "Sonic Turn" in Physical Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pesic, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The sonic diagnostic techniques of percussion and mediate auscultation advocated by Leopold von Auenbrugger and R. T. H. Laennec developed within larger musical contexts of practice, notation, and epistemology. Earlier, François-Nicolas Marquet proposed a musical notation of pulse that connected felt pulsation with heard music. Though contemporary vitalists rejected Marquet's work, mechanists such as Albrecht von Haller included it into the larger discourse about the physiological manifestations of bodily fluids and fibers. Educated in that mechanistic physiology, Auenbrugger used musical vocabulary to present his work on thoracic percussion; Laennec's musical experience shaped his exploration of the new timbres involved in mediate auscultation. PMID:26349757

  9. A model for the nonlocal transport and the associated distribution function deformation in magnetized laser-plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaï, Ph.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Schurtz, G.

    2006-06-01

    We present a model of nonlocal transport for multidimensional radiation magneto hydrodynamic codes. In laser produced plasmas, it is now believed that the heat transfert can be strongly modified by the nonlocal nature of the electron conduction. Nevertheless other mechanisms as self generated magnetic fields may affect heat transport too. The model described in this work aims at extending the formula of G. Schurtz, Ph. Nicolaï and M. Busquet [1] to magnetized plasmas. A system of nonlocal equations is derived from kinetic equations with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. These equations are analyzed and applied to a physical problem in order to demonstrate the main features of the model.

  10. Anatomical Lecture on a Dishwasher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The dishwasher died after faithfully serving the household for over seventeen years. One would expect a MacGyver treasure trove of parts to be found inside. Here, we will present what could be salvaged from a dishwasher that could be of use to hydrological research. The dishwasher's demise was too close to the submission deadline to promise anything in detail but there will be pumps, valves, level sensors, temperature sensors and, perhaps, a turbidity sensor. In addition, there may be more generic parts of interest such as timers, transformers and heaters. What will be presented is a hydrology oriented anatomy lesson of a dishwasher that would make Dr. Nicolaes Tulp proud.

  11. Development and characterization of 12 microsatellite markers for the Island Night Lizard (Xantusia riversiana), a threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Island Night Lizard is a federally threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands of California. Twelve microsatellite loci were developed for use in this species and screened in 197 individuals from across San Nicolas Island, California. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 21. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.520 to 0.843. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population structure, effective population size, and gene flow across the island, to inform protection and management of this species.

  12. Europe's education experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Written on the seal of the University of Bologna - founded in 1088 and regarded as the oldest degree-granting university in the western world - are the words Alma mater studiorum. Translated into English, they mean, literally, "Nourishing mother of studies", which is apt given that the university's almuni include the astronomers Nicolas Copernicus and Giovanni Domenico Cassini - the first to observe Saturn's four moons. But Bologna has a much more recent claim to fame in the world of education: it was at the university that plans to create a common European higher-education system were set in motion exactly 10 years ago this month.

  13. Lacaille: astronomer, traveler. With a new translation of his journal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. S.

    Nicolas Louis de la Caille (1713 - 1762) was the first systematic observer of the whole southern skies and delineator of fourteen new constellations in that hemisphere which survive to this day, as well as the pioneer geodesist and navigator. The book reviews the whole of his voluminous printed works and also includes a new translation of the manuscript diary of his adventurous southern voyages and travels in Brazil, South Africa and the Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius and Réunion. Illustrations include both reproductions of contemporary documents and modern photographs of some of the places which he visited.

  14. The First Three Catalogues of Southern Star Clusters and Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozens, Glen; Orchiston, W.; Walsh, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nicolas de la Caille, James Dunlop and John Herschel compiled the first three catalogues of southern star clusters and nebulae. Lacaille catalogued 42 objects from Cape Town, South Africa, in 1751 and 1752. Dunlop catalogued 629 objects from Parramatta, Australia, in 1826 and Herschel catalogued 1708 objects between 1834 and 1838 from Cape Town. Many of these objects had not been seen before; In this paper we discuss the new discoveries and the accuracy of the positions supplied by Lacaille, Dunlop and Herschel. Half of Dunlop's 629 objects turned out to be asterisms and faint double stars.

  15. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona

  16. Investigation of geotechnical parameters from CSEM mapping and monitoring data at the oases Kharga and Baris of Sahara desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Attia, Magdy; Khalil, Ahmed; Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Soliman, Mamdouh

    2016-04-01

    The site of investigation, oasis Kharga, is located at about 600 km south of Cairo, Egypt; Baris is about 90 km from Kharga also to south and towards more inside the desert. The work was aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at Baris and to estimate the water intake in the Oasis Kharga. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure of the Baris. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Here we can show the first results that we shall continue during some cycles of monitoring. The second part of our work was linked with mapping the massif structure inside the oasis City, where only using our device we could construct the geoelectrical sections for 5 profiles and show the real structure of the water volume and its complicated structure up to 200 meters depth recording the values of real not apparent resistivity. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We can conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation areas is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectrical heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1,2]. References 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability

  17. Application of the Global Positioning System to crustal deformation measurements. 3: Result from the southern California borderlands

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.M.

    1993-12-01

    Five years of measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites collected between 1986 and 1991 are used to investigate deformation in the offshore regions of southern California. GPS provides the first practical technique to make precise geodetic measurements in the region. The geodetic network is situated along the California coastline from Vandenberg (120.6 deg W, 34.6 deg N) to San Diego, with additional sites on Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San Clemente Islands. The precision of horizontal interstation vectors is subcentimeter, and the interstation vector rate between Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) and Vandenberg agrees with the very long baseline interferometry derived rate to within one standard deviation. No significant motion is observed in th e western Santa Barbara Channel between Vandenberg and Santa Rosa Island, 0.5 +/- 1.6 mm/yr, where the quoted uncertainties are one standard deviation. Motions in the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are consistent with compressional deformation of 6 +/- 1 mm/yr at N16 +/- 3 deg E. This motion is in agreement with seismicity and an independent geodetic analysis for the period 1971-1987 (Larsen, 1991). San Clemente Island is moving relative to San Diego at the rate of 5.9 +/- 1.8/yr at a direction of N38 +/- 20 deg W. The motion between San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm/yr, is insignificant.

  18. At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

  19. [The beginning of the teaching of chemistry in Lorraine: the Royal College of Medicine and the Faculty of Medicine of Nancy (1752 and 1776)].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The faculty of medicine of the university created in Pont-à-Mousson in the second part of the XVIth century, transferred to Nancy in 1768, was not in possession of a chair of chemistry, but, in the middle of the XVIIIth century, it was interested by the development of this science. In Nancy, the Royal College of medicine, created by King Stanislas in 1752, disposed of a professor of chemistry since 1756, and also of a demonstrator who was one of the apothecaries of the town. In Metz, a course of this science occurred between 1756 and 1769 with the apothecary Thyrion. In 1776, the physician Henry Michel du Tennetar and the apothecary Pierre-François Nicolas opened a private course of chemistry, immediately transformed into a chair of the faculty of medicine. This chair will be maintained until Révolution. The personality and work of Michel du Tennetar and Nicolas, the circumstances and conditions of the creation of the chair, the inheritance of Michel, and the appointment of the demonstrator, also an apothecary, are successively described. PMID:16217893

  20. Self-Diffusion of small Ag and Ni islands on Ag(111) and Ni(111) using the self-learning kinetic Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islamuddin Shah, Syed; Nandipati, Giridhar; Kara, Abdelkader; Rahman, Talat S.

    2012-02-01

    We have applied a modified Self-Learning Kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) method [1] to examine the self-diffusion of small Ag and Ni islands, containing up to 10 atom, on the (111) surface of the respective metal. The pattern recognition scheme in this new SLKMC method allows occupancy of the fcc, hcp and top sites on the fcc(111) surface and employs them to identify the local neighborhood around a central atom. Molecular static calculations with semi empirical interatomic potential and reliable techniques for saddle point search revealed several new diffusion mechanisms that contribute to the diffusion of small islands. For comparison we have also evaluated the diffusion characteristics of Cu clusters on Cu(111) and compared results with previous findings [2]. Our results show a linear increase in effective energy barriers scaling almost as 0.043, 0.051 and 0.064 eV/atom for the Cu/Cu(111), Ag/Ag(111), and Ni/Ni(111) systems, respectively. For all three systems, diffusion of small islands proceeds mainly through concerted motion, although several multiple and single atom processes also contribute. [1] Oleg Trushin et al. Phys. Rev. B 72, 115401 (2005) [2] Altaf Karim et al. Phys. Rev. B 73, 165411 (2006)

  1. Spatially Resolving Spin-split Edge States of Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crommie, M. F.

    2011-03-01

    A central question in the field of graphene-related research is how graphene behaves when it is patterned at the nanometer scale with different edge geometries. The most fundamental shape in this regard is the graphene nanoribbon (GNR), a narrow strip of graphene that is characterized by its width and chirality. GNRs have been predicted to exhibit a wide range of behavior that includes tunable energy gaps and unique 1D edge states with unusual magnetic structure. I will discuss a scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STS) study of GNRs that allows us to examine how GNR electronic structure depends on the chirality of atomically well-defined GNR edges. Our STS measurements reveal the presence of 1D GNR edge states that closely match theoretical expectations for GNRs of similar width and chirality. We additionally observe width-dependent energy splitting in GNR edge states, providing compelling evidence of their magnetic nature. This work performed in collaboration with Chenggang Tao, Liying Jiao, Oleg V. Yazyev, Yen-Chia Chen, Juanjuan Feng, Xiaowei Zhang, Rodrigo B. Capaz, James M. Tour, Alex Zettl, Steven G. Louie, and Hongjie Dai.

  2. Liquid Crystal Based Sensor to Detect Beta-Sheet Formation of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadati, Monirosadat; Izmitli Apik, Aslin; Abbott, Nicholas L.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-03-01

    Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is involved in the progression of Alzheimer's, typeII diabetes and Huntington's diseases. Although larger aggregates remain important for clinical determination, small oligomers are of great interest due to their potentially toxic nature. It is therefore crucial to develop methods that probe the aggregation process at early stages and in the vicinity of biological membranes. Here, we present a simple method that relies on liquid crystalline materials and a Langmuir monolayer at the aqueous-liquid crystal (LC) interface. The approach is based on the LC's specific response to β-sheet structures, which abound in amyloid fibrils. When the system is observed under polarized light, the fibrils formed by amyloidogenic peptides give rise to the formation of elongated and branched structures in the LCs. Moreover, the PolScope measurements prove that the LCs are predominantly aligned along the fibrils when exposed to a β-sheet forming peptide. In contrast, non-amyloidogenic peptides form ellipsoidal domains of irregularly tilted LCs. This method is capable of reporting aggregation at lipid-aqueous interfaces at nanomolar concentrations of the peptide, and much earlier than commonly used fluorescence-based techniques. We thank Prof. Oleg D. Levrentovich and Young-Ki Kim from the Liquid Crystal Institute of Kent State University for the use of their PolScope instrument. This work was partially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (P300P2_151342).

  3. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  4. Theoretical study of static magnetic properties for the chiral and reconstructed graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Suk-Young; Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun

    2013-03-01

    Recent theoretical study of the chiral graphene nanoribbons(CGNR) has demonstrated the magnetic ordering of the edge states below a certain chiral angle1. Based on the Hubbard model for the CGNR, we study the static properties of the magnetic edge states such as the intra-edge and inter-edge spin stiffness, which are the two crucial parameters to control the thermodynamics of the effective magnetic hamiltonian. For the systematic study of the anti-ferromagnetic inter-edge spin correlations, we calculate the inter-edge spin stiffness as a function of ribbon width and transverse electric field. We also attempt to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties for the other edge geometries such as a reconstructed edge geometry, which has been experimentally confirmed as an edge shape other than zigzag or armchair nanoribbon2 1. Oleg V. Yazyev, Rodrigo B. Capaz, and Steven G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 84, 115406 (2011). 2. Pekka Koskinen, Sami Malola, and Hannu Hakkinen, Phys. Rev. B 80, 073401 (2009). This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(2012R1A1A2006927).

  5. Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N2+, N+, and N2++ nitrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, R.; Alcaraz, C.; Dutuit, O.; Nicolas, C.; Soldi-Lose, H.; Zabka, J.; Franceschi, P.

    Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N+ , N+ , and N2+ nitrogen ions 2 2 R. Thissen (1), C. Alcaraz (1), O. Dutuit (1), C. Nicolas (2), H. Soldi-Lose (3), J. Zabka (4), P. Franceschi (5) (1) LCP, Bât. 350, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France, (2) Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, (3) Institut für Chemie, Fachgruppe Organische Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin, (4) J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, CZ 18223 Praha 8 - Kobylisy, Czech Republik, (5) Dept. of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (TN), Italy (christian.alcaraz@lcp.u-psud.fr) N2 is the major neutral componant of Titan's atmosphere, its ionisation by solar radiation and by magnetospheric electron impact is the most important production of ions in Titan's ionosphere. These primary processes not only lead to N+ molecular 2 monocations but also to N+ atomic ions and to N2+ molecular dications, which can 2 pertain some internal or translational excitation. This contribution will summarize our efforts to caracterize in gaz phase laboratory experiments the reactivity of the nitrogen ions with the most important neutral targets of the Titan's atmosphere [1-3]: • N+ + CH4 , C2 H2 , and C2 H6 2 • N+ (3 P, 1 D) + CH4 , and C2 H4 • N2+ + N2 , CH4 , and C2 H4 2 In this work, particular attention has been paid on the effect of internal and/or translational excitation of the primary nitrogen ions on the rate constant and branching ratio of these ion-molecule reactions. The results from these studies have been compared to the literature values when available and some significant differences have been found. These new values have been used as input data in 1D models of the Titan's ionosphere to show the effect on the final density profiles of the main ions [4] and to demonstrate the existence of a N2+2 dication

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  7. Size-selective harvesting alters life histories of a temperate sex-changing fish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E; Standish, Julie D; Schroeder, Donna M; Love, Milton S; Rosales-Casian, Jorge A; Sosa-Nishizaki, Oscar

    2007-12-01

    Selective mortality, whether caused naturally by predation or through the influence of harvest practices, initiates changes within populations when individuals possessing certain heritable traits have increased fitness. Theory predicts that increased mortality rates will select for changes in a number of different life history characteristics. For example, fishing often targets larger individuals and has been shown repeatedly to alter population size structure and growth rates, and the timing of maturation. For sex-changing species, selective fishing practices can affect additional traits such as the mature population sex ratio and the timing of sexual transformation. Using historical comparisons, we examined the effects of exploitation on life history characteristics of California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher, a temperate protogynous (female-male sex changer) labrid that inhabits nearshore rocky environments from central California, USA, to southern Baja California, Mexico. Recreational fishing intensified and an unregulated commercial live-fish fishery developed rapidly in southern California between the historical and current studies. Collections of S. pulcher from three locations (Bahia Tortugas, Catalina Island, and San Nicolas Island) in 1998 were compared with data collected 20-30 years previously to ascertain fishery-induced changes in life history traits. At Bahia Tortugas, where fishing by the artisanal community remained light and annual survivorship stayed high, we observed no changes in size structure or shifts in the timing of maturation or the timing of sex change. In contrast, where recreational (Catalina) and commercial (San Nicolas) fishing intensified and annual survivorship correspondingly declined, males and females shifted significantly to smaller body sizes, females matured earlier and changed sex into males at both smaller sizes and younger ages and appeared to have a reduced maximum lifespan. Mature sex ratios (female:male) increased at

  8. A cool eastern Pacific Ocean at the close of the Last Interglacial complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Groves, L.T.

    2006-01-01

    New high-precision thermal ionization mass-spectrometric (TIMS) U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) from several marine terrace localities along the California and southern Oregon coasts date to the ???80,000 yr BP high stand of sea, correlative with marine isotope substage 5a, late in the last interglacial complex. Ages of multiple corals from localities north of Point An??o Nuevo (central California) and San Nicolas Island (southern California) suggest that this high sea stand could have lasted at least 8000 yr, from ???84,000 to ???76,000 yr BP. These ages overlap with those from marine deposits on tectonically stable Bermuda and tectonically emergent Barbados. Higher-elevation terraces at two California localities, in the Palos Verdes Hills and on San Nicolas Island, have corals with ages that range mostly from ???121,000 to ???116,000 yr BP, correlative with marine isotope substage 5e. These ages are similar to those reported for other terraces in southern California but are younger than some ages reported from Hawaii, Barbados and the Bahamas. Marine terrace faunas are excellent proxies for nearshore marine paleotemperatures during past high sea stands. Terraces on the Palos Verdes Hills and San Nicolas Island dated to the ???120,000 yr BP high sea stand have dominantly zoogeographically "neutral" species in exposed coastal localities, indicating nearshore waters similar to those of today. In contrast, ???80,000 yr BP, exposed coastal localities typically have molluscan faunas characterized by numerous extralimital northern species and a lack of extralimital southern species. These fossil assemblages are indicative of nearshore water temperatures that were cooler than modern temperatures at ???80,000 yr BP. Waters at least as warm as today's at ???120,000 yr BP and cooler than present at ???80,000 yr BP are in excellent agreement with marine alkenone records and coastal vegetation records derived from pollen data, from both southern and

  9. On the use of Multisensor and multitemporal data for monitoring risk degradation and looting in archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risks which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world. They cause a massive loss of artefacts but also, and above all, a loss of the cultural context, which makes the subsequent interpretation of archaeological remains very difficult. Remote sensing offers a suitable chance to quantify and analyse this phenomenon, especially in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is not much effective and time consuming or non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In this paper we focus on the use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. Multitemporal satellite images acquired for the study area have been processed by using both autocorrelation statistics and unsupervised classification to highlight and extract looting patterns. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. Reference Lasaponara R.; Giovanni Leucci; Nicola Masini; Raffaele Persico 2014 ": Investigating archaeological looting using very high resolution satellite images and georadar: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru JASC13-61R1 Cigna Francesca, Deodato Tapete, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini, 2013 Amplitude Change Detection with ENVISAT ASAR to Image the Cultural Landscape of the Nasca Region, Peru (pages 117-131). Archeological Prospection Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1451 Tapete Deodato, Francesca Cigna, Nicola Masini and Rosa Lasaponara 2013. Prospection and Monitoring of the Archaeological Heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR Archeological Prospection (pages 133-147) Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/arp.1449 Lasaponara Rosa 2013: Geospatial analysis from space: Advanced approaches for data processing

  10. Pre-breakdown phase of coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morávek, Tomáš; Čech, Jan; Navrátil, Zdeněk; Ráhel', Jozef

    2016-08-01

    Coplanar barrier discharge in single-pair electrode configuration was used to study the formation of helium diffuse mode discharge. Transition from Townsend avalanching to the cathode and anode directed ionization waves was documented by high-speed camera imaging. When alumina dielectric barrier was coated by a thin layer of high permittivity coating (ɛr = 120-140), a new partial discharge preceding the Townsend avalanching phase was clearly visible. We suggest that this new pre-Townsend breakdown event is analogous to the known backward discharge of surface barrier discharge. Low magnitude of local electric field strength during the pre-Townsend breakdown reduces the number of competing electron collision excitation processes. This opens a new opportunity for studying optical emission from surface charge recombination processes. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  11. The face of madness in Romania: the origin of psychiatric photography in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Buda, Octavian

    2010-09-01

    In 1870 the Romanian physician Nicolae G. Chernbach published a photographic atlas of the main types of mental alienation, a collection of twelve plates depicting mentally ill patients from the Marcutza Asylum in Bucharest. Each photograph included a diagnosis based on the clinical nosography and theories of the physiognomy of insanity acknowledged during the period. The publication of the atlas--just a few years after Hugh W. Diamond's initial use of photography for this purpose in Britain in the 1850s--means that the photographs were not only the first taken in Romania, but among the first photographs of the mentally ill. This study provides an insight into the origins of modern clinical psychiatry and medical advances in Romania, and the contemporary personalities in Romanian and Eastern European medicine. PMID:21879687

  12. LTE plasma reactors for materials conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolacinski, Zbigniew; Szymanski, Lukasz; Raniszewski, Grzegorz

    2013-02-01

    Plasma aided materials conversion is the use of charged particles for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties or to convert unwanted materials such as waste into environmentally friendly products. The near LTE plasma (in atmospheric or reduced pressure) is a nice tool for engineering of materials which in consequence upgrades the performance of most of the consumer goods. The paper presents a few samples of the own research results related to the design and use of some plasma reactors for synthesis of nanomaterials and hazardous materials destruction with their conversion into valuable products. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  13. The foundation of the first amphitheatre of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Cluj

    PubMed Central

    BÂRSU, CRISTIAN

    2013-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmacy of Cluj was created in 1948. The first dean was Erwin Popper (1906–1974) – professor of analytical chemistry. At the beginning of the activity the didactic spaces in this institution were not sufficient. Consequently, Prof. Popper tried and succeeded in solving this problem. In 1955–1957, despite financial and economic difficulties, he succeeded in raising a new building for the departments of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry. The most important part of this edifice was a modern, large and elegant amphitheatre of 200 places. This was the first lecture hall of the Faculty. The historical value of this amphitheatre was completed in 1957 with bass relief carvings, representing important pharmacists and chemists, such as Carol Davila, Ştefan Minovici, Constantin I. Istrati, Nicolae Teclu, Ion Vintilescu and Gheorghe Spacu. The artistic representations of these Romanian scientists were created by Virgil Fulicia (1907–1979) – professor of the Fine Arts Academy in Cluj. PMID:26527941

  14. The impact of in vitro digestion on bioaccessibility of polyphenols from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their influence on iron absorption by human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Deußer, Hannah; Evers, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The composition of potatoes as determined by chemical extraction has been described extensively. It is thus quite well known that, among other compounds, potato is rich in polyphenols, vitamins and in some minerals. This paper underlines the important role of simulated gastro-intestinal in vitro digestion in the bioaccessibility of polyphenols (chlorogenic acid and derivatives, and rutin) from potatoes and sweet potatoes and their impact on iron uptake. Concentrations of polyphenols in the flesh of two potato cultivars (Nicola, white potato, and Vitelotte, purple potato) and sweet potato were measured by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography after boiling and after in vitro digestion. Chemical extraction underestimates polyphenol amounts that can be released during digestion and that are actually bioaccessible. Iron uptake, as evaluated by a ferritin assay, by intestinal human cells was decreased after incubation with the intestinal phase of in vitro digestion, presumably due to the presence of polyphenols. PMID:24056541

  15. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    PubMed

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability. PMID:23307219

  16. PREFACE: Conference Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    ORGANISING COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov - Chairman, Kiril Blagoev - Vice-Chairman, Margarita Grozeva - Scientific secretary, Kostadinka Gesheva, Anna Szekeres, Hassan Chamati, Diana Nesheva, Peter Rafailov, Yordan Marinov, Emilia Dimova, Tatyana Ivanova, Radostina Kamburova, Ekaterina Iordanova, Julia Genova, Alexander Donkov, Emilia Vlaikova SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: Alexander Petrov, Bulgaria; Nikola Sabotinov, Bulgaria; Kiril Blagoev, Bulgaria; Nicholay Tonchev, Bulgaria; Hassan Chamati, Bulgaria; Marin Gospodinov, Bulgaria; Peter Rafailov, Bulgaria; Emil Vlakhov, Bulgaria; Kostadinka Gesheva, Bulgaria; Anna Szekeres, Bulgaria; Diana Nesheva, Bulgaria; Albena Paskaleva, Bulgaria; Tatyana Ivanova, Bulgaria; Alexander Dreischuh, Bulgaria; Evgenia Valcheva, Bulgaria; Miglena Nikolaeva-Dimitrova, Bulgaria; Sanka Gateva, Bulgaria; Frank Hamelmann, Germany; Nicola Scaramuzza, Italy; G.M.W. Kroesen, Netherlands; Jan van Dijk Netherlands; Andrzej Szewczyk, Poland; Henryk Szymczak, Poland; Krzistof Rogacki, Poland; Ion Mihailescu, Romania; Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sweden; Mikael Jonsson, Sweden; Andrew Livingston, UK; Ludmila Peeva, UK

  17. The characterization of canvas painting by the Serbian artist Milo Milunović using X-ray fluorescence, micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damjanović, Lj.; Gajić-Kvaščev, M.; Đurđević, J.; Andrić, V.; Marić-Stojanović, M.; Lazić, T.; Nikolić, S.

    2015-10-01

    A canvas painting by Milo Milunović "The Inspiration of the poet" was studied by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in order to identify materials used by the artist and his painting technique. Study is perfomed combining in situ non-destructive method with the preparation and study of cross-section samples and raw fragments of the samples. Milo Milunović, an eminent painter from Balkan region, made a copy of the Nicolas Poussin's original painting in Louvre in 1926/27. Obtained results revealed following pigments on the investigated canvas painting: vermilion, minium, cobalt blue, ultramarine, lead white, zinc white, cadmium yellow, chrome-based green pigment and several earth pigments - red and yellow ocher, green earth and umber. Ground layer was made of lead white mixed with calcium carbonate.

  18. Alkaloid decomposition by DC pin-hole discharge in water solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimova, Edita J.; Krcma, Frantisek; Jonisova, Lenka

    2016-08-01

    DC diaphragm discharge generated in a batch reactor was used to decompose two selected model alkaloids, caffeine and quinine in concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ppm or 5 to 15 ppm, respectively. UV-vis spectrometry was utilized in evaluation of H2O2 production during the process as well as degradation of caffeine. Fluorescence spectrometry was used for quantification of quinine. High rates of decomposition were reached in both cases in the anode part of the reactor. On the other hand, up to four times lower decomposition was observed in the cathode part. Total removal efficiency gained up to 300 mg/kWh for caffeine and 210 mg/kWh for quinine. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli on PTFE surfaces by diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tučeková, Zlata; Koval'ová, Zuzana; Zahoranová, Anna; Machala, Zdenko; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The non-equilibrium plasma of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) was tested for decontamination of bacteria Escherichia coli on polymer surfaces. We investigated the optical parameters of DCSBD plasma generated in synthetic air with different relative humidity. Our study was provided to estimate the main plasma components active during the DCSBD plasma degradation of E. coli contamination prepared on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon) surface, in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The DCSBD plasma was characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. The inactivation of E. coli bacteria was evaluated by standard microbiological cultivation (CFU plate counting). The experimental results of the germicidal efficiency obtained for short plasma exposure times proved the effectiveness of DCSBD plasma for the polymer surface decontamination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  20. Density distributions of OH, Na, water vapor, and water mist in atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasmas in contact with NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Ishigame, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the density distributions of OH, Na, water vapor and water mist in atmospheric-pressure dc helium glow plasmas in contact with NaCl solution. The densities of OH, Na and H2O had different spatial distributions, while the Na density had a similar distribution to mist, suggesting that mist is the source of Na in the gas phase. When the flow rate of helium toward the electrolyte surface was increased, the distributions of all the species densities concentrated in the neighboring region to the electrolyte surface more significantly. The densities of all the species were sensitive to the electric polarity of the power supply. In particular, we never detected Na and mist when the electrolyte worked as the anode of the dc discharge. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  1. The Surprising History of Claims for Life on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Michael J.

    2011-11-01

    Because astronomers are now convinced that it is impossible for life, especially intelligent life, to exist on the Sun and stars, it might be assumed that astronomers have always held this view. This paper shows that throughout most of the history of astronomy, some intellectuals, including a number of well-known astronomers, have advocated the existence of intelligent life on our Sun and thereby on stars. Among the more prominent figures discussed are Nicolas of Cusa, Giordano Bruno, William Whiston, Johann Bode, Roger Boscovich, William Herschel, Auguste Comte, Carl Gauss, Thomas Dick, John Herschel, and François Arago. One point in preparing this paper is to show differences between the astronomy of the past and that of the present.

  2. Plasma chemical production of stable isotopes of germanium from its fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, Roman; Sennikov, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The reduction process of 72GeF4 in hydrogen plasma of RF-discharge (13.56 MHz) was experimentally investigated. It was found that 72Ge, polyfluorogermanes and gaseous HF were the main products of conversion. The behavior of the main electroactive impurities and of metal impurities in the process of hydrogen reduction of 72GeF4 was considered. Based on the data of emission spectroscopy of chemically active plasma, assumptions were made about the main plasma-chemical reactions responsible for the process of hydrogen reduction of 72GeF4. A single crystal of n-type with concentration of charge carriers of <1 × 1013 cm3, ρ = 47 Ω cm was produced using a Czochralski method after the process of zone recrystallization of 72Ge. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  3. Volume-surface barrier discharge in dried air in three-electrode system fed by impulse high voltage with nanosecond rise time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashin, Maxim; Rebrov, Igor; Nebogatkin, Sergey; Sokolova, Marina; Nikitin, Alexey; Voevodin, Vadim; Krivov, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Results of experimental investigation of a volume-surface barrier discharge in a three-electrode system under periodic impulse voltage applied to the surface discharge (SD) electrodes and a d.c. potential applied to an additional third electrode are presented. It is shown that there is a strong influence of polarity and amplitude of the d.c. potential on the direct current "extracted" out of the surface discharge plasma layer by electric field of the third electrode. The amount of charged positive species that constitute the "extracted" current prevails under positive impulse voltage for low values of the negative d.c. potential of the third electrode. The amount of negative species prevails with higher values of the positive d.c. positive of the third electrode. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  4. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  5. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology. PMID:25807782

  6. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  7. Dynamics of the atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge between cylindrical electrodes in roll-to-roll PECVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostin, Sergey A.; Welzel, Stefan; Liu, Yaoge; van der Velden-Schuermans, Bernadette; Bouwstra, Jan B.; van de Sanden, Mauritius C. M.; de Vries, Hindrik W.

    2015-07-01

    The high current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was operated in a bi-axial cylindrical electrode configuration using nitrogen, oxygen and argon gas flow with the addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor for silica-like film deposition. The behaviour of the transient plasma was visualized by means of fast imaging from two orthogonal directions. The formation and propagation (~3 × 104 m s-1) of lateral ionization waves with the transverse light emission structure similar to the low pressure glow discharge was observed at time scales below 1 µs. Despite plasma non-uniformity at nanosecond time scale the deposition process on the web-rolled polymer results in smooth well adherent films with good film uniformity and excellent gas diffusion barrier properties. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  8. The early career of Nicole Oresme.

    PubMed

    Courtenay, W J

    2000-09-01

    It has long been known that Nicole Oresme was a master of arts and a student in theology at Paris by 1348. A recently discovered papal letter of provision granting Oresme an expectation of a benefice establishes that he was already a regent master in arts by 1342. The text of the letter as copied in the papal registers also mentions those persons mandated to help implement the provision, thus revealing part of Oresme's early patronage network, which included an important regent master of theology from Normandy and a bachelor of theology who had been summoned to Avignon in 1340 along with Nicolas of Autrecourt. This earlier dating of Oresme's arts degree places him at Paris during the crisis over William of Ockham's natural philosophy. PMID:11143787

  9. Headaches in antiquity and during the early scientific era.

    PubMed

    Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Diamantis, Aristidis; Mitsikostas, Dimos-Dimitrios; Androutsos, George

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the evolution of ideas on headache symptoms from antiquity through the 19th century. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports along with a review of the available literature in PubMed was undertaken: observations on headaches date back nearly 4,000 years to the ritual texts of Mesopotamia. Nicolaes Tulp, Thomas Willis and Gerhard van Swieten also made important contributions on various forms of headaches in the 17th and 18th centuries. Edward Liveing and William Gowers made the major contributions to the field in the late 19th century. Overall, observations on headaches span a timeline of nearly 9,000 years. The work of the physicians during the 18th and 19th century, however, set the basis for scientific research. PMID:19288044

  10. Hearing Science in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain and France

    PubMed Central

    Gouk, Penelope; Sykes, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Benjamin Martin, the English natural philosopher, and Claude-Nicolas Le Cat, the French surgeon, both published important work on auditory physiology and function in the mid-eighteenth century. Despite their different backgrounds, there was consensus between the two scholars on key principles of hearing research, most notably the importance of the inner ear in relation to auditory perception. Martin's work (1755 [1763?]) drew directly on the surgical work of Le Cat (1741) to demonstrate the importance of the auditory mechanism in listening processes. Le Cat's interest in the ear, however, came in turn from his interest in surgical anatomy. Martin used Le Cat's elegant designs as a tool for the vivid communication of auditory function to a popular, fee-paying audience. The meeting of two very different minds through intellectual agreement and material transfer demonstrates the way in which principles of hearing science were established in the Enlightenment period. PMID:20634220

  11. Recollections of a translator (Russian title: Vstrecha v verhah ili vospominania perevodchika)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    The article includes recollections of the author-translator from few meetings in Moscow during 70-th years of the XX-th century. The recollections includes a visit to Moscow of a Romanian delegation of trade-unions, a visit of Nicolae Ceausescu and Elena Ceausescu to Moscow in november 1977 in view of the 60-th years of the Revolution of October celebration. A visit by Nicu Ceausescu, physicist and the leader of the Union of Communist Youth of Romania, to Central Comitee of the All Union Communist Youth Organization of the USSR (Komsomol) in Moscow during a transit fly to Beijing (China) is reported also. The recollections reffers also the following persons: Andrey Gromyko- minister of the foreign office of the USSR, Geidar Aliev - 1-st secretary of the Central Commitee of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. Communist party, Grigor'ev- a secretary of the Soviet Komsomol (All Union Organization of Communist Youth) and other.

  12. [First chemists in Lorraine].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Some alchemists and chemists are known in Lorraine at the beginning of the 17th century. But "real" chemists appear only in the middle of the 18th century. In Nancy, the primary official chemists are the professors of the Royal Collège of medicine, then those of the Faculty of medicine in 1776 and after: Henry Michel du Tennetar and Pierre-François Nicolas. In Metz, the first successful attempt of a chemical course is obtained by the apothecary Jean-Baptiste Thyrion from 1765 to 1769. Michel is his successor in 1778. His teaching is immediately and widely successful. Around Michel, the members of the Royal Society of science and art and the practitioners of the military hospital are also very actice. After the Revolution, many years will be necessary to Nancy and Metz to obtain the creating of a new universitary chemical teaching. PMID:19824344

  13. Temperature measurements in arc-discharge synthesis of nanomaterials dedicated for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raniszewski, Grzegorz

    2013-02-01

    The article presents the plasma synthesis method of carbon nanotubes using an electric arc discharge. In this method different carbon nanotubes are produced as a cathode deposit growth or are deposed on various substrates such as silicon, metals and other materials. The examples of applications of carbon nanotubes in medical applications were presented. Conditions required for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and process parameters were mentioned. Applications of carbon nanotubes for cancer treatment were discussed. The method of temperature measurement of the arc was described. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  14. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN MELANOMA RESEARCH. Meeting report from the “Melanoma Research: a bridge from Naples to the World. Napoli, December 5th–6 th2011”

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    After more than 30 years, landmark progress has been made in the treatment of cancer, and melanoma in particular, with the success of new molecules such as ipilimumab, vemurafenib and active specific immunization. After the first congress in December 2010, the second edition of “Melanoma Research: a bridge from Naples to the World” meeting, organized by Paolo A. Ascierto (INT, Naples, Italy), Francesco M. Marincola (NIH, Bethesda, USA), and Nicola Mozzillo (INT, Naples, Italy) took place in Naples, on 5–6 December 2011. We have identified four new topics of discussion: Innovative Approaches in Prevention, Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment, New Pathways and Targets in Melanoma: An Update about Immunotherapy, and Combination Strategies. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members and was focused on recent advances in melanoma molecular biology, immunology and therapy, and created an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion of new approaches and strategies in the field of melanoma. PMID:22551296

  15. A Logical Process Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  16. The foundation of the first amphitheatre of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Cluj.

    PubMed

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmacy of Cluj was created in 1948. The first dean was Erwin Popper (1906-1974) - professor of analytical chemistry. At the beginning of the activity the didactic spaces in this institution were not sufficient. Consequently, Prof. Popper tried and succeeded in solving this problem. In 1955-1957, despite financial and economic difficulties, he succeeded in raising a new building for the departments of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry. The most important part of this edifice was a modern, large and elegant amphitheatre of 200 places. This was the first lecture hall of the Faculty. The historical value of this amphitheatre was completed in 1957 with bass relief carvings, representing important pharmacists and chemists, such as Carol Davila, Ştefan Minovici, Constantin I. Istrati, Nicolae Teclu, Ion Vintilescu and Gheorghe Spacu. The artistic representations of these Romanian scientists were created by Virgil Fulicia (1907-1979) - professor of the Fine Arts Academy in Cluj. PMID:26527941

  17. An eight-month sample of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Snider, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Surface-meteorology and shortwave/longwave irradiance measurements taken on the northwest tip of San Nicolas Island off the coast of Southern California from March through October 1987 are analyzed. Experimental details are summarized, and shortwave cloud-radiation parameterization is outlined with emphasis on a shortwave algorithm. Frequency distributions indicate the stratocumulus clouds at the island have a cloud base on the order of 400 m, an integrated liquid water content of 75 g/sq m, and an albedo of 0.55 with substantial diurnal variations. The longwave parameterization for cloud fraction is also considered, and it is noted that using these models for downward longwave and shortwave irradiances, cloud fraction, integrated liquid water content, and albedo are deduced from the data.

  18. Corrigendum to "Lichenometric dating: Science or pseudo-science?" [Quaternary Research 83 (2015) 1-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; McCarthy, Daniel; LaBrie, Aline; Burke, Randall

    2015-03-01

    In the section "Is there any evidence that lichenometry works?" in our paper we claim that Young et al. (2009) incorrectly transcribed a lichen growth curve from Solomina and Calkin (2003), when they used it in the Alaska Range. The error is actually ours, as we based that point of discussion on the Brooks Range curve from Solomina and Calkin (2003) rather than the central Alaska curve that Young et al. actually used. There was no erroneous transcription, and we apologize to Nicolas Young and his coauthors. The last sentence in the paragraph in question should read "We conclude that the correspondence of 10Be ages and lichenometric ages in this case is a stroke of lucky coincidence".

  19. Radiometric observations at 20.6, 31.65, and 90.0 GHz: Continuing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westwater, Ed R.; Falls, Michael J.; Fionda, Ermanno

    1989-01-01

    Ground based radiometer measurements at 20.6, 31.65, and 90.0 GHz were analyzed to provide attenuation statistics, thus extending the data base of previous NAPEX studies. Using data from colocated radiosondes, comparisons of measurements and calculations of brightness temperatures are presented. The oxygen absorption model of Rosenkranz and the water vapor absorption models of Liebe and of Waters are used. Data from July 1987 at San Nicolas Island, California and from December 1987, August and November 1988 at Denver, Colorado, are included. Joint attenuation statistics at 20.6 and 31.65 GHz are presented for two locations of the Colorado Research Network for December 1987 and August 1988.

  20. Exploring the limits of the ``SNB'' multi-group diffusion nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodrick, Jonathan; Ridgers, Christopher; Kingham, Robert

    2014-10-01

    A correct treatment of nonlocal transport in the presence of steep temperature gradients found in laser and inertial fusion plasmas has long been highly desirable over the use of an ad-hoc flux limiter. Therefore, an implementation of the ``SNB'' nonlocal model (G P Schurtz, P D Nicolaï & M Busquet, Phys. Plas. 7, 4238 (2000)) has been benchmarked against a fully-implicit kinetic code: IMPACT. A variety of scenarios, including relaxation of temperature sinusoids and Gaussians in addition to continuous laser heating have been investigated. Results highlight the effect of neglecting electron inertia (∂f1/∂ t) as well as question the feasibility of a nonlocal model that does not continuously track the evolution of the distribution function. Deviations from the Spitzer electric fields used in the model across steep gradients are also investigated. Regimes of validity for such a model are identified and discussed, and possible improvements to the model are suggested.

  1. Pharmacy and Chemistry in the Eighteenth Century: What Lessons for the History of Science?

    PubMed

    Simon, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay questions the continuity of chemistry across the eighteenth century based on an analysis of its relationship to pharmacy in France. Comparing a text by Nicolas Lémery (1675) with one by Antoine Baumé (1773), the article argues for a key transformation in chemistry across this period. The elimination of the practical side of pharmacy (indications and dosages) from chemistry texts is symptomatic of a reorientation of chemistry toward more theoretical or philosophical concerns. The essay considers several possible explanations for this change in orientation, including developments within pharmacy, but in the end privileges an approach in terms of the changing publics for chemistry in eighteenth-century France. PMID:26103760

  2. Measurement of secondary ionization coefficient of CaO film electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Susumu; Kashiwagi, Yasuhide; Itoh, Haruo

    2013-02-01

    The secondary ionization coefficient γ of a CaO film electrode is investigated taking into account the difference in breakdown voltage obtained by repeated voltage applications. Such measurement is performed under a sinusoidal voltage of 0.5 Hz. If the CaO film electrode acts as the cathode, breakdown voltage gradually decreases and converges to an almost constant value after several breakdowns. From the obtained results, the γ of the CaO film electrode is determined for each breakdown using Townsend's criterion. The γ in the first breakdown is lower than those in subsequent breakdowns, particularly in the steady state. The difference in γ is considered to originate from accumulated charges on the CaO film electrode. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  3. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  4. Lahar Risk on the NE Flank of Popocatepetl Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, H.; Huesca, E. A. Gonzalez; Abrams, M.

    1994-01-01

    Popocatepetl volcano has an altitude of 5452 meters and is capped by glaciers which represent a volume of less than 0.017 km(sup 3) of ice. These glaciers are distributed on the northwest-north face of the cone, starting at 4900 m.a.s.l. The ablation runoff of the glaciers is channelized to the north through the Barranca Central and Barranca Ventorillo which at the lower altitude join together to form a larger canyon bent to the northeast following a spur made of volcanic rock from the extinct Iztacchuatl volcano. At 3200 m.a.s.l. a sudden change in morphology marks the starting point of lahar deposits. Several of these mudflows have been mapped. The San Nicolas Lahar covers a poorly developed soil where pottery and other cultural remains have been found. There are now several towns in the area.

  5. [Fermentation as the origin of life: discussions on blood in Italy in the late 17th century].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the correspondence (1701) between the Neapolitan mathematician Giacinto De Cristofaro and Domennico Guglielmini, professor of theoretical medicine at Padua, on the role of blood and on the fermentative process in the 'origin' of life. The discussion is set against the background of the lively Italian medical debates and experimentations on the function and composition of the blood. Works by Marcello Malpighi, Giacomo Sandri, Giovanni Maria Lancisi, Giorgio Baglivi, Giovanbattista Morgagni and Nicola Cirillo - all of them taking into account Robert Boyle's Natural History of the Blood (1683-4) - show that blood composition and heart motion were described in different ways, ranging from the adoption of chemical theories and experimentation to that of strictly mechanical explanations. Different positions about the role of the blood and of its fermentative motion reflect different views about the relationship between matter and life. PMID:15311440

  6. [Presentation of pyoderma gangraenosum in a dermatologic atlas of the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kuner, N; Hartschuh, W

    2000-07-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum was first described in 1930 by Brunsting, Goeckermann and O'Leary. Nevertheless we found some illustrations in an atlas on dermatology, published by Marie-Nicolas Devergie in the first half of the 19th century, which appear to be pyoderma gangrenosum. In addition to discussions of typical syphilitic affections of the skin, Devergie's "Clinique de la Maladie Syphilitique" includes illustrations of gangrenous ulcers, which appeared unexpectedly after local and systemic therapy with mercury. Devergie interpreted those enlarging ulcers as a side effect of mercury therapy. Thus we were able to find evidence of pyoderma gangrenosum more than 100 years before first description in 1930. The etiology of this clinical picture is still unsettled. The favorite postulate has been a bacterial genesis which was the subject of numerous publications until the 1960s. PMID:10969411

  7. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  8. The influence of the geological setting on the morphogenetic evolution of the Tremiti Archipelago (Apulia, Southeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriani, G. F.; Walsh, N.; Pagliarulo, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Tremiti Archipelago (Southern Adriatic Sea), also called Insulae Diomedae from the name of the Greek hero who first landed there, is an area of high landscape and historical value. It is severely affected by significant geomorphologic processes dominated by mass movements along the coast that constitute the most important and unpredictable natural hazard for the population and cultural heritage. Coastal erosion is favoured by the peculiar geological and structural setting, seismic activity, weathering, development of karst processes, and wave action. The present paper reports on descriptive and qualitative evaluation of the factors controlling landslides and coastline changes based on medium-term in situ observation, detailed surface surveys at selected locations since 1995, and historic and bibliographic data. The Tremiti Archipelago is part of an active seismic area characterised by a shear zone separating two segments of the Adriatic microplate that have shown different behaviour and roll back rates in the subduction underneath the Apennines since middle Pleistocene. Although coastal morphology can be basically considered to be the result of wave action, the continual action of subaerial processes contributes effectively to the mechanism of shoreline degradation. Weathering mainly affects the marly calcisiltites and calcilutites of the Cretaccio Fm. and the friable and low cemented calcarenites and biomicrites of the San Nicola Fm. The cliffs are characterised by different types of failure such as lateral spreads, secondary topples, rock falls and slides. At the Isle of San Nicola, landslides are controlled by the contrast in competence, shear strength and stiffness between the Pliocene re-crystallised dolomitic calcarenites and calcisiltites and the Miocene marly calcilutites and calcisiltites. At the Isles of San Domino and Caprara rock falls are attributed to the undercutting of waves at the base of the cliffs.

  9. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  10. Development of Hydrophone and Its Aapplications Use in OBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. R.; Kuo, B. Y.; Wang, C. C.; Chang, H. K.; Jang, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The seismic wave is translated to T-wave when earthquakes occur below seafloor with a traveling speed of 1500 m/s in the SOFAR channel which centers roughly at 1000 m water depths (Tolstoy and Ewing, 1950). Many studies have shown that hydrophone can be set up in the SOFAR channel to collect acoustic data to investigate plate movement (Fox and Dziak, 1999), seismisity (Fox et.al, 2001), characteristic of T-wave (Park et.al, 2001), seafloor volcanism (Nicolas, 1989), among others. Institute of Earth Sciences of Academia Sinica has been collaborating with Taiwan Ocean Research Institute (TORI) and the Institute of Undersea Technology (IUT) of the National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU) to succefully build a new wide-band OBS (Yardbird). We hope that Yardbird is not only an OBS but also a multi-function underwater recording plotform. Therefor we are developing a low-power consumption, inexpensive hydrophone to catch acoustic signals. The protoypte of it has passed a series of tests and got some seismic seafloor data. This paper describes the design goal of hydrophone, component specifications, field data analyzed, and discusses the future directions of instrument development. Keywords: T-wave; Hydrophone; OBS; acoustic signal Referance: 1 Fox, C. G. and R. P. Dziak, Intenal deformation of the Gorda Plate observedb y hydroacoustimc onitoring, J . Geophys Res., 104, 17603-17615, 1999. 2 Fox, C. G., H. Matsumoto and T.K.Lau, Monitoring Pacific Ocean seismicity from an autonomous hydrophone array. , J . Geophys. Res., 106,4183-4206, 2001. 3 Nicolas, A., Structures of ophiolites and dynamics of oceanic lithosphere. Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989. 4. Park, M., R.I. Odom, and D.J. Soukup (2001). Modal scattering: a key to understanding oceanic T-waves, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3401-3404. 5. Tolstoy, I. and M. Ewing (1950). The T phase of shallow-focus earthquakes, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 40, 25-51.

  11. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife. PMID:26259982

  12. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  13. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-04-14

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also comp lete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.’s and three (3) MSc’s, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow).

  14. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  15. Estimating the Soil Instability from CSEM Monitoring Data at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga, ,, Prof.; Atya, Magdy, ,, Prof.; Khachay, Oleg; El Sayed, El Said A. El Sayed1 A.

    2014-05-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at 'Quarter 27' in 15th May City. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  16. Estimating the geotechnical Parameters from CSEM monitoring Data for the Buildings and the Environment at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Atya, Magdy; Khachay, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at "Quarter 27" in 15th May City, which is linked with cracks formation into the buildings. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. Reference 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  17. THE NATURE OF FOSSIL GALAXY GROUPS: ARE THEY REALLY FOSSILS?

    SciTech Connect

    La Barbera, F.; Sorrentino, G.; De Carvalho, R. R.; De la Rosa, I. G.; Gal, R. R.; Kohl-Moreira, J. L.

    2009-04-15

    We use SDSS-DR4 photometric and spectroscopic data out to redshift z {approx} 0.1 combined with ROSAT All Sky Survey X-ray data to produce a sample of 25 fossil groups (FGs), defined as bound systems dominated by a single, luminous elliptical galaxy with extended X-ray emission. We examine possible biases introduced by varying the parameters used to define the sample, and the main pitfalls are also discussed. The spatial density of FGs, estimated via the V/V {sub MAX} test, is 2.83 x 10{sup -6} h {sup 3} {sub 75} Mpc{sup -3} for L{sub X} > 0.89 x 10{sup 42} h {sup -2} {sub 75} erg s{sup -1} consistent with Vikhlinin et al., who examined an X-ray overluminous elliptical galaxy sample (OLEG). We compare the general properties of FGs identified here with a sample of bright field ellipticals generated from the same data set. These two samples show no differences in the distribution of neighboring faint galaxy density excess, distance from the red sequence in the color-magnitude diagram, and structural parameters such as a {sub 4} and internal color gradients. Furthermore, examination of stellar populations shows that our 25 FGs have similar ages, metallicities, and {alpha}-enhancement as the bright field ellipticals, undermining the idea that these systems represent fossils of a physical mechanism that occurred at high redshift. Our study reveals no difference between FGs and field ellipticals, suggesting that FGs might not be a distinct family of true fossils, but rather the final stage of mass assembly in the universe.

  18. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  19. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Telescope in Paranal, Chile, with guided tours and the opportunity to participate in a night's observations. Runner-up prizes included an iPod, books and DVDs. Furthermore, the highest ranked images will be released for the world to see on www.eso.org as Photo Releases or Pictures of the Week, co-crediting the winners. The jury evaluated the entries based on the quality of the data processing, the originality of the image and the overall aesthetic feel. As several of the highest ranked images were submitted by the same people, the jury decided to make awards to the ten most talented participants, so as to give more people the opportunity to win a prize and reward their hard work and talent. The ten winners of the competition are: * First prize, a trip to Paranal + goodies: Igor Chekalin (Russia). * Second prize, an iPod Touch + goodies: Sergey Stepanenko (Ukraine). * Third Prize, VLT laser cube model + goodies: Andy Strappazzon (Belgium). * Fourth to tenth prizes, Eyes on the Skies Book + DVD + goodies: Joseph (Joe) DePasquale (USA), Manuel (Manu) Mejias (Argentina), Alberto Milani (Italy), Joshua (Josh) Barrington (USA), Oleg Maliy (Ukraine), Adam Kiil (United Kingdom), Javier Fuentes (Chile). The ten winners submitted the twenty highest ranked images: 1. M78 by Igor Chekalin. 2. NGC3169 & NGC3166 and SN 2003cg by Igor Chekalin. 3. NGC6729 by Sergey Stepanenko. 4. The Moon by Andy Strappazzon. 5. NGC 3621 by Joseph (Joe) DePasquale. 6. NGC 371 by Manuel (Manu) Mejias. 7. Dust of Orion Nebula (ESO 2.2m telescope) by Igor Chekalin. 8. NGC1850 EMMI by Sergey Stepanenko. 9. Abell 1060 by Manuel (Manu) Mejias. 10. Celestial Prominences NGC3582 by Joseph DePasquale. 11. Globular Cluster NGC288 by Alberto Milani. 12. Antennae Galaxies by Alberto Milani. 13. Sakurai's Object by Joshua (Josh) Barrington. 14. NGC 1929, N44 Superbubble by Manuel (Manu) Mejias. 15. NGC 3521 by Oleg Maliy. 16. NGC 6744 by Andy Strappazzon. 17. NGC 2217 by Oleg Maliy. 18. VIMOS.2008-01-31T07_16_47j by

  20. Validation of satellite retrievals of cloud microsphysics and liquid water path using observations from FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W.; White, A.; Han, Q.; Welch, R.; Chou, J.

    1995-01-01

    Cloud effective radii (r(sub e)) and cloud liquid water path (LWP) are derived from ISCCP spatially sampled satellite data and validated with ground-based pyranometer and microwave radiometer measurements taken on San Nicolas Island during the 1987 FIRE IFO. Values of r(sub e) derived from the ISCCP data are also compared to values retrieved by a hybrid method that uses the combination of LWP derived from microwave measurement and optical thickness derived from GOES data. The results show that there is significant variability in cloud properties over a 100 km x 80 km area and that the values at San Nicolas Island are not necessarily representative of the surrounding cloud field. On the other hand, even though there were large spatial variations in optical depth, the r(sub e) values remained relatively constant (with sigma less than or equal to 2-3 microns in most cases) in the marine stratocumulus. Furthermore, values of r(sub e) derived from the upper portion of the cloud generally are representative of the entire stratiform cloud. When LWP values are less than 100 g m(exp -2), then LWP values derived from ISCCP data agree well with those values estimated from ground-based microwave measurements. In most cases LWP differences were less than 20 g m(exp -2). However, when LWP values become large (e.g., greater than or equal to 200 g m(exp -2)), then relative differences may be as large as 50%- 100%. There are two reasons for this discrepancy in the large LWP clouds: (1) larger vertical inhomogeneities in precipitating clouds and (2) sampling errors on days of high spatial variability of cloud optical thicknesses. Variations of r(sub e) in stratiform clouds may indicate drizzle: clouds with droplet sizes larger than 15 microns appear to be associated with drizzling, while those less than 10 microns are indicative of nonprecipitating clouds. Differences in r(sub e) values between the GOES and ISCCP datasets are found to be 0.16 +/- 0.98 micron.

  1. Interpreting the paleozoogeography and sea level history of thermally anomalous marine terrace faunas: a case study from the the Last Interglacial Complex of San Clemente Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; Schumann, R. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrate faunas with mixtures of extralimital southern and extralimital northern faunal elements, called thermally anomalous faunas, have been recognized for more than a century in the Quaternary marine terrace record of the Pacific Coast of North America. Although many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, no single explanation seems to be applicable to all localities where thermally anomalous faunas have been observed. Here, we describe one such thermally anomalous fossil fauna that was studied on the second emergent marine terrace at Eel Point on San Clemente Island. The Eel Point terrace complex is a composite feature, consisting of a narrow upper bench (terrace 2a) and a broader lower bench (terrace 2b). Terrace 2b, previously dated from ~128 ka to ~114 ka, was thought to date solely to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5.5, representing the peak of the last interglacial period. Nevertheless, the fauna contains an extralimital northern species and several northward-ranging species, as well as an extralimital southern species and several southward-ranging species. Similar faunas with thermally anomalous elements have also been reported from San Nicolas Island, Point Loma (San Diego County), and Cayucos (San Luis Obispo County), California. U-series dating of corals at those localities shows that the thermally anomalous faunas may be the result of mixing of fossils from both the ~100-ka (cool-water) and the ~120-ka (warm-water) sea level high stands. Submergence, erosion, and fossil mixing of the ~120-ka terraces by the ~100-ka high-sea stand may have been possible due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects on North America, which could have resulted in a higher-than-present local sea level stand at ~100 ka. The terrace elevation spacing on San Clemente Island is very similar to that on San Nicolas Island, and we hypothesize that a similar mixing took place on San Clemente Island. Existing fossil records from older terraces

  2. Seasonal and spatial variation of the bacterial mutagenicity of fine organic aerosol in southern california.

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, M P; Cass, G R; Lafleur, A L; Busby, W F; Thilly, W G

    1996-01-01

    The bacterial mutagenicity of a set of 1993 urban particulate air pollution samples is examined using the Salmonella typhimurium TM677 forward mutation assay. Amibent fine particulate samples were collected for 24 hr every sixth day throughout 1993 at four urban sites, including Long Beach, central Los Angeles, Azusa, and Rubidoux, California, and at an upwind background site on San Nicolas Island. Long Beach and central Los Angeles are congested urban areas where air quality is dominated by fresh emissions from air pollution sources; Azuasa and Rubidoux are located farther downwind and receive transported air pollutants plus increased quantities of the products of atmospheric chemical reactions. Fine aerosol samples from Long Beach and Los Angeles show a pronounced seasonal variation in bacterial mutagenicity per cubic meter of- ambient air, with maximum in the winter and a minimum in the summer. The down-wind smog receptor site at Rubidoux shows peak mutagenicity (with postmitochondrial supernatant but no peak without postmitochondrial supernatant) during the September-October periods when direct transport from upwind sources can be expected. At most sites the mutagenicity per microgram of organic carbon from the aerosol is not obviously higher during the summer photochemical smog period than during the colder months. Significant spatial variation in bacterial mutagenicity is observed: mutagenicity per cubic meter of ambient air, on average, is more than an order of magnitude lower at San Nicolas Island than within the urban area. The highest mutagenicity values per microgram of organics supplied to the assay are found at the most congested urban sites at central Los Angeles and Long Beach. The highest annual average values of mutagenicity per cubic meter of air sampled occur at central Los Angeles. These findings stress the importance of proximity to sources of direct emissions of bacterial mutagens and imply that if important mutagen-forming atmospheric

  3. FOREWORD: V S Letokhov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroke, H. Henry; Linnartz, Harold

    2012-04-01

    Comments on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (CAMOP) endeavors periodically to devote an issue to the life and accomplishments of physicists who have made significant contributions to the fields represented in this journal. Vladilen Letokhov is certainly one of them. For a number of years he was also a CAMOP Correspondent. We are grateful to Professor Victor Balykin for having organized this CAMOP special section. It is particularly significant to one of us (HHS) to remember a person who has made seminal advances in so many areas which to this day are at the forefront of studies by a number of physicists. But over the years this acquaintance developed into friendship and gave the wife of one of us, Norma, and HHS the opportunity to host Tina and Vladik in their home, and get to know both a bit better. There was also the seminal International School on Laser Applications in Physics in Vilnius organized by Letokhov, and then a visit to Troitsk and his group at the Institute of Spectroscopy (and even the organization of a couple of piano recitals by one of our daughters, Marija, who accompanied her parents in the then USSR). Our interests crossed in a couple of fields: laser interactions with atoms and sensitive spectroscopy of radioactive atoms. Letokhov was a participant in the early organization of laser spectroscopy at CERN and was instrumental in providing copper vapour lasers to the isotope separator facility, ISOLDE. To this day laser ion sources are under the aegis of Valentin Fedoseyev who came to CERN from Troitsk. The interaction of lasers with atoms, in particular the process of slowing atoms, is discussed by Balykin. It was Christmas time when a card arrived from Oleg Tumanov of the Institute of Spectroscopy: it included a graph of temperature achieved by laser cooling as a function of calendar date. The results of Letokhov's group were the earliest (see figure 1), even though lower temperatures achieved subsequently by others extended our knowledge

  4. Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches (474th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, Oleg

    2012-01-18

    In the field of nanoscience, if you can control how nanoparticles self-assemble in particular structures — joining each other, for example, as molecules can form, atom-by-atom — you can design new materials that have unique properties that industry needs. Nature already uses the DNA genetic code to instruct the building of specific proteins and whole organisms in both plants and people. Taking a cue from nature, scientists at BNL devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into specific nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations. Novel materials designed and fabricated this way promise use in photovoltaics, energy storage, catalysis, cell-targeted systems for more effective medical treatments, and biomolecular sensing for environmental monitoring and medical applications. To find out more about the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method and its applications, join Physicist Oleg Gang of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) as he gives the 474th Brookhaven Lecture, titled “Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches." Gang, who has led this work at the CFN, will explain the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method, and discuss its present and future applications in highly specific biosensors, optically active nano-materials, and new ways to fabricate complex architectures in a rational manner via self-assembly. Gang and his colleagues used the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facilities to perform their groundbreaking research. At the CFN, the scientists used electron microscopes and optical methods to visualize the clusters that they fabricated. At the NSLS, they applied x-rays to study a particles-assembly process in solution, DNA’s natural environment. Gang earned a Ph.D. in soft matter physics from Bar-Ilan University in 2000, and he was a Rothschild Fellow at Harvard

  5. The metabolic reactions in men and women during long-term head-down tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markin, Andrey

    We have demonstrated that dynamics of alterations of some biochemical blood indices during ling-term space flights and at a long duration head-down tilt (HDT) features that same directionality [Andrei Markin, Lubov Strogonova, Oleg Balashov et al, 1998]. A comparison between biochemical blood parameters at 120-day HDT was provided for groups consisting of nine men (MG1),six men (MG2) and four women (WG). All examined persons aged were exposed to "pure" HDT without resort to any prophylactic agents. Under investigations were concentrations of urea, uric acid, total cholesterol [CHO], HDL-cholesterol [HDL], triglycerides (TG), primary lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, final LPO products, tocopherol (TP) as well as activity of alanin aminotransferase (ALT), total creatin kinase (CK). For all the groups the investigated indices values were expressed as a percentage to background ones. ALT activity for the WG group had a tendency to decrease by 2-15 Women presented a moderate urea concentration lowering which ranged from 99 to 86 CHO level in WG was also elevated, and the extent to which elevated, for the most part, exceeded that of men, but beginning with the 72-nd - 84-th days of HDT an increase in MG1 become more pronounced with its retaining up to the RP. In all groups the tendency for decrease in HDL content was observed, however, it was more pronounced with men. In the RP the parameter value was increased in MG1 and MG2, but in WG it remained at the level which was observed at HDT. TG concentration women presented in the course of HDT increased, but beginning with the 49-th - 50-th day of experiment an increased in MG1 and MG2 became more pronounced. LPO products content dynamics in WG manifested as alternating increases and decreases relative to the background values (65 to 24 Comparative results of biochemical value dynamics investigation obtained in the course of a 120- day HDT demonstrated that women feature slower and less pronounced formation of metabolic

  6. PREFACE: Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII Special issue: CAMOP-MOLEC XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyutinskii, Oleg

    2009-10-01

    processes, gas-surface processes, and biologically relevant systems; ab initio calculations of molecular dynamics; photon-matter interactions: spectroscopy, photodissociation and photo-induced reactions including femtosecond dynamics; interaction between ultra-cold molecules and atoms and processes in He droplets; and steric effects and vector correlations in reactive processes and in photodissociation. The organizers are pleased to acknowledge the support of LENTRANSGAS, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, and the Russian Academy of Sciences. We are very grateful to all members of the Local Organizing Committee, especially Alexei Podlaskin, Irina Krassovskaya, Oleg Rojdestvenski, Peter Shternin, Andrey Smolin, Irina Beletskaya, Alexei Verkhovtsev and Ekaterina Khadikova, whose hard work made the conference so successful. I very much hope that you will enjoy reading this special issue and that many of the articles presented will catch your attention. Perhaps we will meet at MOLEC XVIII in 2010, in Coimbra, Portugal.

  7. A Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill: an Intedisciplinary Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Ramos, Antonio; Mancho, Ana M.; Coca, Josep; Wiggins, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    By combining tools from dynamical systems theory and remote sensing techniques, we achieve a remarkable representation of the events following the sinking of the Oleg Naydenov fishing ship, that took place close to the Canary Islands in April 2015 [1]. The emergency services acquired a precise knowledge of the evolution of the spill, occurred after the sinking, by means of a formidable, extremely time-consuming and expensive effort. In this presentation we show that remote sensing techniques [2] allowed a direct observation of the spill in extensive areas. The time evolution of the observed spills was pursued by dynamical systems tools that, based on COPERNICUS IBI velocity fields data, were able to predict the impact of the spill in the coast of Gran Canaria. A deep description of the dispersion processes produced by ocean currents is achieved by means of Lagrangian Descriptors [3,4,5] that highlight an invisible but real dynamical skeleton, governing the transport processes in the area. This research is supported by MINECO ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 and SEV-2015-0554 and grants MTM2014-56392-R, UNLP-13-3E-2664 (2013-2015) and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. [1] V. J. García-Garrido, A. Ramos, A. M. Mancho, J. Coca, S. Wiggins. Assemblage of Tools for a Real-Time Response to a Marine Oil Spill. Preprint (2015). [2] A. Pisano, F. Bignami, R. Santoleri, Oil spill detection in glint-contaminated near-infrared MODIS imagery, Remote Sens. 7 (1) (2015) 1112-1134. [3] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [4] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [5] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea, S. Wiggins, A.M. Mancho. Lagrangian Descriptors for Two Dimensional, Area Preserving

  8. Acute Hypoxic Test in Patients with Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Shatylo, Valerii B; Serebrovska, Tatiana V; Gavalko, Anna V; Egorov, Egor; Korkushko, Oleg V

    2016-06-01

    Shatylo, Valerii B., Tetiana V. Serebrovska, Anna V. Gavalko, Egor Egorov, and Oleg V. Korkushko. Acute hypoxic test in patients with prediabetes. High Alt Med Biol. 17:101-107, 2016.-Prediabetes is a state of impaired carbohydrate metabolism when not all of the symptoms required to label a person as diabetic are present, but blood glucose is higher than in healthy subjects. Recent evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) might provide a cost-effective strategy for improving metabolic functioning. One of the most important aspects of the successful IHT application is individualized approach to hypoxic dose and regimen prescription. To establish the relationships between indices of carbohydrate metabolism and individual resistance to hypoxia, the acute hypoxic test (AHT, breathing gas mixture with 12% O2 during 20 minutes) was performed in 33 healthy volunteers (mean age, 63.0, range, 44-76; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) less than 5.6 mmol/L and 2 hours postoral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glycemia less than 7.8 mmol/L) and 30 patients with impaired glucose metabolism (mean age, 65.5, range, 44-75; FPG from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and 2 hours post-OGTT glycemia from 7.8 to 11 mmol/L). Negative correlation was found between the SaO2 level at 20th minute AHT and FPG (r = -0.83; p < 0.01) and insulin (r = -0.27; p < 0.05), as well as 2 hours post-OGTT glucose and insulin levels (r = -0.75 and -0.40, respectively). Longer recovery time and less effective functioning of respiratory and cardiovascular systems were also registered in patients with prediabetes showing that their cardiovascular resilience is impaired compared to normoglycemic controls. These patterns of relationship must be considered when assigning the individual modes of IHT. PMID:27213550

  9. Effects of the Ponderomotive Terms in the Thermal Transport on the Hydrodynamic Flow in Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Li, G.

    2004-11-01

    Electron thermal transport is significantly modified by the laser-induced electric fields near the turning point and at the critical surface. It is shown that such modifications lead to an additional limitation in the heat flux in laser-produced plasmas. Furthermore, the ponderomotive terms in the heat flux lead to a steepening in the electron-density profile, which is shown to be a larger effect than the profile modification due to the ponderomotive force [W.L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser--Plasma Interactions, Frontiers in Physics, Vol. 73, edited by D. Pines (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA, 1988)]. To take into account the nonlocal effects, the delocalization model developed in Ref. 2 [G.P. Schurtz, Ph.D. Nicolaï, and M. Busquet, Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000).] has been applied to conditions relevant to ICF experiments. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-92SF19460.

  10. The renaissance of Peiresc: Aubin-Louis Millin and the postrevolutionary republic of letters.

    PubMed

    Adkins, G Matthew

    2008-12-01

    This essay argues for the emergence of a cultural and epistemological divide between amateur savants and members of the Royal Academy of the Sciences in late Old Regime and revolutionary France and suggests that the amateur ideal rose in significance even as intellectual activity came to be increasingly centralized in the postrevolutionary era. At the crux of the tensions between the amateur ideal and the professionalizing reality in the immediate postrevolutionary period stood Aubin-Louis Millin and his journal, the Magasin Encyclopédique. The essay examines, in particular, the revival in the pages of the Magasin Encyclopédique of interest in Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, the seventeenth-century icon of an amateur ideal in which investigations in the natural sciences and scholarship were private, decentralized, often provincial activities. Although the sciences in the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras were often perceived as forward looking and dismissive of the past, this essay finds that a sentimental and nostalgic attachment to the past-to a myth of Peiresc-continued to play an important role in the identity of postrevolutionary men of letters. PMID:19334517

  11. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  12. Foucault at the bedside: a critical analysis of empowering a healthy lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Devisch, Ignaas; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-06-01

    Since quite a few years, philosophy is heading towards the bedside of the patient: the practice of philosophy has stepped out of its ivory tower, it seems, to deal with empirical or practical questions. Apart from the advantages, we should keep in mind the importance of a critical analysis of medical or clinical practice as such. If ethics partakes the clinical stage, it runs the risk only to discuss the how question and to forget the more fundamental what or why questions: what are we doing exactly and why is it good for? Starting from the principle of the empowerment of the patient, we will demonstrate how the discourse on empowerment in health care seems to forget a profound reflection upon this principle as such. By rehearsing some basics from the governmentality theory of Michel Foucault and the actualization of it by Nicolas Rose, we will argue how philosophical investigation in medical-ethical evolutions such as empowerment of the patient is still needed to understand what is really going on in today's clinical practice. PMID:25653105

  13. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  14. The Hetu'u Global Network: Measuring the Distance to the Sun with the Transit of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David; Faherty, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the spirit of historic astronomical endeavors, we invited school groups across the globe to collaborate in a solar distance measurement using the 2012 transit of Venus. In total, our group (stationed at Easter Island, Chile) recruited 19 school groups spread over 6 continents and 10 countries to participate in our Hetu’u Global Network. Applying the methods of French astronomer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, we used individual second and third Venus-Sun contact times to calculate the distance to the Sun. Ten of the sites in our network had amiable weather; 8 of which measured second contact and 5 of which measured third contact leading to consistent solar distance measurements of 152+/-30 million km and 163+/-30 million km respectively. The distance to the Sun at the time of the transit was 152.25 million km; therefore, our measurements are also consistent within 1-sigma of the known value. The goal of our international school group network was to inspire the next generation of scientists using the excitement and accessibility of such a rare astronomical event. In the process, we connected hundreds of participating students representing a diverse, multi-cultural group with differing political, economic, and racial backgrounds.

  15. Fragaria: a genus with deep historical roots and ripe for evolutionary and ecological insights.

    PubMed

    Liston, Aaron; Cronn, Richard; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-10-01

    The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, is one of the youngest domesticated plants. Its 18th century origin via hybridization in Europe between the North American F. virginiana and the South American F. chiloensis was documented by the botanist Antoine Nicolas Duchesne. His 1766 "Natural History of Strawberries" is an extraordinary work that integrates fundamental discoveries on the biology, ecology, and phylogeny of Fragaria with applied information on cultivation and ethnobotanical uses, serving as an inspiration for current research in the genus. Fragaria species exhibit the full range of sexual systems in the gynodioecy pathway from hermaphroditism to dioecy (and back again), as well as variation in self-compatibility, and evidence of sex chromosomes with female heterogamety. The genus is also characterized by interspecific hybridization and polyploidy, with a natural range of ploidy levels from diploids to decaploids. This biological diversity, combined with the availability of genomic resources and the ease of growing and experimenting with the plants, makes Fragaria a very attractive system for ecological and evolutionary genomics. The goal of this review is to introduce Fragaria as a model genus and to provide a roadmap for future integrative research. These research directions will deepen our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary context that shaped the ancestors of the cultivated strawberry, not only providing information that can be applied to efforts to shape the future of this important fruit crop but also our understanding of key transitions in plant evolution. PMID:25326614

  16. The plasma footprint of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet on a flat polymer substrate and its relation to surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyshchenko, Iuliia; Nikiforov, Anton Yu.; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to show the correlation between the plasma propagation in the footprint of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet on a flat polymer surface and the plasma treatment impact on the polymer properties. An argon plasma jet working in open air is used as plasma source, while PET thin films are used a substrates for plasma treatment. Light emission photographs are taken with an ICCD camera to have a close look at the generated structures in the plasma jet footprint on the surface. Water contact angle (WCA) measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis are also performed to obtain information about the impact of the plasma treatment on the PET surface characteristics. A variation in ICCD camera gate duration (1 µs, 100 µs, 50 ms) results in the photographs of the different plasma structures occurring during the plasma propagation on the flat PET surface. Contact angle measurements provide results on improvement of the PET hydrophilic character, while XPS analysis shows the distribution of atomic elements on the treated substrate surface. Light emission images help explaining the obtained WCA and XPS results. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  17. Enhancement of carbon-steel peel adhesion to rubber blend using atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kršková, Jana; Skácelová, Dana; Kováčik, Dušan; Ráhel', Jozef; Pret'o, Jozef; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The surface of carbon-steel plates was modified by non-equilibrium plasma of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) in order to improve the adhesive properties to the NR (natural rubber) green rubber compound. The effect of different treatment times as well as different input power and frequency of supplied high voltage was investigated. The samples were characterized using contact angle and surface free energy measurement, measurement of adhesive properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface chemical composition was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Significant increase in wettability was observed even after 2 s of plasma exposure. The surface modification was confirmed also by peel test, where the best results were obtained for 6 s of plasma treatment. In addition the ageing effect was studied to investigate the durability of modification, which is crucial for the industrial applications. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  18. Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination of composite submicron fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvecká, Veronika; Kováčik, Dušan; Tučeková, Zlata; Zahoranová, Anna; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The plasma assisted calcination of composite organic/inorganic submicron fibers for the preparation of inorganic fibers in submicron scale was studied. Aluminium butoxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers prepared by electrospinning were treated using low-temperature plasma generated by special type of dielectric barrier discharge, so called diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air, synthetic air, oxygen and nitrogen. Effect of plasma treatment on base polymer removal was investigated by using Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Influence of working gas on the base polymer reduction was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and CHNS elemental analysis. Changes in fibers morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High efficiency of organic template removal without any degradation of fibers was observed after plasma treatment in ambient air. Due to the low-temperature approach and short exposure time, the plasma assisted calcination is a promising alternative to the conventional thermal calcination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  19. Oxidation of nitrogen oxide in hybrid plasma-catalytic reactors based on DBD and Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Haljaste, Ants; Laan, Matti

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, Fe2O3 was used as catalyst for the removal of NO in a hybrid plasma- catalytic reactor. The catalyst was located either directly inside the hybrid plasma-catalytic reactor or in a separate catalytic reactor, which followed ozone producing and injecting plasma reactor. Ozone production in such a reactor was dependent on the state of the electrode surface. The fresh catalyst ensured an order of magnitude smaller ozone concentration in the outlet of the hybrid reactor. After a short treatment of the catalyst with NO2, its ability to destroy ozone diminished but was regained after heating of the reactor up to 100 °C. Similarly to earlier results obtained with TiO2, the removal of NO in the hybrid reactor with Fe2O3 was enhanced compared to that in an ordinary plasma reactor. In the ozone injection reactor, oxidation of NO to NO2 took place with considerably higher efficiency compared to the hybrid reactor. The use of catalyst in the ozonation stage further improved the oxidation of NO2 to N2O5. The time-dependence effects of NO removal during plasma and ozone oxidation were explained by reactions between NO2 adsorbed on surface, with surface-bound NO3 and gas phase NO as the reaction product. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  20. New insights in understanding plasma-catalysis reaction pathways: study of the catalytic ozonation of an acetaldehyde saturated Ag/TiO2/SiO2 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauce, Sonia; Vega-González, Arlette; Jia, Zixian; Touchard, Sylvain; Hassouni, Khaled; Kanaev, Andrei; Duten, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    This paper is a preliminary study intended to straighten out the role of reactive oxygen species in the activation mechanisms occurring in a plasma driven catalysis process for acetaldehyde decomposition. For this purpose, the interaction between the surface, the pollutant and one of the main oxidative species generated by non-thermal plasma, namely ozone, was studied. Acetaldehyde catalytic ozonation over a nanostructured Ag/TiO2/SiO2 catalyst is carried out at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and followed by diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). For this, the catalyst is firstly saturated with acetaldehyde. At the end of the saturation, acetaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, its condensation product, are identified as the major adsorbed species. In a second step, the surface ozonation is carried out and three additional intermediates are identified, namely, acetone, formic acid and acetic acid. Gaseous CO, CO2, methyl formate and methyl acetate are detected at the DRIFTS outlet, evidencing the partial mineralization of the adsorbed species. A global reaction scheme is proposed for explaining the formation of those adsorbed intermediates and gaseous products. This proposed heterogeneous ozone induced chemistry has to be taken into account when associating non-thermal plasma in air to a catalyst. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  1. Genomic Flatlining in the Endangered Island Fox.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jacqueline A; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Fan, Zhenxin; Kim, Bernard Y; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-05-01

    Genetic studies of rare and endangered species often focus on defining and preserving genetically distinct populations, especially those having unique adaptations [1, 2]. Much less attention is directed at understanding the landscape of deleterious variation, an insidious consequence of geographic isolation and the inefficiency of natural selection to eliminate harmful variants in small populations [3-5]. With population sizes of many vertebrates decreasing and isolation increasing through habitat fragmentation and loss, understanding the extent and nature of deleterious variation in small populations is essential for predicting and enhancing population persistence. The Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis) is a dwarfed species that inhabits six of California's Channel Islands and is derived from the mainland gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus). These isolated island populations have persisted for thousands of years at extremely small population sizes [6, 7] and, consequently, are a model for testing ideas about the accumulation of deleterious variation in small populations under natural conditions. Analysis of complete genome sequence data from island foxes shows a dramatic decrease in genome-wide variation and a sharp increase in the homozygosity of deleterious variants. The San Nicolas Island population has a near absence of variation, demonstrating a unique genetic flatlining that is punctuated by heterozygosity hotspots, enriched for olfactory receptor genes and other genes with high levels of ancestral variation. These findings question the generality of the small-population paradigm that maintains substantial genetic variation is necessary for short- and long-term persistence. PMID:27112291

  2. Managing Haemophilia for Life: 5th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Cedric; Dolan, Gerry; Jennings, Ian; Windyga, Jerzy; Lobet, Sébastien; Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; O'Mahony, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The 5th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2014. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored issues relevant to the practical management of haemophilia, as well as key opportunities and challenges for care in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance to improving haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Gerry Dolan explores pharmacokinetics and dynamics in haemophilia, and Gerry Dolan and Ian Jennings jointly address the role of the laboratory in haemophilia care. The potential benefits of low-dose prophylaxis regimens for people with haemophilia in the developing world are reviewed by Jerzy Windyga, and the question of whether 'Future haemophilia research should be undertaken in the developing world' is debated by Jerzy Windyga and Cedric Hermans. Management strategies for ankle arthropathy are discussed by Sébastien Lobet and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, and the use of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy is addressed by Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste. Finally, the role of patients in the future of haemophilia care is reviewed by Brian O'Mahony. PMID:26350039

  3. [The mineralogical and petrographical work of the pharmacists in the Museum].

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Caroline; Jaussaud, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Three famous pharmacists were working in the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris, in the field of earth sciences: Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763-1829), André Laugier (1770-1832) and Alfred Lacroix (1863-1948). Vauquelin, professor of Chemical arts, established the chemical composition of numerous minerals, which led him to the discovery of new chemical elements. He also took a hand in demonstrating the extra-terrestrial origin of meteorites. Laugier, professor of General chemistry, was an admitted expert in the analytical field of these rocks. Lacroix, who held during more than forty years the chair of Mineralogy in the Museum, carried out major scientific work. This field working naturalist who was also famous vulcanologist placed his studies of the mineral species into a petrographical context. He described numerous new minerals, took an interest in their origin and classification of the volcanic rocks, as well as in contact metamorphism. In other respects, he increased the collections in the Museum (minerals, rocks, meteorites). The works of Vauquelin, Laugier and Lacroix contributed to advance those begun by some scientists of the Jardin du Roi, as Buffon or the Rouelle brothers before the French Revolution. PMID:16358466

  4. Novel Applications of the Er:YAG Laser Cleaning of Old Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, A.; Bracco, P.; Colombini, M. P.; deCruz, A.; Lanterna, G.; Nakahara, K.; Penaglia, F.

    This chapter focuses on the use of Er:YAG laser cleaning technique for the removal of unwanted and/or degraded materials both from a large series of reference standards (overpainting, varnishes, patinas, and restoration materials) which simulate the layering of old paintings, and also examples from old paintings. A series of diagnostic controls (optical microscopy, SEM, FT-IR, GC-MS, and topographic techniques) were designed to study the effects of the laser radiation on the surface components, including morphological, optical, and chemical examination. The most significant results show that an effective thin-layer-removal of about 90% is obtained by submitting the painted surfaces to the laser exposure, while the rest of cleaning is rapidly accomplished in safety by applying mild solvents or aqueous methods. Consequently, possible interference with the original substrate can be noticeably minimized. No degradation compound induced by laser energy was formed. The laser cleaning procedure applied on an oil painting canvas "Morte di Adone" (seventeenth century), and on a panel tempera painting "San Nicola e San Giusto" of Domenico di Michelino (fifteenth century) shows that the surfaces cleaned by this system exhibit a morphology quite similar to that obtained by traditional cleaning methods.

  5. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Carolyn S.; Wight, Nathan; Crosson, Lisa M.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations. PMID:24672512

  6. Marine stratocumulus structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three Landsat TM scenes of California stratocumulus cloud fields were acquired as part of the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observations in July 1987. They exhibit a wide variety of stratocumulus structures. Analysis has so far focused upon the July 7 scene, in which aircraft from NASA, NCAR, and the British Meteorological Office repeatedly gathered data across a stratocumulus-fair weather cumulus transition. The aircraft soundings validate the cloud base temperature threshold determined by spatial coherence analysis of the TM thermal band. Brightness variations in the stratocumulus region exhibit a -5/3 power-law decrease of the wavenumber spectra for scales larger than the cloud thickness, about 200 m, changing to a -3 power at smaller scales. Observations by an upward-looking three-channel microwave radiometer on San Nicolas Island also show the -5/3 power-law in total integrated liquid water, suggesting that the largest-scale TM brightness variations are primarily due to variations in the liquid water. The Kolmogorov 5/3 power suggests that for some purposes liquid water in turbulent stratocumulus clouds may be treated as a passive scalar, simply reflecting variations in vertical velocity. This may be tested using the velocities measured by the aircraft.

  7. Aircraft/island/ship/satellite intercomparison: Preliminary results from July 16, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Howard P.; Davidson, Ken; Gerber, Herman; Khalsa, Siri Jodha Singh; Kloesel, Kevin A.; Schwiesow, Ronald; Snider, Jack B.; Wielicki, Bruce M.; Wylie, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    The First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) objective of validating and improving satellite algorithms for inferring cloud properties from satellite radiances was one of the central motivating factors in the design of the specific field experimental strategies used in the July, 1987 marine stratocumulus intensive field observations (IFO). The in situ measuring platforms were deployed to take maximum advantage of redundant measurements (for intercomparison of the in situ sensors) and to provide optimal coverage within satellite images. One of the most ambitious of these strategies was the attempt to coordinate measurements from San Nicolas Island (SNI), the R/V Pt. Sur, the meteorological aircraft, and the satellites. For the most part, this attempt was frustrated by flight restrictions in the vicinity of SNI. The exception was the mission of July 16, 1987, which achieved remarkable success in the coordination of the platforms. This presentation concerns operations conducted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra and how data from the Electra can be integrated with and compared to data from the Pt. Sur, SNI, and the satellites. The focus is on the large-scale, integrated picture of the conditions on July 16 from the perspective of the Electra's flight operations.

  8. Improved Universal No-Hair Relations for Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Barun; Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    The exterior gravitational field of an astrophysical body can be characterized by its multipole moments. No-hair theorems for black holes state that the exterior gravitational field can be completely described in terms of their mass and spin angular momentum. Similar no-hair like relations have been recently found for neutron stars which are approximately independent of the internal structure of the star. Missions like NICER and LOFT will observe the pulse profiles of millisecond pulsars and thermonuclear bursters. The equation-of-state (EoS) independent relations may break degeneracies among the relevant observables in the modeling of X-ray pulse and atomic line profiles. The amount of EoS independence of these approximately universal relations depends on how one adimensionalizes the multipole moments of the star with stellar mass, spin and radius. We show that for slowly-rotating neutron stars in both non-relativistic limit and full General Relativity, the optimal normalization of the multipole moments exist that minimizes the EoS dependence in the universal relations. The relations among the moment of inertia and higher order moments can be improved from the original ones approximately by a factor of two. Nicolas Yunes acknowledges support from NSF CAREER Award PHY-1250636. Barun Majumder is supported by the Fulbright-Nehru Postdoctoral Research Fellowship.

  9. Magnetoelectric effect in Cr2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Binek, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Magnetoelectric materials experienced a recent revival as promising components of novel spintronic devices [1, 2, 3]. Since the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is relativistically small in traditional antiferromagnetic compounds like Cr2O3 (max. αzz 4ps/m ) and also cross- coupling between ferroic order parameters is typically small in the modern multiferroics, it is a challenge to electrically induce sufficient magnetization required for the envisioned device applications. A straightforward approach is to increase the electric field at constant voltage by reducing the thickness of the ME material to thin films of a few nm. Since magnetism is known to be affected by geometrical confinement thickness dependence of the ME effect in thin film Cr2O3 is expected. We grow (111) textured Cr2O3 films with various thicknesses below 500 nm and study the ME effect for various ME annealing conditions as a function of temperature with the help of Kerr-magnetometry. [1] P. Borisov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117203 (2005). [2] Ch. Binek, B.Doudin, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, L39 (2005). [3] R. Ramesh and Nicola A. Spaldin 2007 Nature Materials 6 21.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of antimicrobial coatings on non-woven textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, Anton Yu.; Deng, Xiaolong; Onyshchenko, Iuliia; Vujosevic, Danijela; Vuksanovic, Vineta; Cvelbar, Uros; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Leys, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    A simple method for preparation of nanoparticle incorporated non-woven fabric with high antibacterial efficiency has been proposed based on atmospheric pressure plasma process. In this work direct current plasma jet stabilized by fast nitrogen flow was used as a plasma deposition source. Three different types of the nanoparticles (silver, copper and zinc oxide nanoparticles) were employed as antimicrobial agents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have shown a positive chemical shift observed for Ag 3d 5/2 (at 368.1 eV) suggests that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are partly oxidized during the deposition. The surface chemistry and the antibacterial activity of the samples against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were investigated and analyzed. It is shown that the samples loaded with nanoparticles of Ag and Cu and having the barrier layer of 10 nm characterized by almost 97% of bacterial reduction whereas the samples with ZnO nanoparticles provide 86% reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  11. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)—48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001–2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007–2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  12. The Italian Tau/charm project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrica Biagini, Maria

    2014-06-01

    A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2-4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  13. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization?

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization.

  14. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  15. Future challenges for the treatment of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The annual World Congress of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists (IASGO) was held in Bangkok, Thailand, from 5-9 December 2012, hosted under the auspices of the President of the Association, Masatoshi Makuuchi and the General Secretary Nicolas Lygidakis. The President of the Congress and of the local committee was Nopadol Wora-Urai from Bangkok University (Bangkok, Thailand). The organization of the congress was excellent, and both the location and the kindness of the local people were marvellous. The congress was supported by 665 participants from 62 countries, including speakers from Europe, America, Africa, Asia and Australia. The program included symposia, videos, free papers and poster sessions. The scientific sessions also provided live surgery and lunch lectures. The congress offered the opportunity to exchange knowledge about the challenges and controversies involved in the management of abdominal diseases. This paper analyzes current possibilities and future expectations for the diagnosis and treatment of liver tumors, especially hepatocellular carcinomas and liver metastases from colorectal cancer. PMID:23560371

  16. Hepatic tumors: a continuous challenge to achieve further improvements.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Bucharest (Romania) hosted this year's annual meeting of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists. The president of the Congress was Irinel Popescu of the University of Bucharest (Romania) and the meeting was held under the auspices of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists president Masatoshi Makuuchi (Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan) and its general secretary, Nicolas J Lygidakis (Athens Medical Center, Greece). The organizing committee of the Congress has made considerable efforts to promote the globalization of medical knowledge and to maintain the values of Médecins Sans Frontières. The Congress was a model of scientific professionalism, and was attended by more than 850 delegates. Approximately 250 specialists from 43 countries on five continents described their most recent advances, providing the delegates with an intense and very rich program. The program included symposia, video presentations, free papers and poster presentations. This article highlights the newest and most original results concerning the treatment of liver tumors, particularly in cirrhotic patients. PMID:24328405

  17. Effects of experimental overgrowth on survival and change in the turf assemblage of a giant kelp forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Meslow, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae were the prevalent cover among sessile organisms that paved or grew near the substratum, and also the most commonly overgrown species in a giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh forest located off San Nicolas Island, California. Giant kelp was the largest and most conspicuous species that overgrew large patches of the substrata; overgrowth among turf organisms also appeared common. To determine the effects of giant kelp holdfasts on crustose coralline algae and other turf organisms,'artificial holdfasts' were placed on 0.125-m2 plots for 5, 8 and 12 months. In these treatments, 50?57% of the crustose coralline algae survived. Because these algae also recruited while covered, the total cover (survivorship plus recruitment) differed by only 7?26% from that sampled at the start of the study. The decline of these algae in control plots was similar to that in the treatment plots mostly because of overgrowth by sessile invertebrates. Bryozoans increased markedly on the control plots, whereas 0?12% survived in the treatment plots. Bryozoans and sponges also recruited under the artificial holdfasts. Some arborescent turf algae survived in the 5- and 8-month treatments; articulated coralline algae survived better than did foliose algae. High survival recruitment of crustose coralline algae while overgrown contributed to their prevalence in benthic communities.

  18. Monitoring the removal of excited particles in He/Ar/H2 low temperature afterglow plasma at 80-300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kálosi, Ábel; Dohnal, Petr; Augustovičová, Lucie; Roučka, Štĕpán; Plašil, Radek; Glosík, Juraj

    2016-08-01

    Stationary afterglow (SA) experiments with cavity ring down absorption spectrometer (cw-CRDS) have been used to study recombination of H3+ ions with electrons. To characterize the plasma during the afterglow we monitored the time evolution of density of He2 excited dimers (a3Ʃu+) in plasmas in pure helium and in helium with small admixture of Ar and H2. By monitoring the plasma decay and its dependence on [H2] and [Ar] in the afterglow in pure He and in He/Ar/H2 mixture we estimated the rate of plasma thermalization in the temperature range of 80-300 K. The inferred deexcitation rate coefficients for reaction of helium metastable atoms with H2 were (0.9 ± 0.3) × 10-10 cm3 s-1, (1.9 ± 0.2) × 10-10 cm3 s-1 and (2.7 ± 0.2) × 10-10 cm3 s-1 at 80 K, 140 K and 300 K, respectively. The effective recombination rate coefficients for H3+ were evaluated from the decay of the electron number density. We propose the lower estimate for the saturation of the effective recombination rate coefficient in H3+ and D3+ dominated plasma. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  19. Correlation of phase resolved current, emission and surface charge measurements in an atmospheric pressure helium jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerling, Torsten; Wild, Robert; Vasile Nastuta, Andrei; Wilke, Christian; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Stollenwerk, Lars

    2015-07-01

    The interaction of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with two different surfaces (conducting and dielectric) is investigated using a setup with two ring electrodes around a dielectric capillary. For diagnostics, phase resolved ICCD-imaging, current measurements and surface charge measurements are applied. The results show the correlation of plasma dynamics with the deposition of surface charge and electrical current signals. Further, the influence of the distance between surface and jet capillary on the surface charge distribution is presented. A complex discharge dynamic is found with a dielectric barrier discharge between the ring electrodes and back-and-forth bullet propagation outside the capillary. A conducting channel connecting the jet nozzle and the surface is found. This correlates well with the observed charge exchange on the surface. The number of formed channels and the average deposited charge density on the surface is found to be strongly sensitive to the jet distance from the surface. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  20. The 'royal disease'--haemophilia A or B? A haematological mystery is finally solved.

    PubMed

    Lannoy, N; Hermans, C

    2010-11-01

      'History can change blood. And blood can change the course of history'. Haemophilia is an illustration of this, as this congenital hereditary coagulation disorder, passed through the majority of royal European families at the beginning of the 20th century by Queen Victoria of England and Empress of the Indies, had indisputable political consequences, which led to one of the most defining moments of contemporary history: the Bolshevik Revolution. Today, none of Queen Victoria's living descendents carry haemophilia. Because of this, the characterization of haemophilia (deficit of either factor VIII or XI) and the identification of the causal mutation are rendered impossible. In 1991, a tomb containing the remains of Czar Nicolas II's entire family was discovered. A second tomb was discovered in 2007, allowing Russian and American scientists to fill in this gap in medical history. Following a scientific approach combining current genetic experimentation tools and the development of biological information technology, researchers were able to identify each body, allowing them to obtain precious genetic material from the young Czar Alexis, who was stricken by the disease, which revealed a causal substitution in the splice acceptor site of exon 4 in the F9 gene. This mutation that is responsible for haemophilia B had traumatized European royal families throughout the 20th century! PMID:20557352

  1. Liver surgery: a long journey to improve results.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    25th World Congress of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists, Fuzhou, China, 4-6 September 2015 Fuzhou, China hosted the 25th World Congress of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists (IASGO). This was the first Congress after the passing away of Nicolas J Lygidakis, the founder of the International Association, who was a surgeon and an energetic secretary general of the association for 25 years. All members of the association are grateful for his message of medicine beyond the frontiers and health for all. The president of the association remains Professor Masatoshi Makuuchi, Emeritus Professor Of Surgery at The University of Tokyo (Japan), with Professor Dan Dunda from Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) and Professor Kyoichi Takaori from Kyoto University (Japan), as the secretaries general of the association. The President of the 2015 IASGO World Congress was Professor Yupei Zhao, Professor of Surgery at the University of Beijing and President of the Chinese Society of Surgery. The Congress was held under the auspices of IASGO president Masatoshi Makuuchi from Japan and both secretaries general. Fuzhou is a pleasant city that is well organized, but not as busy compared with other Chinese cities. All of the city's people were very kind and welcoming to the attendees at the meeting. The congress focuses on the major advancements in diagnosis and treatment of the gastroenterological diseases, here we report the most important progress in the field of hepatic surgery. PMID:26792540

  2. 2010 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    NASA has announced the selection of the 2010 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2010. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Simona Giacintucci (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Boaz Katz (Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, N.J.) * Matthew Kerr (Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif.) * Matthew Kistler (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Emily Levesque (University of Colorado, Boulder) * Xin Liu (Harvard, Cambridge, Mass.) * Tony Mroczkowski (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia) * Ryan O'Leary (University of California at Berkeley) * Dov Poznanski (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, Calif.) * Nicolas Yunes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) The Einstein Fellowships are administered for NASA by the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Along with the Hubble and Sagan Fellowships, the Einstein Fellowships are made possible by the Astrophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/CfPfellow.2009.html

  3. New developments in the treatment of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana

    2012-04-01

    The International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists (IASGO) hosted their annual world congress under the auspices of president Masatoshi Makuuchi from Japan and the general secretary Nicolas J Lygidakis. This year the congress was held in Tokyo, and the president was Wataru Kimura of Yamagata University. It is common knowledge that a major triple disaster struck Japan in March 2011. It was thought, for a time, that the congress would not take place, but the great courage and determination of the hosts allowed the conference to continue as scheduled. This congress was one of the most interesting hosted by the IASGO, evidenced by the presence of 909 participants from 59 countries, including invited speakers from Europe, America, Africa and Asia. The congress provided an opportunity to exchange knowledge of new techniques, methods of diagnosis and therapy. The program included symposiums, video presentations, free papers and poster presentations. This manuscript highlights presentations of the newest and most original material concerning the treatment of liver tumors, especially hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22515441

  4. Free fatty acids degradation in grease trap purification using ozone bubbling and sonication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotr Kwiatkowski, Michal; Satoh, Saburoh; Fukuda, Shogo; Yamabe, Chobei; Ihara, Satoshi; Nieda, Masanori

    2013-02-01

    The oil and fat were treated at first by only ozone bubbling and it was confirmed that the collection efficiency of them became 98.4% when the aeration was used. It showed that the aeration method in a grease trap cleared the standard value of 90% and there was no worry on the oil and fat outflow from a grease trap. The characteristics of sonication process were studied for free fatty acids degradation. The free saturated fatty acids are the most hard-degradable compounds of the fats, oils and greases (FOGs) in the grease trap. The influence of various parameters such as immersion level of an ultrasound probe in the liquid and bubbling of various gases (Ar, O2, air, O3) on the sonochemical and energy efficiency of the sonication process was investigated. The most effective degradation treatment method for saturated free fatty acids was the combination of sonication and low flow rate argon bubbling. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  5. On the study of the mechanical properties of Mo-B-C coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábranský, Lukáš; Buršíková, Vilma; Souček, Pavel; Vašina, Petr; Buršík, Jiří

    2016-08-01

    Mo2BC thin films show a favourable combination of high stiffness, hardness and elastic modulus together with moderate ductility. In this study we focused on the comparison of mechanical properties of Mo-B-C thin films with different structures (nanocrystalline or amorphous). The thin films were deposited on steel, hard metal and silicon substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The mechanical properties of Mo-B-C films were studied using indentation techniques under both quasistatic and dynamic conditions using a wide range of loads from 50 μN up to 1 N. The results showed that even amorphous Mo-B-C thin films had high hardness of 19.5 ± 0.5 GPa and elastic modulus of 276 ± 5 GPa. Their hardness is comparable with the common amorphous diamond-like carbon coatings. Moreover, their fracture toughness is significantly higher. The results of mechanical tests were correlated with microstructure observations carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images of the deformed area under the residual indentation imprints showed no cracking even after high loads or after indentation with sharp cube corner indenter. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  6. A fifth Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein (EBNA3C) is expressed in latently infected growth-transformed lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Petti, L; Sample, J; Wang, F; Kieff, E

    1988-01-01

    Three distantly homologous neighboring long open reading frames in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome are preceded by short open reading frames. The leftmost short and long open reading frames encode EBNA3, a nuclear protein which is slightly smaller (145 kilodaltons [kDa]) than two other nuclear proteins (150 to 155 kDa) detected in Western blots (immunoblots) of latently infected cell protein (K. Hennessy, F. Wang, E. Woodland-Bushman, and E. Kieff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5693-5697, 1986; I. Joab, D. T. Rowe, M. Bodescot, J.-C. Nicolas, P. J. Farrell, and M. Perricaudet, J. Virol. 61:3340-3344, 1987). We have demonstrated that the most rightward short (BERF3) and long (BERF4) open reading frames are spliced in frame at the 3' end of a 5-kilobase latently infected cell RNA and that this RNA begins within or upstream of the EBV long internal repeat. EBV-immune human antibodies specific for the long open reading frame translation product identified a 155-kDa protein on Western blots of latently infected cell protein and specifically reacted with large nonnucleolar nuclear granules in every latently infected cell. Expression of the cDNA in BALB/c 3T3 cells resulted in translation of full-size EBNA3C but had no effect on cell morphology, contact inhibition, or serum independence. Images PMID:2831394

  7. Supersaturation, droplet spectra, and turbulent mixing in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, H.

    1990-01-01

    Much effort has recently gone into explaining the observed broad precoalescence size distribution of droplets in cloud and fogs, because this differs from the results of condensational growth calculations which lead to much narrower distributions. A good example of droplet size-distribution broadening was observed on flight 17 (25 July) of the NRL tethered balloon during the 1987 FIRE San Nicolas Island IFO. These observations caused the interactions between cloud microphysics and turbulent mixing to be re-examined. The findings of Broadwell and Breidenthal (1982) who conducted laboratory and theoretical studies of mixing in shear flow, and those of Baker et al. (1984) who applied the earlier work to mixing in clouds, were used. Rather than looking at the 25 July case at SNI, earlier fog observations made at SUNY (6 Oct. 1982) which also indicated that shear-induced mixing was taking place, and which had a better collection of microphysical measurements including more precise supersaturation measurements and detailed vertical profiles of meteorological parameters were chosen instead.

  8. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R.; Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D{sub p} {ge} 2 {mu}m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  9. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. ); Hildemann, L.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mazurek, M.A. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. Environmental Geochemistry Group)

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D[sub p] [ge] 2 [mu]m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  10. [Rural women. Public health workshop of the Centro de Investigaciones en Psicologia Social].

    PubMed

    Juarez Bartola, M; Garcia Ventura, H; De Jesus Leon, M J

    1993-04-01

    Mexico's peasant sector is undergoing great change as a result of the insertion of capitalist relations into areas that were previously remote. The traditional peasant subsistence economy has been displaced, and peasants have been forced to adopt a series of new strategies for survival, entailing proletarianization or selling of labor. Women in the community of San Nicolas Zoyapetlayoca, in the municipio of Tepeaca, have lived in a situation of poverty and precariousness for some time. Most of the population historically depended on the neighboring haciendas for their livelihood. Women and children also worked there, mistreated and without social protection. The lands that were distributed after the Revolution are insufficient to support the community, and most families must look elsewhere for employment. Incomes are insufficient to cover all the necessities of education, health, nutrition, and other aspects of life. Most women are educated no farther than the primary level. They spend most of their time preparing food, carrying water, washing clothes, caring for their children, and in other domestic chores. Some women work for wages as laborers, factory workers, or domestics. Rural women are disadvantaged by poor working conditions, insufficient education, low levels of health and nutrition, limited participation in social and political life, poor housing and lack of services, and frequently by their own attitudes of traditionalism or fatalism. PMID:12346307

  11. Optimization strategies for fast detection of positive selection on phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Mario; Schabauer, Hannes; Pacher, Christoph; Stockinger, Heinz; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Salamin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The detection of positive selection is widely used to study gene and genome evolution, but its application remains limited by the high computational cost of existing implementations. We present a series of computational optimizations for more efficient estimation of the likelihood function on large-scale phylogenetic problems. We illustrate our approach using the branch-site model of codon evolution. Results: We introduce novel optimization techniques that substantially outperform both CodeML from the PAML package and our previously optimized sequential version SlimCodeML. These techniques can also be applied to other likelihood-based phylogeny software. Our implementation scales well for large numbers of codons and/or species. It can therefore analyse substantially larger datasets than CodeML. We evaluated FastCodeML on different platforms and measured average sequential speedups of FastCodeML (single-threaded) versus CodeML of up to 5.8, average speedups of FastCodeML (multi-threaded) versus CodeML on a single node (shared memory) of up to 36.9 for 12 CPU cores, and average speedups of the distributed FastCodeML versus CodeML of up to 170.9 on eight nodes (96 CPU cores in total). Availability and implementation: ftp://ftp.vital-it.ch/tools/FastCodeML/. Contact: selectome@unil.ch or nicolas.salamin@unil.ch PMID:24389654

  12. Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, P M; Witte, C; Clifford, D L; Imai, D M; O'Brien, T D; Trejo, M; Liberta, F; Annamalai, K; Fändrich, M; Masliah, E; Munson, L; Sigurdson, C J

    2016-05-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34%) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n= 78 of 80] vs 56% [n= 45], respectively;P< .0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n= 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n= 7];P= .01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P= .05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9;P= .05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8;P< .0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3;P= .0003), captivity (OR = 5.1;P= .0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3;P= .01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis. PMID:26419399

  13. The Important Role of the Two French Astronomers J.-N. Delisle and J.-J. Lalande in the Choice of Observing Places during the Transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Simone; Gros, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, as a member of the Academie Royale des Sciences of Paris and professor at the College Royal de France, went to England in 1724 to visit Newton and Halley. The latter suggested observations of the transits of Mercury and of Venus in order to obtain the solar parallax. Delisle was also interested in the Mercury transits. After a stay of 22 years in Saint Petersburg, on his return to Paris, he distributed avertissements (information bulletins) encouraging all astronomers to observe the same phenomena, like the solar eclipse of 1748. Later, in 1760, Delisle presented an Adresse to the King and to the Academie in which he detailed his method to observe the 1761 transit of Venus. This was accompanied by a mappemonde showing the best places for observations. Copies of the text, together with 200 maps, were sent to his numerous correspondents in France and abroad. Following the advanced age and finally death of Delisle, his assistant and successor Joseph-Jerome Lalande presented a memoire related to the 1769 transit of Venus and an improved map of the best observing places. We detail the role of Delisle and Lalande in the preparation of the international collaboration related to these two transits.

  14. Impact of an atmospheric argon plasma jet on a dielectric surface and desorption of organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damany, Xavier; Pasquiers, Stéphane; Blin-Simiand, Nicole; Bauville, Gérard; Bournonville, Blandine; Fleury, Michel; Jeanney, Pascal; Santos Sousa, João

    2016-08-01

    The propagation of a DC-pulsed argon plasma jet through the surrounding ambient air, and its interaction with an ungrounded glass plate placed on the jet trajectory, was studied by means of fast imaging. The surface plays an important role in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the plasma. Indeed, for an argon jet propagating perpendicularly to the surface, the plasma jet structure changes from filamentary to diffuse when the distance between the nozzle of the capillary tube and the surface is short (≤10 mm). Changing the angle between the capillary tube and the glass plate, and varying the gas flow rate strongly affects the spatial extension of the plasma that develops on the surface. This surface plasma propagates while the plasma in the argon jet is maintained with the same luminous intensity. Finally, this plasma jet shows interesting characteristics for desorption of low volatile organic molecules such as bibenzyl. A maximum removal of bibenzyl is located at the intersection area between the jet axis and the glass surface, and some of the initially deposited molecules are found intact in gas phase. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  15. Density-functional theory: time to move up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Materials' simulations based on density-functional theory (DFT) have become an extremely powerful and widely used tool for scientific discovery and technological advancement. Still, in the current approximations, they remain an imperfect tool for predicting materials' properties, with open and urgent challenges in the quest towards qualitative and quantitative accuracy. Several of these challenges stem from the remnants of self-interaction in the electronic-structure framework, leading to qualitative failures in describing some of the fundamental processes involved e.g. in energy applications - from charge-transfer excitations to photoemission spectra to the structure and reactivity of transition-metal complexes. I'll discuss these challenges in realistic case studies, and present a brief overview of some of our suggestions for possible solutions - including constrained DFT, DFT + onsite and intersite Hubbard terms, and Koopmans' compliant energy functionals. In particular, I'll highlight how Koopmans' compliant functionals point to a beyond-DFT formulation where both total energies and spectroscopic properties can be accounted for. Such framework will be illustrated with applications to real systems and with simplified models that can be solved exactly. Work done in collaboration with Patrick H-L Sit, Heather Kulik, Damian Scherlis, Matteo Cococcioni, Ismaila Dabo, Andrea Ferretti, Nicolas Poilvert, Cheol-Hwan Park, Giovanni Borghi, and Linh Nguyen.

  16. Carbon dioxide conversion by means of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Klink, Rouven; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2016-08-01

    To face the worldwide problem of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission new techniques have to be developed. One approach for carbon capture utilization (CCU) is the conversion of CO2 to more valuable chemicals, e.g., carbon monoxide (CO) by means of non-thermal plasma generated at ambient conditions and supplied by excess energy from renewable sources. This paper reports about the effect of the admixture of inert gases, namely nitrogen or argon to CO2 in a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Systematic experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied voltage, frequency, flowrate and CO2 concentration in the influent. The composition of products, energy efficiency and yield were determined. Within the investigated parameter ranges, the maximum conversion of CO2 to CO efficiency of 1% was achieved when the specific input energy was 190 J L-1, whereas the maximum CO yield of 0.7% was achieved when the specific input energy was 210 J L-1. In conclusion, the energy efficiency can be significantly increased by operating the plasma in a diluted CO2 gas. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  17. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  18. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  19. [A XVIth century journeyman apothecar in Montpellier: Jean Magnol (1562-1632)].

    PubMed

    Charlot, Colette

    2006-11-01

    J. Magnol came from Ardèche to Montpellier to learn how to be apothecary grocer. He is characteristics of the transition between the Middle-Ages statutes and Renaissance ones (1572/1598) in a city famous for its school of medicine. For thirteen (13) years he worked as a journeyman apothecary was like a drysalter grocer. But the 1572 statutes due to king Henry IV (the fourth), having force of law, changed the trade into an art, as highly regarded as the legal profession. Long before the 1777 nationwide statutes due to king Louis XIV (the fourteenth). To become a master, Magnol had to give four masterpieces, the formulas of which can be found in the new pharmacopoeia written by the medicine chancellor: "the pharmacopoea Monspeliensis" an alternative to the ancient one by Nicolas de Salerne. The pratical experiments were carried out by those famous apothecary masters who made up the 1572 statutes. Jean Magnol is Pierre Magnol's ancestor (1638-1715), the famous botanist whom Carl Linné dedicated the magnolia genus to. PMID:17526144

  20. [Trehala, a meeting point between zoology, botany, chemistry, and biochemistry].

    PubMed

    Tillequin, François

    2009-07-01

    Trehala is a crude drug consisting of the pupal chambers formed by insects belonging to the genus Larinus that live on several Echinops species of the Middle-East. This sweet cocoon is locally used as human food and also for the treatment of cough and various pulmonary diseases. It first appeared in Western Europe in the collection of drugs from the Ottoman Empire displayed by François Della Sudda during the International Exhibition held in Paris in 1855. On the basis of this sample Nicolas Guibourt (1790-1867) gave, in 1858, the first full scientific description of the drug, its origin, and Larinus nidificans as the main insect species responsible for its formation. Marcellin Berthelot (1827-1907) isolated in the same year the sugar trehalose from the drug and gave a full account of its physical and chemical properties. In 1876, Müntz established that trehalose was identical with mycose isolated from Claviceps purpurea by Mitscherlich. PMID:20027793

  1. The Tortoise Transformation as a Prospect for Life Extension.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-12-01

    The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could persist in some measure, but he thinks little is to be gained from the transformation because the experiences available to tortoises pale in comparison to those available to human beings. Moreover, he thinks persisting human consciousness and values would degrade over time, being remade by tortoise needs and environment. The value available in the transformation would not, then, make the additional years of life desirable. Agar's account does not, however, dispose of the tortoise transformation as a defensible preference. Some people might still want this kind of transformation for symbolic reasons, but it would probably be better that no human consciousness persist, since that consciousness would be inexpressible as such. Even so, it is not irrational to prefer various kinds of lifespan extension even if they involve significant modifications to human consciousness and values. PMID:26133891

  2. Resolution of fine biological structure including small narcomedusae across a front in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Cowen, Robert; Nieto, Karen; Greer, Adam; Luo, Jessica Y.; Guigand, Cedric; Demer, David; Griffith, David; Rudnick, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    We sampled a front detected by SST gradient, ocean color imagery, and a Spray glider south of San Nicolas Island in the Southern California Bight between 14 and 18 October 2010. We sampled the front with an unusually extensive array of instrumentation, including the Continuous Underway Fish Egg Sampler (CUFES), the undulating In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) (fitted with temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence sensors), multifrequency acoustics, a surface pelagic trawl, a bongo net, and a neuston net. We found higher fluorescence and greater cladoceran, decapod, and euphausiid densities in the front, indicating increased primary and secondary production. Mesopelagic fish were most abundant in oceanic waters to the west of the front, market squid were abundant in the front associated with higher krill and decapod densities, and jack mackerel were most common in the front and on the shoreward side of the front. Egg densities peaked to either side of the front, consistent with both offshore (for oceanic squid and mesopelagic fish) and shelf origins (for white croaker and California halibut). We discovered unusually high concentrations of predatory narcomedusae in the surface layer of the frontal zone. Potential ichthyoplankton predators were more abundant either in the front (decapods, euphausiids, and squid) or shoreward of the front (medusae, chaetognaths, and jack mackerel). For pelagic fish like sardine, which can thrive in less productive waters, the safest place to spawn would be offshore because there are fewer potential predators.

  3. SuperB Simulation Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  4. On the fundamental relation of laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature measurements in filamentary plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Jan; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Foest, Rüdiger

    2015-07-01

    Recently, laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD) had been successfully employed as a temperature measurement method to reveal the heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric plasma jet. Based on the theory of the temperature measurements using LSD, in this work, three approaches for an application of the method are introduced: (i) a hyperbolic-like model of refractive index is applied which allows an analytical theory for the evaluation of the deflection angle to be developed, (ii) a Gaussian shape model for the filament temperature is implemented which is analyzed numerically and (iii) an experimental calibration of the laser deflection with a gas mixture of helium and argon is performed. Thus, these approaches demonstrate that a universal relation between the relative maximum temperature of the filament core (T1/T0) and a the maximum deflection angle δ1 of the laser beam can be written as T1/T0=(1 - δ1/δ0)-1, where δ0 is a parameter that is defined by the configuration of the experiment and by the assumed model for the shape of the temperature profile. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  5. Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Benson, Janie; Singh, Susheela; Romero, Mariana; Ganatra, Bela; Okonofua, Friday E; Shah, Iqbal H

    2006-11-25

    Ending the silent pandemic of unsafe abortion is an urgent public-health and human-rights imperative. As with other more visible global-health issues, this scourge threatens women throughout the developing world. Every year, about 19-20 million abortions are done by individuals without the requisite skills, or in environments below minimum medical standards, or both. Nearly all unsafe abortions (97%) are in developing countries. An estimated 68 000 women die as a result, and millions more have complications, many permanent. Important causes of death include haemorrhage, infection, and poisoning. Legalisation of abortion on request is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health; in some countries, such as India, where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barriers. Access to safe abortion improves women's health, and vice versa, as documented in Romania during the regime of President Nicolae Ceausescu. The availability of modern contraception can reduce but never eliminate the need for abortion. Direct costs of treating abortion complications burden impoverished health care systems, and indirect costs also drain struggling economies. The development of manual vacuum aspiration to empty the uterus, and the use of misoprostol, an oxytocic agent, have improved the care of women. Access to safe, legal abortion is a fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live. The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women. PMID:17126724

  6. Forces driven by morphogenesis modulate Twist Expression to determine Anterior Mid-gut Differentiation in Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farge, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    By combining magnetic tweezers to in vivo laser ablation, we locally manipulate Drosophila embryonic tissues with physiologically relevant forces. We demonstrate that high level of Twist expression in the stomodeal primordium is mechanically induced in response to compression by the 60±20 nN force developed during germ-band extension (GBE). We find that this force triggers the junctional release and nuclear translocation of Armadillo involved in Twist mechanical induction in the stomodeum in a Src42A dependent way. Finally, stomodeal-specific RNAi-mediated silencing of Twist during compression impairs the differentiation of midgut cells, as revealed by strong defects in Dve expression and abnormal larval lethality. Thus, mechanical induction of Twist overexpression in stomodeal cells is necessary for subsequent midgut differentiation. In collaboration with Nicolas Desprat, Willy Supatto, and Philippe-Alexandre Pouille, MGDET, UMR168 CNRS, Institut Curie11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005, Paris, France; and Emmanuel Beaurepaire, LOB, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS and INSERM U 696, 91128 Palaiseau, France.

  7. Dietary niche expansion of a kelp forest predator recovering from intense commercial exploitation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Newsome, Seth D; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly at risk from overexploitation and fisheries collapse. As managers implement recovery plans, shifts in species interactions may occur broadly with potential consequences for ecosystem structure and function. In kelp forests off San Nicolas Island, California, USA, we describe striking changes in size structure and life history traits (e.g., size at maturation and sex change) of a heavily fished, ecologically important predator, the California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher). These changes occurred in two phases: (1) after intense commercial fishery exploitation in the late 1990s and (2) following recovery in the late 2000s, nearly a decade after management intervention. Using gut contents and stable-isotope values of sheephead and their prey, we found evidence for a dietary niche expansion upon recovery of population size structure to include increased consumption of sea urchins and other mobile invertebrate grazers by larger sized fish. By examining historical diet data and a time series of benthic community composition, we conclude that changes in dietary niche breadth are more likely due to the recovery of size structure from fishing than major shifts in prey availability. Size-dependent predator-prey interactions may have ecosystem consequences and management measures that preserve or restore size structure, and therefore historical trophic roles of key predators, could be vital for maintaining kelp forest ecosystem health. PMID:24649656

  8. Oxidative methane conversion in dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Młotek, Michał; Ulejczyk, Bogdan; Pryciak, Krzysztof; Schmidt-Szałowski, Krzysztof

    2013-02-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge was used for the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) with oxygen at the pressure of 1.2 bar. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was powered at the frequency of about 6 kHz. Molar ratio CH4/O2 in the inlet gas containing 50% or 25% of argon was 3, 6 and 12. The effects of temperature (110, 150 and 340 ◦C), gas flow rate, molar ratio of methane to oxygen on the overall methane and oxygen conversion and methane conversion to methanol, ethanol, hydrocarbons, carbon oxides and water were studied. In the studied system the increase of the temperature decreases the conversion of methane to methanol. The increase of the molar ratio of methane to oxygen increased the methane conversion to hydrocarbons and strongly decreased the methane conversion to alcohols. The conversion of methane to hydrocarbons increased and the conversion of methane to methanol decreased with the decrease of the gas flow rate from 2 to 1 NL/h. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  9. Density-based hierarchical clustering of pyro-sequences on a large scale—the case of fungal ITS1

    PubMed Central

    Pagni, Marco; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Pellissier, Loïc; Dubuis, Anne; Xenarios, Ioannis; Guisan, Antoine; Sanders, Ian R.; Goudet, Jérôme; Guex, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of millions of pyro-sequences is currently playing a crucial role in the advance of environmental microbiology. Taxonomy-independent, i.e. unsupervised, clustering of these sequences is essential for the definition of Operational Taxonomic Units. For this application, reproducibility and robustness should be the most sought after qualities, but have thus far largely been overlooked. Results: More than 1 million hyper-variable internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences of fungal origin have been analyzed. The ITS1 sequences were first properly extracted from 454 reads using generalized profiles. Then, otupipe, cd-hit-454, ESPRIT-Tree and DBC454, a new algorithm presented here, were used to analyze the sequences. A numerical assay was developed to measure the reproducibility and robustness of these algorithms. DBC454 was the most robust, closely followed by ESPRIT-Tree. DBC454 features density-based hierarchical clustering, which complements the other methods by providing insights into the structure of the data. Availability: An executable is freely available for non-commercial users at ftp://ftp.vital-it.ch/tools/dbc454. It is designed to run under MPI on a cluster of 64-bit Linux machines running Red Hat 4.x, or on a multi-core OSX system. Contact: dbc454@vital-it.ch or nicolas.guex@isb-sib.ch PMID:23539304

  10. A tomographic visualization of electric discharge sound fields in atmospheric pressure plasma using laser diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Tsuda, Ryoichi; Sonoda, Yoshito; Danuta Stryczewska, Henryka

    2013-02-01

    The phase modulation of transparent gas can be detected using Fraunhofer diffraction technique, which we call optical wave microphone (OWM). The OWM is suitable for the detection of sonic wave from audible sound to ultrasonic wave. Because this technique has no influence on sound field or electric field during the measurement, we have applied it to the sound detection for the electric discharges. There is almost no research paper that uses the discharge sound to examine the electrical discharge phenomenon. Two-dimensional visualization of the sound field using the OWM is also possible when the computerized tomography (CT) is combined. In this work, coplanar dielectric barrier discharge sin different gases of Ar, N2, He were characterized via the OWM as well as applied voltage and discharge current. This is the first report to investigate the influence of the type of the atmospheric gas on the two-dimensional sound field distribution for the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge using the OWM with CT. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  11. Aspects of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Wigner, E. P.

    2010-03-01

    Preface; List of contributors; Bibliography of P. A. M. Dirac; 1. Dirac in Cambridge R. J. Eden and J. C. Polkinghorne; 2. Travels with Dirac in the Rockies J. H. Van Vleck; 3. 'The golden age of theoretical physics': P. A. M. Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933 Jagdish Mehra; 4. Foundation of quantum field theory Res Jost; 5. The early history of the theory of electron: 1897-1947 A. Pais; 6. The Dirac equation A. S. Wightman; 7. Fermi-Dirac statistics Rudolph Peierls; 8. Indefinite metric in state space W. Heisenberg; 9. On bras and kets J. M. Jauch; 10. The Poisson bracket C. Lanczos; 11. La 'fonction' et les noyaux L. Schwartz; 12. On the Dirac magnetic poles Edoardo Amadli and Nicola Cabibbo; 13. The fundamental constants and their time variation Freeman J. Dyson; 14. On the time-energy uncertainty relation Eugene P. Wigner; 15. The path-integral quantisation of gravity Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee; Index; Plates.

  12. [Vauquelin: route from a thatched cottage to Institute of France].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-07-01

    Nicolas Louis Vauquelin was born in a little thatched cottage in Saint-André-d'Hébertot, in Normandy, on May 16th 1763. He went to Rouen and then to Paris where he met Antoine de Fourcroy and became his co-worker and his friend. They published together sixty articles, and he published alone a hundred and twenty articles. He became a pharmacist in 1787. He occupied simultaneously or not many important University positions. He was Associate Professor at École polytechnique, Professor at École des mines, Professor at Collège de France, Director of School of Pharmacy, Professor at Museum d'histoire naturelle, Professor at Faculty of Medicine. He became Empire Knight, Member of Institute of France, Member and President of Academy of Medicine, Member and President of Society of Pharmacy. He discovered and isolated chrome and discovered beryllium. He was a very efficient professor and many of his students were well-known scientists. He died on November 14th 1829. PMID:24997883

  13. Transits of Venus, 1761 and 1769.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Transits of Venus of 1761 and 1769 were widely anticipated, due to the efforts of Edmond Halley and Joseph-Nicolas Delisle in promoting observations to determine solar parallax. Extensive planning resulted in widespread participation; with at least 110 different observing stations stations worldwide for one or both of the events. Results from the 1761 expeditions derived solar parallax measurements between 8.28 and 10.60 arc seconds. The 1769 results were much better, 8.43 to 8.80 arc seconds, as compared with the accurate value of 8.79 arc seconds. This presentation will note the efforts of Halley, Delisle, and James Ferguson in promoting scientific observation of the transit. The poster will include the observations of Thorbern Bergman at Uppsala, Sweden; Samuel Dunn at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich; Charles Green at King George's Island; Samuel Horsley at Oxford; and William Smith at Norriton. These observers are distinguished from their contemporaries by the interesting graphic aids they used to present their studies.

  14. Decontamination of Streptococci biofilms and Bacillus cereus spores on plastic surfaces with DC and pulsed corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'ová, Zuzana; Tarabová, Kataŕna; Hensel, Karol; Machala, Zdenko

    2013-02-01

    Cold air plasmas of DC and pulsed corona discharges: positive streamers and negative Trichel pulses were used for bio-decontamination of Streptococci biofilm and Bacillus cereus spores on polypropylene plastic surfaces. The reduction of bacterial population (evaluated as log10) in the biofilm on plastic surfaces treated by DC corona reached 2.4 logs with 10 min treatment time and 3.3 logs with 2 min treatment time with water spraying. The enhancement of plasma biocidal effects on the biofilm by electro-spraying of water through a hollow needle high-voltage electrode was investigated. No significant polarity effect was found with DC corona. Pulsed corona was demonstrated slightly more bactericidal for spores, especially in the negative polarity where the bacterial population reduction reached up to 2.2 logs at 10 min exposure time. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  15. Antibacterial activity of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) extracts against phytopathogenic bacteria Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Meziani, Saïda; Oomah, B Dave; Zaidi, Farid; Simon-Levert, Annabel; Bertrand, Cédric; Zaidi-Yahiaoui, Rachida

    2015-01-01

    Acetone and ethanol extracts of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) leaf and pods were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory ability against the pectinolytic Gram negative Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca, CFBP-5384) bacteria, the causal agent of potato soft rot. Potato (Solanum tuberosum, var nicola) tuber rot tissues obtained after 5 day bacterial inoculation was analyzed by LC-MS and GC-MS to study Pca pathogenicity. Trans/cis N-feruloylputrescine was identified in potato tuber after 5-day inoculation with Pca in a dark moist chamber. Although glycoalkoloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) production increased due to Pca soft rot infection, it was not a resistance-determining factor. Many secondary metabolites were identified including the phytoalexins solavetivone and fatty acids responsible for plant defence responses. Acetone extract of carob leaf (FCA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect (IC50 = 1.5 mg/ml) and displayed synergistic antimicrobial effect in the presence of infected potato tuber extract (Pdt-Pca extract) against Pca. This synergy could be used in an integrated control program against potato soft rot pathogens, thereby reducing chemical treatments. PMID:25489722

  16. The economics of well-being.

    PubMed

    Fox, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Gross domestic product has long been the chief measure of national success. But there's been a lot of talk lately about changing that, from economists and world leaders alike. GDP is under siege for three main reasons. First, it is flawed even on its own terms: It misses lots of economic activity (unpaid household work, for example) and, as a single-number representation of vast, complex systems, is inevitably skewed. Second, it fails to account for economic and environmental sustainability. And third, readily available alternative measures may reflect well-being far better, by taking into account factors such as educational achievement, health, and life expectancy. HBR's Justin Fox surveys historical and current views on how to assess national progress, from Jeremy Bentham to Robert Kennedy to Nicolas Sarkozy. He also looks at where we may be headed. The biggest success so far in the campaign to supplant or at least supplement GDP, he finds, is the UN's Human Development Index-on which the United States has never claimed the top spot. PMID:22299505

  17. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  18. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in nitrogen-methane gas mixture: PTR-MS analyzes of the exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torokova, Lucie; Mazankova, Vera; Krcma, Frantisek; Mason, Nigel J.; Matejcik, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive study of with the in situ mass spectrometry analysis of gaseous phase species produced by an atmospheric plasma glow discharge in N2-CH4 gas mixtures (with methane concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%). The products are studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). HCN and CH3CN are identified as the main gaseous products. Hydrazine, methanimine, methyldiazene, ethylamine, cyclohexadiene, pyrazineacetylene, ethylene, propyne and propene are identified as minor compounds. All the detected compounds and their relative abundances are determined with respect to the experimental conditions (gas composition and applied power). The same molecules were observed by the Cassini-Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (which has same N2-CH4 gas mixtures). Such, experiments show that the formation of such complex organics in atmospheres containing C, N and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  19. La Caille's Expedition to the Cape of Good Hope 1751--3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    Nicolas-Louis de La Caille (1713--1762) of the Collège Mazarin in Paris was one of the greatest observational astronomers of the eighteenth century. In 1751 he persuaded the Royal Academy of Sciences to send him to the Cape of Good Hope to make a survey of the southern sky, the first systematic sky survey ever undertaken. At the Cape he worked every night for a year, observing swathes of the sky 3° wide in declination, timing the transits and interpolating the declinations of about 10,000 stars. He measured the distances of Mars and Venus (at their times of closest approach) by observing them simultaneously with European observers. He also determined the orbit of the Earth by observing the apparent orbit of the Sun, found the latitude and longitude of the Cape and generated new tables of atmospheric refraction. Additionally, he made a note of every extended object that he saw, more than doubling the number known. The existing constellations of the southern sky he found to be poorly defined. He named fourteen new ones after the scientific instruments of the time. An exceptional new name was Mons Mensa, or Table Mountain.

  20. Calculation of atmospheric transmittance by IBM 3033 computer code LOWTRAN IIIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, M. S.

    1983-06-01

    LOWTRAN IIIB is a FORTRAN computer program for prediction of atmospheric optical transmittance, developed at the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). The LOWTRAN IIIB was received in the modified form developed by naval weapons center China Lake for use on the UNIVAC 1110 computer, and has now been interfaced to the IBM 3033 computer. Due to complier storage limitation in the IBM computer, the atmospheric data are read into common storage at the beginning of the program. The two dimensional block data submodule has been replaced with a linear data array, and a new subroutine (array) written to reformat the data. The basic logic structure is unchanged. Comparisons of NPS LOWTRAN IIIB computations with direct optical extinctions measurement over Monterey Bay and at San Nicolas Island indicate that under these circumstances LOWTRAN IIIB underestimates the extinction due to aerosols while the computed molecular absorption is in substantial agreement with experiment. LOWTRAN IIIB is presently available as a method of predicting atmospheric transmittance at low resolutions at NPS and is suitable for incorporation in simulations and studies of electrooptic weapon/sensor systems performance.

  1. Supernova Confetti in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2010-11-01

    Chromium has four isotopes, with atomic weights of 50, 52, 53, and 54. In terrestrial rocks the isotopes behave in predictable ways, with their variations in relative abundance governed by geochemical processes. In contrast, some meteorites have deviant abundances of the heaviest (hence the one with the most neutrons) Cr isotope, chromium-54. These anomalies in isotopic composition are almost certainly caused by nuclear reactions in stars that existed before our Sun was formed. However, the mineralogical carrier of the special chromium-54 was not known until Nicolas Dauphas (University of Chicago) and eight colleagues there and at the California Institute of Technology, the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Universite de Lille (France) made detailed analyses of chemical and physical separates from the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the carrier of the isotopically-anomalous Cr is spinel, Cr-bearing oxide grains generally smaller than 100 nanometers. Only supernovae can produce the chromium-54 anomalies, although which specific type of supernova is not clear. An intriguing possibility is that the chromium-54-rich nano-oxide particles were produced in the same supernova that made two other short-lived isotopes, iron-60 and aluminum-26, which also existed in the Solar System when it formed. This suggests that formation of the Solar System was triggered by a supernova explosion.

  2. Espanto: a dialogue with the gods.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, M

    1979-12-01

    Espanto or susto has been analysed from various points of view in the last fifteen years. From a survey covering 109 case analyses collected in Nicolas Ruiz (Chiapas, Mexico), we reached the conclusion that this folk illness cannot be conceived of as a syndrome in the medical sense. A semiological analysis showed that espanto can be better described as an indigenous theory whose function is to relate illness events to other levels of reality. According to indigenous belief, the Holy Earth and the chtonian spirits of the underworld play an important role in the origin of the illness. This origin is associated with an opening of the earth as is illustrated in the earthquakes or the volcanic eruptions forming the prototype of a fright experience leading to espanto; or, it is attributed to agents who inhabit locations where the earth presents a fissure (river, ravine, cave). It is through these holes that the Holy Earth exerts her power. Concomitantly, the body of the victim is believed to open itself to the influences of the bad winds of espanto. Trembling is another aspect of the phenomenon which is observed at numerous levels: first, during the fright experience; second, when the victim falls ill (chills jumping in bed); and third, when the curandera takes the pulse of the patient to see if the blood is afraid. These multiple analogies lead to the assumption that there is a meaning shared by these separate manifestations. PMID:535409

  3. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  4. Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2010-05-01

    In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230

  5. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  6. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    studies, confirmed the presence of more extensive aureoles than shown in published geologic maps; few misclassified areas were noted. Additional plowed fields consisting of exposed contact metamorphic soil were mapped digitally in an August 1985 TM scene. Subsequently, this approach was used to map two 1-km-wide linear zones of contact metamorphosed rock and oil in the San Nicolas-Sn-W Mine area, which is located approximated 125 km southeast of the Caceras study area. Exposures of granite in the San Nicolas area are limited to a few unaltered granitic dikes in the mine and a small exposure of unaltered pegmatite-bearing granite in a quarry about 1.5 km west of the mine. The present of coarsely crystalline biotite and beryl in the granite in the quarry and of contact metamorphosed slate up to 2.5 km from the nearest granite exposure suggest that only the apical part of a pluton is exposed in the quarry and that a larger, shallowly buried body is probably present. These results indicate that potential application of TM image analysis to mineral exploration in lithologically similar areas that are cultivated in spite of poor rock exposures.

  7. Can CMB Experiments Find Planet Nine?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have identified signs of an unseen, distant ninth planet in our solar system. How might we find the elusive Planet Nine? A team of scientists suggests the key might be cosmology experiments.AHypothetical PlanetOrbits of six distant Kuiper-belt objects. Their clustered perihelia and orbital orientations suggest they may have been shepherded by a massive object, hypothesized to be Planet Nine. [Caltech/Robert Hurt]Early this year, a study was published that demonstrated that the clustered orbits of distant Kuiper belt objects (and several other features of our solar system) can be explained by the gravitational tug of a yet-undiscovered planet. This hypothetical Planet Nine is predicted to be a giant planet similar to Neptune or Uranus, with a mass of more than ~10 Earthmasses, currently orbiting ~700 AU away.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Nicolas Cowan (McGill University in Canada) has estimated the blackbody emission expected from Planet Nine. The team proposes how we might be able to search for this distant body using its heat signature.Heat from an Icy WorldCowan and collaborators first estimate Planet Nines effective temperature, based on the solar flux received at ~700 AU and assuming its internal heating is similar to Uranus or Neptune. They find that Planet Nines effective temperature would likely be an icy ~3050 K, corresponding to a blackbody peak at 50100 micrometers.Search space for Planet Nine. Based on its millimeter flux and annual parallax motion, several current and future cosmology experiments may be able to detect it. Experiments resolution ranges are shown with blue boxes. [Cowan et al. 2016]How can we detect an object withemission that peaks in this range? Intriguingly, cosmology experiments monitoring the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation are optimized for millimeter flux. At a wavelength of 1mm, Cowan and collaborators estimate that Planet Nine would have a very detectable flux level of ~30 mJy. The

  8. Diurnal variation in the turbulent structure of the cloudy marine boundary layer during FIRE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hignett, Phillip

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987 FIRE marine stratocumulus experiment the U.K. Meteorological Office operated a set of turbulence probes attached to the tether cable of a balloon based on San Nicolas Island. Typically six probes were used; each probe is fitted with Gill propeller anemometers, a platinum resistance thermometer and wet and dry thermistors, to permit measurements of the fluxes of momentum, heat, and humidity. The orientation of each probe is determined from a pair of inclinometers and a three-axis magnetometer. Sufficient information is available to allow the measured wind velocities to be corrected for the motion of the balloon. On the 14 to 15 July measurements were made over the period 1530 to 1200 UTC and again, after a short break for battery recharging and topping-up the balloon, between 0400 to 0900 UTC. Data were therefore recorded from morning to early evening, and again for a period overnight. Six probes were available for the daytime measurements, five for the night. Data were recorded at 4 Hz for individual periods of a little over an hour. The intention was to keep a minimum of one probe at or just above cloud top; small changes in balloon height were necessary to accommodate changes in inversion height. The ability of the balloon system to make simultaneous measurements at several levels allows the vertical structure of the boundary layer to be displayed without resort to composites. Turbulent statistics were calculated from 2 hour periods, one straddling local noon and one at night. These were subdivided into half-hour averaging intervals for the evaluation of variances and fluxes.

  9. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Funk, W Chris; Lovich, Robert E; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Hofman, Courtney A; Morrison, Scott A; Sillett, T Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rick, Torben C; Day, Mitch D; Polato, Nicholas R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Coonan, Timothy J; Crooks, Kevin R; Dillon, Adam; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Boser, Christina L; Gould, Nicholas; Andelt, William F

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland grey foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness and reduced adaptive potential. PMID:26992010

  10. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  11. Visions of our Planet's Atmosphere, Land and Oceans: NASA/NOAA Electronic-Theater 2002. Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spectacular Visualizations of our Blue Marble The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to the 2002 Winter Olympic Stadium Site of the Olympic Opening and Closing Ceremonies in Salt Lake City. Fly in and through Olympic Alpine Venues using 1 m IKONOS "Spy Satellite" data. Go back to the early weather satellite images from the 1960s and see them contrasted with the latest US and international global satellite weather movies including hurricanes & "tornadoes". See the latest visualizations of spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, Landsat 7 including new 1 - min GOES rapid scan image sequences of Nov 9th 2001 Midwest tornadic thunderstorms and have them explained. See how High-Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we communicate science. (In cooperation with the American Museum of Natural History in NYC). See dust storms in Africa and smoke plumes from fires in Mexico. See visualizations featured on the covers of Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science & on National & International Network TV. New computer software tools allow us to roam & zoom through massive global images e.g. Landsat tours of the US, and Africa, showing desert and mountain geology as well as seasonal changes in vegetation. See animations of the polar ice packs and the motion of gigantic Antarctic Icebergs from SeaWinds data. Spectacular new visualizations of the global atmosphere & oceans are shown. See vertexes and currents in the global oceans that bring up the nutrients to feed tiny algae and draw the fish, whales and fisherman. See the how the ocean blooms in response to these currents and El Nicola Nina climate changes. See the city lights, fishing fleets, gas flares and biomass burning of the Earth at night observed by the "night-vision" DMSP military satellite.

  12. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    PubMed

    Hargrove, James L

    2007-01-01

    The Calorie (kcal) of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet) defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1 degrees C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie) and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal). The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context. PMID:18086303

  13. Bradley and Lacaille: Praxis as Passionate Pursuit of Exact Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. A.

    1997-12-01

    From 1700 to 1800, astronomical observation and prediction improved in accuracy by an order of magnitude or more: by century's end astronomers could trust catalogued and predicted positions to within a few arcseconds. Crucial to this improvement were the discoveries of Bradley, which grew out of an endeavor of "normal science," the attempt to confirm with precision Robert Hooke's earlier supposed discovery of annual parallax in Gamma Draconis. On the theoretical side, Bradley's discoveries led to the quiet demise of two earlier doctrines, the Tychonic System and the Aristotelian and Cartesian doctrine of the instantaneous transmission of light. On the side of praxis, Bradley's discoveries meant that observational astronomy must be re-done from the ground up. In 1742 Nicolas-Louis Lacaille (1713-62), who had been admitted to the Paris Academie des Sciences only the year before, proposed to his astronomer colleagues that they take up this task as a cooperative enterprise. His proposal met with silence, but he undertook the project on his own, making it his life's work. By 1757 he had completed his Fundamenta Astronomiae, including a catalogue of 400 bright stars in which for the first time star positions were corrected for aberration and nutation. In 1758 he published his solar tables, the first to incorporate lunar and planetary perturbations as well as aberration and nutation. Lacaille's pendulum clock was not temperature-compensated, and his sextant poorly calibrated, but he was to some extent able to compensate for these flaws by bringing a massive number of observations to bear. Till the 1790s his Fundamenta Astronomiae and Tabulae Solares were important for the increments in accuracy they brought about, and for the inspiration they gave to later astronomers such as Delambre.

  14. Estimated accuracy of ground-based liquid water measurements during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    Since on goal of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) project is to improve our understanding of the relationships between cloud microphysics and cloud reflectivity, it is important that the accuracy of remote liquid measurements by microwave radiometry be thoroughly understood. The question is particularly relevant since the uncertainty in the absolute value of the radiometric liquid measurement is greatest at low liquid water contents (less than 0.1 mm). However it should be stressed that although uncertainty exists in the absolute value of liquid, it is well known that the observed radiometric signal is proportional to the amount of liquid in the antenna beam. As a result, changes in amounts of liquid are known to greater accuracy than the absolute value, which may contain a bias. Here, an assessment of the liquid measurement accuracy attained at San Nicolas Island (SNI) is presented. The vapor and liquid water data shown were computed from the radiometric brightness temperatures using statistical retrieval algorithms. The retrieval coefficients were derived from the 69 soundings made by Colorado State University during the SNI observations. Sources of error in the vapor and liquid measurements include cross-talk in the retrieval algorithms (not a factor at low liquid contents), uncertainties in the brightness temperature measurement, and uncertainties in the vapor and liquid attenuation coefficients. The relative importance of these errors is discussed. For the retrieval of path-integrated liquid water, the greatest uncertainty is caused by the temperature dependence of the absorption at microwave frequencies. As a result, the accuracy of statistical retrieval of liquid depends to large measure upon how representative the a priori radiosonde data are of the conditions prevailing during the measurements. The microwave radiometer measurements at SNI were supplemented by an infrared (IR) radiometer modified for measurement of cloud-base temperature. Thus

  15. An eight-month climatology of marine stratocumulus cloud fraction, albedo, and integrated liquid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Hare, J. E.; Snider, Jack B.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the FIRE/Extended Time Observations (ETO) program, extended time observations were made at San Nicolas Island (SNI) from March to October, 1987. Hourly averages of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, and downward longwave irradiance were recorded. The radiation sensors were standard Eppley pyranometers (shortwave) and pyrgeometers (longwave). The SNI data were processed in several ways to deduce properties of the stratocumulus covered marine boundary layer (MBL). For example, from the temperature and humidity the lifting condensation level, which is an estimate of the height of the cloud bottom, can be computed. A combination of longwave irradiance statistics can be used to estimate fractional cloud cover. An analysis technique used to estimate the integrated cloud liquid water content (W) and the cloud albedo from the measured solar irradiance is also described. In this approach, the cloud transmittance is computed by dividing the irradiance measured at some time by a clear sky value obtained at the same hour on a cloudless day. From the transmittance and the zenith angle, values of cloud albedo and W are computed using the radiative transfer parameterizations of Stephens (1978). These analysis algorithms were evaluated with 17 days of simultaneous and colocated mm-wave (20.6 and 31.65 GHz) radiometer measurements of W and lidar ceilometer measurements of cloud fraction and cloudbase height made during the FIRE IFO. The algorithms are then applied to the entire data set to produce a climatology of these cloud properties for the eight month period.

  16. Effects of non-local electron transport in one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations of shock-ignited inertial confinement fusion targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2014-01-01

    In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

  17. Developing Students' Reflections on the Function and Status of Mathematical Modeling in Different Scientific Practices: History as a Provider of Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjeldsen, Tinne Hoff; Blomhøj, Morten

    2013-09-01

    Mathematical models and mathematical modeling play different roles in the different areas and problems in which they are used. The function and status of mathematical modeling and models in the different areas depend on the scientific practice as well as the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the practitioners in the extra-mathematical domain. For students to experience the significance of different scientific practices and cultures for the function and status of mathematical modeling in other sciences, students need to be placed in didactical situations where such differences are exposed and made into explicit objects of their reflections. It can be difficult to create such situations in the teaching of contemporary science in which modeling is part of the culture. In this paper we show how history can serve as a means for students to be engaged in situations in which they can experience and be challenged to reflect upon and criticize, the use of modeling and the significance of the context for the function and status of modeling and models in scientific practices. We present Nicolas Rashevsky's model of cell division from the 1930s together with a discussion of disagreement between him and some biologists as one such episode from the past. We illustrate how a group of science students at Roskilde University, through their work with this historical case, experienced that different scientific cultures have different opinions of the value of a model as an instrument for gaining scientific knowledge; that the explanatory power of a model is linked not only to the context of its use, but also to the underlying philosophical and theoretical position held by the modeler(s) and the scientists discussing the model and its use. The episode's potential to challenge students to reflect upon and criticize the modeling process and the function of models in an extra mathematical domain is discussed with respect to the notions of

  18. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S S; Dulik, G M

    2011-01-03

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  19. Turbulence measurements using tethered balloon instrumentation during FIRE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hignett, Phillip

    1990-01-01

    As part of the surface-based observations conducted on San Nicolas Island, the U.K. Meteorological Office operated a set of turbulence probes attached to a balloon tether cable. Typically six probes were used, each capable of measuring momentum, heat, and humidity fluxes. Two probes were fitted with net radiometers, one positioned above cloud and the other below; a third probe carried a Lyman-alpha hygrometer fitted with a pre-heater for the measurement of total water content. Some preliminary results are presented from the 14th July describing the variation in structure of the cloudy boundary layer during the daytime. This day was characterized by a complete cloud cover, an inversion height of approximately 600 m. and north-westerly winds of approximately 6 m.s(-1). As an illustration the equivalent potential temperature derived from a profile ascent made between approximately 0830 and 0930 (PDT) is shown. The data has been smoothed to a height resolution of about 4 metres. At this time the cloud base was approximately 200 m. and very light drizzle was reaching the surface. The vertical velocity variance and potential temperature flux for two periods are shown; the first (shown by full lines) immediately follows the profile and the second (shown by dashed lines) is central around 1400 (PDT). The data have been normalized by their maximum values in the first period. Cloud base has now risen to approximately 300 m. There is a marked variation during the morning, particularly in sigma w. The net radiative flux above cloud top has by now reached its maximum value.

  20. Generation of ozone foam and its application for disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiragaki, Keisuke; Ishimaru, Tomiya; Nakanishi, Masaru; Muraki, Ryouji; Nieda, Masanori; Yamabe, Chobei

    2015-07-01

    Generated ozone foam was applied to the disinfection of Pseudomonas fluorescens. The effect of disinfection has been confirmed experimentally and new equipment for the disinfection of hands using this ozone foam has been put on the market for the practical use. The ozone foam was produced in the foam generator after mixing the water including surfactant (30 mL/min) and air including ozone (1000 ppm = 2.14 g/m3 ~ 1600 ppm = 3.4 g/m3, 300 mL/min). The liquid-to-gas ratio is 100 L/m3. The concentration of dissolved ozone in the thin liquid films of the bubbles was about 3 mg/L which was measured by the chemical method of the KI absorption and titration of sodium thiosulfate solution. The disinfection test samples were prepared using the PET disk on which Pseudomonas fluorescens of its number of more than 108 were attached. Test sample was inserted into ozone foam set on the glass plate for one to 6 min. The survival rate log (N/N0 decreased with time and its value of about-2.6 (i.e., ~1/400) was obtained at 6 min (2 min × 3 times repeated). It was also confirmed that the ozone foam was useful for the disinfection of hands. For more effective disinfection (in case of taking a long time for foam melting), the ozone foam was broken by force and changed into ozone water by which the survival rate decreased ×4 (i.e., N/N0 = 1/10 000) at 4 ~ 6 min. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  1. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  2. Effects of non-local electron transport in one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations of shock-ignited inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

    2014-01-15

    In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

  3. CENTAURUS A: THE INSIDE STORY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers have used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to probe the core of the nearest active galaxy to Earth, Centaurus A. [UPPER LEFT] - A close-up high resolution Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the dramatic dust disk which is thought to be the remnant of a smaller spiral galaxy that merged with the large elliptical galaxy. The shock of the collision compressed interstellar gas, precipitating a flurry of star formation and giving the material a fleecy pattern. Dark filaments of dust mixed with cold hydrogen gas are silhouetted against the incandescent yellow-orange glow from stars behind it. [LOWER RIGHT] - Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer was used to peer past the dust to discover a tilted disk of hot gas at the galaxy's center (white bar running diagonally across image center). This 130 light-year diameter disk encircles a suspected black hole which may be one billion times the mass of our Sun. The disk feeds material to presumably an inner, unresolved accretion disk that is made up of gas entrapped by the black hole. The red blobs near the disk are glowing gas clouds which have been heated up and ionized by the powerful radiation from the active nucleus. The false-color NICMOS image was taken on Aug. 11, 1997 at a wavelength of 1.87 microns ('Paschen alpha'), characteristic of ionized Hydrogen. Centaurus A (NGC 5128) Fast Facts Right Ascension: 13 : 25.5 (hours : minutes) Declination: -43 : 01 (degrees : minutes) Apparent Magnitude: 7.0 Apparent Diameter: 18.2 (arc minutes) Distance: 10 million light-years Constellation: Centaurus (southern sky) Credit: E.J. Schreier, (STScI) and NASA Team members are: Ethan J. Schreier, Alessandro Marconi, David J. Axon, Nicola Caon, Duccio Macchetto ( STScI), Alessandro Capetti - (Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Italy), James H. Hough, Stuart Young ( University of Hertfordshire, UK), and Chris Packham (Isaac Newton Group, Islas Canarias, SPAIN)

  4. The small-voxel tracking algorithm for simulating chemical reactions among diffusing molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, Daniel T. Gillespie, Carol A.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni

    2014-12-21

    Simulating the evolution of a chemically reacting system using the bimolecular propensity function, as is done by the stochastic simulation algorithm and its reaction-diffusion extension, entails making statistically inspired guesses as to where the reactant molecules are at any given time. Those guesses will be physically justified if the system is dilute and well-mixed in the reactant molecules. Otherwise, an accurate simulation will require the extra effort and expense of keeping track of the positions of the reactant molecules as the system evolves. One molecule-tracking algorithm that pays careful attention to the physics of molecular diffusion is the enhanced Green's function reaction dynamics (eGFRD) of Takahashi, Tănase-Nicola, and ten Wolde [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 2473 (2010)]. We introduce here a molecule-tracking algorithm that has the same theoretical underpinnings and strategic aims as eGFRD, but a different implementation procedure. Called the small-voxel tracking algorithm (SVTA), it combines the well known voxel-hopping method for simulating molecular diffusion with a novel procedure for rectifying the unphysical predictions of the diffusion equation on the small spatiotemporal scale of molecular collisions. Indications are that the SVTA might be more computationally efficient than eGFRD for the problematic class of non-dilute systems. A widely applicable, user-friendly software implementation of the SVTA has yet to be developed, but we exhibit some simple examples which show that the algorithm is computationally feasible and gives plausible results.

  5. The small-voxel tracking algorithm for simulating chemical reactions among diffusing molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Daniel T.; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Gillespie, Carol A.

    2014-12-01

    Simulating the evolution of a chemically reacting system using the bimolecular propensity function, as is done by the stochastic simulation algorithm and its reaction-diffusion extension, entails making statistically inspired guesses as to where the reactant molecules are at any given time. Those guesses will be physically justified if the system is dilute and well-mixed in the reactant molecules. Otherwise, an accurate simulation will require the extra effort and expense of keeping track of the positions of the reactant molecules as the system evolves. One molecule-tracking algorithm that pays careful attention to the physics of molecular diffusion is the enhanced Green's function reaction dynamics (eGFRD) of Takahashi, Tănase-Nicola, and ten Wolde [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 2473 (2010)]. We introduce here a molecule-tracking algorithm that has the same theoretical underpinnings and strategic aims as eGFRD, but a different implementation procedure. Called the small-voxel tracking algorithm (SVTA), it combines the well known voxel-hopping method for simulating molecular diffusion with a novel procedure for rectifying the unphysical predictions of the diffusion equation on the small spatiotemporal scale of molecular collisions. Indications are that the SVTA might be more computationally efficient than eGFRD for the problematic class of non-dilute systems. A widely applicable, user-friendly software implementation of the SVTA has yet to be developed, but we exhibit some simple examples which show that the algorithm is computationally feasible and gives plausible results.

  6. [The process of metropolizing Monterrey: there must be a long-term plan].

    PubMed

    Garza, G

    1994-01-01

    Monterrey achieved metropolitan status in the 1950s, when it expanded toward the municipios of Guadalupe and San Nicolas de los Garza. 93.6% of the total metropolitan population at that time lived in the municipio of Monterrey. Between 1950 and 1960 metropolitan Monterrey grew at an annual rate of 6.7% and the population nearly doubled. In the 1960s three other municipios were added to the metropolitan area, for a total of seven, and the share of the population living in the municipio of Monterrey dropped to 68.3%. From 1970 to 1980, metropolitan Monterrey's annual growth rate declined to 4.6%, and only one municipio was added. The municipio of Monterrey had a growth rate of 2.2%, while the surrounding municipios had rates several times higher. The process of metropolitanization decelerated considerably between 1980 and 1990, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% for the metropolitan region, the lowest since 1910-21. The municipio of Monterrey had a negative growth of -0.2% in the 1980s. Industrialization was the main determinant of metropolitan growth in Monterrey. Industrial growth was most rapid between 1950 and 1970, when 10.4% of national industry was located in Monterrey. Monterrey was seriously affected by the economic crisis of the 1980s, suffering a decline of 1.1% annually and a reduction of its share of national industry to 8.8% by 1988. If the economic recuperation of 1988-92 continues, Monterrey is projected to increase by 75% in population and 60% in urban area in the next 20 years, implying the need for tremendous infrastructural construction. Longterm planning must be carried out to minimize the problems of growth and size in Monterrey and to assure an adequate economic foundation for the metropolis. PMID:12158065

  7. Dissociation against oxidation kinetics for the conversion of VOCs in non-thermal plasmas of atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquiers, Stéphane; Blin-Simiand, Nicole; Magne, Lionel

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (propene, propane, acetaldehyde, acetone) were studied in plasmas of atmospheric gases using a photo-triggered discharge (homogeneous plasma) or a dielectric barrier discharge (filamentary plasma). It was shown for the homogeneous plasma that quenchings of nitrogen metastable states, A3Ʃ+u and the group of singlets a' 1Ʃ-u, a 1Πg and w 1∆u, are important processes for the decomposition of such molecules. Recent measurements of the H2 concentration produced in the N2/C3H6 mixture emphasize that the hydrogen molecule can be an exit route for propene dissociation. It is also found that H2 and CO molecules are efficiently produced following the dissociation of CH3COCH3 and the subsequent chemical reactivity induced by radicals coming from acetone. Addition of oxygen to a N2/VOC mixture can change drastically the kinetics. However, the quenching processes of N2 metastables by the VOC are always present and compete with oxidation reactions for the conversion of the pollutant. At low temperature, oxidations by O or by OH are not always sufficiently effective to induce an increase of the molecule decomposition when oxygen is added to the mixture. In particular, the presence of O2 has a detrimental effect on the acetone removal. Also, as evidenced for acetaldehyde and propane, some kinetic analogies appear between filamentary and homogeneous plasmas. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  8. AIDS may be rising, but Romania won't admit it.

    PubMed

    Doder, D

    1994-07-18

    Pronatalist policy under Nicolae Ceausescu and the Orthodox Church have perpetuated a social climate in Romania in which family planning and contraceptive usage are taboo. Abortion is the most common method of birth control and condoms are expensive when available. The consistent and correct use of condoms has been demonstrated to largely prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases like AIDS. The prurient attitude toward sexuality and contraception in Romania, however, combined with ignorance about AIDS and its prevention is fueling an impending epidemic of HIV infection and disease in the country. The Ministry of Health under the control of Health Minister Iulian Minu, former dictator Ceausescu's personal physician and creator of the Communist diet claiming meat and other foods in short supply to be unhealthy, is doing nothing to control the spread of HIV and AIDS. Funding for AIDS research ended in 1992 when Minu was appointed in a new government of nonreformers. Some say that government inaction against AIDS and its refusal to acknowledge the existence of a growing problem in Romania stem from the desire based in national pride to avoid worldwide scrutiny like that of 1990 about AIDS babies in the country. Many children with AIDS remain in inhuman conditions, even chained to cots in villages in Transylvania. Vertical transmission of HIV has appeared for the first time and youths aged 13-14 years are now falling ill from HIV-related diseases. Charges have also been leveled that national blood banks are contaminated with HIV and the Health Ministry has misused World Health Organization funds. Although the government claims that 2547 children and 189 adults were registered as having AIDS in the four years ending March 1994, more people are definitely infected in the country, but no one knows for sure how many. PMID:12287705

  9. Mesh Generation for Short-Period Seismic Wave Propagation Based Upon the Spectral- Element Method: Southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casarotti, E.; Magnoni, F.; Le Goff, N.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.; Plesch, A.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Spectral Element Method (SEM) has been successfully applied to simulate ground motion in Southern California and the Los Angeles Basin for period up to 2 sec. Nowadays, simulations at shorter period are computationally feasible, but they require both a realistic geological model and a detailed unstructured hexahedral mesh. Aiming to include the effect on the seismic propagation due to subsurface geology, topography and low- velocity sedimentary basins, we have generated a 3D unstructured hexahedral mesh of Southern California suitable for shorter period simulations. The grid honors an updated description of the Salton Sea and of the sedimentary basins of Los Angeles, San Fernando and Ventura. We discuss some criteria to determine the geological details that need to be honored, analyzing 2D cross sections of the region for simulations at 10 Hz. We have focused in particular on a profile crossing the Santa Monica Mountains, investigating a possible lensing effect due to a large overthrust. The grid is nearly automatically generated on a massively parallel machine by GEOCUBIT, a Python script collection based upon CUBIT (Sandia Laboratory, www.cubit.sandia.gov). CUBIT is an advanced 3D unstructured hexahedral mesh generator that offers tremendous opportunities in assessing the quality of a mesh both in terms of geometrical complexity and numerical accuracy. For 3D simulations, we have applied SPECFEM3D, which accommodates anisotropy attenuation, free surface topography, fluid-solid boundaries and absorbing boundary conditions. For the 2D simulations we use SPECFEM2D, developed by Roland Martin, Dimitri Komatitsch, Céline Blitz and Nicolas Le Goff (2008).

  10. The Impact of SuperB on Flavor Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, B.; Blanke, M.; Stocchi, A.; Drutskoy, A.; Cervelli, A.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Perez, A.; Walsh, J.; Hurth, T.; Bevan, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Ciuchini, M.; Tarantino, C.

    2012-02-16

    This report provides a succinct summary of the physics programme of SuperB, and describes that potential in the context of experiments making measurements in flavour physics over the next 10 to 20 years. Detailed comparisons are made with Belle II and LHCb, the other B physics experiments that will run in this decade. SuperB will play a crucial role in defining the landscape of flavour physics over the next 20 years. SuperB is an approved high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider intended to search for indirect and some direct signs of new physics (NP) at low energy, while at the same time, enabling precision tests of the Standard Model (SM). This experiment will be built at a new laboratory on the Tor Vergata campus near Rome, Italy named after Nicola Cabibbo. The project has been described in a Conceptual Design Report, and more recently by a set of three white papers on the accelerator, detector, and physics programme. The main focus of the physics programme rests in the study of so-called Golden Modes, these are decay channels that provide access to measurements of theoretically clean observables that can provide both stringent constraints on models of NP, and precision tests of the SM. A number of ancillary measurements that remain important include those with observables that may not be theoretically clean, and those that can be used to provide stringent constraints on the SM but are not sensitive to NP. The remainder of this section introduces SuperB before discussing the golden modes for SuperB, precision CKM measurement modes, and an outline of the rest of this report.

  11. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Alba Paolo (Università di Torino) Becattini Francesco (Università di Firenze) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonaccorso Angela (INFN Pisa) Colonna Maria (INFN-LNS Catania) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) De Angelis Giacomo (INFN-LNL Legnaro) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Gattobigio Mario (INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, France) Gensini Paolo (INFN Lecce) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (Università del Salento) Giusti Carlotta (Università di Pavia) Greco Vincenzo (Università di Catania) Grossi Eduardo (Università di Firenze) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Lavagno Andrea (Politecnico di Torino) Logoteta Domenico (Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Lombardo Maria Paola (INFN-LNF Frascati) Lo Meo Sergio (ENEA Bologna) Mannarelli Massimo (INFN-LNGS Assergi) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pirrone Sara (INFN Catania) Puglisi Armando (Università di Catania) Radici Marco (INFN Pavia) Rinaldi Matteo (Università di Perugia) Roggero Alessandro (Università di Trento) Rolando Valentina (Università di Ferrara) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Ruggieri Marco (Università di Catania) Salmè Gianni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Scopetta Sergio (Università di Perugia) Taiuti Mauro (Università di Genova) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa) Vorabbi Matteo (Università di Pavia)

  12. Formations of negative ions in Sf6/N2 mixtures and their transport at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Yui; Sabo, Martin; Itoh, Haruo; Matejčík, Štefan

    2013-02-01

    Formation of negative ions initiated by interaction of thermal electrons and in the corona discharge (CD) in N2 with small admixture of SF6; was studied using the ion mobility spectrometry- orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS-oaTOF) at atmospheric pressure. The negative ions have been analyzed by the ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) and two-dimensional spectra (2D IMS-MS) have been recorded. We discuss the mechanisms of the negative ion formation in the N2/SF6 mixtures (0.003-0.018%) as well as the transport parameters of the ions in these mixtures. The values of the reduced ion mobilities of negative ions formed in these mixtures were determined (2.43 cm2/V s for HF2- (HF)n, 2.32 cm2/V s for NO3- (HF)n, 2.08 cm2/V s for SF5-, 2.01 cm2/V s for SOF5-, 2.00 for SOF4- 1.99 cm2/V s for SF6-, 1.83 cm2/V s for SOF5-(H2O)n and 1.73 for SOF5-(H2O)n(HF)m). The assignment of the ion mobility peaks was performed on the basis of the 2D IMS-MS spectra. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  13. Reading the Magnetic Patterns in Earth complex impact craters to detect similarities and cues from some Nectarian craters of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isac, Anca; Mandea, Mioara; Purucker, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Most of the terrestrial impact craters have been obliterated by other terrestrial geological processes. Some examples however remain. Among them, complex craters such as Chicxculub, Vredefort, or the outsider Bangui structure (proposed but still unconfirmed as a result of an early Precambrian large impact) exert in the total magnetic field anomaly global map (WDMAM-B) circular shapes with positive anomalies which may suggest the circularity of a multiring structure. A similar pattern is observed from the newest available data (global spherical model of the internal magnetic field by Purucker and Nicolas, 2010) for some Nectarian basins as Moscovienese, Mendel-Rydberg or Crissium. As in the case of Earth's impacts, the positive anomalies appear near the basin center and inside the first ring, this distribution being strongly connected with crater-forming event. Detailed analysis of largest impact craters from Earth and Moon --using a forward modeling approach by means of the Equivalent Source Dipole method--evaluates the shock impact demagnetization effects--a magnetic low--by reducing the thickness of the pre-magnetized lithosphere due to the excavation process (the impact crater being shaped as a paraboloid of revolution). The magnetic signature of representative early Nectarian craters, Crissium, as well as Earth's complex craters, defined by stronger magnetic fields near the basin center and/or inside the first ring, might be a consequence of the shock remanent magnetization of the central uplift plus a thermoremanent magnetization of the impact melt in a steady magnetizing field generated by a former active dynamo. In this case, ESD method is not able to obtain a close fit of the forward model to the observation altitude map or model.

  14. Implications of Modern Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics for Georgescu-Roegen's Macro-Economics: lessons from a comprehensive historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In the early 1970s, mathematician and economist Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen developed an alternative framework to macro-economics (his hourglass model) based on two principles of classical thermodynamics applied to the earth-system as a whole. The new model led him to the radical conclusion that "not only growth, but also a zero-growth state, nay, even a declining state which does not converge toward annihilation, cannot exist forever in a finite environment" (Georgescu-Roegen 1976, p.23). Georgescu-Roegen's novel approach long served as a devastating critique of standard neoclassical growth theories. It also helped establish the foundations for the new trans-disciplinary field of ecological economics. In recent decades however, it has remained unclear whether revolutionary developments in "modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics" (Kondepudi and Prigogine 1998) refute some of Georgescu-Roegen's initial conclusions and provide fundamentally new lessons for very long-term macro-economic analysis. Based on a broad historical review of literature from many fields (thermodynamics, cosmology, ecosystems ecology and economics), I argue that Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass model is largely based on old misconceptions and assumptions from 19th century thermodynamics (including an out-dated cosmology) which make it very misleading. Ironically, these assumptions (path independence and linearity of the entropy function in particular) replicate the non-evolutionary thinking he seemed to despise in his colleagues. In light of modern NET, I propose a different model. Contrary to Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass, I do not assume the path independence of the entropy function. In the new model, achieving critical free energy rate density thresholds can abruptly increase the level of complexity and maximum remaining lifespan of stock-based civilizations.

  15. SuperB R&D computing program: HTTP direct access to distributed resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fella, A.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Delprete, D.; Diacono, D.; Di Simone, A.; Franchini, P.; Donvito, G.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.; Tomassetti, L.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric energy e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a luminosity target of 1036cm-2s-1. The increasing network performance also in the Wide Area Network environment and the capability to read data remotely with good efficiency are providing new possibilities and opening new scenarios in the data access field. Subjects like data access and data availability in a distributed environment are key points in the definition of the computing model for an HEP experiment like SuperB. R&D efforts in such a field have been brought on during the last year in order to release the Computing Technical Design Report within 2013. WAN direct access to data has been identified as one of the more interesting viable option; robust and reliable protocols as HTTP/WebDAV and xrootd are the subjects of a specific R&D line in a mid-term scenario. In this work we present the R&D results obtained in the study of new data access technologies for typical HEP use cases, focusing on specific protocols such as HTTP and WebDAV in Wide Area Network scenarios. Reports on efficiency, performance and reliability tests performed in a data analysis context have been described. Future R&D plan includes HTTP and xrootd protocols comparison tests, in terms of performance, efficiency, security and features available.

  16. Human environment and climate during the Middle Pleistocene in southern Italy (Boiano basin, Molise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, R.; Lebreton, V.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Sémah, A.-M.; Nomade, S.; Shao, Q.; Bahain, J.-J.; Peretto, C.

    2012-04-01

    Palaeobotanical investigations undertaken on early prehistoric sites of Western Europe, as Pont-de-Lavaud (France, ca 1.2 - 1 Ma) and Ca' Belvedere di Monte Poggiolo (Italy, ca 1.2 - 0.8 Ma), indicate that hominins have settled in different types of environments. During the "Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT)", at about 1 to 0.6 Ma, the transition from 41-ka to 100-ka dominant climatic oscillations occurring within a long-term cooling trend is associated with an aridity crisis and strongly modified the structure of environments. Since the MPT, the specific climate and environment evolution of the southern Italy provided propitious conditions for a long-term human occupation even during glacial times and the density of prehistoric sites could probably be explained by the amount of sustainable environments. The human strategy of occupation of a territory probably was motivated by availabilities of resources for subsistence in the local ecosystems. Sites such as La Pineta (ca 600 ka), Notarchirico (ca 600 ka), San Nicola di Monteroduni (ca 400 ka) or Ceprano (ca 350 ka) testify to the preferential occupation of the valleys of the central and southern Apennines during this period. In this area, the Boiano basin (Molise, Italy) recorded a lacustrine and fluvio-palustrine sedimentation, with basal deposits older than 440 ka deduced from tephrochronology. Pollen analyse of the Boiano sequence aims to describe the evolution of vegetation and climates between OIS 13 and 9, at regional and micro-regional scales. The characteristics of the Boiano basin are enlightened within the progressive reduction of the deciduous forest diversity along the Middle Pleistocene. The main palaeoecological information consists of an important persistence of edaphic humidity during the glacial phases. The peculiar conditions recorded in the region could have constituted a refuge for arboreal flora during the Middle Pleistocene and provided subsistence resources to the animal and human communities.

  17. Plasma chemical reduction of model corrosion brass layers prepared in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radkova, Lucie; Mikova, Petra; Prikryl, Radek; Krcma, Frantisek

    2016-08-01

    The brass plates of (50 × 10 × 1) mm3 were prepared with model corrosion layer because the real archaeological artifacts could be damaged during the method optimization. Samples corroded naturally more than 2 years in the soil. Excavated samples were treated in the low pressure (150 Pa) quartz glass plasma reactor (90 cm long and 9.5 cm in diameter) which was surrounded by two external copper electrodes supplied by radio-frequency generator (13.56 MHz). The experiments were carried out in a hydrogen-argon gas mixture at mass flows of 30 sccm for hydrogen and 20 sccm for argon for 90 min. The plasma power was 100, 200, 300 and 400 W in continuous and pulsed mode. Maximum sample temperature was set at 120 °C. The whole process was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy and the obtained data were used to calculate the relative intensity of OH radicals and rotational temperature. The results showed that the higher power had the greater maximum intensity of the OH radicals and rapidly degraded the corrosion layer. Corrosion layer was not completely removed during the reduction, but due to the reactions which occur in the plasma corrosion layer became brittle and after plasma chemical treatment can be removed easily. Finally, the SEM-EDX analysis of the surface composition confirmed removal of chlorine and oxygen from the corrosion products layers. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  18. [Pierre Bayen rediscovers the Essays of Jean Rey].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Jean Rey, a physician from The Bugue, a little town near Bergerac, published, in 1630, a book entitled "Essays" in which he explained the increase of the mass of lead, when it was strongly heated, by the fixation of a part of the air. This revolutionary publication was not received by the European scientists, because the Father Mersenne, "the secretary of learned Europe", was not able to repeat his experiments. Between 1774 and 1775, Pierre Bayen, who was a military apothecary, published his Works concerning the "precipitate per se", for us HgO, showing that when this compound was destroyed by heating, it produced a gas, and that the mass of this gas and the mass of the mercury obtained were equal to the mass of the "precipitate per se". He concluded that the phlogiston theory was contradictory with the results of the experiments. When, later on, Lavoisier published his important article on the increase of the mass of steal when it was heated in the air, he "forgot" to cite the Works of Bayen. In January 1775, Pierre Bayen published a letter in which he mentioned that he had discovered an exemplar of Jean Rey's book and explained that this physician of the 17th century had supposed the explanation that had been proved by Lavoisier. Nicolas Gobet then published a new edition of the "Essays" in 1777, but this new edition became itself quite rare. An inscription pencilled on the book kept by the British Museum pretends that all the exemplars Lavoisier could find were destroyed. It is not rigorous to conclude on a single document, especially when it is not signed, but it is sufficient to induce doubt. PMID:25671980

  19. Observation of Upper and Middle Tropospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Stephen K.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research has been to identify and describe the properties of climatically important cloud systems critically important to understanding their effects upon satellite remote sensing and the global climate. These goals have been pursued along several different but complementary lines of investigation: the design, construction, testing and application of instrumentation; the collection of data sets during Intensive Field Observation periods; the reduction and analysis of data collected during IFO's; and completion of research projects specifically designed to address important and timely research objectives. In the first year covered by this research proposal, three papers were authored in the refereed literature which reported completed analyses of FIRE 1 IFO studies initiated under the previous NASA funding of this topic area. microphysical and radiative properties of marine stratocumulus cloud systems deduced from tethered balloon observations were reported from the San Nicolas Island site of the first FIRE marine stratocumulus experiment. Likewise, in situ observations of radiation and dynamic properties of a cirrus cloud layer were reported from first FIRE cirrus IFO based from Madison, Wisconsin. In addition, application techniques were under development for monitoring cirrus cloud systems using a 403 MHz Doppler wind profiler system adapted with a RASS (Radio Acoustic Sounding System) and an infrared interferometer system; these instrument systems were used in subsequent deployments for the FIRE 2 Parsons, Kansas and FIRE 2 Porto Santo, ASTEX expeditions. In November 1991 and in June 1992, these two systems along with a complete complement of surface radiation and meteorology measurements were deployed to the two sites noted above as anchor points for the respective IFO'S. Subsequent research activity concentrated on the interpretation and integration of the IFO analyses in the context of the radiative properties of cloud systems and our ability

  20. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and heavy mineral composition of the Camaná Formation, southern Peru: Constraints on sediment provenance and uplift of the Coastal and Western Cordilleras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alván, Aldo; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Dunkl, István; Gerdes, Axel

    2015-08-01

    In the forearc of the Central Andes of southern Peru, the Cenozoic Camaná Basin (16°25‧S to 17°15‧S) forms a ∼NW-SE elongated depression filled with coarse-grained deltaic and fluvial deposits. These deposits are termed Camaná Formation. We have applied for the first time, advanced multi-method analytical techniques to sediments of the Camaná Formation in order to define precise sedimentation ages, unravel sediment provenance, and to explain its tectono-sedimentary evolution. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and multiple geological evidences suggest that the Camaná Formation ranges in age from Late Oligocene to Late Miocene, and may even extend into the Pliocene. We propose a provenance model for the Camaná Formation based on U-Pb geochronology, heavy mineral analysis, and single-grain mineral chemistry by LA-ICP-MS. This model suggests that sediments of the lower part of the Camaná Formation derive from rocks forming the Coastal Cordillera (i.e. the Arequipa Massif and the San Nicolas Batholith) and the widespread ignimbrites of the ∼24-10 Ma Huaylillas volcanic arc. In contrast, sediments of the upper part of the Camaná Formation derive predominantly from rocks forming the Western Cordillera (i.e. the Arequipa Massif, the Tacaza Group, and the Coastal Batholith) and products of the ∼10-3 Ma Lower Barroso volcanic arc). Accordingly, we infer that uplift of the Coastal Cordillera has strongly influenced deposition of the Camaná Formation since Late Oligocene. A marked shift in provenance within the Camaná Formation at around Middle to Late Miocene time (14-12 Ma) suggests drastic uplift of the Western Cordillera at that time. This uplift has triggered increased relief and erosion in the Western Cordillera, and subsequent deposition of fluvial conglomerates in the Camaná Basin.

  1. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, (ICTP), Trieste, Italy on 27 July-7 August 2009. TMB-2009 united over 180 participants ranging from students to members of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry worldwide. Responding to the community's inquiry and reaffirming the practices established at TMB-2007, two Round Tables were organized for the participants of TMB-2009 on 30 July 2009 and 6 August 2009 in the Oppenheimer Room at the Centre. The goals of the Round Tables were to encourage the information exchange among the members of the interdisciplinary and international TMB community, promote discussions regarding the state-of-the-art in TMB-related scientific areas, identify directions for frontier research, and articulate recommendations for future developments. This article is a summary of the collective work of the Round Table participants (listed alphabetically below by their last names), whose contributions form its substance and, as such, are greatly appreciated. Abarzhi, Snezhana I (University of Chicago, USA) Andrews, Malcolm (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Belotserkovskii, Oleg (Institute for Computer Aided Design of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Bershadskii, Alexander (ICAR, Israel) Brandenburg, Axel (Nordita, Denmark) Chumakov, Sergei (Stanford University, USA) Desai, Tara (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy) Galperin, Boris (University of South Florida, USA) Gauthier, Serge (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Gekelman, Walter (University of California at Los Angeles, USA) Gibson, Carl (University of California at San Diego, USA) Goddard III, William A (California Institute of Technology, USA) Grinstein, Fernando

  2. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, S.; Handler, G.

    2009-03-01

    as contributions on Eruptive variable and binary stars, and contributions presenting Methods and tools. The three session topics were introduced by two invited review speakers per field. In the first session, Jadwiga Daszynska-Daszkiewicz summarized current ''Challenges for stellar pulsation and evolution theory'', and Konstanze Zwintz reported ''A preliminary glimpse on CoRoT results and expectations'' (for Eric Michel), together giving an overview of the observational and theoretical status of the field. Anne Thoul and Oleg Kochukhov presented the state of the art in ''Asteroseismology of B stars'' and ''Asteroseismology of chemically peculiar stars'', respectively, in the second session, highlighting the hot issues in understanding and interpreting the pulsational behaviour of these groups. The stellar evolution aspect was given special consideration in ''Asteroseismology and Evolution of EHB stars'' by Roy Østensen and ''Asteroseismology and evolution of GW Vir stars'' by Pierre-Oliver Quirion in the concluding third session. A dedicated audience (on average 45 participants in each session), the excellent speakers, and our colleague Patrick Lenz who acted as the friendly and competent technician made this Symposium a highly interesting, enjoyable and successful event. We would like to thank all speakers, poster authors, and participants for coming to Vienna, the SOC and the referees for their work, the local organizers at Vienna for providing all the necessary infrastructure, and all sponsors for having made possible this event and the proceedings at hand.

  3. Increased winds in California's Channel Islands; Evaluation of trends in reanalysis model back-casts over the last half century with implications for human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    As elsewhere, in the Southern California Bight (SCB) the role of coastal winds in driving local ocean circulation has lead to extensive research on the character of the atmospheric boundary layer, and the recognition that wind stress and curl have increased in the recent past. However, around Northern Channel Islands in the SCB, local mariners have claimed that recently conditions have gotten perceptibly windier. The general pattern of winds in this area include strong equartorward flow along the central California coast outside the SCB and discretely weaker flow in the inner SCB with a pronounced transition south and east of Point Conception. Increased surface winds have numerous implications for local commerce and maritime safety, including limitations on days at sea by fishermen, tourists and commercial traffic. However, human perception of environmental conditions are often biased by perceptions of extreme events as representative of larger scale or longer term conditions. To evaluate if recent perceptions are accurate, we evaluated trends in surface winds generated by NCAR/NCEP and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis models. Reanalysis back-casts revealed that indeed surface winds in the areas of the outer Southern California Bight are increasingly windy on average, and that averages are increasing due to increasing frequency of wind events, rather than the entire distribution of winds shifting to higher speeds. In some localized areas the number of days within a year that exceed 20knots (10.31 m/s) on average are increasing at a rate of one additional day per year in the NCAR/NCEP data. The utility of 20knots is this is wind speed that can trigger a small craft warning from the US Coast Guard, and which will in turn affect human activity on the sea. The spatial distribution of the increasing trends indicates that there is a focus of increasing winds to the South of Point Conception and North West of San Nicolas Island within

  4. The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

    2012-04-01

    incomes. The scale of the impacts and their direction depend to some extent on (re)insurer responses to the challenges of climate change. We outline five actions that could pave the way for future opportunities in the industry. Authors of the paper: Ranger, Nicola (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK) and Surminski, Swenja (Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy/ Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK)

  5. Pinning down the Milky Way's spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    New, very precise measurements have shown that the rotation of the Milky Way is simpler than previously thought. A remarkable result from the most successful ESO instrument HARPS, shows that a much debated, apparent 'fall' of neighbourhood Cepheid stars towards our Sun stems from an intrinsic property of the Cepheids themselves. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 30/08 Cepheids in the Solar Neighbourhood The result, obtained by a group of astrophysicists led by Nicolas Nardetto, will soon appear in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Since Henrietta Leavitt's discovery of their unique properties in 1912, the class of bright, pulsating stars known as Cepheids has been used as a distance indicator. Combined with velocity measurements, the properties of Cepheids are also an extremely valuable tool in investigations of how our galaxy, the Milky Way, rotates. "The motion of Milky Way Cepheids is confusing and has led to disagreement among researchers," says Nardetto. "If the rotation of the Galaxy is taken into account, the Cepheids appear to 'fall' towards the Sun with a mean velocity of about 2 km/s." A debate has raged for decades as to whether this phenomenon was truly related to the actual motion of the Cepheids and, consequently, to a complicated rotating pattern of our galaxy, or if it was the result of effects within the atmospheres of the Cepheids. Nardetto and his colleagues observed eight Cepheids with the high precision HARPS spectrograph, attached to the 3.6-m ESO telescope at La Silla, 2400 m up in the mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. HARPS, or the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Searcher, is best known as a very successful planet hunter, but it can also be used to resolve other complicated cases, where its ability to determine radial velocities - the speed with which something is moving towards or away from us - with phenomenally high accuracy is invaluable. "Our observations show that this apparent motion towards us almost

  6. Exergy and the economic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    theoretically and quantitatively. Keywords: 2nd Law, physical work, heat gradient, Carnot Heat Engine, exergy, energy, reference environment, econosystems, irreversibility, entropy, scarcity, resource degradation, pollution References 1. Ayres, Robert U. and Benjamin Warr (2009), The Economic Growth Engine: How Energy and Work Drive Material Prosperity, Edward Elgar and IIASA 2. Boulding, Kenneth E. (1978), Ecodynamics: A New Theory of Societal Evolution, Sage Publication 3. Chen, Jing (2005), The Physical Foundations of Economics: An Analytic Thermodynamic Theory, World Scientific 4. Roegen, Nicolas Georgescu (1971), The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, Harvard University Press

  7. The search for worlds like our own.

    PubMed

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; White, Glenn J; Absil, Olivier; Defrère, Denis; Hanot, C; Stam, Daphne; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna; Karlsson, Anders; Gondoin, Phillipe; den Hartog, Roland; D'Arcio, Luigi; Stankov, Anna-Maria; Kilter, Mikael; Erd, Christian; Beichman, Charles; Coulter, Daniel; Danchi, William; Devirian, Michael; Johnston, Kenneth J; Lawson, Peter; Lay, Oliver P; Lunine, Jonathan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets-particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life-constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus approximately 300 BC: "Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist." Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts-atoms-also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning-not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than 6 our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the

  8. Hydrates in the California Borderlands Revisited: Results from a Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Survey of the Santa Cruz Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrate, an ice-like clathrate of water and methane, forms in shallow continental slope sediments, and is both a potential energy source and geologic hazard. Hydrates presence is traditionally inferred from the presence of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), a seismic velocity inversion resulting from free gas pooling at the base of the hydrate stability field. The BSR is not a measure of hydrate, but rather a proxy for free gas presence. Whereas seismic methods are sensitive to velocity anomalies, controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are sensitive to conductivity anomalies. The electrically resistive methane hydrate makes a favorable target for CSEM surveys, which are capable of detecting and potentially quantifying the presence of methane hydrate directly. Building on previous work 100km to the south in the San Nicolas Basin, we present initial results from a 6-day June 2014 survey in the Santa Cruz Basin, located 100km west of Los Angeles. CSEM surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed and seafloor receivers. The initial EM source signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Conductors such as brine and seawater are attenuating mediums, while resistors such as methane hydrate, gas, and oil are preservative of the original signal. Twenty-one seafloor receivers, as well as a 4 receiver towed array were deployed to image the resistivity structure of the Santa Cruz Basin. Using 30-year-old 2D seismic profiles as a guide, potential hydrate targets were identified, and the transmitter and array were towed over 150 km on 6 lines with 5 seafloor receivers each. The 6 towed lines were coincident with legacy seismic lines. The towed array is sensitive to sediment depths less than 1km, allowing for high data density through the hydrate stability field. The larger transmitter-receiver offsets of the seafloor receivers allow sensitivity to at

  9. Comparing field-based and numerically modelled reconstructions of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet deglaciation over the Thompson Plateau, southern interior British Columbia, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy; Seguinot, Julien; Perkins, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoglaciological and palaeoclimate reconstructions of the deglaciation of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) over British Columbia (BC), Canada, are limited by the relative lack of understanding of the late-glacial ice sheet margins and dynamics. Deglaciation of the last CIS over the southern Interior Plateau of BC has been characterised as proceeding via stagnation and downwasting into dead ice lobes in valleys where ice was thickest. This conceptual model explains the apparent lack of moraines, which may otherwise imply active recession, and known palaeo-glacial lakes are explained as being dammed by these dead ice lobes. However, downwasting alone is at odds with coeval ice sheets which receded systematically towards their interiors. Presented here is a comparison between a new field-based reconstruction of the deglaciation of the northern Thompson Plateau, and ice sheet model results of the same area. Glacioisostatic tilts, reconstructed using mapped shoreline elevations, rise to the north-northwest at around 1.8 m/km, implying an ice surface slope, and likely active recession, towards the Coast Mountains. New reconstructions of the stages of glacial Lake Nicola (gLN), utilising field and aerial photographic mapping of shorelines, and sedimentology and geophysical surveys on ice-marginal and glaciolacustrine landforms, largely support this interpretation; the lake expanded and lowered to the north-northwest as progressively lower outlets were opened during ice retreat in this direction. Fields of newly discovered glaciotectonised moraines, grounding-line deposits and overridden glacial lake sediments record ice margin oscillations and minor readvances within gLN; the general alignment of these features further supports recession to the north-northwest. Numerical simulations of deglaciation of the area results in ice retreat to the north-northeast, which is inconsistent with the north-north-westward evolution of gLN. Excess precipitation over the eastern

  10. Ocean acidification and its impacts: an expert survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, J.; Mach, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    pertaining to policy and socio-economic impacts, for example on food security, were also relatively low. Thanks are due to the respondents: Andreas Andersson, James Barry, Jerry Blackford, Philip Boyd, Ken Caldeira, Long Cao, Sinead Collins, Sarah Cooley, Kim Currie, Allemand Denis, Brad deYoung, Andrew Dickson, Ken Drinkwater, Sam Dupont, Jonathan Erez, Richard Feely, Maoz Fine, Kunshan Gao, Marion Gehlen, Jason Hall-Spencer, Christoph Heinze, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Gretchen Hofmann, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Maria Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Akio Ishida, Masao Ishii, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Haruko Kurihara, Kitack Lee, Su Mei Liu, Salvador Lluch-Cota, Jeremy T. Mathis, Ben McNeil, Philip Munday, John Pandolfi, Gian-Kasper Plattner, Alexander Polonsky, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Ulf Riebesell, Rongshuo, Chris Sabine, Daniela Schmidt, Brad Seibel, Yoshihisa Shirayama, Atsushi Suzuki, Carol Turley, Nicola Wannicke, Poh Poh Wong, Michiyo Yamamoto-Kawai and Peter Zavialov.

  11. Laboratory and numerical simulation of internal wave attractors and their instability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouzet, Christophe; Dauxois, Thierry; Ermanyuk, Evgeny; Joubaud, Sylvain; Sibgatullin, Ilias

    2015-04-01

    .-P. A., Geometric focusing of internal waves. J. Fluid Mech, 1995,. 300, 1-41 L. R. M. Maas, D. Benielli, J. Sommeria, and F.-P. A. Lam, Nature (London) 388, 557 (1997). 2. Dauxois, Thierry; Young, W., Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1999, vol. 390, Issue 01, p.271-295 3. Grisouard, N., Staquet, C., Pairaud, I., 2008, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 614, 1 4. Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E., Dauxois, T., 2013, Physical Review Letters, 110, 234501 5. Mercier, Matthieu J.; Garnier, Nicolas B.; Dauxois, Thierry Reflection and diffraction of internal waves analyzed with the Hilbert transform Physics of Fluids, Volume 20, Issue 8, pp. 086601-086601-10 (2008).

  12. ["Nicolaus Ficke... who practiced physiognomy, astrology, etc. was also a bad man"].

    PubMed

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This arcticle summarizes what could be learned from newly discovered documents about the biography of Nicolas von Vicken, first known reader of Kepler's "Astronomia Nova" and Kepler's partner in an exchange of more than a dozen letters over several years. Von Vicken stems from a rich and influential family of merchants in Riga, made noble by the Polish King (who ruled Riga at the time) in 1580. His education included legal studies at the universities of Königsberg, Leipzig and Rostock, partially overlapping with a stay of ten years at the Polish court. There von Vicken pursued family business but also served in an official court role. In 1600/1 von Vicken switched sides and started to serve the Swedish ruler (and later king) Duke Carl IX, who was at war with Poland to gain control over Riga and Livonia. In 1602 a mission for Sweden to Northern Germany brought him in conflict with Francis II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, who accused von Vicken of withholding money from him, which was supposed to be used for hiring troops. Von Vicken, together with his brother Heinrich, was imprisoned, but could flee. During a mission to Maximilian III, Archduke of Austria, in 1599/1600 von Vicken had been initiated as an alchemist and astrologer through reading the works of Paracelsus and his future stations in life were influenced by this. These include an attempt to get employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, and stays in Wolfenbiittel and Halberstadt, both ruled by Duke Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Von Vicken offered various astrological and alchemical services to the Duke and private investors. With one of them he got into a serious conflict over the alleged non-fillment of a contract to produce steel in an alchemical way. During that von Vicken got imprisoned twice, in 1609 and between 1611 and 1614. A subsequent attempt to get employed by Ernst of Schaumburg left us with several letters that detail von Vicken's alchemical and astrological thinking, two of these are

  13. Recommended names for pleomorphic genera in Dothideomycetes.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Amy Y; Crous, Pedro W; Hyde, Kevin D; Hawksworth, David L; Aptroot, André; Bezerra, Jose L; Bhat, Jayarama D; Boehm, Eric; Braun, Uwe; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Camporesi, Erio; Chomnunti, Putarak; Dai, Dong-Qin; D'souza, Melvina J; Dissanayake, Asha; Gareth Jones, E B; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Hongsanan, Sinang; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Jing, Li Wen; Kirk, Paul M; Lawrey, James D; Mapook, Ausana; McKenzie, Eric H C; Monkai, Jutamart; Phillips, Alan J L; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Raja, Huzefa A; Seifert, Keith A; Senanayake, Indunil; Slippers, Bernard; Suetrong, Satinee; Taylor, Joanne E; Thambugala, Kasun M; Tian, Qing; Tibpromma, Saowaluck; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Wikee, Saowanee; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; Wu, Hai-Xia; Yan, Jiye; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    . Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. musae (G.Y. Sun & L. Gao) Crous & Batzer, S. qianense (G.Y. Sun & Y.Q. Ma) Crous & Batzer, S. tardecrescens (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, S. wisconsinense (Batzer & Crous) Crous & Batzer, Teratosphaeria epicoccoides (Cooke & Massee) Rossman & W.C. Allen, Venturia catenospora (Butin) Rossman & Crous, V. convolvularum (Ondrej) Rossman & Crous, V. oleaginea (Castagne) Rossman & Crous, and V. phillyreae (Nicolas & Aggéry) Rossman & Crous, combs. nov. Three replacement names are also proposed: Pyrenophora grahamii Rossman & K.D. Hyde, Schizothyrium sunii Crous & Batzer, and Venturia barriae Rossman & Crous noms. nov. PMID:26734553

  14. The Search for Worlds Like Our Own

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; White, Glenn J.; Absil, Olivier; Defrère, D.; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna; Karlsson, Anders; Gondoin, Phillipe; den Hartog, Roland; D'Arcio, Luigi; Stankov, Anna-Maria; Kilter, Mikael; Erd, Christian; Beichman, Charles; Coulter, Daniel; Danchi, William; Devirian, Michael; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Lawson, Peter; Lay, Oliver P.; Lunine, Jonathan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets -- particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life -- constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus 300 BC: Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist. Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts - atoms - also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning <80><94>not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than 6our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the

  15. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  16. PREFACE: 32nd UIT (Italian Union of Thermo-fluid-dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    volume would like to sincerely thank the authors for presenting their works at the conference and in this special issue. Special thanks are also due to the Scientific Committee, to all the reviewers, and to all the authors for their accurate revision process of each paper for this special issue. Special thanks go to the Organizing Committee, chaired by Prof. Paolo Di Marco. Walter Grassi (Chairman of the Scientific Committee), Alessandro Franco, Nicola Forgione, Daniele Testi - Editors of the Special Issue

  17. A comparative summary on streamers of positive corona discharges in water and atmospheric pressure gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Motomura, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    medium density between water and gases. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  18. A database of crystal preferred orientation of olivine in upper mantle rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainprice, D.

    2012-12-01

    Olivine is the most volumetrically abundant mineral in the Earth's upper mantle, as such it dominates the mechanical and physical properties and has a controlling influence of the geodynamics of plate tectonics. Since the pioneering work of Hess and others we know that seismic anisotropy of the shallow mantle is related to olivine and it's crystal preferred orientation (CPO). With advent of plate tectonics the understanding of the key role of peridotite rocks became a major scientific objective and the measurement CPO of olivine in upper mantle samples became an important tool for studying the kinematics of these rocks. Our group originally lead by Adolphe Nicolas introduced the systematic use of CPO measured by U-stage for field studies all over the world for over 30 years, this tradition was extended in last 15 years by the use of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to study of CPO and the associated digital microstructure. It is an appropriate time to analysis this significant database of olivine CPO, which represents the work of our group, both present and former members, as well as collaborating colleagues. It is also interesting to compare the natural record as illustrated by our database in the light of recent experimental results stimulated by the extended ranges in temperature, pressure and finite strain, as well as intrinsic olivine variables such as hydrogen content. To analysis the database, which is heterogeneous because it is constructed from the individual work of many people over a 45 year period containing U-stage data and EBSD measurements (manual indexing point per grain, automatic indexing one point per grain, automatic indexing gridded mapping data) of various formats, we need a flexible software tool that can handle large volumes of data in consistent way. We have used the state-of-art open source MTEX toolbox for quantitative texture analysis. MTEX is a scriptable MATLAB toolbox, which permits all aspects of quantitative texture

  19. CTCF, a conserved nuclear factor required for optimal transcriptional activity of the chicken c-myc gene, is an 11-Zn-finger protein differentially expressed in multiple forms.

    PubMed Central

    Klenova, E M; Nicolas, R H; Paterson, H F; Carne, A F; Heath, C M; Goodwin, G H; Neiman, P E; Lobanenkov, V V

    1993-01-01

    A novel sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, CTCF, which interacts with the chicken c-myc gene promoter, has been identified and partially characterized (V. V. Lobanenkov, R. H. Nicolas, V. V. Adler, H. Paterson, E. M. Klenova, A. V. Polotskaja, and G. H. Goodwin, Oncogene 5:1743-1753, 1990). In order to test directly whether binding of CTCF to one specific DNA region of the c-myc promoter is important for chicken c-myc transcription, we have determined which nucleotides within this GC-rich region are responsible for recognition of overlapping sites by CTCF and Sp1-like proteins. Using missing-contact analysis of all four nucleotides in both DNA strands and homogeneous CTCF protein purified by sequence-specific chromatography, we have identified three sets of nucleotides which contact either CTCF or two Sp1-like proteins binding within the same DNA region. Specific mutations of 3 of 15 purines required for CTCF binding were designed to eliminate binding of CTCF without altering the binding of other proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear extracts showed that the mutant DNA sequence did not bind CTCF but did bind two Sp1-like proteins. When introduced into a 3.3-kbp-long 5'-flanking noncoding c-myc sequence fused to a reporter CAT gene, the same mutation of the CTCF binding site resulted in 10- and 3-fold reductions, respectively, of transcription in two different (erythroid and myeloid) stably transfected chicken cell lines. Isolation and analysis of the CTCF cDNA encoding an 82-kDa form of CTCF protein shows that DNA-binding domain of CTCF is composed of 11 Zn fingers: 10 are of C2H2 class, and 1 is of C2HC class. CTCF was found to be abundant and conserved in cells of vertebrate species. We detected six major nuclear forms of CTCF protein differentially expressed in different chicken cell lines and tissues. We conclude that isoforms of 11-Zn-finger factor CTCF which are present in chicken hematopoietic HD3 and BM2 cells can act as a positive

  20. Molecular evolution of rbcL in three gymnosperm families: identifying adaptive and coevolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    forward the conclusion that this evolutionary scenario has been possible through a complex interplay between adaptive mutations, often structurally destabilizing, and compensatory mutations. Our results unearth patterns of evolution that have likely optimized the Rubisco activity and uncover mutational dynamics useful in the molecular engineering of enzymatic activities. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Christian Blouin (nominated by Dr W Ford Doolittle), Dr Endre Barta (nominated by Dr Sandor Pongor), and Dr Nicolas Galtier. PMID:21639885

  1. A comparative study of photoinduced deformation in azobenzene containing polymer films.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Loebner, Sarah; Papke, Thomas; Sava, Elena; Hurduc, Nicolae; Santer, Svetlana

    2016-03-01

    In this paper two groups supporting different views on the mechanism of light induced polymer deformation argue about the respective underlying theoretical conceptions, in order to bring this interesting debate to the attention of the scientific community. The group of Prof. Nicolae Hurduc supports the model claiming that the cyclic isomerization of azobenzenes may cause an athermal transition of the glassy azobenzene containing polymer into a fluid state, the so-called photo-fluidization concept. This concept is quite convenient for an intuitive understanding of the deformation process as an anisotropic flow of the polymer material. The group of Prof. Svetlana Santer supports the re-orientational model where the mass-transport of the polymer material accomplished during polymer deformation is stated to be generated by the light-induced re-orientation of the azobenzene side chains and as a consequence of the polymer backbone that in turn results in local mechanical stress, which is enough to irreversibly deform an azobenzene containing material even in the glassy state. For the debate we chose three polymers differing in the glass transition temperature, 32 °C, 87 °C and 95 °C, representing extreme cases of flexible and rigid materials. Polymer film deformation occurring during irradiation with different interference patterns is recorded using a homemade set-up combining an optical part for the generation of interference patterns and an atomic force microscope for acquiring the kinetics of film deformation. We also demonstrated the unique behaviour of azobenzene containing polymeric films to switch the topography in situ and reversibly by changing the irradiation conditions. We discuss the results of reversible deformation of three polymers induced by irradiation with intensity (IIP) and polarization (PIP) interference patterns, and the light of homogeneous intensity in terms of two approaches: the re-orientational and the photo-fluidization concepts. Both agree

  2. Velocity Fluctuations in Gas-Fluidized Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, G. D.

    1998-03-01

    Increasing gas flow through a bed of particles produces, above a sharp threshold, a fluidized state which exhibits many of the properties of a liquid. Fluidized beds play a major role in refining, chemicals, and power generation, but the physics of the fluidized state is still uncertain, due to the complexity of the particle/gas interactions, the broad distribution of particle size, and the measurement challenge. One consequence can be the failure of sophisticated computer models to predict performance. Another is the failure to resolve fundamental questions, for example the source of the initial stability/instability of the uniform fluidized state, first addressed by Jackson in 1963(R. Jackson, in Fluidization, edited by J. F. Davidson et al. (Academic Press, New York, 1985), p. 47-72; G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 193, 75-110 (1988); M. Nicolas. J. Chomaz, and E. Guazelli, Phys. Fluids 6, 3936-3944 (1994).). To meet the measurement challenge, we have obtained the first comprehensive data on the mean squared fluctuation velocity, or granular temperature, T*, of monodispersed glass spheres of diameter, D, in a fluidized bed, by a novel acoustic shot noise probe of random particle impact on the wall(G. D. Cody, D. J. Goldfarb, G. V. Storch, Jr., A. N. Norris, Powder Technology 87, 211-232 (1996); G. D. Cody and D. J. Goldfarb, in Dynamics in Small Confining Systems-III, eds. M. Drake et al, (MRS, Pittsburgh, Pa, 1997), 464, p. 325-338.). Applying a dense gas kinetic model(D. Gidaspow, Multiphase Flow and Fluidization (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994).) to this data predicts values of particulate pressure, and viscosity, which are in excellent agreement with recent experiments, and encouraged us to revisit the stability question. We find that the unanticipated seven-fold bifurcation observed in T* for D less than 150 microns is sufficient, using Jackson's model, to account for the accepted empirical boundary of stable initial uniform fluidization for the spheres

  3. A methodological approach to comparing pros and cons of delocalizing villages: socio-economic and technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadagno, Eleonora; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Petrucci, Olga; Forciniti, Pinuccia R.

    2014-05-01

    On 7th March 2005, prolonged rainfalls combined with snowfalls activated a wide complex rock slide-earth flow that partly destroyed the village of Cavallerizzo at Cerzeto (Calabria, Southern Italy). Superposed tectonic units made of Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by Miocene-Quaternary clastic terrains, crop out in the study area. The main scarp of the landslide developed by a recent normal fault, striking N-S along the western margin of the Crati graben and extended ca. 25 km. In its lower part, the phenomenon evolved in two main earth-flow bodies that extended along minor drainages and then merged along the S. Nicola torrent. The sector affected by the instability actually belongs to a large-scale slope movement: the 2005 activation was in fact only a paroxysmal episode of a long history of slope deformations, noticed in the area since the XVIII century. Warning signs had been recorded for weeks before the collapse, and the threatened area had been put under monitoring by CNR-IRPI. When the movement accelerated, people had already been alerted and evacuated (329 out of 581 inhabitants of Cerzeto were sheltered in nearby villages), thus neither victims nor injured were recorded. As a whole, 124 buildings were severely damaged or destroyed, the main road was interrupted. Immediately after the 7th March 2005 event, the national Department for Civil Protection decided to evaluate the feasibility of delocalizing Cavallerizzo to another site. At this purpose, CNR-IRPI was asked to analysing the "geological suitability" of 3 different sites (Pianette, Amatine, and Colombra), pre-selected by the same Municipality of Cerzeto in accordance to the Civil Protection; the results of the study were completed in early Summer 2005. Between October 2007 and December 2011, a new settlement was realized by the Italian Government, and the houses were delivered to people once living at Cavallerizzo. In the last years, the socio-economic effects of the delocalization of

  4. Late Holocene stratigraphy of the Tetimpa archaeological sites, northeast flank of Popocatepetl volcano, central Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panfil, M.S.; Gardner, T.W.; Hirth, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Late Holocene (240 km2 on the east side of the volcano with >25 cm of tephra. Lavas from eruptive sequence I dammed drainage in the lowland area near the town of San Nicolas and caused local upstream deposition of as much as 30 m of lacustrine silts, clays, and sands. These lacustrine deposits record an eruptive hiatus for the Tetimpa area of about 750 14C yr: between ca. 2100 and ca. 1350 yr B.P., no major tephras were deposited in the Tetimpa area. In upland areas, this time period is represented by an unconformity and by Entisols formed in the top of pumice deposits and lavas from eruptive sequence I. Artifacts, agricultural furrows, and dwellings record human reoccupation of this surface. At the end of this hiatus, several lahars were deposited above the lacustrine sequence and locally above the Entisol in upland positions adjacent to streams. Between ca. 1350 and ca. 1200 yr B.P., tephras from eruptive sequence II buried these paleosols, occupation sites, lacustrine sediments, and lahars. Andesitic (~62% SiO2) pumice lapilli deposits in the Tetimpa area record three pumice-fall eruptions directed northeast and east of the crater. The first and smallest of these (maximum Tetimpa area thickness = 12 cm; >52 km2 covered by >25 cm) took place at ca. 1350 yr B.P. and was accompanied by pyroclastic surge events preserved in the Tetimpa area by charcoal, sand waves, and cross-stratified sand-sized tephra. At ca. 1200 yr B.P., the products of two Plinian-style events and additional pyroclastic surges reached the Tetimpa area. The largest of these tephra-fall events covered the Tetimpa area with 0.5-1 m of tephra and blanketed an area of >230 km2 with a thickness of >25 cm. The Tetimpa record confirms two of the four periods of explosive volcanism recognized by studies conducted around Popocatepetl in the past 30 yr. Eruptive sequence I corresponds to the explosive period between 2100 and 2500 yr B.P., and eruptive sequence II corresponds to the period between 900 and

  5. Extreme rainfall in Serbia, May 2014, simulation using WRF NMM and RainFARM: DRIHM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekić, Ljiljana; Mihalović, Ana; Dimitrijević, Vladimir; Rebora, Nicola; Parodi, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Extreme rainfall in Serbia, May 2014, simulation using WRF NMM and RainFARM: DRIHM project Ljiljana Dekić (1), Ana Mihalović (1), Vladimir Dimitrijević (1), Nicola Rebora (2), Antonio Parodi (2) (1)Republic HydroMeteorological Service of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia, (2)CIMA Research Foundation, Savona, Italy In May 2014 Balkan region was affected with the continuous heavy rainfall, the heaviest in 120 years of recording observation, causing extensive flooding. Serbia suffered human casualties, huge infrastructure and industrial destruction and agricultural damage. Cyclone development and trajectory was very well predicted by RHMSS operational WRF NMM numerical model but extreme precipitation was not possible to predict with sufficient precision. Simulation of extreme rainfall situations using different numerical weather prediction models can indicate weakness of the model and point out importance of specified physical approach and parameterization schemes. The FP7 Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology DRIHM project gives a framework for using different models in forecasting extreme weather events. One of the DRIHM component is Rainfall Filtered Autoregressive Model RainFARM for stochastic rainfall downscaling. Objective of the DRIHM project was developing of standards and conversion of the data for seamless use of meteorological and hydrological models in flood prediction. This paper describes numerical tests and results of WRF NMM nonhydrostatic model and RainFARM downscaling applied on WRF NMM outputs. Different physics options in WRF NMM and their influence on precipitation amount were investigated. RainFARM was applied on every physical option with downscaling from 4km to 500m and 100m horizontal resolution and 100 ensemble members. We analyzed locations on the catchments in Serbia where flooding was the strongest and the most destructive. Statistical evaluation of ensemble output gives new insight into the sub scale precipitation

  6. MAX-DOAS observations and their application to the validation of satellite and model data in Wuxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wagner, T.; Xie, P.; Theys, N.; De Smedt, I.; Koukouli, M.; Stavrakou, T.; Beirle, S.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    Thomas Wagner1, Pinhua Xie2, Nicolas Theys3, Isabelle De Smedt3, MariLiza Koukouli4, Trissevgeni Stavrakou3, Steffen Beirle1, Ang Li2,1) Satellite group, Max Planck institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany2) Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China 3) BIRA-IASB, Brussels, Belgium 4) Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece From 2011 to 2014 a MAX-DOAS instrument developed by the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics institute is operated in Wuxi, China, which is locatd about 100 km west of Shanghai. We determine the tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs), near surface concentrations and vertical profiles of aerosols, NO2, SO2, HCHO from the MAX-DOAS observations using the optimal estimation profile retrieval algorithm (refered to as "PriAM"). We verified the results by comparing them with results from independent techniques, such as sun photometer (AERONET), a visibility meter and a long-path DOAS instrument. We acquire the cloud and aerosol conditions using a cloud classification scheme based on the MAX-DOAS observations (Wang et al., AMTD, 2015). Based on the obtained results, we characterize the effect of the clouds on the trace gas and aerosol profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS. Then we characterize the diurnal, annual and weekly variations of the trace gases and aerosols and validate the tropospheric trace gas VCDs derived from the Ozone Monitoring instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite platform as well as the model results from the IMAGES, CHIMERE and Lotos-Euros models and analyse the agreement depending on the cloud and aerosol conditions. Besides the direct comparison with the satellite data, we also use the trace gas and aerosol profiles derived from MAX-DOAS to recalculate the air mass factor (AMF) for the satellite observations and to evaluate the corresponding improvement of the satellite VCDs. In some periods with strong aerosol pollution, we evaluate the

  7. The Last Universal Common Ancestor: emergence, constitution and genetic legacy of an elusive forerunner

    PubMed Central

    Glansdorff, Nicolas; Xu, Ying; Labedan, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    was born complex and the LUCA displayed that heritage. It had the "body "of a mesophilic eukaryote well before maturing by endosymbiosis into an organism adapted to an atmosphere rich in oxygen. Abundant indications suggest reductive evolution of this complex and heterogeneous entity towards the "prokaryotic" Domains Archaea and Bacteria. The word "prokaryote" should be abandoned because epistemologically unsound. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Anthony Poole, Patrick Forterre, and Nicolas Galtier. PMID:18613974

  8. The link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcat, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Made in the frame of a French master on political history of USA in Paris IV La Sorbonne University, this subject is the third part of " The Economy of Apollo during the 60s". Nicolas Turcat is actually preparing his PhD in History of Innovation (DEA—Paris IV La Sorbonne). Our actual subject is " the link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years". This speech will highlight on some aspects of the link between NASA and aerospace industry. NASA could achieve the Apollo mission safely and under heavy financial pressure during the sixties due to a new type of organization for a civil agency; the contractor system. In fact, Military used it since the 1950s. And we will see how the development of this type of contract permitted a better interaction between the two parts. NASA would make another type of link with universities and technical institutes; a real brain trust was created, and between 1961 and 1967, 10,000 students worked and more than 200 universities on Apollo program. We will try to study briefly the procurement plan and process during the Apollo years. Without entering the " spin-offs debate", we will try to watch different aspects of the impacts and realities of the contractor and subcontractor system. We will see that would create a political debate inside USA when presidents Johnson and Nixon would decide to reduce Apollo program. Which states will benefit Apollo program? Or questions like how the debate at the end of the 1960s will become more and more political? Actually, almost 60% of the country's R&D was focused on Apollo, economical and moreover, political impacts would be great. We will try to study this under the light of different example: and particularly in California. The industrial and military complex was a part of the Apollo program. Apollo reoriented the aim of this complex for making it the first aerospace industry. Since this time, USA had not only acquired space ambition but real space capabilities. But more than

  9. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico].

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed.in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we

  10. Deep Structures of The Angola Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Contrucci, I.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Géli, L.; Sibuet, J.-C.

    1 Ifremer Centre de Brest, DRO/Géosciences Marines, B.P. 70, 29280 Plouzané cedex (France) mmoulin@ifremer.fr/Fax : 33 2 98 22 45 49 2 Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire Europeen de la Mer, Place Nicolas Copernic, 29280 Plouzane (France) 3 Total Fina Elf, DGEP/GSR/PN -GEOLOGIE, 2,place de la Coupole-La Defense 6, 92078 Paris la Defense Cedex Deep reflection and refraction seismic data were collected in April 2000 on the West African margin, offshore Angola, within the framework of the Zaiango Joint Project, conducted by Ifremer and Total Fina Elf Production. Vertical multichannel reflection seismic data generated by a « single-bubble » air gun array array (Avedik et al., 1993) were recorded on a 4.5 km long, digital streamer, while refraction and wide angle reflection seismic data were acquired on OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). Despite the complexity of the margin (5 s TWT of sediment, salt tectonics), the combination of seismic reflection and refraction methods results in an image and a velocity model of the ground structures below the Aptian salt layer. Three large seismic units appear in the reflection seismic section from the deep part on the margin under the base of salt. The upper seismic unit is layered with reflectors parallel to the base of the salt ; it represents unstructured sediments, filling a basin. The middle unit is seismically transparent. The lower unit is characterized by highly energetic reflectors. According to the OBS refraction data, these two units correspond to the continental crust and the base of the high energetic unit corresponds to the Moho. The margin appears to be divided in 3 domains, from east to west : i) a domain with an unthinned, 30 km thick, continental crust ; ii) a domain located between the hinge line and the foot of the continental slope, where the crust thins sharply, from 30 km to less than 7 km, this domain is underlain by an anormal layer with velocities comprising between 7,2 and 7

  11. Oil-in-water nanocontainers as low environmental impact cleaning tools for works of art: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Carretti, Emiliano; Giorgi, Rodorico; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero

    2007-05-22

    A novel class of p-xylene-in-water microemulsions mainly based on nonionic surfactants and their application as low impact cleaning tool in cultural heritage conservation is presented. Alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and Triton X-100 surfactants allow obtaining very effective low impact oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsions as alternatives to pure organic solvents for the removal of polymers (particularly Paraloid B72 and Primal AC33) applied during previous conservation treatments. The ternary APG/p-xylene/water microemulsions have been characterized by quasi elastic light scattering to obtain the hydrodynamic radius and the polydispersity of the microemulsion droplets. Laplace inversion of the correlation function CONTIN analysis provided evidence of acrylic copolymers solubilization into the oil nanodroplets. Contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) data confirmed that microemulsions were effective in removing polymer coatings. The phase diagram of APG microemulsions showed that a reduction >90% (compared to the conventional cleaning methods) of the organic solvent can be achieved by using o/w microemulsions. The microemulsions were successfully tested in two real cases: (1) the APG based microemulsion was used in a Renaissance painting by Vecchietta in Santa Maria della Scala, Siena, Italy, degraded by the presence of a polyacrylate coating applied during a previous restoration and (2) a Triton X-100 oil-in-water microemulsion containing (NH4)2CO3 in the water continuous phase. The association of ammoniun carbonate to the microemusion led to the swelling of an organic deposit (mainly asphaltenes deposited on the fresco in the Oratorio di San Nicola al Ceppo in Florence, still contamined by the water of the Arno river during the 1966 flood) and a very efficient removal of highly insoluble inorganic deposits (mainly gypsum) strongly associated to asphaltenes. These innovative systems are

  12. Crustal accretion at fast spreading ridges and implications for hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, S.; Rupke, L.; Hasenclever, J.

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic crust is continuously created at mid-ocean ridges, but the location of lower crust crystallization continues to be debated since the proposal of the gabbro glacier and many sills end-member models. Geophysical and geochemical studies find evidence for either of the models. The crust is cooled by a combination of heat diffusion and advection, and hydrothermal circulation is thought to play a key role in distinguishing between both models. We use our numerical model for joint modeling of crustal accretion and hydrothermal circulation1 to test different accretion and hydrothermal cooling scenarios. The results match the seismic and structural observations from the East Pacific Rise2 and the Oman Ophiolite3, with a shallow melt lens at the correct location overlaying a narrow volume of partially molten rocks. Our results show that no more than 25-50% of the lower crust crystallizes in situ and that deep circulation is likely to occur at fast and intermediate spreading ridges. The occurrence of deep hydrothermal cooling however does not rule out that a major portion of the lower crust is formed in the shallow melt lens; our simulations rather suggest that it is necessary independent of where in the lower crust crystallization takes place. 1 Theissen-Krah, S., Iyer, K., Rupke, L. H. & Morgan, J. P. Coupled mechanical and hydrothermal modeling of crustal accretion at intermediate to fast spreading ridges. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 311, 275-286, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.09.018 (2011). 2 Dunn, R. A., Toomey, D. R. & Solomon, S. C. Three-dimensional seismic structure and physical properties of the crust and shallow mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise at 9 degrees 30'N. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth 105, 23537-23555 (2000). 3 Nicolas, A. & Boudier, F. Structural contribution from the Oman ophiolite to processes of crustal accretion at the East Pacific Rise. Terra Nova 27, 77-96, doi:10.1111/ter.12137 (2015).

  13. Nikolay Kirov Nikolov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Minko; Reynolds, Steve

    2014-12-01

    Committee of the Republic of Bulgaria during 1996. Nikolay Kirov was a key figure in the organization, promotion and success of the International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP), where he was able to use his network of international contacts to excellent effect. He served as Scientific Secretary (1988-1990), Chairman and Editor of the ISCMP Proceedings (1992-1998), and as Chairman Emeritus (2002-2012). Prof. Kirov is an Honorary Member of the Institute of Solid State Physics. He received the Honorary Diploma 'Nicola Obreshkov' in 1986 and the "Marin Drinov" Sign of Honour BAS (on a ribbon) in 1998, for achievements in the physical and mathematical sciences. He was also honoured outside his native Bulgaria, receiving a Gold Medal from Wroclaw University, Poland, in recognition of successful scientific collaborations in the area of molecular structure.

  14. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  15. The Relative Lie Algebra Cohomology of the Weil Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralston, Jacob

    We study the relative Lie algebra cohomology of so(p,q) with values in the Weil representation piof the dual pair Sp(2k, R) x O(p,q ). Using the Fock model defined in Chapter 2, we filter this complex and construct the associated spectral sequence. We then prove that the resulting spectral sequence converges to the relative Lie algebra cohomology and has E0 term, the associated graded complex, isomorphic to a Koszul complex, see Section 3.4. It is immediate that the construction of the spectral sequence of Chapter 3 can be applied to any reductive subalgebra g ⊂ sp(2k(p + q), R). By the Weil representation of O( p,|q), we mean the twist of the Weil representation of the two-fold cover O(pq)[special character omitted] by a suitable character. We do this to make the center of O(pq)[special character omitted] act trivially. Otherwise, all relative Lie algebra cohomology groups would vanish, see Proposition 4.10.2. In case the symplectic group is large relative to the orthogonal group (k ≥ pq), the E 0 term is isomorphic to a Koszul complex defined by a regular sequence, see 3.4. Thus, the cohomology vanishes except in top degree. This result is obtained without calculating the space of cochains and hence without using any representation theory. On the other hand, in case k < p, we know the Koszul complex is not that of a regular sequence from the existence of the class ϕkq of Kudla and Millson, see te{KM2}, a nonzero element of the relative Lie algebra cohomology of degree kq. For the case of SO0(p, 1) we compute the cohomology groups in these remaining cases, namely k < p. We do this by first computing a basis for the relative Lie algebra cochains and then splitting the complex into a sum of two complexes, each of whose E0 term is then isomorphic to a Koszul complex defined by a regular sequence. This thesis is adapted from the paper, [BMR], this author wrote with his advisor John Millson and Nicolas Bergeron of the University of Paris.

  16. Formation of dunite conduits in the mantle: observations from the Lanzo peridotite in NW-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müntener, O.; Pettke, T.; Piccardo, G.; Zanetti, A.

    2003-04-01

    London, Series A. 355, 283-318. 2. Boudier, F. &Nicolas, A. (1972) Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 52, 39-56. 3. Boudier, F. (1978) Geological Society of America Bulletin 89, 1574-1591. 4. Dick, H. J. B. &Bullen, T. (1984) Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 86, 54-76.

  17. Prokaryotic evolution and the tree of life are two different things

    PubMed Central

    Bapteste, Eric; O'Malley, Maureen A; Beiko, Robert G; Ereshefsky, Marc; Gogarten, J Peter; Franklin-Hall, Laura; Lapointe, François-Joseph; Dupré, John; Dagan, Tal; Boucher, Yan; Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    study their evolution. Ultimately, the plurality of evolutionary patterns and mechanisms involved, such as the discontinuity of the process of evolution across the prokaryote-eukaryote divide, summons forth a pluralistic approach to studying evolution. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Ford Doolittle, John Logsdon and Nicolas Galtier. PMID:19788731

  18. Detection of antimicrobial (poly)peptides with acid urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western immunoblot.

    PubMed

    Porter, Edith; Valore, Erika V; Anouseyan, Rabin; Salzman, Nita H

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial (poly)peptides (AMPs) are ancient key effector molecules of innate host defense and have been identified in mammals, insects, plants, and even fungi (Nakatsuji and Gallo, J Invest Dermatol, 132: 887-895, 2012). They exhibit a cationic net charge at physiological pH and are rich in hydrophobic amino acids (Dufourc et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 13: 620-631, 2012). Their mode of action has been best investigated in bacteria. When assuming secondary structure the cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are sequestered creating a bipartitioned molecule in which the cationic amino acids mediate initial electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged bacterial surface and the hydrophobic amino acids mediate embedding into the bacterial membranes followed by a multitude of effects interfering with bacterial viability (Nicolas, FEBS J, 276: 6483-6496, 2009; Padovan et al., Curr Protein Pept Sci, 11: 210-219, 2010). However, immunomodulatory, antitumor, and other effects have been added to the ever increasing list of AMP functions (Pushpanathan et al., Int J Pept, 2013: 675391, 2013). Several classes of AMPs have been distinguished based on structure, namely anti-parallel beta-sheet, alpha-helical, circular, as well as disulfide bridge connectivity (Bond and Khalid, Protein Pept Lett, 17: 1313-1327, 2010). Many of the AMPs undergo posttranslational modification including further proteolysis. Biochemical analysis at the protein level is of great interest for a wide range of scientists and important when studying host-pathogen interaction, for example Salmonella invasion of the small intestine. Acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) followed by Western immunoblotting is an important tool for the identification and quantification of cationic AMPs. The protocol for these procedures outlined here describes, in detail, the necessary steps; including pouring the AU-gels, preparing the test samples, performing the electrophoretic separation and

  19. On the instrumental characterization of a 3-λ scanning lidar to monitor industrial flames and its application for retrieving optical and microphysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; da Costa, Renata; Esteban Bedoya, Andrés; Guardani, Roberto; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Efrain Bastidas, Álvaro; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    . Alados-Arboledas, D. Nicolae, and M. Wiegner, "EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network," Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(8), 2389-2409 (2014)

  20. On the molecular mechanism of GC content variation among eubacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    as genome size, temperature, oxygen requirement, and habitat, either play subsidiary roles or rely indirectly on different mutator genes to fine-tune the GC content. These results provide a comprehensive insight into mechanisms of GC content variation and the robustness of eubacterial genomes in adapting their ever-changing environments over billions of years. Reviewers This paper was reviewed by Nicolas Galtier, Adam Eyre-Walker, and Eugene Koonin. PMID:22230424

  1. B/Nb and δ 11B systematics in the Phlegrean Volcanic District, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonarini, S.; Leeman, W. P.; Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; Ferrara, G.; Necco, A.

    2004-05-01

    Boron concentration and isotopic compositions were determined in representative products from the Phlegrean Volcanic District (PVD), which includes Campi Flegrei (CF), and the islands of Procida and Ischia. The most primitive products (from Procida and Ischia islands) are moderately enriched in B (4.6-12 ppm), whereas more evolved products of CF and Ischia Island are more enriched (21-118 ppm). The content of B is positively correlated with Nb, Zr, Th, La and, generally, with all incompatible elements. δ 11B values are generally lower and more uniform in samples from CF (-6.8 to - 10.6‰) compared with those from Procida (-3.6 to -8.5‰) and Ischia (-2.8 to -8.4‰) islands. Overall, B-enrichments relative to fluid-immobile elements of PVD are only slightly higher than those observed in mid-ocean ridge basalts and there is no significant correlation between δ 11B and B/immobile element ratios. For CF samples including the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and most post-CI products, δ 11B is negatively correlated with 87Sr/ 86Sr, with extreme compositions represented by evolved products of the CI (higher δ 11B, lower 87Sr/ 86Sr) and less evolved shoshonite (lower δ 11B, higher 87Sr/ 86Sr). In contrast, samples from Procida, Ischia, and pre-CI products and one young shoshonite from CF define a distinct correlation with primitive trachybasalt as the high δ 11B, low 87Sr/ 86Sr end-member, and young shoshonites as the low δ 11B, high 87Sr/ 86Sr end-member. The overall interpretation of the geochemical and isotopic data suggests three conclusions: (1) Geochemical and isotopic variations of post-CI products from CF can be explained by mixing/mingling between at least two distinct magmas, i.e. the CI and the young shoshonite (Minopoli 1). (2) The isotopic trend described by Procida trachybasalts, Ischia samples, pre-CI samples from CF and Pigna St. Nicola shoshonite is a mantle trend suggesting the involvement in their genesis of a distinct component depleted in B, with

  2. CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Spin Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coolen, Ton; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Sourlas, Nicolas; Wong, Michael

    2007-10-01

    This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of the conference `Viewing The World Through Spin Glasses', in honour of David Sherrington on the occasion of his 65th birthday, 31 August-1 September 2007 (http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/\\verb.~.ppzjpg/DS2007/). Invited speakers and participants at that meeting and other researchers working in the field are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Ton Coolen, Hidetoshi Nishimori, Nicolas Sourlas and Michael Wong to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: •The subject of the paper should relate to the subject of the conference (see the website of the conference http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/\\verb.~.ppzjpg/DS2007/). •Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. •Conference papers may be based on already published work but should either contain significant additional new results and/or insights or give a survey of the present state of the art, a critical assessment of the present understanding of a topic, and a discussion of open problems. •Papers submitted by non-participants should be original and contain substantial new results. The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are the following: •The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 1 December 2007. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in July 2008. •There is a nominal page limit of 16 printed pages per contribution. For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. •Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. •Contributions to the special issue should, if possible, be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa or by

  3. Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dainty, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    pt. 1. Wavefront correctors and control. Liquid crystal lenses for correction of presbyopia (Invited Paper) / Guoqiang Li and Nasser Peyghambarian. Converging and diverging liquid crystal lenses (oral paper) / Andrew X. Kirby, Philip J. W. Hands, and Gordon D. Love. Liquid lens technology for miniature imaging systems: status of the technology, performance of existing products and future trends (invited paper) / Bruno Berge. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer deformable mirrors for high energy laser applications (oral paper) / S. R. Restaino ... [et al.]. Tiny multilayer deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Tatiana Cherezova ... [et al.]. Performance analysis of piezoelectric deformable mirrors (oral paper) / Oleg Soloviev, Mikhail Loktev and Gleb Vdovin. Deformable membrane mirror with high actuator density and distributed control (oral paper) / Roger Hamelinck ... [et al.]. Characterization and closed-loop demonstration of a novel electrostatic membrane mirror using COTS membranes (oral paper) / David Dayton ... [et al.]. Electrostatic micro-deformable mirror based on polymer materials (oral paper) / Frederic Zamkotsian ... [et al.]. Recent progress in CMOS integrated MEMS A0 mirror development (oral paper) / A. Gehner ... [et al.]. Compact large-stroke piston-tip-tilt actuator and mirror (oral paper) / W. Noell ... [et al.]. MEMS deformable mirrors for high performance AO applications (oral paper) / Paul Bierden, Thomas Bifano and Steven Cornelissen. A versatile interferometric test-rig for the investigation and evaluation of ophthalmic AO systems (poster paper) / Steve Gruppetta, Jiang Jian Zhong and Luis Diaz-Santana. Woofer-tweeter adaptive optics (poster paper) / Thomas Farrell and Chris Dainty. Deformable mirrors based on transversal piezoeffect (poster paper) / Gleb Vdovin, Mikhail Loktev and Oleg Soloviev. Low-cost spatial light modulators for ophthalmic applications (poster paper) / Vincente Durán ... [et al.]. Latest MEMS DM developments and the path ahead

  4. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    's clearly fading as it ages, it is still more than holding its own with the younger generations." It's likely that two forms of X-ray emission are produced in J0108: emission from particles spiraling around magnetic fields, and emission from heated areas around the neutron star's magnetic poles. Measuring the temperature and size of these heated regions can provide valuable insight into the extraordinary properties of the neutron star surface and the process by which charged particles are accelerated by the pulsar. The younger, bright pulsars commonly detected by radio and X-ray telescopes are not representative of the full population of objects, so observing objects like J0108 helps astronomers see a more complete range of behavior. At its advanced age, J0108 is close to the so-called "pulsar death line," where its pulsed radiation is expected to switch off and it will become much harder, if not impossible, to observe. "We can now explore the properties of this pulsar in a regime where no other pulsar has been detected outside the radio range," said co-author Oleg Kargaltsev of the University of Florida. "To understand the properties of 'dying pulsars,' it is important to study their radiation in X-rays. Our finding that a very old pulsar can be such an efficient X-ray emitter gives us hope to discover new nearby pulsars of this class via their X-ray emission." The Chandra observations were reported by Pavlov and colleagues in the January 20, 2009, issue of The Astrophysical Journal. However, the extreme nature of J0108 was not fully apparent until a new distance to it was reported on February 6 in the PhD thesis of Adam Deller from Swinburne University in Australia. The new distance is both larger and more accurate than the distance used in the Chandra paper, showing that J0108 was brighter in X-rays than previously thought. "Suddenly this pulsar became the record holder for its ability to make X-rays," said Pavlov, "and our result became even more interesting without us

  5. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    's clearly fading as it ages, it is still more than holding its own with the younger generations." It's likely that two forms of X-ray emission are produced in J0108: emission from particles spiraling around magnetic fields, and emission from heated areas around the neutron star's magnetic poles. Measuring the temperature and size of these heated regions can provide valuable insight into the extraordinary properties of the neutron star surface and the process by which charged particles are accelerated by the pulsar. The younger, bright pulsars commonly detected by radio and X-ray telescopes are not representative of the full population of objects, so observing objects like J0108 helps astronomers see a more complete range of behavior. At its advanced age, J0108 is close to the so-called "pulsar death line," where its pulsed radiation is expected to switch off and it will become much harder, if not impossible, to observe. "We can now explore the properties of this pulsar in a regime where no other pulsar has been detected outside the radio range," said co-author Oleg Kargaltsev of the University of Florida. "To understand the properties of 'dying pulsars,' it is important to study their radiation in X-rays. Our finding that a very old pulsar can be such an efficient X-ray emitter gives us hope to discover new nearby pulsars of this class via their X-ray emission." The Chandra observations were reported by Pavlov and colleagues in the January 20, 2009, issue of The Astrophysical Journal. However, the extreme nature of J0108 was not fully apparent until a new distance to it was reported on February 6 in the PhD thesis of Adam Deller from Swinburne University in Australia. The new distance is both larger and more accurate than the distance used in the Chandra paper, showing that J0108 was brighter in X-rays than previously thought. "Suddenly this pulsar became the record holder for its ability to make X-rays," said Pavlov, "and our result became even more interesting without us

  6. List of Posters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    . Saturation effects in diffractive scattering at LHC By Oleg Selugin. A nonperturbative expansion method in QCD and R-related quantities By Igor Solovtsov. Z-scaling and high multiplicity particle Production in bar pp/pp & AA collisions at Tevatron and RHIC By Mikhail Tokarev. Scaling behaviour of the reactionsdd - > p↑ /3H and pd - > pd with pT at energy I-2 GeV By Yuri Uzikov. [ADS Note: Title formula can not be rendered correctly in ASCII.] CP violation, rare decays, CKM: Precision Measurements of the Mass of the Top Quark at CDF (Precision Top Mass Measurements at CDF) By Daniel Whiteson. Measurement of the Bs Oscillation at CDF By Luciano Ristori. The Bs mixing phase at LHCb By J. J. van Hunen. ATLAS preparations for precise measurements of semileptonic rare B decays By K. Toms. Hadron spectroscopy & exotics: Searches for radial excited states of charmonium in experiments using cooled antiproton beams By M. Yu. Barabanov. Retardation effects in the rotating string model By Fabien Buisseret and Claude Semay. Final results from VEPP-2M (CMD-2 and SND) By G. V. Fedotovich. Heavy Quark Physics: Prospects for B physics measurements using the CMS detector at the LHC By Andreev Valery. Heavy flavour production at HERA-B By Andrey Bogatyrev. B-Meson subleading form factors in the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) By Frederic Jugeau. Beyond the Standard Model: Monopole Decay in a Variable External Field By Andrey Zayakin. Two-Loop matching coefficients for the strong coupling in the MSSM By Mihaila Luminita. Test of lepton flavour violation at LHC By Hidaka Keisho. Looking at New Physics through 4 jets and no ET By Maity Manas. Are Preons Dyons? Naturalness of Three Generations By Das Chitta Ranjan. SUSY Dark Matter at Linear Collider By Sezen Sekmen, Mehmet Zeyrek. MSSM light Higgs boson scenario and its test at hadron colliders By Alexander Belyaev. Antiscalar Approach to Gravity and Standard Model By E. Mychelkin. GRID distributed analysis in high energy physics: PAX

  7. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    GonzalezBUAP, FCFM Lorenzo Díaz CruzBUAP Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas Luis Rey Díaz BarrónDivisión de Ciencias e Ingenierías Luis UrenaUniversidad de Guanajuato Magda LolaDept. of Physics, University of Patras, Greece Mahmoud WahbaEgyptian Center for Theoretical Physics, MTI Marcus S CohenNew Mexico State University Mario A Acero OrtegaICN - UNAM Mario E GomezUniversidad de Huelva Mark PipeUniversity of Sheffield Mauro NapsucialeDCI-UG Mirco CannoniUniversidad de Huelva Mónica Felipa Ramírez PalaciosUniversidad de Guadalajara Murli Manohar VermaLucknow university, India Nassim BozorgniaUCLA Octavio Obregón Octavio ValenzuelaIA-UNAM Oleg KamaevUniversity of Minnesota Osamu SetoHokkai-Gakuen University Pedro F González DíazIFF, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid, Spain Qaisar ShafiBartol Research Inst. and Delaware U. Raul Hennings-YeomansLos Alamos National Laboratory René Ángeles MartínezDepartamento de Fisica, del DCI de la Universidad de Guanajuato Reyna XoxocotziBUAP, FCFM Rishi Kumar TiwariGovt. Model Science College, Rewa (MP) INDIA Roberto A SussmanICN-UNAM Selim Gómez ÁvilaDCI-UG Sugai KenichiSaitama University Susana Valdez AlvaradoDCI-UG TVladimir - 2K CollaborationColorado State University Tonatiuh MatosCINVESTAV Valeriy DvoeglazovUniversidad de Zacatecas Vannia Gonzalez MaciasDCI-UG Vladimir Avila-ReeseInstituto de Astronomia, UNAM Wolfgang BietenholzINC, UNAM (Mexico) Yamanaka MasatoKyoto Sangyo University Yann MambriniLPT Orsay Yu-Feng ZhouInstitute of Theotretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PR China Aaron HigueraDCI-UG Azarael Yebra PérezDCI-UG César Hernández AguayoDCI-UG Jaime Chagoya AlvarezDCI-UG Jonathan Rashid Rosique CampuzanoDCI-UG José Alfredo Soto ÁlvarezDCI-UG Juan Carlos De Haro SantosDCI-UG Luis Eduardo Medina MedranoDCI-UG Maria Fatima Rubio EspinozaDCI-UG Paulo Alberto Rodriguez HerreraDCI-UG Roberto Oziel Gutierrez CotaDCI-UG Rocha Moran Maria PaulinaDCI-UG Xareni Sanchez MonroyDCI-UG

  8. Domain walls riding the wave.

    SciTech Connect

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the ferromagnetic wire is

  9. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    Ranjkesh, V Simonka, M Ambrozic, Z Bradac and S Kralj Morphogenesis of defects and tactoids during isotropic-nematic phase transition in self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystalsYoung-Ki Kim, Sergij V Shiyanovskii and Oleg D Lavrentovich Annihilation dynamics of stringlike topological defects in a nematic lyotropic liquid crystalR R Guimarães, R S Mendes, P R G Fernandes and H Mukai Duality between the dynamics of line-like brushes of point defects in 2D and strings in 3D in liquid crystalsSanatan Digal, Rajarshi Ray, P S Saumia and Ajit M Srivastava The multiuniverse transition in superfluid 3HeYury Bunkov Coherent topological defect dynamics and collective modes in superconductors and electronic crystalsD Mihailovic, T Mertelj, V V Kabanov and S Brazovskii Gaussianity revisited: exploring the Kibble-Zurek mechanism with superconducting ringsD J Weir, R Monaco, V P Koshelets, J Mygind and R J Rivers The Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a subcritical bifurcationM A Miranda, D Laroze and W González-Viñas Topological relics of symmetry breaking: winding numbers and scaling tilts from random vortex-antivortex pairsW H Zurek Causality and non-equilibrium second-order phase transitions in inhomogeneous systemsA del Campo, T W B Kibble and W H Zurek The role of causality in tunable Fermi gas condensatesJen-Tsung Hsiang, Chi-Yong Lin, Da-Shin Lee and Ray J Rivers Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a trapped ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensateHiroki Saito, Yuki Kawaguchi and Masahito Ueda D-brane solitons and boojums in field theory and Bose-Einstein condensatesKenichi Kasamatsu, Hiromitsu Takeuchi and Muneto Nitta Kibble-Zurek scaling and string-net coarsening in topologically ordered systemsAnushya Chandran, F J Burnell, Vedika Khemani and S L Sondhi Universal frozen spectra after time-dependent symmetry restoring phase transitionsFriedemann Queisser, Patrick Navez and Ralf Schützhold Microscopic theory of non-adiabatic response in real and imaginary timeC De Grandi, A

  10. PREFACE: XIV International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifang

    2011-03-01

    (Texas Tech University), Weidong Li (IHEP) 3) Readout techniques - Gerald Eigen (University of Bergen), Zheng Wang (IHEP) 4) Operating calorimeters and calibration - Marat Gataullin (CERN), Francesco Lanni (BNL) 5) Future calorimetry - Tohru Takeshita (Shinshu University), Lei Xia (Argonne National Laboratory) 6) Astrophysics and neutrino calorimetry - Giuliana Fiorillo (INFN), Hiro Tajima (SLAC) List of Participants AKCHURIN, NuralTexas Tech University AN, ZhenghuaIHEP AUFFRAY, EtiennetteCERN BANFI, DaniloUniversità degli Studi di Milano, INFN BASHARINA-FRESHVILLE, AnastasiaUniversity College London BEAUCHEMIN, Pierre-HuguesUniversity of Oxford BENAGLIA, Andrea DavideUniversity of Milano - Bicocca and INFN BIAN, JianminIHEP BIINO, CristinaINFN BILKI, BurakUniversity of Iowa BLAHA, JanLAPP BOUDRY, VincentLLR / CNRS-IN2P3 CAI, XiaoIHEP CAPONE, AntonioPhysics Department University "La Sapienza" and INFN CAVALLARI, FrancescaCERN and INFN Rome CECCHI, ClaudiaUniversity di Perugia e INFN CHANG, JinfanIHEP CHEN, HuchengBrookhaven National Laboratory CHILDERS, TaylorUniversität Heidelberg - Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik DAO, ValerioGeneva University - DPNC DE LA TAILLE, ChristopheIN2P3/OMEGA-LAL DIEMOZ, MarcellaINFN Roma DOTTI, AndreaCERN EIGEN, GeraldUniversity of Bergen EPIFANOV, DenisBudker Institute of Nuclear Physics FAIVRE, JulienLPSC Grenoble France FANG, JianIHEP FANG, ShuangshiIHEP FANTONI, AlessandraINFN - LNF FERRI, FedericoCEA/Saclay Irfu/SPP FERRONI, FernandoSapienza University & INFN Roma FISK, Henry EugeneFermilab GABALDON, CarolinaCERN GARUTTI, ErikaDESY GAUDIO, GabriellaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pavia GILLBERG, DagCarleton University GIOVANNINI, PaolaMax-Planck-Institut für Physik GLAZOV, AlexanderDESY GRACHOV, OlegUniversity of Kansas HAPPACHER, FabioINFN HE, MiaoIHEP HORI, YasutoUniversity of Tokyo, CNS HU, TaoIHEP HULTH, Per-OlofStockholm University JUN, Soon YungCarnegie Mellon University JURK, StefanISEG Spezialelektronik gmb

  11. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2007 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Since 1991, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of this journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. The current breadth of topical areas that are covered by MST has made it advisable to expand the recognition of excellent publications. Hence, since 2005 the Editorial Board have presented 'Outstanding Paper Awards' in four subject categories: Fluid Mechanics; Measurement Science; Precision Measurements; and Sensors and Sensing Systems. 2007 Award Winners—Fluid Mechanics An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV R Theunissen, F Scarano and M L Riethmuller von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Sint-Genesius Rode, Belgium and Department of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, PO Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The Netherlands The co-authored paper [1] has been selected as the Outstanding Paper in Fluid Mechanics for 2007. This paper provides a strategy whereby the placement and the size of the interrogation regions are adapted to the image signal strength (seeding density) and the spatial variations of the velocity magnitudes. Two, quite distinct, test cases demonstrate the efficacy of their method: a shockwave- boundary layer interaction and an aircraft vortex wake. The Selection Committee—Drs T Fansler, J Foss, I Marusic, S Morris, K Okamoto and M Wernet—selected this paper from a strongly competitive shortlist of four candidates. Their selection process was influenced by the perceived utility of the contribution to the numerous investigators who utilize PIV methods. 2007 Award Winners—Measurement Science Broadband single cell impedance spectroscopy using maximum length sequences: theoretical analysis and practical considerations Tao Sun, Shady Gawad, Catia Bernabini, Nicolas G Green and Hywel Morgan

  12. PREFACE: Peyresq Physics Workshops 11 and 12—'Micro and Macro Structure of Spacetime', Peyresq, Alpes de Haute Provence, France (17 23 June 2006 and 16 22 June 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteaga, D.; Verdaguer, E.

    2008-08-01

    -optical and condensed matter physics. The richness of this theme spans a diverse spectrum of current topics which can be gleaned from the titles of the talks presented in these two meetings. Peyresq is a medieval Provençal village situated 100km from Nice at an altitude of 1528m. The village was founded in the early 13th century. At the beginning of the 17th century there were around 50 houses and by 1851 the village counted 208 inhabitants distributed among 53 families. Like many other villages of Haute Provence, it was almost completely deserted after the Second World War. During the 1950s the village was progressively entirely rebuilt in its original spirit and style by students of Belgian universities, mainly the Université Libre de Bruxelles, under the guidance of Mady and Toine Smets. The aim was to create a 'Foyer d'Humanisme', an international humanistic center for cultural, artistic, and scientific pursuits. The workshops were financed by the Fondation Peyresq, Foyer d'Humanisme, the Fondation Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peyresq, and OLAM (Association pour la Recherche Fondamentale, Brussels). We would like to thank all these institutions for their help and financial support. We extend our warm appreciation to Madame Mady Smets without whom none of this work could have come to light. We would like to thank all the participants for the many lively discussions that we have enjoyed and for their effort in preparing written contributions. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Classical and Quantum Gravity, especially Tom Spicer, Joseph Tennant and Eirini Messaritaki, for their support and efficiency in preparing this volume. Finally, we thank Edgar Gunzig and Bei-Lok Hu as the main driving forces behind the organization of these workshops.

  13. Galaxy 'Hunting' Made Easy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Galaxies found under the Glare of Cosmic Flashlights Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered in a single pass about a dozen otherwise invisible galaxies halfway across the Universe. The discovery, based on a technique that exploits a first-class instrument, represents a major breakthrough in the field of galaxy 'hunting'. ESO PR Photo 40a/07 ESO PR Photo 40a/07 Newly Found Galaxies (SINFONI/VLT) The team of astronomers led by Nicolas Bouché have used quasars to find these galaxies. Quasars are very distant objects of extreme brilliance, which are used as cosmic beacons that reveal galaxies lying between the quasar and us. The galaxy's presence is revealed by a 'dip' in the spectrum of the quasar - caused by the absorption of light at a specific wavelength. The team used huge catalogues of quasars, the so-called SDSS and 2QZ catalogues, to select quasars with dips. The next step was then to observe the patches of the sky around these quasars in search for the foreground galaxies from the time the Universe was about 6 billion years old, almost half of its current age. "The difficulty in actually spotting and seeing these galaxies stems from the fact that the glare of the quasar is too strong compared to the dim light of the galaxy," says Bouché. This is where observations taken with SINFONI on ESO's VLT made the difference. SINFONI is an infrared 'integral field spectrometer' that simultaneously delivers very sharp images and highly resolved colour information (spectra) of an object on the sky. ESO PR Photo 32e/07 ESO PR Photo 40b/07 Chasing 'Hidden' Galaxies (Artist's Impression) With this special technique, which untangles the light of the galaxy from the quasar light, the team detected 14 galaxies out of the 20 pre-selected quasar patches of sky, a hefty 70% success rate. "This high detection rate alone is a very exciting result," says Bouché. "But, these are not just ordinary galaxies: they are most notable ones, actively forming a lot of

  14. PREFACE: 10th Summer School on Theoretical Physics 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    also for several valuable discussion. We would like to express our thanks to all those who prepared manuscripts, to all referees who spent their time to significantly improve our elaborations, and thus the quality of this volume, to all members of our International Advisory Committee and to chairmen for their polite and efficient leading of sessions. It is our pleasure to express special gratitude to The Nicolas C Metropolis Mathematics Foundation (Los Alamos, USA) for substantial financial support of our three last SSPCM schools. Indeed, it provided an essential basis for performing these meetings. We direct this gratitude to Professor James D Louck, the President of this Foundation. Also, we were happy to hear from Professor Louck that this series of schools has had an important influence on his activities on application of unitary groups in physics. It has resulted in a new monograph: James D Louck, 'Unitary Symmetry and Combinatorics', World Scientific, New Jersey 2008, which was presented at our jubilee meeting. Tadeusz Lulek, Andrzej Wal and Barbara Lulek

  15. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.

    2004-04-01

    On 1 January, 2004, I assumed the position of Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. I will start by saying that I will do my best to justify the confidence of the journal management and publishing staff in my abilities. I was fortunate to have been able to work, as an Editorial Board member, with my predecessor, the previous Editor-in-Chief, Professor Allister Ferguson. Allister has provided a high degree of intellectual stewardship for the journal in the last five years. He has made the job appear a worthy challenge for me. I therefore take this opportunity to thank Allister on behalf of the Editorial Board and publishing staff of the journal. Several other factors contributed to my decision to accept this position. The first is the group of people who actually go about the business of publishing. The Senior Publisher, Nicola Gulley (and her predecessor Sophy Le Masurier); the Managing Editor, Jill Membrey; the Publishing Administrators, Nina Blakesley and Sarah Towell; the Production Editor, Katie Gerrard and their office staff form an amazing group and have managed to make the operation of the journal incredibly efficient. An index of this is the speed with which incoming manuscripts are processed. The average time between the receipt of a manuscript and its web publication, if accepted, is 130 days. This is three to five times shorter than for most other journals. A factor that contributes to this success is a responsive pool of referees that the publishing staff have as a valuable resource. Ultimately, the standard bearers of any journal are the referees. Therefore, a grateful `thank you' is due from all of us at J. Phys. D to all our referees, who diligently perform this honourable task. The Associate Editors of the journal, Professors Lawler, Margaritondo and O'Grady, also provide immense scientific leadership. They help in defining new directions for the journal and in the publishing process. Last, but not least, a remarkable asset of

  16. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. We thank those who contributed to this symposium as well as members of the 'Soft Matter Physics' project for their valuable discussions and collaborations. Non-equilibrium soft matter contents Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models G Garbès Putzel and M Schick Dynamical membrane curvature instability controlled by intermonolayer friction Anne-Florence Bitbol, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Miglena I Angelova and Nicolas Puff Numerical investigations of the dynamics of two-component vesicles Takashi Taniguchi, Miho Yanagisawa and Masayuki Imai Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique Y Sakuma, N Urakami, T Taniguchi and M Imai Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers Fumihiko Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Koga, Isamu Kaneda and Françoise M Winnik Morphology and rheology of an immiscible polymer blend subjected to a step electric field under shear flow H Orihara, Y Nishimoto, K Aida, Y H Na, T Nagaya and S Ujiie Surfactant-induced friction reduction for hydrogels in the boundary lubrication regime Kosuke Kamada, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tomohiro Tada, Taiki Tominaga, Yukihiro Nakano and Jian Ping Gong Fabrication and structural analysis of polyrotaxane fibers and films Yasuhiro Sakai, Kentaro Ueda, Naoya Katsuyama, Koji Shimizu, Shunya Sato, Jun Kuroiwa, Jun Araki, Akira Teramoto, Koji Abe, Hideaki Yokoyama and Kohzo Ito Micellization kinetics of diblock copolymers in a homopolymer matrix: a self-consistent field study Raghuram Thiagarajan and David C Morse Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers Gerrit ten Brinke, Katja Loos, Ivana Vukovic and Gerrit Gobius du Sart Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers Yushu Matsushita, Kenichi Hayashida, Tomonari Dotera and Atsushi Takano Direct and inverted nematic

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New standards in 18th century astrometry (Lequeux, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequeux, J.

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of Flamsteed (flamstee.dat): John Flamsteed (1646-1719) was the first astronomer in charge of Greenwich Observatory. His stellar catalogue (Flamsteed 1725) was built on observations from 1675 to 1683 with a 6-feet radius sextant mounted on an axis parallel to the polar axis of the Earth, then from 1683 to 1719 with a mural circle with a radius of 79.5 inches (2m). 220 stars over 3925. Catalogue of Romer (romer.dat): Ole (or Olaus) Romer (1644-1710) is principally known for his 1676 discovery of the finite velocity of light, a discovery that he shared with Jean-Dominique Cassini. After a long stay in Paris, he returned to Copenhagen in 1681 and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University. The observatory and all the observations were destroyed in the great Copenhagen fire of 1728, with the exception of observations of 88 stars obtained during three observing nights, from 20 to 23 October 1706. La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (lacaifun.dat): Nicolas-Louis La Caille (or Lacaille, or de la Caille, 1713-1762) was a French astronomer who is remembered principally for his survey of the southern sky, where he introduced 14 new constellations that are still in use today. Before leaving for the Cape of Good Hope in 1750, he started a catalogue of the 400 brightest stars of both hemispheres, which he completed during his stays in Cape Town and in the Mauritius island, then after his return to Paris in 1754. He reduced the observations himself, including for the first time corrections for aberration and nutation, and published them with details of the observations and reductions (La Caille 1757). Bailly's adaptation of La Caille's catalogue of fundamental stars (bailly.dat): After the death of La Caille, Jean-Sylvain Bailly published a catalogue of the brighest stars of both hemispheres for the equinox B1750.0 in Ephemerides for 10 year from 1765 to 1775 (Anonymous (Bailly) 1763, p. lvii-lxiv). This catalogue obviously derives from the catalogue

  18. The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    ESO's Wide Field Imager has captured the intricate swirls of the spiral galaxy Messier 83, a smaller look-alike of our own Milky Way. Shining with the light of billions of stars and the ruby red glow of hydrogen gas, it is a beautiful example of a barred spiral galaxy, whose shape has led to it being nicknamed the Southern Pinwheel. Messier 83, M83 ESO PR Photo 25/08 Spiral Galaxy Messier 83 This dramatic image of the galaxy Messier 83 was captured by the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory, located high in the dry desert mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. Messier 83 lies roughly 15 million light-years away towards the huge southern constellation of Hydra (the sea serpent). It stretches over 40 000 light-years, making it roughly 2.5 times smaller than our own Milky Way. However, in some respects, Messier 83 is quite similar to our own galaxy. Both the Milky Way and Messier 83 possess a bar across their galactic nucleus, the dense spherical conglomeration of stars seen at the centre of the galaxies. This very detailed image shows the spiral arms of Messier 83 adorned by countless bright flourishes of ruby red light. These are in fact huge clouds of glowing hydrogen gas. Ultraviolet radiation from newly born, massive stars is ionising the gas in these clouds, causing the great regions of hydrogen to glow red. These star forming regions are contrasted dramatically in this image against the ethereal glow of older yellow stars near the galaxy's central hub. The image also shows the delicate tracery of dark and winding dust streams weaving throughout the arms of the galaxy. Messier 83 was discovered by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in the mid 18th century. Decades later it was listed in the famous catalogue of deep sky objects compiled by another French astronomer and famous comet hunter, Charles Messier. Recent observations of this enigmatic galaxy in ultraviolet light and radio waves have shown that even its outer desolate regions

  19. Palaeoglacial lake and outburst flood reconstructions along the southern late-glacial Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin: implications for ice sheet reconstruction and landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Proglacial lakes are crucial in controlling the meltwater and sediment flux from decaying ice margins, affect local ice dynamics, and can influence local and regional weather and climate. They are also potential sources of outburst floods, which can have major impacts on regional geomorphology and drainage networks. As such, proglacial lakes are important components of deglacial environments, and reconstructing proglacial lakes during decay of past ice sheets will improve understanding of their potential influence in the future. The presence of palaeo-ice-dammed lakes in valleys dissecting the southern Interior Plateau of British Columbia (BC), is evident in abundant lake-bottom sediments, deltaic deposits and shorelines. To date, the palaeogeography of these lakes have not been well constrained, and the damming ice margins have been proposed under a paradigm of Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) stagnation - lakes dammed by dead-ice lobes in valleys where ice was thickest; this paradigm has been challenged by recent studies elsewhere on the Interior Plateau that support generally active, systematic retreat of the ice margin to the north and west. This project reinvestigated glacial Lake Nicola (gLN) on the northern Thompson Plateau, the key site for development of the stagnation paradigm, to improve palaeogeographic and palaeohydrological reconstructions of this basin. Five lake stages for gLN have been identified on the basis of shoreline and delta elevations and the extent of lake-bottom sediments. Glacioisostatic tilts were reconstructed for the four most extensive stages of between 1.6 and 1.9 m/km up to the north-northwest. Areal extent and lake volume for each lake were extracted by plotting lake planes onto DEMs adjusted to these reconstructed tilts; maximum volumes for each stage are in the order of 10 km3, with the largest reconstructed at 260km3. These lakes expanded and lowered to the northwest, as progressively lower outlets were opened by ice recession in

  20. Sighting characteristics and photo-identification of Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) near San Clemente Island, California: a key area for beaked whales and the military?

    PubMed

    Falcone, Erin A; Schorr, Gregory S; Douglas, Annie B; Calambokidis, John; Henderson, Elizabeth; McKenna, Megan F; Hildebrand, John; Moretti, David

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between beaked whales and certain anthropogenic sounds remains poorly understood and of great interest. Although Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) are widely distributed, little is known of their behavior and population structure throughout much of their range. We conducted a series of five combined visual-acoustic marine mammal surveys from 2006 to 2008 in the southern San Nicolas Basin, a site of frequent naval activity off the southern California coast, west of San Clemente Island. The study area was defined by a 1,800 km(2) array of 88 bottom-mounted hydrophones at depths up to 1,850 m. The array was used to vector visual observers toward vocalizing marine mammal species. Thirty-seven groups of Cuvier's beaked whales were encountered during the study period. The overall encounter rate was one group for every 21.0 h of survey effort, and was as high as one group per 10.2 h of effort during the October 2007 survey. Whales were encountered in the deepest portion of the study area, at a mean bottom depth of 1,580 m (SD 138). The average group size was 3.8 individuals (SD 2.4), which was higher than has been reported from other studies of this species. Twenty-four groups were observed over multiple surfacings (median = 4 surfacings, range 2-15). The mean encounter duration of extended sightings was 104 min (SD 98, range 12-466 min) and the mean distance moved over the course of sightings was 1.66 km (SD 1.56, range 0.08-6.65 km). Temporal surfacing patterns during extended encounters were similar to dive behavior described from Cuvier's beaked whales carrying time-depth recording tags. Seventy-eight photographic identifications were made of 58 unique individuals, for an overall resighting rate of 0.26. Whales were sighted on up to 4 days, with duration from first to last sighting spanning 2-79 days. For those whales sighted on subsequent days, the mean distance between subsequent sightings was 8.6 km (SD 7.9). Individuals

  1. Preface: Emag 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComb, David; Brown, Paul D.

    2008-02-01

    the keynote scientific issues and to provide a background to the detailed conference themes. Our thanks to Maureen Makenzie and Pete Nellist for their sterling work running this event. In addition, a Trade Exhibition was fully integrated into the conference site in the Glasgow Caledonian University Sports Hall, within close walking distance of the lecture theatres, giving delegates the opportunity to discuss recent developments in analytical instrumentation. In keeping with the previous EMAG-NANO 2005 conference at Leeds University, provision was made for commercial workshops for the promotion of products by the manufacturers and 'question and answer' sessions. The companies on show spanned the range of mainstream electron and scanning probe instrument makers, combined with a broad spectrum of smaller companies providing ancillary equipment, from services for sample preparation to vacuum system support. As ever, we are grateful to the exhibitors and sponsors for their valued contribution to this conference series. Finally, we are extremely grateful for the many people who helped with the running of this conference. On behalf of the EMAG group we'd like to take the opportunity to thank the local organising committee of Ian MacLaren and Maureen Mackenzie. Our thanks also to Stephen Donnelly and Richard Baker for collating the scientific programme, to Stephen Donnelly for co-ordinating the award of student bursaries, and to Richard Baker and Guenter Moebus for their patient work guiding the editing of the proceedings. We'd also like to acknowledge the exceptional contribution of Jill Cowlard and Nicola Deedman of the CEM Group for co-ordinating the Trade Exhibition, and Claire Pantlin and her team at the Institute of Physics for their help keeping show on the road! David McComb Imperial College London (EMAG Chair) Paul D Brown University of Nottingham (EMAG Proceedings Editor)

  2. PREFACE: 27th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, Dragana; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.; Mijatović, Zoran

    2014-12-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains a selection of papers presented at the 27th Summer School and International Symposium on the Physics of Ionized Gases - SPIG 2014, as General Invited Lectures, Topical Invited Lectures, Progress Reports and associated Workshop Lectures. The conference was held in Belgrade, Serbia, from 26-29 August 2014 at the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. It was organized by the Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia. A rare virtue of a SPIG conference is that it covers a wide range of topics, bringing together leading scientists worldwide to present and discuss state-of-the art research and the most recent applications, thus stimulating a modern approach of interdisciplinary science. The Invited lectures and Contributed papers are related to the following research fields: 1. Atomic Collision Processes (Electron and Photon Interactions with Atomic Particles, Heavy Particle Collisions, Swarms and Transport Phenomena) 2. Particle and Laser Beam Interactions with Solids (Atomic Collisions in Solids, Sputtering and Deposition, Laser and Plasma Interaction with Surfaces) 3. Low Temperature Plasmas (Plasma Spectroscopy and other Diagnostic Methods, Gas Discharges, Plasma Applications and Devices) 4. General Plasmas (Fusion Plasmas, Astrophysical Plasmas and Collective Phenomena) Additionally, the 27th SPIG encompassed three workshops that are closely related to the scope of the conference: • The Workshop on Dissociative Electron Attachment (DEA) - Chaired by Prof. Nigel J Mason, OBE, The Open University, United Kingdom • The Workshop on X-ray Interaction with Biomolecules in Gas Phase (XiBiGP), Chaired by Dr. Christophe Nicolas, Synchrotron SOLEIL, France • The 3rd International Workshop on Non-Equilibrium Processes (NonEqProc) - Chaired by Prof

  3. 3D point cloud classification of complex natural scenes using a multi-scale dimensionality criterion: applications in geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodu, N.; Lague, D.

    2012-04-01

    vegetation from ground or other classes achieve accuracy larger than 98 %. Comparison with a single scale approach shows the superiority of the multi-scale analysis in enhancing class separability and spatial resolution. Given that full data resolution is rarely needed for final scientific analysis, we introduce the notion of core points which are a sub-sampled version of the original data on which calculations are done using full resolution. This way, scenes between ten and one hundred million points can be classified on a common laptop in a reasonable time. The technique is robust to missing data, shadow zones, spurious mixed-points and changes in point density within the scene. A probabilistic confidence in the classification result is given at each point, allowing the user to remove the points for which the classification is uncertain. The process can be both fully automated or fully customized by the user. We discuss and show why in complex natural 3D cases, this geometrical technique is currently superior to classification methods based on RGB imagery or laser reflected intensity. The CANUPO software suite is available as Free/Libre software at the following address : http://nicolas.brodu.numerimoire.net/en/recherche/canupo/

  4. Strong and Electroweak Matter 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskola, Kari J.; Kainulainen, Kimmo; Kajantie, Keijo; Rummukainen, Kari

    results confront models / M. D'Elia and M. P. Lombardo -- Singlet free energies of a static quark-antiquark pair / K. Petrov -- Contributions to transport theory from multi-particle interactions and production processes / M. E. Carrington -- Transport coefficients and the 2PI effective action in the large N limit / G. Aarts and J. M. Martinez Resco -- Thermal features far from equilibrium: prethermalization / S. Borsányi -- QCD phase diagram at small Baryon densities from imaginary [symbol]: status report / O. Philipsen and Ph. de Forcrand -- Two loop renormalisation of the magnetic coupling in hot QCD and spatial Wilson loop / P. Giovannangeli -- Thermodynamics of deconfined QCD at small and large chemical potential / A. Ipp -- Evading the infrared problem of thermal QCD / Y. Schroder -- Chiral mesons in hot matter / A. Gómez Nicola, F. J. Llanes-Estrada and J. R. Peláez -- Thermal production of axinos in the early universe / A. Brandenburg and F. D. Steffen -- The 2-PI-1/N approximation applied to tachyonic preheating / A. Tranberg, A. Arrizabalaga and J. Smit -- Nonequilibrium dynamics in scalar hybrid models / J. Baacke and A. Heinen -- Photon mass in inflation and nearly minimal magnetogenesis / T. Prokopec -- Transport equations for chiral fermions to order [symbol] and electroweak Baryogenesis / S. Weinstock, M. G. Schmidt and T. Prokopec -- The gapless 2SC phase / M. Huang and I. A. Shovkovy -- Gapless CFL and its competition with mixed phases / M. Alford, C. Kouvaris and K. Rajagopal -- Transport coefficients in color superconducting quark matter / C. Manuel -- Renormalization and resummation in finite temperature field theories / A. Jakovác and Zs. Szép -- Renormalization and gauge symmetry for 2PI effective actions / U. Reinosa -- Out-of-equilibrium massless Schwinger model / R. F. Alvarez-Estrada -- Selfconsistent calculations of hadrons at finite temperature / C. Beckmann -- Fermion production in classical fields / D. D. Dietrich -- Numerical study of

  5. Uniform Asymptotic Expansion for the Helmholtz Green's Function-- Application to Inversion Preprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Virieux, J.; van Vorst, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    obtained by using the new uniform asymptotic expansion ansatz, which supplants the usual homogeneous transfer function employed. Examples will be presented for synthetic data sets, to illustrate the differences between these two transfer functions. References [1] E. Zauderer. 1971, Uniform asymptotic solutions of the reduced wave equation. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Application 30, pp. 157-171. [2] M. J. Yedlin. 1987, Uniform asymptotic solution for the Green’s function for the two-dimensional acoustic equation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81(2) pp. 238-243. [3] J. Tromp, C. Tape and Q. Liu. 2005, Seismic tomography, adjoint methods, time reversal and banana-doughnut kernels. Geophysical Journal International 160(1), pp. 195-216. [4] I. Iturbe, P. Roux, J. Virieux and B. Nicolas. 2009, Travel-time sensitivity kernels versus diffraction patterns obtained through double beam-forming in shallow water. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126(2), pp. 713-720. [5] J. R. Ernst, A. G. Green, H. Maurer and K. Holliger. 2007, Application of a new 2D time-domain full-waveform inversion scheme to crosshole radar data. Geophysics 72, pp. J53-J64.

  6. Uniformly Asymptotic Frequency Domain Green's Functions for the Acoustic Equation - Theory and Applications in Two and Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Virieux, Jean

    2010-05-01

    model. Geophysics 64(3), pp. 888-901. [2] J. R. Ernst, A. G. Green, H. Maurer and K. Holliger. 2007, Application of a new 2D time-domain full-waveform inversion scheme to crosshole radar data. Geophysics 72, pp. J53. [3] H. Marquering, F. Dahlen and G. Nolet. 1999, Three-dimensional sensitivity kernels for finite-frequency traveltimes: The banana-doughnut paradox. Geophysical Journal International 137(3), pp. 805-815. [4] J. Tromp, C. Tape and Q. Liu. 2005, Seismic tomography, adjoint methods, time reversal and banana-doughnut kernels. Geophysical Journal International 160(1), pp. 195-216. [5] M. L. Buursink, T. C. Johnson, P. S. Routh and M. D. Knoll. 2008, Crosshole radar velocity tomography with finite-frequency fresnel volume sensitivities. Geophysical Journal International 172(1), pp. 1-17. [6] I. Iturbe, P. Roux, J. Virieux and B. Nicolas. 2009, Travel-time sensitivity kernels versus diffraction patterns obtained through double beam-forming in shallow water. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126(2), pp. 713-720. [7] E. Zauderer. 1971, Uniform asymptotic solutios of the reduced wave equation. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Application 30, pp. 157-171. [8] M. J. Yedlin. 1987, Uniform asymptotic solution for the Green's function for the two-dimensional acoustic equation. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81(2) pp. 238-243.

  7. Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righini, Margherita; Surian, Nicola; Wohl, Ellen; Amponsah, William; Marchi, Lorenzo; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors Margherita Righini (1), Nicola Surian (1), Ellen Wohl (2), William Amponsah (3, 4), Lorenzo Marchi (3), Marco Borga (4) (1) Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Italy, (2) Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, (3) CNR IRPI, Padova, Italy, (4) Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, Italy. The investigation of geomorphic effectiveness of extreme floods is crucial to improve tools for assessing channel dynamics and our capability of forecasting geomorphological hazard. This work deals with geomorphic response of two mountain rivers in the Posada catchment (northeastern Sardinia, Italy), considering a range of morphological (i.e., lateral channel confinement, channel gradient, channel sinuosity, sediment sources, and vegetation) and hydraulic variables (i.e., cross-sectional stream power, unit stream power, flow duration and total energy expenditure) as possible controlling factors. On November 18th 2013, northeastern Sardinia was affected by an extreme meteorological event with hourly rainfall intensities up to 100 mm/h and a peak in rain accumulation up to 450 mm in 24 hours, with 18 casualties and damages to infrastructure and buildings. In the Posada and Mannu di Bitti Rivers, the geomorphic response (i.e., bank erosion, channel aggradation and incision, vegetation and wood dynamics, hillslope failure) was analyzed at different spatial scales. The observed dominant geomorphic change was channel widening. Therefore, channel width changes have been analyzed in detail by remote sensing and GIS tools integrated by field surveys. The study focuses on reaches (i.e., 22.5 km in the Posada River, upstream of Maccheronis dam; 18.2 km in the Mannu di Bitti River) affected by evident and significant geomorphic responses in terms

  8. Candoglia Marble and the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano": a resource for Global Heritage Stone Designation in the Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Castelli, Daniele; Corbetta, Elio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Alpine marbles have been widely used in the past for celebrated, both indoor and outdoor, applications. Among them, the Candoglia Marble, a worldwide known and appreciated georesource, and its "bastard brother" from the nearby Ornavasso area were and are exploited in the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarry basin of Northwestern Italian Alps. They crop out as lenses (up to 30 m in thickness) interlayered within high-grade paragneisses of the Ivrea Zone, a section of deep continental crust that experienced amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism of Palaeozoic age. The Candoglia and Ornavasso Marbles are pinkish to greyish, coarse-grained (> 3 mm), calcitic marbles with frequent, cm-thick, dark-greenish silicate layers containing diopside and tremolite; minor minerals include quartz, epidote, sulphides, Ba-feldspar, barite and, occasionally, phlogopite. First record of quarrying activities in the area arises to the Roman age (Ornavasso quarrying area). Both the Ornavasso and Candoglia Marbles were widely employed in local construction (San Nicola Church and Torre della Guardia at Ornavasso, Madonna di Campagna Church at Verbania, San Giovanni in Montorfano Church), but they became famous thanks to their application for the "Duomo di Milano" since the fourteenth century. At the beginning, the building stones employed for the construction of the Gothic style, Duomo di Milano were quarried in the Ornavasso area, but in a short time, the Candoglia quarry (property of the so-called "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" that incessantly takes care of the Cathedral Church from 1387 A.D.) became the main quarry for the construction and maintenance of the Cathedral. The Candoglia quarry developed during the centuries, from open pit small quarries to a unique underground quarry, characterised by a very peculiar quarrying activities (subvertical bench characterized by strong lateral forces, which have to be contrasted and monitored). The Candoglia Marble was preferred to Carrara marbles

  9. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  10. Textural and petrological characteristics of ultrahigh-pressure chromitites, indicating a mantle recycling origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Shoji; Miura, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinji; Shmelev, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Podiform chromitites, which occur as irregular to lens-like chromite-rich bodies within mantle peridotite in ophiolites, show various petrological characteristics, suggesting various origins. Some of them contain ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals such as diamond, moissanite and Fe silicides (= UHP chromitites) (e.g., Robinson et al., 2004; Yang et al., 2007). Their origin is highly enigmatic, because the podiform chromitites have been widely understood as low-P (uppermost mantle level) products (e.g., Arai and Yurimoto, 1994; Zhou et al., 1994). Ordinary podiform chromitites show various lines of evidence for low-P genesis. Chromian spinel (or chromite) frequently contains solid mineral inclusions, and one of their main phases is pargasite, which is stable up to 3 GPa (e.g., Niida and Green, 1999), one of typical low-P minerals. The melt-harzburgite intereaction is a fundamental process in podiform chromitite genesis (e.g., Arai and Yurimoto, 1994), and associated with incongruent melting of orthopyroxene in harzburgite to form dunite and relatively Si-rich melt, which is operative at low-P conditions (e.g., Kushiro, 1969). We are strongly required to incorporate the genesis UHP chromitite into the framework of podiform chromitite genesis. Arai (2010) proposed a hypothesis of deep mantle recycling of ordinary low-P chromitite for the genesis of UHP chromitite. We try to examine petrographical and petrological characteristics of UHP chromitites to check the hypothesis of Arai (2010). Some peculiar textures of podiform chromities, such as orbicular, nodular and anti-nodular textures, are interpreted to be primary igneous and particular to ordinary low-P igneous chromitites (cf. Nicolas, 1989). To be interesting, the nodular texture, characterized by oval aggregates of chromian spinel (= chromite nodules; ~1 cm across) set in olivine-rich matrix, is also observed in some of UHP chromitites from the Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet (e.g., Yamamoto et al., 2009). We carefully

  11. Decommissioning, Dismantling and Disarming: a Unique Information Showroom Inside the G2 Reactor at Marcoule Centre (France) - 12068

    SciTech Connect

    Volant, Emmanuelle; Garnier, Cedric

    2012-07-01

    for irradiated graphite waste. Then, the paper recalls communication events and official visits hosted in Pierrelatte and Marcoule, following a formal invitation from the French President Mr. Nicolas Sarkozy. These visits, which were organized in order to illustrate the irreversibility of these dismantling operations, allowed visitors to discovers places that used to be former highly classified areas. Three official visits were organized in 2008 and 2009 for representatives of the Conference on Disarmament Member States, non-governmental experts and journalists. All participants visited the dismantled uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte, the G2 reactor and the UP1 plant in Marcoule. The visits were successful and visitors were especially impressed by the G2 reactor and its massive industrial architecture, symbolic of the early ages of nuclear history. In late 2010, this feedback convinced CEA Military Application Directorate (CEA DAM) that a permanent showroom could be installed inside the reactor, making it possible to preserve the cultural value of this historical landmark, and to continue its ongoing effort of communication and outreach. The paper explains the design of this concept: the museography project with a professional designer, the communication material conception and the features of such an original place. (authors)

  12. Change in the structure of Escherichia coli population related to the settling velocities in karst aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, F.; Massei, N.; Berthe, T.; Deloffre, J.; Fournier, M.; Bertel, F.; jolivet, F.; lallemand, H.; Niepceron, F.; Sellier, C.; Benjamin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Change in the structure of Escherichia coli population related to the settling velocities in karst aquifer. Fabienne Petit1, Fanny Bertel2, Florence Jolivet2, Hélène Lallemand2, Fanny Niepceron2, Clémentine Sellier2, Benjamin Smith2, Thierry Berthe, Julien Deloffre1, Matthieu Fournier1,Nicolas Massei 1. 1- Université de Rouen, UMR 6143 M2C, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France 1- CNRS, UMR 6143 M2C, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France 1- SFR SCALE, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France 2 Research project of students from MasterEnvironment ( ESEB University of Rouen) According to the farming or human use of their watershed, the karst aquifers were particularly vulnerable to contamination by fecal bacteria mainly Escherichia coli (E. coli). To date, if E. coli is a commensal bacteria originated from intestinal tracts of humans and vertebrate animals, the water and sediment are also considered as a putative second habitat where some strains could be naturalized. Among the phenotypic characteristics of E.coli, association with particles not only could enhance the survival of some strains but also greatly influenced the particles dynamics. The great genetic diversity of E. coli may explain this variety of lifestyles of this bacteria species. Indeed we have previously shown that in river, the structure of the population of E. coli was not stable, but depended on hydrological conditions (Ratajczak, 2010). In this work we go further into the understanding of the behaviour of E. coli population in karstic hydrosystem by investigating (i) the structure of E. coli population based on the distribution in four main phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D) according their settling velocities from surface water to groundwater. For this purpose we combined microbiology , microscopy (SEM) and hydrology approaches. During their transfer along the karst hydrosystem, both modalities of the association of E. coli to the particles and, the structure of E. coli population were modified. Settling experiment led

  13. Relationship between oxidation state and texture and the influence of metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Massif Central, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenver-Thiele, Laura; Woodland, Alan; Downes, Hilary; Altherr, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Investigating regional variations in structure and composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is usually hampered by the lack of samples. However, the numerous volcanic centers of the French Massif Central have brought samples of the SCLM to the surface over a geographic area of ~20.000km2. Lenoir et al. (2000) and Downes et al. (2003) identified textural and geochemical differences between two domains lying north and south of 45° 30' latitude, respectively. The northern domain is relatively refractory, but has experienced pervasive enrichment of LREE. The southern domain is generally more fertile, although the peridotites are LREE depleted. Many xenolith suites have undergone variable degrees of metasomatism. Variations in oxidation state might be expected from the differing histories of these two domains. We have undertaken an extensive study to determine the oxidation state of the SCLM beneath the Massif Central over the largest geographical area possible, including 140 peridotite xenoliths from 45 localities. All xenoliths are spinel peridotites and vary in composition from lherzolites to harzburgites. Using the nomenclature of Mercier and Nicolas (1975) the xenoliths are mostly protogranular or protogranular-porphyroclastic, although some are porphyroclastic or equigranular. Small amounts of amphibole or biotite occur in some xenoliths, particularly in the southern domain, reflecting modal metasomatism. These metasomatic phases are found predominantly in peridotites with protogranular textures. Oxidation state was determined using the equilibrium between the Fe-bearing components of olivine and pyroxene and the magnetite component in spinel (i.e. Wood et al. 1990). Major element compositions of the individual minerals were determined by microprobe. Ferric iron contents of spinel were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy and gave values of Fe3+/ Fetot from 0.159 to 0.459, with a conservative uncertainty of ±0.02. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) of

  14. The potential of geotourism to meet the challenges of geoconservation in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepert, A.; Zacke, A.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Geoconservation as well as the concept of geological heritage has been understood as a new challenge for geological research in the last decades. Traditionally, the approach to geology has been more often linked to the exploitation of resources rather than to preservation of sites of geological value. In many countries the protection of geological sites is connected to the protection of biodiversity. The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. During Late Cretaceous large parts of former Tethyan oceanic crust were obducted onto the Arabian plate to form one of the world's best exposed and best studied ophiolites (Searle and Cox, 1999). The Semail Ophiolite might be the best known example of Oman's geological heritage. However, the country offers far more geological features which are spectacular or unique. To name just a few, there are e.g. Neoproterocoic glacial sediments (Allen, 2007); surface piercing salt-domes (Al Siyabi and Newall, 2005); huge sand-deserts (Goudie et al., 1999); a mountain-range 3000 m high with spectacular canyons as Wadi Nakhr (Kusky et al., 2005); as well as outcropping Moho (Boudier and Nicolas, 1995). As the country is located in the arid to semiarid climatic zone, soil-development is very limited as is vegetation cover. Therefore the geology is easy accessible - a fact that attracts more and more geosciences students to study geology in the field, as well as tourists to enjoy the spectacular scenery. However, concerning the whole field of nature conservation, Oman just started facing the fact of increasing destruction of landscapes including endangering of biodiversity. The country's economic development mainly took place within the last 40 years. Large infrastructure projects are under construction to meet the needs of ongoing development of land and resources. As a consequence thereof geological heritage is in danger of being destroyed due to lack of awareness. The aim of this study is to

  15. A Geochemical Comparison of the Northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith in Southern California and the Coastal Batholith in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, B. L.; Martínez Ardila, A. M.; Morton, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    , tonalite, monzonite, and granodiorite. In addition, samples were taken from the adjacent Precambrian basement and Paleozoic San Nicolas batholith in order to estimate the local geochemistry for continental crust contamination and to compare with published crustal averages. For this part of the Coastal Batholith, gabbroic plutons that formed during extension have little contamination from continental crust; the time-separated super-units form distinct assemblages; some of the super-units went through several differentiation cycles; parts of the Linga super-unit have low Sri ratios below 0.704; and magma mixing played an important role. The Coastal Batholith of western Peru (similar to the eastern PRB) has an intermediate calc-alkaline composition, in comparison to batholiths in Chile (similar to the western PRB) that are more calcic and those in eastern Peru (similar to the Sierra Nevadas) that are more alkaline.

  16. Emergent nanoscale fluctuations in high rock-salt PbTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinge, Simon

    2013-03-01

    describe the results of these experiments. This work gives key insights into PbTe, the possible origin of its anomalous electronic structure properties, and why it is such an attractive parent compound for nanostructured high performance thermoelectric materials. I would like to acknowledge the excellent collaborations that occurred during this work, including Emil Bozin at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Mercouri Kanatzidis and Christos Malliakas at Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory, Kirsten Jensen from U. Aarhus, Steve Shapiro at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Matt Stone and Mark Lumsden at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Nicola Spalding at ETH Zurich and Petros Souvatzis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. I would also like to acknowledge the support of the national user facilities and their staff where the work was done. Financial support for this work was from DOE office of Basic Energy Sciences through award DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  17. MoMar-Demo at Lucky Strike. A near-real time multidisciplinary observatory of hydrothermal processes and ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannat, M.; Sarradin, P.; Blandin, J.; Escartin, J.; Colaco, A.; MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

    2011-12-01

    , pressure probes, tiltmeter, temperature probes in selected smokers, currentmeters and temperature probes in the water column), and colonization devices for time-integrated faunal studies. In this presentation we will outline the latest results of this prototype sub-sea multidisciplinary observatory system. The MoMAR-Demo Scientific Party : Aron Michael, Aumont Virginie, Baillard Christian, Ballu Valérie, Barreyre Thibaut, Blandin Jérôme, Blin Alexandre, Boulart Cédric, Cannat Mathilde, Carval Thierry, Castillo Alain, Chavagnac Valérie, Coail Jean Yves, Colaço Ana, Corela Carlos, Courrier Christophe, Crawford Wayne, Cuvelier Daphné, Daniel Romuald, Dausse Denis, Escartin Javier, Fabrice Fontaine, Gabsi Taoufik, Gayet Nicolas, Guyader Gérard, Lallier François, Lecomte Benoit, Legrand Julien, Lino Silva, Miranda Miguel, Mitard Emmelyne, Pichavant Pascal, Pot Olivier, Reverdin Gilles, Rommevaux Céline, Sarradin Pierre Marie, Sarrazin Jozée, Tanguy Virginie, Villinger Heinrich, Zbinden Magali

  18. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    The merits of nanostructures in sensing may seem obvious, yet playing these attributes to their maximum advantage can be a work of genius. As fast as sensing technology is improving, expectations are growing, with demands for cheaper devices with higher sensitivities and an ever increasing range of functionalities and compatibilities. At the same time tough scientific challenges like low power operation, noise and low selectivity are keeping researchers busy. This special issue on sensing at the nanoscale with guest editor Christofer Hierold from ETH Zurich features some of the latest developments in sensing research pushing at the limits of current capabilities. Cheap and easy fabrication is a top priority. Among the most popular nanomaterials in sensing are ZnO nanowires and in this issue Dario Zappa and colleagues at Brescia University in Italy simplify an already cheap and efficient synthesis method, demonstrating ZnO nanowire fabrication directly onto silicon substrates [1]. Meanwhile Nicolae Barson and colleagues in Germany point out the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis fabrication in a topical review [2] and, maximizing on existing resources, researchers in Denmark and Taiwan report cantilever sensing using a US20 commercial DVD-ROM optical pickup unit as the readout source [3]. The sensor is designed to detect physiological concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a protein associated with inflammation due to HIV, cancer and other infectious diseases. With their extreme properties carbon nanostructures feature prominently in the issue, including the demonstration of a versatile and flexible carbon nanotube strain sensor [4] and a graphene charge sensor with sensitivities of the order of 1.3 × 10-3 e Hz-1/2 [5]. The issue of patterning for sensing devices is also tackled by researchers in the US who demonstrate a novel approach for multicomponent pattering metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene [6]. Changes in electrical

  19. Nikolay N. Donitch - the astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex B.; Volyanskaya, M. Yu.

    1999-08-01

    The article is devoted to milestones of life and scientific activity of the eminent astronomer Nikolay Nikolaevich Donitch (Nicolae N. Donici) (1874-1956), a graduate from the Odessa (Novorossiski) university. He was a wellknown expert in the field of reseacrh of objects of Solar system. A person highly cultured, which built the first in Bessarabia (actually a part of the Republic of Moldova) observatory. He was borne in Kishinev (Chisinau) in a nobles family of notable Moldavian landersmen. N.D. graduated from the Richelieu lyceym in Odessa and afterwards, in 1897, graduated from the Odessa (Novorossiysky) University. A.K. Kononovich (1850-1910)headed the chair of astronomy and the Observatory at that time - a foremost authority in the field of astrophysics and stellar astronomy. Many of his disciples became eminent scientists of their time. N. Donitch was among them. N.D. worked till 1918 at Pulkovo Observatory and became a master in the field of studying of such phenomena as solar and lunar eclipses. To observe the Sun N.D., could afford to design and manufacture a spectroheliograph, the first in Russia, with the assistance of a famous Odessa mechanic J.A. Timchenko. This instrument enabled him to obtain topquality photos of the Sun's surface and prominences. It was mounted together with coelostat in the private observatory of N.D. , built in the village Staryie Doubossary in 1908. Besides the heliograoph, the observatory was equiped with a five inch refractor-equatorial with numerous instruments for various observations. Of the other instruments should be mentioned : "a comet triplet" - an instrument consisting of guiding refractor, a photographic camera and a spectrograph with an objective prism. N.D. was lucky enough to observe rare astronomical phenomena. He observed the transit of Mercury through the disk of the Sun on November 14, 1907 and showed the athmosphere absence around this planet, observed the Halley's comet in 1910, the bright Pons-Winneke comet

  20. PREFACE: Dynamics of low-dimensional systems Dynamics of low-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, M.; Miret-Artés, S.; Toennies, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Hedgeland, Andrew P Jardine, William Allison, John Ellis and Gil Alexandrowicz Fast emission dynamics in droplet epitaxy GaAs ring-disk nanostructures integrated on SiL Cavigli, S Bietti, M Abbarchi, C Somaschini, A Vinattieri, M Gurioli, A Fedorov, G Isella, E Grilli and S Sanguinetti Assessing the composition of hetero-epitaxial islands via morphological analysis: an analytical model matching GeSi/Si(001) dataR Gatti, F Pezzoli, F Boioli, F Montalenti and Leo Miglio Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholesIvano E Castelli, Nicola Ferri, Giovanni Onida and Nicola Manini Elastic fields and moduli in defected grapheneRiccardo Dettori, Emiliano Cadelano and Luciano Colombo Tuning the plasmon energy of palladium-hydrogen systems by varying the hydrogen concentrationV M Silkin, R Dìez Muiño, I P Chernov, E V Chulkov and P M Echenique Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclustersA A Lucas and M Sunjic Ab initio characterization of graphene nanoribbons and their polymer precursorsRengin Peköz, Xinliang Feng and Davide Donadio First-principles phonon calculations of Fe4+ impurity in SrTiO3E Blokhin, E A Kotomin and J Maier Phonon dispersion of quasi-freestanding graphene on Pt(111)Antonio Politano, Antonio Raimondo Marino and Gennaro Chiarello Vibrations of Au13 and FeAu12 nanoparticles and the limits of the Debye temperature conceptGhazal Shafai, Marisol Alcántara Ortigoza and Talat S Rahman Triple quantum dots as charge rectifiers M Busl and G Platero

  1. Infrared Images of an Infant Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    was obtained on August 15, 2001, under very good observing conditions (with "seeing" of 0.4 arcsec). Now the two reflection nebulae are clearly seen ( PR Photos 12b-c/02 ), and the dark dust lane is well resolved. The leader of the group, Nicolas Grosso , recalls the first impression when seeing the true shape of the object: "That is when we looked at each other and, with one voice, immediately decided to nickname it the `Flying Saucer'!". The nature of the new object Seven young stars in the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region are known to display similar reflection nebulae surrounding a dark lane (suggesting the presence of a dusty disk), but these objects are all still deeply embedded in the dense cores of this dark cloud. They are mostly protostars with ages of about 100,000 years, surrounded by a remnant infalling envelope. On the other hand, astronomers think that the newly found object has an age of about 1 million years and is in a more evolved stage than those in the neighboring Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region. The new disk is located at the periphery of the dark cloud and is much less obscured than the younger objects still embedded in the dense dark cloud nursery, thus allowing a much clearer view of the dust disk. The resolved circumstellar dust disk in the "Flying Saucer" has a radius of about 300 Astronomical Units (45 billion km), or 5 times the size of the orbit of Neptune (assuming the same distance as the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming cloud, 500 light-years). From model calculations, the astronomers find that it is inclined only about 4° to the line of sight and therefore seen very nearly from the side. A lower limit to the total mass of the disk is about twice the mass of planet Jupiter, or 600-700 times the mass of the Earth. A study of the recorded (reflected) light from the optical to the near-infrared indicates that the central young solar-type star has a temperature of about 3000 K and 0.4 times the luminosity of our actual Sun. A detailed analysis

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    distribution network in Vienna M Peev, C Pacher, R Alléaume, C Barreiro, J Bouda, W Boxleitner, T Debuisschert, E Diamanti, M Dianati, J F Dynes, S Fasel, S Fossier, M Fürst, J-D Gautier, O Gay, N Gisin, P Grangier, A Happe, Y Hasani, M Hentschel, H Hübel, G Humer, T Länger, M Legré, R Lieger, J Lodewyck, T Lorünser, N Lütkenhaus, A Marhold, T Matyus, O Maurhart, L Monat, S Nauerth, J-B Page, A Poppe, E Querasser, G Ribordy, S Robyr, L Salvail, A W Sharpe, A J Shields, D Stucki, M Suda, C Tamas, T Themel, R T Thew, Y Thoma, A Treiber, P Trinkler, R Tualle-Brouri, F Vannel, N Walenta, H Weier, H Weinfurter, I Wimberger, Z L Yuan, H Zbinden and A Zeilinger Stable quantum key distribution with active polarization control based on time-division multiplexing J Chen, G Wu, L Xu, X Gu, E Wu and H Zeng Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light Vadim Makarov Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography Sebastian Nauerth, Martin Fürst, Tobias Schmitt-Manderbach, Henning Weier and Harald Weinfurter Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD Thomas Länger and Gaby Lenhart Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice Chris Erven, Xiongfeng Ma, Raymond Laflamme and Gregor Weihs Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution Raymond Y Q Cai and Valerio Scarani Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype S Fossier, E Diamanti, T Debuisschert, A Villing, R Tualle-Brouri and P Grangier Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires F Marsili, D Bitauld, A Gaggero, S Jahanmirinejad, R Leoni, F Mattioli and A Fiore Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks Stefano Pironio, Antonio Acín, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Serge Massar and Valerio Scarani 1310 nm differential-phase-shift QKD system using

  3. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. We thank those who contributed to this symposium as well as members of the 'Soft Matter Physics' project for their valuable discussions and collaborations. Non-equilibrium soft matter contents Insights on raft behavior from minimal phenomenological models G Garbès Putzel and M Schick Dynamical membrane curvature instability controlled by intermonolayer friction Anne-Florence Bitbol, Jean-Baptiste Fournier, Miglena I Angelova and Nicolas Puff Numerical investigations of the dynamics of two-component vesicles Takashi Taniguchi, Miho Yanagisawa and Masayuki Imai Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique Y Sakuma, N Urakami, T Taniguchi and M Imai Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers Fumihiko Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Koga, Isamu Kaneda and Françoise M Winnik Morphology and rheology of an immiscible polymer blend subjected to a step electric field under shear flow H Orihara, Y Nishimoto, K Aida, Y H Na, T Nagaya and S Ujiie Surfactant-induced friction reduction for hydrogels in the boundary lubrication regime Kosuke Kamada, Hidemitsu Furukawa, Takayuki Kurokawa, Tomohiro Tada, Taiki Tominaga, Yukihiro Nakano and Jian Ping Gong Fabrication and structural analysis of polyrotaxane fibers and films Yasuhiro Sakai, Kentaro Ueda, Naoya Katsuyama, Koji Shimizu, Shunya Sato, Jun Kuroiwa, Jun Araki, Akira Teramoto, Koji Abe, Hideaki Yokoyama and Kohzo Ito Micellization kinetics of diblock copolymers in a homopolymer matrix: a self-consistent field study Raghuram Thiagarajan and David C Morse Hierarchical self-assembly of two-length-scale multiblock copolymers Gerrit ten Brinke, Katja Loos, Ivana Vukovic and Gerrit Gobius du Sart Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers Yushu Matsushita, Kenichi Hayashida, Tomonari Dotera and Atsushi Takano Direct and inverted nematic

  4. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    KhodelVictorKurchatov Institute, Moscowvak@wuphys.wustl.edu KimuraMasaakiHokkaido University, Sapporomasaaki@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp LacroixDenisGANIL, Caenlacroix@ganil.fr LiangHaozhaoPeking University, Beijinghzliang@pku.edu.cn MargueronJérômeIPN Orsayjerome.margueron@ipno.in2p3.fr MassotElisabethIPN Orsaymassot@ipno.in2p3.fr MengJiePeking University, Beijingmengj@pku.edu.cn MillerTomaszWarsaw University of Technologymillert@student.mini.pw.edu.pl MoghrabiKassemIPN Orsaymoghrabi@ipno.in2p3.fr NapolitaniPaoloIPN Orsaynapolita@ipno.in2p3.fr NeffThomasGSI Darmstadtt.neff@gsi.de NguyenVan GiaiIPN Orsaynguyen@ipno.in2p3.fr OtsukaTakaharuUniversity of Tokyootsuka@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp PilletNathalie-MarieCEA-DAM, Arpajonnathalie.pillet@cea.fr QiChongKTH Stockholmchongq@kth.se RamananSunethraICTP Triestesramanan@ictp.it RingPeterTU Munichring@ph.tum.de Rios HuguetArnauUniversity of Surreya.rios@surrey.ac.uk RivetMarie-FranceIPN Orsayrivet@ipno.in2p3.fr RobledoLuisUniversidad Autonoma de Madridluis.robledo@uam.es Roca MazaXavierINFN Milanoxavier.roca.maza@mi.infn.it RöpkeGerdRostock Universitygerd.roepke@uni-rostock.de RowleyNeilIPN Orsayrowley@ipno.in2p3.fr SagawaHiroyukiUniversity of Aizusagawa@u-aizu.ac.jp SandulescuNicolaeIFIN-HH, Bucharestsandulescu@theory.nipne.ro SchuckPeterIPN Orsayschuck@ipno.in2p3.fr SedrakianArmenGoethe Universität Frankfurtsedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de SeveryukhinAlexeyJINR Dubnasever@theor.jinr.ru SogoTakaakiIPN Orsaysogo@ipno.in2p3.fr SomàVittorioCEA Saclayvittorio.soma@cea.fr StrinatiGiancarloUniversità di Camerinogiancarlo.strinati@gmail.com SuharaTadahiroKyoto Universitysuhara@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp SukhoruchkinSergeiPetersburg Nuclear Physics Institutesergeis@pnpi.spb.ru SuzukiToruTokyo Metropolitan Universitysuzukitr@tmu.ac.jp SuzukiToshioNihon University, Tokyosuzuki@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp TarpanovDimitarINRNE, Sofiadimitert@yahoo.co.uk Tohsaki-SuzukiAkihiroOsaka Universitytohsaki@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp TypelStefanGSI Darmstadts

  5. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    Letter to the Editor A Letter to the Editor should present new results, likely to stimulate further research and be of interest to the wider atomic, molecular and optical physics community. Above all the results should be sufficiently new and important to merit rapid publication as a Letter, which implies accelerated refereeing procedures. This should be made clear either in the body of the Letter, if appropriate, or with a supporting cover letter from the author on submission to the journal. Letters will have an upper limit of eight journal pages and, as an additional quality check, two referees instead of one will be used to review them. The Board will be asked to make a final publication decision in the event of two conflicting reports. With these measures in place it is hoped that the important new results will receive the exposure they deserve as a Letter. If you have any questions or comments on this or anything relating to J. Phys. B please contact Nicola Gulley, Publisher, J. Phys. B (E-mail: jphysb@iop.org).

  6. Panama.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    the Panamaian public, and the government sought for many years to renegotiate the treaty. Riots against the US in 1964 finally lead to renegotiation and the signing of new canal treaties in 1977. The new treaties became effective in October 1979. Under the terms of the treaty, Panama resumed control of the canal zone in 1979. The US will continue to operate the canal and retain primary responsibility for defending the canal through 1999; however, Panama, during the 1979-99 period, will gradually increase its control over the operation and defense of the canal, and in 1999 will assume full responsibility for operating the canal. Both countries are pledged to maintain the neutrality of the canal indefinitely. Each year, until 1999, Panama will receive a yearly annuity of US$10 million, US$.30 on each ton transiting the canal, and a contingency payment of up to US$10 million. Between 1903-68 Panama was controlled by a conservative and commercially oriented oligarchy. In 1968, the National Guard removed the president and instituted a junta government under the control of Brigdier General Torrijos Herrera. Between 1972-78 Torrijos was given extraordinary executive powers. The junta promoted economic policies favoring the rural areas and the lower and middle income groups. In 1978 a National Assembly was elected and in 1983 a new constitution was adopted. The constitution provides for an elected legislature, an elected president, and a judicial branch. In 1984, the current president, Nicolas Ardito Barletta, was elected on a coalition slate. Panama developed as an urban, service, and commercial economy due to its position as a transit point between the east and west. Half of the urban population resides in the metropolitan areas surrounding the canal. The country also has a large international banking community. The agricultural sector is small and poorly developed. (Abstract Truncated) PMID:12178112

  7. EDITORIAL: 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México, 4-9 July 2010 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México City, México, 4-9 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), The International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation, the 'Benemerita' Autonomous University of Puebla (BAUP), the University Michoacana San Nicolas de Hidalgo, the University of Veracruz, the University of Guadalajara, the University of Guanajuato, the University Iberoamericana, the University of Sinaloa, the University of Zacatecas, the Advanced Institute of Cosmology (IAC), as well as the Government of the Federal District of Mexico City. Don Marolf and Daniel Sudarsky Guest Editors Conference photograph

  8. PREFACE: EMAG NANO 2005: Imaging, Analysis and Fabrication on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    and Nicola Deedman of the CEM Group for co-ordinating the Trade Exhibition, and Claire Pantlin and Jasmina Bolfek-Radovani of the IoP without whom there'd be no show on the road! A special thanks also to Jane Lowe of the IoP for her sterling work collating these proceedings! Paul D Brown, University of Nottingham (EMAG Chair) Richard Palmer, University of Birmingham (NPT Chair)

  9. A special year, thanks and a look ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Dear authors, reviewers and readers of Measurement Science and Technology , I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2013, and offer a special thanks to those of you who have given up much of your precious time and kindly reviewed articles for the journal. 2013 was of course a very special year for the journal, marking the 90th anniversary of the journal's foundation, as Journal of Scientific Instruments. In order to mark the anniversary we started the year with a historical perspective of the journal [1], and a historical review of 90 years of dielectric properties measurement of materials [2]. The celebrations continued with a stimulating meeting at the Institute of Physics in London in March, entitled 'Frontiers of Measurement'. In keeping with the multidisciplinary ethos of the journal, the speakers covered a diverse range of topics, all linked by the common language of measurement science. Patrick Gill of NPL talked about atomic clocks, Bruce Tromberg of the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic covered biophotonics, Roger Bisby of the University of Salford lectured on developments in biochemical techniques, Ivan Marusic of the University of Melbourne spoke on fluids and Mervyn Miles of the University of Bristol described recent developments in atomic force microscopy. Nicola Gulley, Editorial Director of IOP Publishing (IOPP), briefed the meeting on some of the latest developments in the world of scientific publishing. The meeting ended with a presentation to Sharon D'Souza, outgoing Publisher of the journal, and a welcome for Ian Forbes who has taken over the role. On behalf of all the Editorial Board I would like to offer a very special thanks to Sharon for all her great work for the journal over many years and wish her every success in her new IOPP posts as Publisher of Reports in Progress in Physics and the recently launched Methods and Applications in Fluorescence. Ian Forbes comes to the journal with a PhD in Physics

  10. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    creating a robust methodological foundation for the combined analysis of electromagnetic-induction and GPR data. The fifth STSM was carried out by Loredana Matera, who visited Jacopo Sala at 3d-radar (Norway). They tested an innovative reconfigurable stepped-frequency GPR, designed and realised in Italy. The prototype was compared with commercial equipment produced in Norway. Through laboratory experiments as well as outdoor campaigns in urban scenarios with archaeological remarks, a deeper knowledge of the Italian prototype was achieved and plans were made to improve it. Finally, Nicolas Pinel visited Sébastien Lambot at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL); the last STSM presented in this abstract, was devoted to investigating how to model the effect of soil roughness in the inversion of ultra wide-band off-ground monostatic GPR signals. The aim of this research is the noninvasive quantification of soil properties through the use of GPR. The work focused on incorporating the improved asymptotic forward electromagnetic model developed by Pinel et al. in the multilayer Green function code developed at UCL. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar,' supporting these STSMs.

  11. Chandra Finds Evidence for Stellar Cannibalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    Nicolas Grosso of the University of Strasbourg, Ben Zuckerman from UCLA, Marshall Perrin from the Space Telescope Science Institute, Thierry Forveille of the Grenoble Astrophysics Laboratory in France and James Graham from University of California, Berkeley. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  12. A special year, thanks and a look ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Dear authors, reviewers and readers of Measurement Science and Technology , I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2013, and offer a special thanks to those of you who have given up much of your precious time and kindly reviewed articles for the journal. 2013 was of course a very special year for the journal, marking the 90th anniversary of the journal's foundation, as Journal of Scientific Instruments. In order to mark the anniversary we started the year with a historical perspective of the journal [1], and a historical review of 90 years of dielectric properties measurement of materials [2]. The celebrations continued with a stimulating meeting at the Institute of Physics in London in March, entitled 'Frontiers of Measurement'. In keeping with the multidisciplinary ethos of the journal, the speakers covered a diverse range of topics, all linked by the common language of measurement science. Patrick Gill of NPL talked about atomic clocks, Bruce Tromberg of the Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic covered biophotonics, Roger Bisby of the University of Salford lectured on developments in biochemical techniques, Ivan Marusic of the University of Melbourne spoke on fluids and Mervyn Miles of the University of Bristol described recent developments in atomic force microscopy. Nicola Gulley, Editorial Director of IOP Publishing (IOPP), briefed the meeting on some of the latest developments in the world of scientific publishing. The meeting ended with a presentation to Sharon D'Souza, outgoing Publisher of the journal, and a welcome for Ian Forbes who has taken over the role. On behalf of all the Editorial Board I would like to offer a very special thanks to Sharon for all her great work for the journal over many years and wish her every success in her new IOPP posts as Publisher of Reports in Progress in Physics and the recently launched Methods and Applications in Fluorescence. Ian Forbes comes to the journal with a PhD in Physics

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R.

    2008-11-01

    multi-frequency cloaking Andrea Alù and Nader Engheta Electromagnetic cloaking devices for TE and TM polarizations Filiberto Bilotti, Simone Tricarico and Lucio Vegni An aberration-free lens with zero F-number D Schurig Transformational optics of plasmonic metamaterials I I Smolyaninov An acoustic metafluid: realizing a broadband acoustic cloak J B Pendry and Jensen Li On the possibility of metamaterial properties in spin plasmas G Brodin and M Marklund A homogenization route towards square cylindrical acoustic cloaks Mohamed Farhat, Sébastien Guenneau, Stefan Enoch, Alexander Movchan, Frédéric Zolla and André Nicolet Transformation optics: approaching broadband electromagnetic cloaking A V Kildishev, W Cai, U K Chettiar and V M Shalaev Generalized field-transforming metamaterials Sergei A Tretyakov, Igor S Nefedov and Pekka Alitalo Electromagnetic beam modulation through transformation optical structures Xiaofei Xu, Yijun Feng and Tian Jiang Superantenna made of transformation media Ulf Leonhardt and Tomáš Tyc Material parameters and vector scaling in transformation acoustics Steven A Cummer, Marco Rahm and David Schurig Isotropic transformation optics: approximate acoustic and quantum cloaking Allan Greenleaf, Yaroslav Kurylev, Matti Lassas and Gunther Uhlmann Transformation optical designs for wave collimators, flat lenses and right-angle bends Do-Hoon Kwon and Douglas H Werner Alternative derivation of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators A D Yaghjian and S Maci Solutions in folded geometries, and associated cloaking due to anomalous resonance Graeme W Milton, Nicolae-Alexandru P Nicorovici, Ross C McPhedran, Kirill Cherednichenko and Zubin Jacob Finite wavelength cloaking by plasmonic resonance N-A P Nicorovici, R C McPhedran, S Enoch and G Tayeb

  14. EDITORIAL: Nano-enhanced! Nano-enhanced!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-08-01

    In the early 19th century, a series of engineering and scientific breakthroughs by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, James Watt and many others led to the foundations of thermodynamics and a new pedigree of mechanical designs that reset the standards of engineering efficiency. The result was the industrial revolution. In optical- and electronics- based nanotechnology research, a similarly subtle bargain is being made; we cannot alter the fact that systems have a finite response to external excitations, but what we can do is enhance that response. The promising attributes of ZnO have long been recognised; its large band gap and high exciton binding energy lend it to a number of applications from laser diodes, LEDs, optical waveguides and switches, and acousto-optic applications to sun cream. When this material is grown into nanowires and nanorods, the material gains a whole new dimension, as quantum confinement effects come into play. Discovery of the enhanced radiative recombination, which has potential for exploitation in many optical and opto-electronic applications, drove intensive research into investigating these structures and into finding methods to synthesise them with optimised properties. This research revealed further subtleties in the properties of these materials. One example is the work by researchers in the US reporting synthesis procedures that produced a yield—defined as the weight ratio of ZnO nanowires to the original graphite flakes—of 200%, and which also demonstrated, through photoluminescence analysis of nanowires grown on graphite flakes and substrates, that graphite induces oxygen vacancies during annealing, which enhances the deep-level to near-band-edge emission ratio [1]. Other one-dimensional materials that provide field emission enhancements include carbon nanotubes, and work has been performed to find ways of optimising the emission efficiency from these structures, such as through control of the emitter density [2]. One of the

  15. An analysis of the first three catalogues of southern star clusters and nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozens, Glendyn John

    2008-06-01

    "If men like [John] Herschel are to spend the best years of their lives in recording for the benefit of a remote posterity the actual state of the heavens - what a galling discovery to find amongst their own contemporaries men [James Dunlop] who -- from carelessness and culpable apathy hand down to posterity a mass of errors -- [so] that four hundred objects out of six hundred could not be identified in any manner -- with a telescope seven times more powerful than that stated to have been used!" The denigration of James Dunlop and his catalogue of 629 southern nebulae and clusters produced in 1826 originated with John Herschel and was continued by others of his day. Was this criticism justified? Was James Dunlop guilty of "carelessness and culpable apathy"? Were there "four hundred objects out of six hundred" which could not be identified, and if so, was there an explanation for this large shortfall? This question led to a search within Dunlop's 1826 catalogue to rediscover, if possible, some of the missing objects and to reinstate Dunlop, if justified, as a bona fide astronomer. In doing this, Dunlop's personal background, education and experience became relevant, as did a comparison with the catalogue of 42 southern nebulae and clusters produced by Nicolas-Louis de La Caille in 1751-2, and the 1834-8 catalogue of 1708 southern nebulae and clusters by John Herschel, who found the Dunlop catalogue so galling. To place the three southern catalogues in their historical context, a brief overview of these and the first three northern catalogues was made. Biographical information, descriptions of their equipment and comments on their observing techniques were included, where obtainable, for each of the authors of the three southern catalogues. However the main objective of this thesis was to determine which of the 629 objects in the Dunlop catalogue exist and then using these objects in a revised Dunlop catalogue, to statistically analyse and compare it with the content

  16. Impact of vegetation and ecosystems on chlorine(-36) cycling and its modeling: from simplified approaches towards more complex biogeochemical tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiry, Yves; Redon, Paul-Olivier; Gustafsson, Malin; Marang, Laura; Bastviken, David

    2013-04-01

    al., 2012), average Cl residence time in forest soils calculated for Clin and Clorg together was 5-fold higher that the residence time estimated for Clin alone (Redon et al., 2011), locally, Cl amount taken up by certain vegetation types can be larger than annual atmospheric deposits, the Cl in excess being recycled mainly by throughfall (Thiry, 2010), root uptake and chlorine transformation rates in soils are essential to calibrate dynamic compartment models since those processes control the persistence of chlorine in the whole system but data are still deficient for different land uses (Van den Hoof & Thiry, 2012). References: Bastviken, D., Thomsen, F., Svensson, T., Karlsson, S., Sandén, P., Shaw, G., Matucha, M., and Öberg, G. (2007). Chloride retention in forest soil by microbial uptake and by natural chlorination of organic matter. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71: 3182-3192. Gustavsson, M., Karlsson, S.,Öberg, G.,Sandén, P.,Svensson, T.,Valinia, S.,Thiry, Y. and Bastviken, D. (2012). Organic matter chlorination rates in different boreal soils: the role of soil organic matter content. Environmental Science & Technology, 46 (3): 1504-1510 Thiry, Y., 2010. Contribution à l'étude du cycle biogéochimique du chlore en écosystème forestier: cas d'un peuplement de pin sylvestre. Rapport Andra n° ENV.NT.ASTR.10.0068. IAEA (2010). Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer to humans in terrestrial and freshwater environments. Technical Report Series n° 472, Vienna, Austria. Öberg, G. (1998). Chloride and organic chlorine in soil. Acta hydrochimica et hydrobiologica, 26 (3): 137-144. Redon, P-O., Abdelouas, A., Bastviken, D., Cecchini, S. Nicolas, M. and Thiry, Y. (2011). Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions. Environmental Science & Technology, 45: 7202-7208. Redon, P-O., Jolivet, C., Saby, N., Abdelouas, A.and Thiry, Y. (2012). Occurrence of natural organic

  17. New Efforts to Identify Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    among them.In the early universe, small density perturbations on sub-galactic scales produce dwarf galaxies in the lambda-CDM model. But in the warm dark matter model, the longer free streaming length of the dark matter particles smooth out some of those small perturbations. This results in the formation of fewer dwarf galaxies which fits better with our current observations.Limits on Warm Dark MatterSo how can we test this alternative model? The maximum number density of dark-matter halos predicted by the warm dark matter model at a given redshift depends on the mass of the candidate dark matter particle: a larger particle mass means that more halos form. We therefore can set lower limits on the mass of dark matter particles in a two-step process:Calculate the maximum number density of dark matter halos predicted by models, andCompare this to the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies at a given redshift.Another way of looking at it: for different values of the dark matter particle mass mX, this shows the maximum number density of dark matter halos predicted at z = 6. The shaded areas represent the observed number density of faint galaxies at different confidence levels. [Menci et al. 2016]Recently, unprecedented new Hubble observations of ultra-faint, lensed galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields at z~6 have allowed for the discovery of more faint galaxies at this redshift than ever before. Now, a team of scientists led by Nicola Menci (INAF Rome) have used these observations to set a new limit on the lowest mass that candidate dark matter particles can have.Menci and collaborators find that these new observations constrain the particle masses to be above 2.9 keV at the 1 confidence level. These constitute the tightest constraints on the mass of candidate warm dark matter particles derived to date, and they even allow us to rule out some production mechanisms for theorized particles.Extending this analysis to other clusters with deep observations will only

  18. New Efforts to Identify Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    among them.In the early universe, small density perturbations on sub-galactic scales produce dwarf galaxies in the lambda-CDM model. But in the warm dark matter model, the longer free streaming length of the dark matter particles smooth out some of those small perturbations. This results in the formation of fewer dwarf galaxies which fits better with our current observations.Limits on Warm Dark MatterSo how can we test this alternative model? The maximum number density of dark-matter halos predicted by the warm dark matter model at a given redshift depends on the mass of the candidate dark matter particle: a larger particle mass means that more halos form. We therefore can set lower limits on the mass of dark matter particles in a two-step process:Calculate the maximum number density of dark matter halos predicted by models, andCompare this to the measured abundance of the faintest galaxies at a given redshift.Another way of looking at it: for different values of the dark matter particle mass mX, this shows the maximum number density of dark matter halos predicted at z = 6. The shaded areas represent the observed number density of faint galaxies at different confidence levels. [Menci et al. 2016]Recently, unprecedented new Hubble observations of ultra-faint, lensed galaxies in the Hubble Frontier Fields at z~6 have allowed for the discovery of more faint galaxies at this redshift than ever before. Now, a team of scientists led by Nicola Menci (INAF Rome) have used these observations to set a new limit on the lowest mass that candidate dark matter particles can have.Menci and collaborators find that these new observations constrain the particle masses to be above 2.9 keV at the 1 confidence level. These constitute the tightest constraints on the mass of candidate warm dark matter particles derived to date, and they even allow us to rule out some production mechanisms for theorized particles.Extending this analysis to other clusters with deep observations will only

  19. Into the Epoch of Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    distant, evolved galaxies and also about the existence of associations of distant galaxies. A first clear example is the concentration of galaxies that appear uniformly yellow in PR Photo 06b/00 , apparently tracing a group of galaxies that was already assembled when the Universe was only 6 billion years old. A confirmation of the distance of a few of these galaxies has already been obtained by means of spectral observations in the framework of an ESO Large Programme , entitled "A Stringent Test on the Formation of Early Type and Massive Galaxies" and carried out by another group of astronomers [2]. A further clear example of a concentration of distant galaxies is seen in the upper right part of PR Photo 06b/00 . The very red colours of several galaxies in this sky area indicate that they are even more distant, "evolved" galaxies, already present when the Universe was only 1/3 of the current age. Notes [1] The European team consists of Emanuele Giallongo (Principal Investigator), Adriano Fontana , Nicola Menci and Francesco Poli (all at Rome Observatory), Stephane Arnouts and Sandro D'Odorico (European Southern Observatory, Garching), Stefano Cristiani (ST European Coordinating Facility, Garching) and Paolo Saracco (Milan Observatory). The data analysis was performed at the Milan ( P. Saracco ) and Rome ( A. Fontana , F. Poli ) Observatories. [2] This programme is conducted Andrea Cimatti (Principal Investigator) and Emanuele Daddi (both at Arcetri Observatory), Tom Broadhurst , Sandro D'Odorico , Roberto Gilmozzi and Alvio Renzini (European Southern Observatory), Stefano Cristiani (ST European Coordinating Facility, Garching), Adriano Fontana , Emanuele Giallongo , Nicola Menci and Francesco Poli (Rome Observatory), Marco Mignoli , Lucia Pozzetti and Giovanni Zamorani (Bologna Observatory) and Paolo Saracco (Milan Observatory). Technical note : The K-band image ( PR Photo 06a/00 ) is the result of 510 min of integration time with ISAAC at VLT ANTU. The 3-sigma magnitude

  20. New Observations of Comet Hale-Bopp from La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-10-01

    , CS, H 2 CO ), but they are no longer easily detectable due to low production rates and the SEST sensitivity limit. New data may provide a "look into the nucleus" ESO PR Photo 40b/98 ESO PR Photo 40b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 1062 pix - 357k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3981 pix - 2.1Mb] PR Photo 40b/98 displays Hale-Bopp gas production curves (quantity of released gas as a function of heliocentric distance) from radio observations at the IRAM, JCMT, CSO, SEST and Nançay telescopes. Pre-perihelion data are shown on the left, post-perihelion data on the right. Adapted from a figure prepared by Nicolas Biver [2]. Comet Hale-Bopp provided the first opportunity in modern times to follow the activity of a comet over a very large range of heliocentric distances, cf. PR Photo 40b/98 . The new data trace the gas release in some detail as the temperature and insolation change when the comet moves along its orbit. They show similarities and differences between individual molecules that in turn contain useful information about the physical state of cometary ices in the nucleus and its internal structure. Some of the current key questions in this research field are concerned with the degree of separation of different ices ("chemical differentiation") in the upper layers of the nucleus, the form under which these ices co-exist and, not least, the still not understood production mechanisms at large heliocentric distances. These new observations will provide very valuable support to the theoretical studies of the cometary nucleus, now being undertaken by several research groups around the world. The new observations of molecular lines in the radio spectral region also provide information about the temperature in the coma, if several lines of the same species are observed. Moreover, they serve to measure the expansion velocity of the gas and the outgassing pattern of the nucleus. For instance, the observations of CH 3 OH in August 1998 show that the coma is now very cold at about 16 K

  1. PREFACE: First Mediterranean Conference on Classical and Quantum Gravity (MCCQG 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, Spyros; Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Christodoulakis, Theodosios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2010-04-01

    Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil) Antoniadis, Ignatios (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) Arminjon, Mayeul (CNRS, Section of Theoretical Physics, France) Banados, Max (University of Oxford, UK) Basilakos, Spyros (RCAAM, Academy of Athens, Greece) Bastos, Catarina (IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Bertolami, Orfeu (IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Bevilaqua, Leandro Ibiapina (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil) Bezerra De Mello, Eugenio (Dept. de Física, CCEN Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil) Blake, Russ (Readify Pty Ltd, Australia) Bogdanos, Charalampos (LPT-Orsay, France) Burinskii, Alexander (Gravity Research Group NSI, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Cadonati, Laura (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA) Cadoni, Mariano (Università di Cagliari, Italy) Capone, Monica (University of Turin, Italy) Cavaglià, Marco (University of Mississippi, USA) Chirco, Goffredo (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Christodoulakis, Theodosios (University of Athens, Greece) Domingues Zarro, Carlos Augusto ((IST, Departamento de Física, Portugal) Durrer, Ruth (Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique, Switzerland) Fagnocchi, Serena (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Finazzi, Stefano (SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Italy) Francia, Dario (University Paris 7 - APC, France) Ghosh, Subir (Indian Statistical Institute, India) Gomberoff, Andres (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile) Grumiller, Daniel (Institute for Theoretical Physics Vienna University of Technology, Austria) Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo (IFM, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Mexico) Hsu, Steve (University of Oregon, USA) Ichinose, Shoichi (University of Shizuoka, SFNS, Japan) Kiefer, Claus (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, Germany) Kokkotas, Kostas (Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Germany) Kothawala, Dawood (IUCAA, Pune

  2. Obituary: Edwin E. Salpeter (1924-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-12-01

    shared Ed's moral disapproval. His 21 year term as the astrophysics member of the editorial board of Reviews of Modern Physics (1971-92) remains a record and arose from a combination of extremely good judgment and patience with authors, referees, and other editors. His experience as a member of the National Science Board (1978-84) was a less happy one, and he felt he had not been an effective one when the NSF decided to back out of supporting a national-facility large millimeter dish, leaving that territory to individual university groups and the Europeans. How many students did Ed Salpeter have? Well, lots. He was advisor or committee chair for students in computer and geological sciences as well as in physics and astronomy, and was sometimes part of teams he called "two chiefs and one Indian" for additional students. No complete list seems to exist, but the incomplete lists add up to at least 55. Of those, you are likely to have heard of or know (because we do!): Hubert Reeves (who has great-grandstudents of his own!), George Helou, Vahe Petrosian, Bill Newman, Nathan Krumm, Bruce Tarter, Jonathan Katz, Lars Bildsten, Allen Boozer, Bruce Draine, Robert Gould, Nicolas Krall, Richard Lovelace, David Stevenson, Hugh Van Horn, Lyle Hoffman, and Edvige Corbelli. Thus he lived to achieve that mark of maturity, being invited to retirement parties for ones students. Former students, collaborators, and all spoke uniformly of his generosity, quick understanding, and willingness to discuss science on any and all occasions. Among the honors Ed Salpeter received were four honorary D.Sc.'s, five academy memberships, and major prizes from the Royal Astronomical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the American Physical Society, the Royal Swedish Academy, and the Astronomische Gesellschaft (AG). The text of his AG lecture was published in English, but he told one of us that he felt he no longer had a native language, because he couldn

  3. Huygens landing site to be named after Hubert Curien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    scientific institutions. From 1966 to 1969, he was Scientific Director for Physics at the CNRS, France's scientific research centre, becoming its Director General in 1969. In 1973, he was given responsibility for reorganising research in France. From 1976 to 1984, he was President of the French space agency (CNES), and from 1984 to1993, served as Minister of Research and Space under four different governments. From 1981 to 1984, he was Chairman of the ESA Council, and he is now still remembered - among his many achievements - as one of the fathers of the Ariane programme and as a promoter of a Europe united through science. From 1994 to 1996, he also headed the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and in 1993, was elected to the French Academy of Science. For his work, Hubert Curien received the highest distinctions and awards. He was known for his great intelligence and managerial and political abilities, but also for his simplicity, modesty, sense of humour and willingness to listen to others. He died on 6 February 2005, and is survived by his wife, Perrine, and their sons, Nicolas, Christophe and Pierre-Louis. Huygens highlights The European-built Huygens probe was part of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn - a joint endeavour of ESA, NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). It is the most ambitious effort in planetary space exploration ever mounted. Launched on 15 October 1997, Cassini (a sophisticated robotic spacecraft designed to orbit the ringed planet and study the Saturnian system in detail), bearing the Huygens probe, reached Saturn on 1 July 2004. Cassini delivered Huygens to Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, on 14 January 2005. This was the first ever descent and landing onto a celestial body in the outer Solar System, and it provided the most spectacular view of Titan yet. During its 2½-hour descent onto this alien world, Huygens performed a series of measurements by means of its highly advanced suite of six instruments. It detected information

  4. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2005 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2006-06-01

    atomic force microscope (AFM) is combined with differential laser interferometers so that the atomic scale resolution of the AFM is accurately calibrated by optical interferometry, achieving an unprecedented uncertainty of 0.2 nm in measuring the pitches of about 50 nm. The instrument also calibrates the pitches in a wide scanning range. This paper analysed the uncertainty of the measurement in detail, helping to provide users with reliable certified reference materials for one-dimensional grating standards. 2005 Award Winners—Sensors and Sensing Systems The 2005 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Award in the Sensors and Sensing Systems category has been awarded to Nicola Bowler and Yongqiang Huang (Iowa State University, USA) for the article 'Electrical conductivity measurement of metal plates using broadband eddy-current and four-point methods', published in volume 16, issue 11, pp 2193 2200. In making their recommendation the Sensors and Sensing Systems working group chaired by Professor Paul Regtien gave the following endorsement: The paper addresses two methods to measure the electrical conductivity of metal plates of various materials. In particular for ferromagnetic plates, traditional methods show relatively large measurement uncertainties. In this paper, the origins of these large inaccuracies are studied, and two alternative methods are presented that yield much better accuracies. Both methods—a broadband eddy-current and a four-point contact scheme—are extensively analysed theoretically as well as experimentally. The results are compared with other published data, for plates of brass, stainless steel and spring steel. An uncertainty analysis reveals the superiority of the newly introduced methods in the case of steel. The four-point method has the advantage of being easy to use. The paper is well-structured, with a good balance between theory and experiments, and a clear presentation of the measurement data and associated uncertainties

  5. ESA sees stardust storms heading for Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    it finally possible to study how stardust is distributed along the path of the Solar System through the local galactic environment. However, as it takes over 70 thousand years to traverse a typical galactic cloud, no abrupt changes are expected in the short term. Notes to editors The results of this investigation will appear in the October 2003 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research. The investigation has been conducted by a team lead by Markus Landgraf of ESA's European Space Operation Centre in Darmstadt (Germany) and including Harald Krüger, Nicolas Altobelli, and Eberhard Grün of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg (Germany). Ulysses is the first mission to study the environment of space above and below the Sun's poles. It is a joint mission with NASA and has been in space since 1990, after a mission extension agreed in 2000. Launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery in October 1990, Ulysses has now completed two orbits, passing both the Sun's north and south pole on each occasion. Its data gave scientists their first look at the variable effect that the Sun has on the space that surrounds it. The Ulysses DUST experiment provides direct observations of dust grains weighing less than a millionth of a gram in interplanetary space as Ulysses moves along an orbit that takes it periodically away from the Sun and from the plane of the planets - a disc known as the ecliptic. DUST measures the mass, speed, flight direction, and electric charge of individual dust particles. Astronomers wanted to know what portion of dust is provided by comets and asteroids and what, instead, comes directly from interstellar space. By taking measurements when Ulysses was farthest from the Sun and high above the ecliptic, in regions where cometary dust can hardly reach, scientists were able to detect and isolate particles of stardust entering the Solar System from the outer space. To confirm that these dust grains are indeed of interstellar origin, Landgraf and

  6. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    The merits of nanostructures in sensing may seem obvious, yet playing these attributes to their maximum advantage can be a work of genius. As fast as sensing technology is improving, expectations are growing, with demands for cheaper devices with higher sensitivities and an ever increasing range of functionalities and compatibilities. At the same time tough scientific challenges like low power operation, noise and low selectivity are keeping researchers busy. This special issue on sensing at the nanoscale with guest editor Christofer Hierold from ETH Zurich features some of the latest developments in sensing research pushing at the limits of current capabilities. Cheap and easy fabrication is a top priority. Among the most popular nanomaterials in sensing are ZnO nanowires and in this issue Dario Zappa and colleagues at Brescia University in Italy simplify an already cheap and efficient synthesis method, demonstrating ZnO nanowire fabrication directly onto silicon substrates [1]. Meanwhile Nicolae Barson and colleagues in Germany point out the advantages of flame spray pyrolysis fabrication in a topical review [2] and, maximizing on existing resources, researchers in Denmark and Taiwan report cantilever sensing using a US20 commercial DVD-ROM optical pickup unit as the readout source [3]. The sensor is designed to detect physiological concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a protein associated with inflammation due to HIV, cancer and other infectious diseases. With their extreme properties carbon nanostructures feature prominently in the issue, including the demonstration of a versatile and flexible carbon nanotube strain sensor [4] and a graphene charge sensor with sensitivities of the order of 1.3 × 10-3 e Hz-1/2 [5]. The issue of patterning for sensing devices is also tackled by researchers in the US who demonstrate a novel approach for multicomponent pattering metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene [6]. Changes in electrical

  7. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    The Second International Conference and Advanced School 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, was held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, (ICTP), Trieste, Italy on 27 July-7 August 2009. TMB-2009 united over 180 participants ranging from students to members of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, and including researchers at experienced and early stages of their carriers from leading scientific institutions in academia, national laboratories, corporations and industry worldwide. Responding to the community's inquiry and reaffirming the practices established at TMB-2007, two Round Tables were organized for the participants of TMB-2009 on 30 July 2009 and 6 August 2009 in the Oppenheimer Room at the Centre. The goals of the Round Tables were to encourage the information exchange among the members of the interdisciplinary and international TMB community, promote discussions regarding the state-of-the-art in TMB-related scientific areas, identify directions for frontier research, and articulate recommendations for future developments. This article is a summary of the collective work of the Round Table participants (listed alphabetically below by their last names), whose contributions form its substance and, as such, are greatly appreciated. Abarzhi, Snezhana I (University of Chicago, USA) Andrews, Malcolm (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) Belotserkovskii, Oleg (Institute for Computer Aided Design of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) Bershadskii, Alexander (ICAR, Israel) Brandenburg, Axel (Nordita, Denmark) Chumakov, Sergei (Stanford University, USA) Desai, Tara (University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy) Galperin, Boris (University of South Florida, USA) Gauthier, Serge (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) Gekelman, Walter (University of California at Los Angeles, USA) Gibson, Carl (University of California at San Diego, USA) Goddard III, William A (California Institute of Technology, USA) Grinstein, Fernando

  8. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    Universita' & INFN Milano-Bicocca TADEVOSYAN, Vardan AANL TAKESHITA, Tohru Shinshu University TALAGA, Richard Argonne National Laboratory TAPAN, Ilhan Uludag University TERWORT, Mark DESY TSAI, Oleg UCLA TULLY, Christopher Princeton University UNAL, Guillaume CERN VICHOU, Eirini University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign VILASIS-CARDONA, Xavier La Salle - Universitat Ramon Llull VOLOBOUEV, Igor Texas Tech University VOLPI, Matteo The University of Melbourne WANG, Zhigang IHEP-Beijing, CAS WENZEL, Hans Fermilab WHITE, Andy University of Texas at Arlington WIGMANS, Richard Texas Tech University WINN, David Fairfield University WOODY, Craig Brookhaven National Lab YANG, Fan California Institute of Technology ZABI, Alexandre LLR-Ecole Polytechnique ZHANG, Liyuan California Institute of Technoogy ZHAO, Zhiwen University of Virginia ZHU, Kejun IHEP-Beijing, CAS ZHU, Ren-Yuan California Institute of Technology ZUTSHI, Vishnu Northern Illinois University

  9. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2007 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2008-05-01

    Since 1991, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of this journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. The current breadth of topical areas that are covered by MST has made it advisable to expand the recognition of excellent publications. Hence, since 2005 the Editorial Board have presented 'Outstanding Paper Awards' in four subject categories: Fluid Mechanics; Measurement Science; Precision Measurements; and Sensors and Sensing Systems. 2007 Award Winners—Fluid Mechanics An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV R Theunissen, F Scarano and M L Riethmuller von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Sint-Genesius Rode, Belgium and Department of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, PO Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The Netherlands The co-authored paper [1] has been selected as the Outstanding Paper in Fluid Mechanics for 2007. This paper provides a strategy whereby the placement and the size of the interrogation regions are adapted to the image signal strength (seeding density) and the spatial variations of the velocity magnitudes. Two, quite distinct, test cases demonstrate the efficacy of their method: a shockwave- boundary layer interaction and an aircraft vortex wake. The Selection Committee—Drs T Fansler, J Foss, I Marusic, S Morris, K Okamoto and M Wernet—selected this paper from a strongly competitive shortlist of four candidates. Their selection process was influenced by the perceived utility of the contribution to the numerous investigators who utilize PIV methods. 2007 Award Winners—Measurement Science Broadband single cell impedance spectroscopy using maximum length sequences: theoretical analysis and practical considerations Tao Sun, Shady Gawad, Catia Bernabini, Nicolas G Green and Hywel Morgan

  10. Preface: Introductory Remarks: Linear Scaling Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, D. R.; Fattebert, J.-L.; Gillan, M. J.; Haynes, P. D.; Skylaris, C.-K.

    2008-07-01

    problems, there was another important theme: extending functionality. The search for greater accuracy has given an implementation of density functional designed to model van der Waals interactions accurately as well as local correlation, TDDFT and QMC and GW methods which, while not explicitly O(N), take advantage of localisation. All speakers at the workshop were invited to contribute to this issue, but not all were able to do this. Hence it is useful to give a complete list of the talks presented, with the names of the sessions; however, many talks fell within more than one area. This is an exciting time for linear scaling methods, which are already starting to contribute significantly to important scientific problems. Applications to nanostructures and biomolecules A DFT study on the structural stability of Ge 3D nanostructures on Si(001) using CONQUEST Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, D R Bowler, M J Gillan, T Otsuka and T Ohno Large scale electronic structure calculation theory and several applications Takeo Fujiwara and Takeo Hoshi ONETEP:Linear-scaling DFT with plane waves Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Peter D Haynes, Arash A Mostofi, Mike C Payne Maximally-localised Wannier functions as building blocks for large-scale electronic structure calculations Arash A Mostofi and Nicola Marzari A linear scaling three dimensional fragment method for ab initio calculations Lin-Wang Wang, Zhengji Zhao, Juan Meza Peta-scalable reactive Molecular dynamics simulation of mechanochemical processes Aiichiro Nakano, Rajiv K. Kalia, Ken-ichi Nomura, Fuyuki Shimojo and Priya Vashishta Recent developments and applications of the real-space multigrid (RMG) method Jerzy Bernholc, M Hodak, W Lu, and F Ribeiro Energy minimisation functionals and algorithms CONQUEST: A linear scaling DFT Code David R Bowler, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki, Antonio Torralba, Veronika Brazdova, Milica Todorovic, Takao Otsuka and Mike Gillan Kernel optimisation and the physical significance of optimised local orbitals in the ONETEP code Peter

  11. PREFACE: Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Cavaglia, Marco; Nelson, Jeanette E.

    2006-04-01

    , France) Michael Mueller (Sardinien.com, Cagliari, Italy) Mario Nadalini (Università di Trento, Italy) José Navarro-Salas (Universidad de Valencia, Spain) Jeanette E. Nelson (Università di Torino, Italy) Alexander Nesterov (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) Hermann Nicolai (Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm, Germany) Daniele Oriti (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Marcello Ortaggio (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic) Silvio Pallua (University of Zagreb, Croatia) Matej Pavsic (Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia) Wlodzimierz Piechocki (Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw, Poland) Nicola Pinamonti (Università di Trento, Italy) J. Brian Pitts (University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA) Vojtech Pravda (Academy of Sciences, Praha, Czech Rep.) Gianpaolo Procopio (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Alice Rogers (King's College London, UK) Efrain Rojas (Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico) James Ryan (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Augusto Sagnotti (Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy) Wenceslao Santiago-German (University of California at Davis, USA) Stefano Sciuto (Università di Torino, Italy) Domenico Seminara (Università di Firenze, Italy) Lorenzo Sindoni (Università di Udine, Italy) Kellogg S. Stelle (Imperial College, London, UK) Cosimo Stornaiolo (INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Italy) Ward Struyve (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Makoto Tanabe (Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan) Daniel Terno (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Charles Wang (Lancaster University, UK) Silke Weinfurtner (Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand) Hans Westman (Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada) Ruth Williams (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) Tetsuyuki Yukawa (Graduate U. for Adv. Studies, Kanagawa, Japan) Jorge Zanelli (CECS, Santiago, Chile) Fourth Meeting on Constrained Dynamics and Quantum Gravity Conference photo

  12. PREFACE: The IARU International Scientific Congress on Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions (10-12 March, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-01-01

    Visbeck Professor Mary Scholes Professor Masahide Kimoto Professor Matthew England Dr Maxwell Boykoff Dr Michael Raupach Professor Nathan Bindoff Professor Nicolas Gruber Professor Niels Elers Koch Professor Ole John Nielsen Professor Ole Wæver Professor Oran Young Dr Pamela Matson Dr Paul Baer Professor Paul Leadley Dr Pep Canadell Professor Pete Smith Professor Peter Gregory Professor Pier Vellinga Dr Rik Leemans Dr Roberto Bertollini Professor Roberto S Rodriguez Professor Scott Denning Dr Sivan Kartha Dr Thomas Downing Dr Tariq Banuri Professor Thomas Heyd Professor Tim Lenton Professor Timmons Roberts Professor Torkil Jønch Clausen Professor Warwick McKibbin Professor Wim C Turkenburg

  13. EDITORIAL: Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth Van der Waals interactions in advanced materials, in memory of David C Langreth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, Per; Rahman, Talat S.

    2012-10-01

    : potential-energy curves for H2 molecules on Cu(111), (100) and (110) surfacesKyuho Lee, Kristian Berland, Mina Yoon, Stig Andersson, Elsebeth Schröder, Per Hyldgaard and Bengt I Lundqvist Ab initio and semi-empirical van der Waals study of graphene-boron nitride interaction from a molecular point of viewVasile Caciuc, Nicolae Atodiresei, Martin Callsen, Predrag Lazić and Stefan Blügel Rationale for switching to nonlocal functionals in density functional theoryP Lazić, N Atodiresei, V Caciuc, R Brako, B Gumhalter and S Blügel Improved description of soft layered materials with van der Waals density functional theoryGabriella Graziano, Jiří Klimeš, Felix Fernandez-Alonso and Angelos Michaelides Structure and stability of weakly chemisorbed ethene adsorbed on low-index Cu surfaces: performance of density functionals with van der Waals interactionsFelix Hanke, Matthew S Dyer, Jonas Björk and Mats Persson Are we van der Waals ready?T Björkman, A Gulans, A V Krasheninnikov and R M Nieminen Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of interacting tunneling transport: variational grand potential, density functional formulation and nature of steady-state forcesP Hyldgaard

  14. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    , Denmark), Johan Fynbo, Palle Møller (European Southern Observatory), Richard Marc Kippen (University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, USA), Bjarne Thomsen (University of Århus, Denmark), Marianne Vestergaard (Ohio State University, USA), Nicola Masetti, Eliana Palazzi (Instituto Tecnologie e Studio Radiazoni Extraterresti, Bologna, Italy) Kevin Hurley (University of California, Berkeley, USA), Thomas Cline (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, USA), Lex Kaper (Sterrenkundig Instituut ``Anton Pannekoek", the Netherlands) and Andreas O. Jaunsen (formerly University of Oslo, Norway; now ESO-Paranal). [2]: Detailed reports about the early observations of this gamma-ray burst are available at the dedicated webpage within the GRB Coordinates Network website. [3]: The photometric redshift method makes it possible to judge the distance to a remote celestial object (a galaxy, a quasar, a gamma-ray burst afterglow) from its measured colours. It is based on the proportionality between the distance and the velocity along the line of sight (Hubble's law) that reflects the expansion of the Universe. The larger the distance of an object is, the larger is its velocity and, due to the Doppler effect, the spectral shift of its emission towards longer (redder) wavelengths. Thus, the measured colour provides a rough indication of the distance. Examples of this method are shown in ESO PR 20/98 (Photos 48a/00 and 48e/00). [4]: In fact, the object was so faint that the positioning of the spectrograph slit had to be done in "blind" offset, i.e. without actually seeing the object on the slit during the observation. This very difficult observational feat was possible because of excellent preparations by the team of astronomers and the very good precision of the telescope and instrument. [5]: The " Lyman-alpha forest" refers to the crowding of absorption lines from intervening hydrogen clouds, shortward of the strong Lyman-alpha spectral line at rest

  15. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    - the PLANET observers turned their telescope and quickly obtained a series of CCD images in visual light of the sky region where the gamma-ray burst was detected, then shipped them off electronically to their Dutch colleagues [3]. Comparing the new photos with earlier ones in the digital sky archive, Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol almost immediately discovered a new, relatively bright visual source in the region of the gamma-ray burst, which they proposed as the optical counterpart of the burst, cf. their dedicated webpage at http://www.astro.uva.nl/~titus/grb990510/. The team then placed a message on the international Gamma-Ray Burster web-noteboard ( GCN Circular 310), thereby alerting their colleagues all over the world. One hour later, the narrow-field instruments on BeppoSax identified a new X-Ray source at the same location ( GCN Circular 311), thus confirming the optical identification. All in all, a remarkable synergy of human and satellite resources! Observations of GRB 990510 at ESO Vreeswijk, Galama and Rol, in collaboration with Nicola Masetti, Eliana Palazzi and Elena Pian of the BeppoSAX GRB optical follow-up team (led by Filippo Frontera ) and the Huntsville optical follow-up team (led by Chryssa Kouveliotou ), also contacted the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Astronomers at this Organization's observatories in Chile were quick to exploit this opportunity and crucial data were soon obtained with several of the main telescopes at La Silla and Paranal, less than 14 hours after the first detection of this event by the satellite. ESO PR Photo 22a/99 ESO PR Photo 22a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 211 x 400 pix - 72k] [Normal - JPEG: 422 x 800 pix - 212k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1582 x 3000 pix - 2.6M] ESO PR Photo 22b/99 ESO PR Photo 22b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 297k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 1.1M] [High-Res - JPEG: 2300 x 2509 pix - 5.9M] Caption to PR Photo 22a/99 : This wide-field photo was obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m

  16. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    modification of the well-known Smoluchowski approach to calculate the encounter rate of diffusion-limited reactions, he showed how more realistic situations accounting for crowding effects could be treated equally well on the same theoretical grounds. This talk marked an important point in the conference as it reinforced the idea that simple models of theoretical physics still have the power to provide inspiring results in spite of the intrinsic simplifications of such theoretical approaches. Along the same lines, Nicolas Dorsaz, from the University of Cambridge (UK), proposed an extension of the Smoluchowski framework that incorporates repulsive and attracting interactions between the reactants. This approach was illustrated by reaction rates obtained from event-driven Brownian dynamics and dynamical Monte Carlo simulations. Another striking example of the physical subtleties associated with modelling crowding effects was provided by Jeffrey Skolnick, from the Georgia Institute of Technology (USA). He examined the role of hydrodynamic interactions in the self-organization of biological assemblies in the presence of crowding. His results strongly suggest that hydrodynamic interactions greatly affect the kinetics of self-assembly reactions, so that including them in the picture appears crucial for understanding the dynamics of biological systems in vivo . Margareth Cheung, from the University of Houston (USA), emphasized that how the crowded environment inside a cell affects the structural conformation of a protein with a spherical shape is a vital question because the geometry of proteins and protein-protein complexes are far from globules in vivo . Her work demonstrates the malleability of 'native' proteins and implies that crowding-induced shape changes may be important for protein function and malfunction in vivo . Huan-Xiang Zhou, from the Florida State University (USA), focused on atomistic simulations of protein folding and binding under crowding conditions. His lab has