Science.gov

Sample records for nierenarterienstenose technische ergebnisse

  1. Einführung in die Technische Chemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Arno; Agar, David W.; Jörissen, Jakob

    Die "Technische Chemie" ist ein Lehrfach an Universitäten und Hochschulen. Nach dem die Studierenden der Chemie in den ersten Semestern ihres Studiums ausrei chen de theoretische Kenntnisse in Allgemeiner, Anorganischer, Organischer und Physikalischer Chemie erlangt haben, soll die Technische Chemie einen Blick auf die praktische Anwendung dieser Naturwissenschaft in unserer Wirtschaft lenken. Es gibt keine "biologische Industrie", "physikalische Industrie" oder "mathematische Industrie", wohl aber seit über 150 Jahren eine "chemische Industrie", die in dieser lan gen Zeit zahlreiche chemische Prozesse entwickelt und dazu vielfältige Methoden erarbeitet hat. Das Lehrfach Technische Chemie gibt einen Überblick über diese Pro zesse und Methoden und erleichtert dadurch den Schritt von der Universität zur be ruflichen Praxis.

  2. Scramjet Research Activities at the Institute of Flight Propulsion of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, D.; Kirstein, S.; Fuhrmann, T.; Rocci Denis, S.; Hupfer, A.; Kau, H.-P.

    2009-01-01

    At the Institute of Flight Propulsion (LFA) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen scramjet research has been carried on since the 70's. Based on the experiences gained during the last decades experimental and numerical studies on scramjet engines are currently conducted within a research training group (GRK1095) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). The main goal of this program is to design a fixed geometry scramjet engine for a Mach 8 flight at an operating altitude of 30 km. In addition to a historical overview latest research results are presented in this paper.

  3. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing in the MSc Program "ESPACE" at Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilla, U.; Iwaszczuk, D.; Pail, R.

    2014-04-01

    ESPACE is an interdisciplinary Master's study programme of Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) positioned at the interface between space technology and the engineering and natural science-based use of satellite data. It combines the technical aspects of the satellite and observation systems with scientific and commercial applications. A core topic beside space engineering and satellite applications engineering is satellite and remote sensing data analysis. This paper explains the background and goals of the Masters's study programme, addresses the target groups and qualification profile, and gives an overview about the specialization fields. The special role of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is further explained in this context. The structure and embedding of international alliances by a double degree program with Wuhan University is shown.

  4. Vorausschauend Planen, Gezielt Handeln — Über Die Regelung Und Steuerung Technischer Prozesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüne, Lars; Sager, Sebastian; Allgöwer, Frank; Bock, Hans Georg; Diehl, Moritz

    Seit Beginn der industriellen Revolution nimmt die Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik eine Schlüsselstellung in vielen technischen Bereichen ein. James Watts Fliehkraftregler für Dampfmaschinen ist eines der frühen Beispiele eines extrem erfolgreichen Reglerkonzepts, von dem Ende der 1860er Jahre geschätzte 75000 Exemplare allein in England im Einsatz waren [2, S. 24]. Etwa um diese Zeit begannen Ingenieure, motiviert durch die immer höhere Komplexität der zu regelnden Maschinen, sich systematisch mit theoretischen Grundlagen der Regelung zu beschäftigen. Dies führte unausweichlich zu der Einsicht, dass das dynamische Verhalten der geregelten Systeme nur mit Hilfe der Mathematikverstanden und weiterentwickelt werden konnte, oder wie Werner von Siemens, ein weiterer technischer Pionier in diesem Bereich es formulierte: "Ohne Mathematik tappt man doch immer im Dunkeln.“

  5. Optical dimensional metrology at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) on deep sub-wavelength nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodermann, B.; Ehret, G.; Endres, J.; Wurm, M.

    2016-06-01

    The dark-field microscopy method with alternating grazing incidence UV illumination (UV-AGID) developed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt offers the possibility of measuring individual isolated line structures with linewidths down to the sub-wavelength regime. In contrast, scatterometry is able and already widely used to measure average dimensional parameters of periodic structures down to the deep sub-wavelength regime. Both methods can be used for dimensional measurements of micro- and nanostructures, in particular the critical dimensions (CDs) on wafers or photomasks in the semiconductor industry, complementing each other favourably. Based on numerical simulations, we have investigated the ultimate limits of these two methods in the deep sub-wavelength regime. It has been shown that AGID microscopy in the DUV spectral range is in principle capable of measuring line structures with CDs down to a few 10 nm, depending on the structure material. For scatterometry, no fundamental limit has been observed. In practice, a technical limit due to the limited signal-to-noise ratio is expected for CDs of a few nm in width.

  6. Comparative study of beta-decay data for eight nuclides measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Fischbach, E.; Javorsek, D.; Jenkins, J. H.; Lee, R. H.; Nistor, J.; Scargle, J. D.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of time-series analyses of data, kindly provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, concerning the beta-decays of Ag108, Ba133, Cs137, Eu152, Eu154, Kr85, Ra226, and Sr90. From measurements of the detector currents, we find evidence of annual oscillations (especially for Ra226), and for several solar r-mode oscillations. It is notable that the frequencies of these r-mode oscillations correspond to exactly the same sidereal rotation rate (12.08 year-1) that we have previously identified in r-mode oscillations detected in both Mt Wilson solar diameter data and Lomonosov Moscow State University Sr90 beta-decay data. Ba133 is found to be anomalous in that current measurements for this nuclide have a much larger variation (by 4 σ) than those of the other nuclides. It is interesting that analysis of variability measurements in the PTB files yields strong evidence for an oscillation for Ba133 but only weak evidence for Ra226.

  7. The source-sample stage of the new two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation spectrometer at Technische Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreas; Leitner, Michael; Böni, Peter; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) is a well established technique for the investigation of the electronic structure. A major limitation of ACAR studies is the available positron flux at a small spot on the sample. For this reason, the focus of this work is put on the discussion of a newly developed source-sample stage of the new 2D-ACAR spectrometer at Technische Universität München which uses an optimized static magnetic field configuration to guide the positrons onto the sample. The achieved spot diameter is dFWHM = 5.4 mm, with a high efficiency over the whole energy spectrum of the 22Na positron source. The implications of the performance of the source-sample stage are discussed with regard to 2D-ACAR measurements of single crystalline α-quartz, which serves as a model system for the determination of the total resolution. A value of (1.53 × 1.64) mrad2 FWHM was achieved at room temperature.

  8. The source-sample stage of the new two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation spectrometer at Technische Universitaet Muenchen

    SciTech Connect

    Ceeh, Hubert; Weber, Josef Andreas; Boeni, Peter; Leitner, Michael; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2013-04-15

    Angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) is a well established technique for the investigation of the electronic structure. A major limitation of ACAR studies is the available positron flux at a small spot on the sample. For this reason, the focus of this work is put on the discussion of a newly developed source-sample stage of the new 2D-ACAR spectrometer at Technische Universitaet Muenchen which uses an optimized static magnetic field configuration to guide the positrons onto the sample. The achieved spot diameter is d{sub FWHM}= 5.4 mm, with a high efficiency over the whole energy spectrum of the {sup 22}Na positron source. The implications of the performance of the source-sample stage are discussed with regard to 2D-ACAR measurements of single crystalline {alpha}-quartz, which serves as a model system for the determination of the total resolution. A value of (1.53 Multiplication-Sign 1.64) mrad{sup 2} FWHM was achieved at room temperature.

  9. Analysis of beta-decay rates for Ag 108, Ba 133, Eu 152, Eu 154, Kr 85, Ra 226, and Sr 90, measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt from 1990 to 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, P. A.; Fischbach, E.; Jenkins, J.

    2014-10-10

    We present the results of an analysis of measurements of the beta-decay rates of Ag 108, Ba 133, Eu 152, Eu 154, Kr 85, Ra 226, and Sr 90 acquired at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt from 1990 through 1995. Although the decay rates vary over a range of 165 to 1 and the measured detector current varies over a range of 19 to 1, the detrended and normalized count rate measurements exhibit a sinusoidal annual variation with amplitude in the small range 0.068%-0.088% (mean 0.081%, standard deviation 0.0072%, a rejection of the zero-amplitude hypothesis) and phase-of-maximum in the small range 0.062-0.083 (January 23 to January 30). In comparing these results with those of other related experiments that yield different results, it may be significant that this experiment, at a standards laboratory, seems to be unique in using a 4π detector. These results are compatible with a solar influence, and do not appear to be compatible with an experimental or environmental influence. It is possible that Ba 133 measurements are also subject to a non-solar (possibly cosmic) influence.

  10. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  11. The Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg and the Elbe Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielmeyer, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg is unique in that its justification was based less on educational need than on the need to enhance research and technology transfer capacity. The university's structure is also unconventional in Germany, and considerable emphasis is placed on collaboration with industry. (Author/MSE)

  12. Zweiwegintegration durch zweisprachige Bildung? Ergebnisse aus der Staatlichen Europa-Schule Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    While there is no simple recipe of how to respond to the multitude of languages present in many European schools, this article presents a promising alternative to monolingual education. The focus is on Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin (SESB), a two-way immersion (TWI) model that unites children whose mother tongue is German with children whose mother tongue is another locally spoken language in one class and teaches them together in two languages. Thus in this model, offered by 17 primary schools and 13 secondary schools in Berlin, pupils learn in two languages from and with each other. Based on a largely quantitative, quasi-experimental study with 603 students, evidence is provided that there are a number of peace-linguistic benefits that can promote two-way social integration, besides fostering personal and societal multilingualism. This suggests that TWI education as practised in Berlin could serve as an educational model for other multilingual parts of Europe.

  13. Clearance flow-generated transverse forces at the rotors of thermal turbomachines. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Univ., 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urlichs, K.

    1983-01-01

    Self-excited rotor whirl represents a serious hazard in the operation of turbomachines. The reported investigation has, therefore, the objective to measure the lateral forces acting on the rotor and to determine the characteristic pressure distribution in the rotor clearance area. A description is presented of an approach for calculating the leakage flow in the case of an eccentric rotor position on the basis of empirical loss coefficients. The results are reported of an experimental investigation with a turbine stage, taking into account a variation of the clearance characteristics. The pressure data measured are consistent with the theoretical considerations.

  14. Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Scientific Annual Meeting, Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna, Austria, Apr. 5-9, 1988, Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on applied mathematics and mechanics are presented. The general topics considered include: numerical treatment of implicit differential equations and differential algebraic systems; software for scientific calculation; structural analysis and simulation; stochastic methods; biomathematics; interpolation and approximation; quadrature; optimization; methods in operations research; enclosures for linear and nonlinear equations; enclosures for functional equations; ordinary differential equations and dynamical systems; ordinary differential and difference equations; and numerics of stiff differential equations. Also addressed are: waves, analysis, applications, and numerics in partial differential equations; large systems of linear equations; multigrid methods; iterative processes in applied function theory; discrete mathematics and informatics; fundamentals, special methods, and shells in FEM; beams and special applications; fundamentals, solid mechanics, and fluid mechanics in BEM.

  15. Procedures for Computing Transonic Flows for Control of Adaptive Wind Tunnels. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Univ., Berlin, Mar. 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebstock, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    Numerical methods are developed for control of three dimensional adaptive test sections. The physical properties of the design problem occurring in the external field computation are analyzed, and a design procedure suited for solution of the problem is worked out. To do this, the desired wall shape is determined by stepwise modification of an initial contour. The necessary changes in geometry are determined with the aid of a panel procedure, or, with incident flow near the sonic range, with a transonic small perturbation (TSP) procedure. The designed wall shape, together with the wall deflections set during the tunnel run, are the input to a newly derived one-step formula which immediately yields the adapted wall contour. This is particularly important since the classical iterative adaptation scheme is shown to converge poorly for 3D flows. Experimental results obtained in the adaptive test section with eight flexible walls are presented to demonstrate the potential of the procedure. Finally, a method is described to minimize wall interference in 3D flows by adapting only the top and bottom wind tunnel walls.

  16. Integriertes Informationsmanagement am KIT Was bleibt? Was kommt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labitzke, Sebastian; Nussbaumer, Martin; Hartenstein, Hannes; Juling, Wilfried

    Der Beitrag beschreibt wesentliche seit dem Jahr 2005 an der Universität Karlsruhe bzw. am Karlsruher Institut für Technologie erzielte Ergebnisse in Bezug auf technische und organisatorische Integration für das Informationsmanagement. Insbesondere stehen die Portaldienste und das Identitätsmanagement im Fokus der technischen Innovation. Daneben werden zwei organisatorische Innovationen vorgestellt, die sich dediziert Fragestellungen zur IT-Governance und IT-Compliance widmen. Abschließend werden erzielte Schlüsselerfahrungen diskutiert, die im Zuge des Aufbaus eines integrierten Informationsmanagements gemacht wurden. Ausblickend wollen wir einen Bezug zu den allgegenwärtigen Problemstellungen und verbundenen Herausforderungen derartiger Vorhaben aufzeigen - Herausforderungen, die waren, sind und bleiben werden.

  17. Gymnasien in Thuringen und Bayern. Ergebnisse einer vergleichenden Untersuchung ("Gymnasien" in Thuringia and in Bavaria: Results of a Comparative Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottcher, Ilona; Weishaupt, Horst

    1999-01-01

    Uses both qualitative and quantitative procedures to study select "Gymnasien" in Thuringia and Bavaria. Explores the influence the Gymnasium has had on individual schools' developments. Examines how "long-term mental formations" determine the transformation process. Examines differences between the school structures of Gymnasien in East and West…

  18. Untersuchung ausgewählter Oberflächen-, Grund- und Bodenwasserproben auf Perchlorat in Deutschland: Erste Ergebnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheytt, Traugott J.; Freywald, Jessika; Ptacek, Carol J.

    2011-03-01

    Perchlorate is a component found in solid rocket fuels, explosives, fireworks, and road flares. In addition, perchlorate is a minor component of natural salt deposits in semiarid and arid regions. Discharge and storage areas as well as accidents are potential sources for perchlorate contamination of aquatic systems. Perchlorate has been detected in surface water and groundwater from several places worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether perchlorate occurs in surface water, groundwater, or soil leachate at selected sites in Germany. These sites include surface water from a military base in southern Germany, groundwater from a production site, and groundwater and soil leachate from a location where fireworks shows are performed regularly. Results show that perchlorate was detected in all surface water and groundwater samples with values around 1 μg/l. Highest values (up to 15,000 μg/l) were detected in pore waters of the "Maifeld" area in Berlin where soil was sampled immediately after a fireworks show.

  19. Ozeane: Ergebnisse der 7. Sitzung der Kommission für nachhaltige Entwicklung (CSD) der Vereinten Nationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlimm, Jutta; Stietzel, Hans-Joachim

    1999-12-01

    The 7th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was organised from 19 30 April in the UN Headquarters in New York. The Commission on Sustainable Development was established in 1992 with the aim to implement the comprehensive action programme of Agenda 21. The topics on the agenda of this year’s CSD session included: oceans, tourism as well as consumption and production patterms with a special focus on the oceans item. The 7th Session covered two weeks. It began with the so-called “High Level Segment” during the first week when 89 ministers and high-ranking government representatives stated their points of view on various themes-sometimes also in interaction with the chairman. Concerning the topic of oceans CSD 7 focussed on a few main items of special priority for the implementation of the Agenda 21, both during the preparatory “Intersessional Working Group” and in the final document. These main items are: the conservation and integrated as well as sustainable management of fisheries and marine resources, including the ecosystem of the oceans, the prevention of pollution and degradation of the marine environment through land-based and other acticities, the improvement of the scientific knowledge on oceans and the interaction between the oceans and the global climate system. The decisions of CSD 7 adressed detailed and for the major part concrete proposals for action, appeals or requests to the international organisations and the interntional community with regard to these main items. Summarizing the 7th session, it can be said that in the oceans sector CSD 7 was quite successful in fullilling the task to study the implementation of Agenda 21, to set priorities and to address actors and the necessary actions.

  20. Comment on “Comparative study of beta-decay data for eight nuclides measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt” [Astropart. Phys. 59 (2014) 47-58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nähle, Ole; Kossert, Karsten

    2015-06-01

    We would like to comment on a recent paper by Sturrock et al. (2014) in which the authors analyze decay data acquired by an ionization chamber in our institute. They interpret the variations in the data as solar-driven changes in the decay rates of the radionuclides under study. In brief we would like to discuss and elucidate the properties and the origin of the data used by the authors and explain why these data are not a sound basis for claiming evidence for new physics.

  1. Research on oxidation by air and tempering of Raney nickel electrocatalysts for the H2 anodes of alkali combustion materials cells. Thesis - Braunschweig Technische Univ., 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selbach, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The controlled oxidation in air of Raney nickel electrocatalysts was studied, with special attention paid to the quantitative analysis of nickel hydroxide. The content of the latter was determined through X-ray studies, thermogravimetric measurements, and spectral photometric examinations. The dependence of the content on the drying of activated catalyst is determined. The influence of nickel hydroxide on the electrochemical parameters of the catalyst, such as diffusion polarization, is studied, including a measurement of the exchange current density using the potential drop method. Conservation by oxidation in air with ancillary stabilization of the oxide in an H2 flow at 300 C is explored, including reduction by H2, the influence of tempering time, and structural studies on conserved and stabilized catalyst, long term research on the catalyst, including the influence of aging on the reduced catalyst, and the results of impedance measurements are presented.

  2. Wie grün wünscht sich die Bevölkerung Deutschlands ihre Städte? - Ergebnisse der Naturbewusstseinsstudie 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströher, Helena; Mues, Andreas Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    Green areas are of high importance for the population in Germany. This is demonstrated by the representative outcomes of the latest Awareness-of-Nature survey for 2015. Most interviewees do not only value urban greens as personally important but also state that they perceive them as crucial for society and environment. The article focuses especially on the perception by people from different age groups and levels of education. It highlights that the strong awareness of the population provides a good fundament for the objectives and strategies of social, environmental and nature conservation policies.

  3. Wie grün wünscht sich die Bevölkerung Deutschlands ihre Städte?. Ergebnisse der Naturbewusstseinsstudie 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströher, Helena; Mues, Andreas Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Green areas are of high importance for the population in Germany. This is demonstrated by the representative outcomes of the latest Awareness-of-Nature survey for 2015. Most interviewees do not only value urban greens as personally important but also state that they perceive them as crucial for society and environment. The article focuses especially on the perception by people from different age groups and levels of education. It highlights that the strong awareness of the population provides a good fundament for the objectives and strategies of social, environmental and nature conservation policies.

  4. Transitional Boundary Layers Under the Influence of High Free Stream Turbulence, Intensive Wall Cooling and High Pressure Gradients in Hot Gas Circulation. Ph.D. Thesis - Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rued, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    The requirements for fundamental experimental studies of the influence of free stream turbulence, pressure gradients and wall cooling are discussed. Under turbine-like free stream conditions, comprehensive tests of transitional boundary layers with laminar, reversing and turbulent flow increments were performed to decouple the effects of the parameters and to determine the effects during mutual interaction.

  5. Intraoperative Schnellschnittuntersuchungen parapylorischer Lymphknoten bei der pyloruserhaltenden Pankreaskopfresektion: Gibt es eine klinische Relevanz?

    PubMed Central

    Riediger, Hartwig; Schulz, Antje; Adam, Ulrich; Krüger, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Die pyloruserhaltende Pankreaskopfresektion (PPPD) ist als onkologisches Standardverfahren etabliert. Lokal fortgeschrittene Tumoren können eine erweiterte Resektion erforderlich machen. Ebenso soll früheren Arbeiten zufolge bei Tumornachweis in den parapylorischen Lymphknoten (PLK) eine distale Magenresektion im Sinne einer klassischen Whipple-Operation indiziert sein. Entsprechend diesen Empfehlungen haben wir intraoperative Schnellschnittuntersuchungen der PLK in unseren Routineablauf integriert. Im Rahmen dieser Studie haben wir die klinische Relevanz dieses Vorgehens hinterfragt. Methoden Bei 105 onkologischen Patienten im Zeitraum von 2006-2012 bestand die Indikation zur PPPD. In allen Fällen erfolgte eine intraoperative Schnellschnittuntersuchung der PLK. Die Patienten wurden bezüglich Primärtumor, Anzahl der untersuchten Lymphknoten (LK) (gesamt und parapylorisch) sowie Auswirkungen auf das operative Konzept untersucht. Es handelt sich um eine retrospektive Studie, die auf prospektiv erhobenen Daten unserer Pankreasdatenbank basiert. Ergebnisse Die Primärtumoren waren 72 Pankreaskopfkarzinome und 33 extrapankreatische Karzinome (Gallengangskarzinom, Ampullenkarzinom, Duodenalkarzinom). 73 Patienten waren nodalpositiv. Insgesamt wurden 2391 LK untersucht, von denen 325 parapylorisch lokalisiert waren. Die intraoperative Schnellschnittuntersuchung erbrachte lediglich bei 4 Patienten mit Pankreaskopfkarzinom jeweils einen positiven PLK; daraufhin erfolgte eine distale Magenresektion. In keinem der distalen Magenresektate waren Tumorresiduen nachweisbar. Lokale chirurgisch-technische Probleme im Sinne von Durchblutungsstörungen des Magens ergaben sich durch die regionale Lymphadenektomie nicht. PLK waren nur beim Pankreaskarzinom positiv. In der Subgruppe der nodalpositiven Patienten mit Pankreaskopfkarzinom hatten 8% der Patienten einen positiven PLK. Schlussfolgerung Die regionale parapylorische Lymphadenektomie ist beim

  6. Ergebnisse einer Lehrerbefragung zum Hintergrund des Englischunterrichts in der Hauptschuloberstufe (Results of a Teacher Questionnaire on the Background of Instruction in English in the Upper Grades of the Hauptschule [9-grade "terminal" school]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellwig, Karlheinz

    1980-01-01

    The questionnaire dealt with: earmarks of weaker students, parents' attitude, the teachers' training and working conditions, problems of individual instruction, time-frame, existence of professional associations, evaluation of professional conferences, and the use of media. Some evaluations are appended. (IFS/WGA)

  7. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  8. Welche Kompetenzen brauchen betriebliche Weiterbildner in Zukunft? Ergebnisse einer Delphi-Studie in einem Industrieunternehmen (Qualifications Needed by Educational Staff Working in the Field of Further Education in the Industrial Sector--Results of a Delphi-study Carried out in an Industrial Enterprise).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteis, Christian; Prenzel, Manfred

    1998-01-01

    Attempts to reveal the qualifications that will become important, due to technological change and growing internationalization of competition, for trainers (educational staff) in industrial enterprises. Indicates that the results lead to a view of further education within firms as a service that is subject to competition on the open market. (CMK)

  9. Generation of inflow data for inhomogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Peter S.; Andersson, Helge I.

    2004-11-01

    Inflow boundary conditions for turbulent plane channel flow are generated by solving evolution equations only for the most energetic eddies. The dynamical systems are derived by Galerkin projecting the Navier-Stokes equations onto the subspaces spanned by various sets of the most energetic modes from a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the same flow. Low-energy small-scale POD-modes are added randomly in order to impose some energy in the high wave number range. This is found to be crucial in order to more rapidly establish the correct level of dissipation and achieve a more realistic distribution of energy between the velocity components. The method is tested on a DNS of R*=180 and a LES of R*=400. Statistics such as mean velocity, rms-profiles, turbulent shear-stress and energy spectra become close to the fully developed state within 1500 wall units downstream the inlet.

  10. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Carpal Tunnel Surgery: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zyluk-Gadowska, P; Zyluk, A

    2016-08-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, unter Berücksichtigung der in Pubmed und Medline veröffentlichten Ergebnisse nach Eingriffen am Karpalkanal zu ermitteln, inwieweit ausgewählte Faktoren wie das Patientenalter, die Dauer der Symptome, die Ausprägung der klinischen und elektrophysiologischen Befunde, das Vorliegen von Begleiterkrankungen und medikolegale Momente die Ergebnisse beeinflussen. Letztlich konnte für keinen der zahlreichen untersuchten Faktoren ein signifikanter Einfluss auf das Langzeitergebnis nachgewiesen werden. Bestehen die Beschwerden länger, sind die klinischen und elektrophysiologischen Befunde ausgeprägter und liegen Begleiterkrankungen vor, so fallen die Ergebnisse weniger gut aus, was darauf hindeutet, dass die betroffenen Patienten etwas weniger von der Operation profitieren. Nur bei Vorliegen von medikolegalen Faktoren wie Rechtsstreit oder Schadenersatzansprüchen lässt sich definitiv ein schlechtes Ergebnis voraussagen. PMID:27580438

  11. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

  12. Science and Technology Libraries Section. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology library and information services presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The Central Subject Libraries of the Federal Republic of Germany--For Example: The Technische Informationsbibliothek Hannover" by Gerhard Schlitt and Jobst Tehnzen; (2) "The…

  13. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  14. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  15. The Technical Information Library: TIB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosemann, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    The Technische Informationsbibliothek Hannover (TIB) is the German national central library for all areas of technology and related sciences, especially chemistry, computer science, mathematics, and physics. The TIB acquires and makes available a comprehensive collection of conventional and non-conventional literature, especially foreign material, with particular emphasis on specialized new publications which are difficult to obtain or in difficult languages.

  16. A Course on Reconfigurable Processors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoufan, Abdulhadi; Huss, Sorin A.

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable computing is an established field in computer science. Teaching this field to computer science students demands special attention due to limited student experience in electronics and digital system design. This article presents a compact course on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the Technische Universitat Darmstadt,…

  17. Completion of the Polo model coil

    SciTech Connect

    Bourquard, A.; Plat, X.; Bonnet, P.; Semal, D.; Personeni, G.; Bernaudat, M.; Hacquard, A.; Salvador, R.; Dombrowski, D.

    1996-07-01

    A superconducting poloidal field model coil as needed for tokamaks has been constructed by GEC Alsthom within the Polo project in effective collaboration with Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Germany. The manufacturing procedures for the coil and its terminals are described.

  18. "Crafts and Technology" and "Technical Education" in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Josef

    2009-01-01

    In Austria, the syllabus for "Technisches Werken/Crafts and Technology" for all types of school in general education was issued more than 30 years ago. The authors believed that it might lay the foundations for technical literacy. The paper is about how the situation of the subject and, with it, technical education has developed since then in…

  19. Anforderungskatalog fur Einen Graphikfahigen Mikrocomputer fur Online-Recherchen. Report UBTUW-84-007 (Requirements for a Microcomputer with Graphic Capabilities for Online Searching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebegg, K.; Oberhauser, O.

    This paper is primarily an annotated listing of criteria for selection of a microcomputer to be used for online information retrieval. The paper was used by the University Library of the Technische Universitat Wien (Vienna, Austria) while preparing to contact computer dealers and to inform them about the library's needs in this specialized area of…

  20. Empowering Indigenous Languages and Cultures: The Impact of German Bilateral Assistance in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortina, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Working in Latin America for several decades to address the educational needs of poor and indigenous groups, the GTZ (Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) has helped to develop the knowledge base of intercultural bilingual education. The goal of this article is to analyze Germany's impact from the mid-1970s to the present as the GTZ has…

  1. Ferrofluide - ihre Grundlagen und Anwendungen: Magnetische Flüssigkeiten kontrollieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    Strömung und Eigenschaften von Suspensionen kleiner magnetischer Teilchen, so genannten Ferrofluiden, lassen sich durch laborübliche Magnetfelder wesentlich beeinflussen. Dies ergibt neue Möglichkeiten in der Grundlagenforschung und erlaubt die Entwicklung interessanter technischer Anwendungen. So werden Ferrofluide beispielsweise im Dämpfungs- und Dichtungsbereich, in jüngerer Zeit auch im biomedizinischen Bereich eingesetzt.

  2. “&ldots;how the right technique emerged at the right time” Zur Geschichte der fotografischen Methode im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, Silke

    Die Frühgeschichte der fotografischen Methode, die als Nachweisinstrument kernphysikalischer und kosmischer Strahlung in den 1950er Jahren zur Blüte kam, hat das Interesse vieler Wissenschaftshistoriker gefunden. Peter Galison hat gezeigt, wie fragil das Experimentalsystem lange Zeit war, das sich um die Methode bildete, und wie prekär die mit ihr aufgezeichneten Ergebnisse.

  3. Fazit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrenhoff, Hubertus

    Die im Rahmen des Sonderforschungsbereiches 442 (SFB 442) erarbeiteten Ergebnisse zeigen die Leistungsfähigkeit tribologischer Systeme bei Verwendung nativer Ester in Kombination mit PVD-Werkstoffverbundschichten. Gegenstand der Untersuchungen waren die tribologischen Systeme einer Werkzeugmaschine, wie z. B. Zahnräder, Wälz- und Spindellager, Kolben einer hydraulischen Pumpe sowie Werkzeuge mit geometrisch bestimmter Schneide und Tiefziehwerkzeuge.

  4. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  5. Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschkowski, H.

    Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.

  6. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  7. Bauteiluntersuchungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrenhoff, Hubertus

    Die Untersuchung der Beeinflussung der Zahnflankentragfähigkeit durch den Einsatz von PVD-Hartstoffschichten in Kombination mit Esterölen ist eine zentrale Aufgabe im SFB 442. Im Laufe des Projekts werden hierfür verschiedene Analogieversuche sowie standardisierte Testverfahren eingesetzt, mit denen eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungen durchgeführt wird. In diesem Kapitel werden zunächst die verwendeten Prüfverfahren erläutert und im Anschluss die erzielten Ergebnisse zusammenfassend dargestellt.

  8. Optical-Fiber Power Meter Comparison Between NIST and PTB

    PubMed Central

    Vayshenker, I.; Haars, H.; Li, X.; Lehman, J. H.; Livigni, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the results of a comparison of reference standards between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST-USA) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB-Germany) at nominal wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm using an optical-fiber cable. Both laboratories used thermal detectors as reference standards. A novel temperature-controlled, optical-trap detector was used as a transfer standard to compare two reference standards. Measurement results showed differences of less than 1.5 × 10−3, which is within the combined uncertainty for both laboratories.

  9. European dosimetry activities for the ISS.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G

    2001-01-01

    In cooperation with the University of Kiel, the University GH of Siegen, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig, the Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow, DLR performed measurements of the radiation environment inside and outside spacecrafts on numerous missions with the main objective to determine as precise as possible the radiation exposure of the astronauts. This report comprises some selected results of recent manned missions and indicates where improvements should be achieved and closes with the description of future measurements planned onboard the International Space Station (ISS). PMID:11780620

  10. LSWAVE 2000: Lasers and short-wavelength applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandner, W.

    2001-07-01

    LSWAVE 2000 was organized as a Satellite Workshop to the Seventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI 2000. It was held on Saturday, August 26, 2000, at the Technische Universität Berlin, and was jointly organized by the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) and the Technical University Berlin (TUB). The organizing committee consisted of Wilhelm Raith (chairman), Wolfgang Sandner, Ingolf Hertel, Manfred Wick, Bernd Winter, Tatjana Gießel, Holger Stiel, Ingo Will, Ursula Bayr (secretary) and Silvia Szlapka (secretary). Continuing information on the Workshop and its proceedings may be found under http://www.mbi-berlin.de/lswave2000/.

  11. Traceable terahertz power measurement by using optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, Andreas; Gutschwager, Berndt; Meindl, Peter; Monte, Christian; Müller, Ralf; Werner, Lutz; Hollandt, Jörg

    2009-09-01

    In order to exploit new possibilities of THz sensing and imaging, it is not only necessary to generate and detect THz radiation but also to measure the radiant power of the THz sources and the responsivity of the detecting systems traceable to the international system of units (SI). This has been missing in the THz range up to now. The Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has focused on this challenging task by using two complementary optical approaches: source- and detector-based THz radiometry. Both methods have been successfully prototyped, and a pyroelectric THz detector with known aperture was used to verify the consistency of the two independent calibration methods.

  12. First 2D-ACAR Measurements on Cu with the new Spectrometer at TUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. A.; Böni, P.; Ceeh, H.; Leitner, M.; Hugenschmidt, Ch

    2013-06-01

    The two-dimensional measurement of the angular correlation of the positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is a powerful tool to investigate the electronic structure of materials. Here we report on the first results obtained with the new 2D-ACAR spectrometer at the Technische Universitat München (TUM). To get experience in processing and interpreting 2D-ACAR data, first measurements were made on copper. The obtained data are treated with standard procedures and compared to theoretical calculations. It is shown that the measurements are in good agreement with the calculations and that the Fermi surface can be entirely reconstructed using three projections only.

  13. Keller oder Dach zuerst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megow, Nicole

    Komplexe Planungsaufgaben entstehen in vielen Bereichen wie z. B. in der Produktion und Logistik, der Bauplanung oder allgemein im Projektmanagement. Typischerweise werden umfangreiche Projekte in viele einzelne Teilaufgaben zerlegt, die dann zeitlich geplant werden. Das heißt, es wird genau bestimmt wann bzw. in welcher Reihenfolge Aufgaben mit welchen Ressourcen durchgeführt warden sollen. Bei der Planung müssen verschiedenste Reihenfolgeabhängigkeiten zwischen den Vorgängen berücksichtigt werden. Diese Abhängigkeiten können technischer Natur sein oder werden aus sicherheitsrelevanten oder wirtschaftlichen Gründen festgelegt.

  14. Spectral radiance calibrations between 165-300 nm - An interlaboratory comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, J. M.; Ott, W. R.; Pitz, E.; Schulz, A.; Einfeld, D.; Stuck, D.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral radiance of deuterium lamps calibrated by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPI), by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are compared to check the agreement of UV radiometric scales. The NBS group used the optically thin continuum radiation from a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc as its fundamental radiometric standard, while the MPI and PTB groups used the synchrotron radiation facility in DESY. It is found that the spectral radiance scales based upon the DESY synchrotron and the NBS hydrogen arc are consistent, at least for one wavelength relative to another.

  15. Fahrerverhaltensmodelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donges, Edmund

    Die aktive Teilnahme am Straßenverkehr als Fahrer eines Kraftfahrzeugs ist eine komplexe Überwachungs- und Regelungsaufgabe, für deren Gelingen der Fahrer bei heutiger Rechtslage und heutigem Stand der Technik voll verantwortlich ist. Um ihm für diese Aufgabenstellung die bestmöglichen Arbeitsbedingungen zu verschaffen, muss die Auslegung der technisch gestaltbaren Komponenten des Straßenverkehrssystems die Anpassung an die besondere Leistungsfähigkeit des Menschen, aber auch an seine inhärenten Leistungsgrenzen zum Ziel haben. Dies gilt in vollem Umfang auch für Fahrerassistenzsysteme.

  16. UV and VUV calibration capabilities at the Metrology Light Source for solar and atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Gottwald, A.; Kolbe, M.; Richter, M.; Scholze, F.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.

    2013-05-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany's national metrology institute, is responsible for the realization and dissemination of the legal units in Germany. Within this mission, PTB has been using synchrotron radiation for the realization of the radiometric units in the spectral range from the UV to the X-ray region for more than 25 years. Prominent examples for calibration work using synchrotron radiation performed by PTB within the framework of solar or atmospheric research refer, e.g., to the SUMER and CDS spectrometers of the SOHO mission, the LYRA mission, or the SOL-ACES and the SOLSPEC instruments on ISS.

  17. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  18. Supraleitung und Interkontinentalraketen „On-line computing“ zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Johannes; Joas, Christian

    Der zweite Weltkrieg und der Kalte Krieg veränderten nicht nur das Verhältnis zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft, sondern auch die wissenschaftliche Praxis von Physikern und anderen Wissenschaftlern. In den 1950er Jahren stellte die Entwicklung von Interkontinentalraketen die Auftragnehmer des Militärs in der Industrie vor komplexe Fragestellungen, zu deren Lösung sie auf die Expertise von Wissenschaftlern angewiesen waren. Industrieunternehmen gründeten eigene Forschungseinheiten zur Lösung technischer und wissenschaftlicher Probleme.

  19. The performance of primary Cs beam clocks using quadrupole and hexapole deflection systems. Consequences for time keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1978 the time-and-frequency standard CS1 of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has operated continuously as a 'primary clock'. Its uncertainty (7.1 to the negative 15th power) is considerably smaller than that of the other existing primary standards. The CS1 is equipped with a combination of quadrupole and hexapole magnets and uses a longitudinal C-field. Consequences of utilizing primary clocks of this quality for the generation of the International Atomic Time Scale TAI are discussed.

  20. Is there an influence of the surrounding material on the response of the alanine dosimetry system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Mathias; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Hackel, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    In a combined experimental and Monte Carlo study the possible influence of the surrounding material on the response of the alanine dosimetry system was investigated. The aim of this work was to estimate the uncertainties induced by the surroundings with respect to quality assurance measurements for radiotherapy, for example in humanoid phantoms. Six different materials were tested. The electron density range covered comprises the range present in human tissue. No significant influence of the surrounding material could be found for irradiations in the 60Co reference field of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB).

  1. Calorimetric support of directional-hemispherical reflection measurements in the infrared spectral range.

    PubMed

    Richter, W; Sarge, S M; Kämmer, F

    1994-03-01

    Measurements of the directional-hemispherical reflectance ρ with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt IR sphere reflectometer have been confirmed by calorimetric determination of the absorptance α in the same geometrical conditions (irradiation at 10°, hemispherical reflection). The good agreement of ρ with (1 - α) on both highly reflecting and low-reflecting surfaces indicates that in the mid-IR spectral range the integrating sphere reflectometer is capable of essentially correct reflectance measurements of diffusely reflecting surfaces, with an estimated uncertainty of 0.01 after correction for a small systematic deviation. This capability opens up the possibility of developing IR reflectance standards. PMID:20862150

  2. Echtzeitfähigkeit von Satellitenkompassen in der Binnenschifffahrt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberkamp, G.; Zöbel, D.

    In der maritimen Schifffahrt finden Satellitenkompasse schon seit längerem Verwendung. Nachdem diese Geräte immer erschwinglicher werden, stellt sich die Frage, ob sie auch als Multisensoren für Telematikanwendungen in der Binnenschifffahrt geeignet sind. Im Rahmen einer umfassenden Untersuchung wurde auch die Fragestellung untersucht, wie zeitnah die Sensorinformationen verfügbar werden. Es wurde ein Versuchsaufbau entwickelt, der es ermöglicht, Satellitenkompasse auf ihre Echtzeitfähigkeit hin zu überprüfen. Das vorliegende Papier beschreibt den entwickelten Versuchsaufbau, dokumentiert die Ergebnisse und gibt einen Ausblick auf Verbesserungspotenziale.

  3. Einblicke in die Dynamik von Quantensystemen: Elektrostatische Speicherringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Carsten P.

    2005-03-01

    Elektrostatische Speicherringe kombinieren die Vorteile elektrostatischer Fallen und klassischer magnetischer Speicherringe. Kompaktheit, gute Zugänglichkeit sämtlicher Elemente, hohe Flexibilität in der Wahl möglicher Experimente und die Eigenschaft, alle Teilchen unabhängig von ihrer Masse über einen weiten Geschwindigkeitsbereich zu speichern, bieten Zugang zu einem weiten experimentellen Spektrum. Insbesondere das Potenzial, das in neuartigen, energievariablen Maschinen in Kombination mit Elektronenkühlung, internen Targets und hochauflösenden Reaktionsmikroskopen steckt, verspricht hochinteressante Ergebnisse mit den unterschiedlichsten Teilchen - von exotischen Antiprotonen oder schweren radioaktiven Ionen bis hin zu einfachen und komplexen Molekülen oder Biosystemen.

  4. Characteristics of natural wind simulations in the TUM boundary layer wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozmar, Hrvoje

    2011-11-01

    The boundary layer wind tunnel at the Technische Universität München was tested for atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulations. The ABLs developing above rural, suburban, and urban terrains were reproduced using the Counihan method, i.e., castellated barrier wall, vortex generators, and a fetch of surface roughness elements. A series of flow-characteristic evaluations was performed to investigate the flow development and uniformity. Experimental results presented as mean velocity, turbulence intensity, integral length scale of turbulence, Reynolds stress, and power spectral density of velocity fluctuations were compared with the ESDU data and/or theoretical models. Generated ABL wind-tunnel simulations compare well with the rural, suburban, and urban ABLs. In the test section area used for experiments on structural models, the ABL simulation is developed and uniform. Results of this study indicate the boundary layer wind tunnel at the Technische Universität München can be successfully employed in a broad spectrum of engineering, environmental, and micrometeorological studies, where it is required to accurately reproduce ABL characteristics.

  5. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  6. The interaction between sediment, hydraulics and mussels in a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2015-04-01

    Sarah Scholtissek Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Peter Rutschmann Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Bottom structures in rivers are not only depending on the current profile, turbulence in the flow and other hydraulic conditions, but also on the biota living in the river like e.g. mussels. There is also some influence of the sediment on the biota and their decision where they settle and so on. The interaction between the current, the mussels and the sediment is actually not very well known, especially in fresh waters. Therefore experiments were cunducted in a flume in the lab in Obernach to gain more information about these interactions. The mussels used for these experiments are painters mussels (Unio Pictorum). These mussels are widely spreaded in European fresh waters, but their behaviour is also comparable to mussels which are more sensitive and therefore rare like the pearl mussel (Margaritifera Margaritifera). In the experiments 15 individuals are monitored how they move and spread in the flume. Then the hydraulic conditions and the sediment around the mussels are measured with laser scanning and PIV (particle image velocimetry). with the help of these measurement techniques it is possible to do contactless measurements even of the small eddies around and caused by the mussels which exist only for a very short time but have an enormous effect on the sediment.

  7. [Evidenzbasierte Leitlinien, Anspruch und Wirklichkeit].

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Johannes; Reif, Marcus; Müller-Hübenthal, Boris; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Konzeption der «Evidenzbasierten Medizin» und den «Evidenzbasierten Leitlinien» soll mithilfe von Formalisierungsprozeduren die ärztliche Irrtumsanfälligkeit kalkulierbar gemacht werden. Quantifizierte objektive Aussagen über die therapeutische Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung sollen die individuelle ärztliche Beurteilung der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit überflüssig machen. Damit kommt der Befolgung von formalen Regeln die entscheidende Rolle bei der Beantwortung der Frage nach dem Wahrheitsgehalt und dem Wirklichkeitsbezug zu. Im Rahmen evidenzbasierter Leitlinien werden vorrangig die Ergebnisse randomisierter kontrollierter Studien (RCT) oder Meta-Analysen solcher Studien herangezogen. Am Beispiel der S3-Leitlinie «Malignes Melanom» wird hier eine evidenzbasierte Urteilsbildung zur Wirksamkeit einer unkonventionellen Therapie - hier mit einem Mistelpräparat - analytisch nachvollzogen. Die für die Beurteilung dieser unkonventionellen Therapie herangezogene randomisierte Studie wird genauer methodisch analysiert. Obwohl sie keine statistisch basierte Aussage zulässt, wurde eine Leitlinienempfehlung auf Basis dieser Studie abgeleitet. Es wird gezeigt, dass 1) allein die Existenz einer einzigen RCT mit hoher Evidenz gleichgesetzt wird, 2) die Ergebnisse trotz beträchtlicher Fehlinterpretationen in eine S3-Leitlinie einfließen und 3) Meinungen anstelle kritischer wissenschaftlicher Analysen verarbeitet werden. Unsere Untersuchung zeigt, dass noch so ausgefeilte epistemologische und methodologische Formalien den Arzt nicht von der Pflicht entbinden, auf Basis seiner ärztlichen Erfahrung und professionellen Kompetenz den Realitätswert der ihm zur Verfügung stehenden Information zu beurteilen. PMID:27161555

  8. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. PMID:27606616

  9. Homogeneous reprocessing of GPS, GLONASS and SLR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Mathias; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Rodríguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Steigenberger, Peter; Wang, Kan; Dietrich, Reinhard; Dach, Rolf; Hugentobler, Urs; Rothacher, Markus

    2014-07-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides operational products for the GPS and GLONASS constellation. Homogeneously processed time series of parameters from the IGS are only available for GPS. Reprocessed GLONASS series are provided only by individual Analysis Centers (i. e. CODE and ESA), making it difficult to fully include the GLONASS system into a rigorous GNSS analysis. In view of the increasing number of active GLONASS satellites and a steadily growing number of GPS+GLONASS-tracking stations available over the past few years, Technische Universität Dresden, Technische Universität München, Universität Bern and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich performed a combined reprocessing of GPS and GLONASS observations. Also, SLR observations to GPS and GLONASS are included in this reprocessing effort. Here, we show only SLR results from a GNSS orbit validation. In total, 18 years of data (1994-2011) have been processed from altogether 340 GNSS and 70 SLR stations. The use of GLONASS observations in addition to GPS has no impact on the estimated linear terrestrial reference frame parameters. However, daily station positions show an RMS reduction of 0.3 mm on average for the height component when additional GLONASS observations can be used for the time series determination. Analyzing satellite orbit overlaps, the rigorous combination of GPS and GLONASS neither improves nor degrades the GPS orbit precision. For GLONASS, however, the quality of the microwave-derived GLONASS orbits improves due to the combination. These findings are confirmed using independent SLR observations for a GNSS orbit validation. In comparison to previous studies, mean SLR biases for satellites GPS-35 and GPS-36 could be reduced in magnitude from and mm to and mm, respectively. Our results show that remaining SLR biases depend on the satellite type and the use of coated or uncoated retro-reflectors. For Earth rotation parameters, the increasing number of GLONASS satellites and

  10. Galileo, Cassini, Giotto. Raumsonden erforschen unser Planetensystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Wolfgang

    Großartige Bilder und andere wichtige Informationen von den Planeten Merkur bis Neptun sowie von Asteroiden und Kometen haben zahlreiche amerikanische und russische, europäische und japanische Raumsonden seit 1960 zur Erde gefunkt. Die interplanetare Raumfahrt bewährt sich als verlängertes Teleskop der Astronomen, und die Ergebnisse sind nicht nur für Wissenschaftler interessant, sie erweitern auch den menschlichen Erkenntnishorizont insgesamt. Die Raketentechnik und moderne Elektronik bzw. Sensorik haben sich zu einem fantastischen Instrument der Astronomie und Planetenforschung verbunden. Allgemeinverständlich werden in diesem Buch die historische, erdgebundene Entwicklung der Planetenforschung und die Ergebnisse der seit 45 Jahren startenden automatischen Raumsonden, die natürlich viel näher an die fernen Himmelskörper herankommen, vor dem Leser ausgebreitet. So wissen wir heute sehr gut über das Aussehen und die Beschaffenheit der meisten kleinen und großen Planeten, ihrer Oberflächen und Atmosphären, die verschiedenartigen Monde und Ringsysteme, Magnetfelder und Strahlengürtel Bescheid. Den zweiten Schwerpunkt des Buches bildet die Beschreibung der vielen Raumsonden und ihrer oft jahrelangen, aufregenden Missionen zur Erforschung von Sonne, Merkur, Venus, Erde und Mond, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus und Neptun sowie diverser Kometen und Asteroiden. Dabei wird die Konstruktion der Elektronikroboter mit allen Anlagen zur Energieversorgung, Temperaturkontrolle, Funkverbindung und Lagekontrolle ebenso erläutert wie die Multispektralinstrumente und die Beobachtungsstrategien beim Erreichen der fernen Reiseziele. Unvergessen sind die fantastischen Ergebnisse der amerikanischen Mariner- und Viking-Sonden von Mars die großartigen Bilder und Messungen der Voyager-Späher von den großen äußeren Gasplaneten. Auch die neuesten Resultate der Galileo-Sonde von Jupiter und seinen vier großen Monden sowie des Cassini-Orbiters von Saturn und seinem

  11. Gebändigtes Knallgas: Brennstoffzellen im mobilen und stationären Einsatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waidhas, Manfred; Landes, Harald

    2001-07-01

    Die Brennstoffzelle hat aus technischer Sicht einen hohen Stand erreicht. Die PEMFC konnte ihre Zuverlässigkeit in einer Reihe von Nischenanwendungen, aber auch in Form erster mobiler und dezentraler Prototypen beweisen. Die SOFC und die MCFC konnten bereits in Anlagen von 100 kW und mehr in Erprobung gehen. Um jedoch wirtschaftlich konkur-renzfähig zu den etablierten Technologien der mobilen und dezentralen Energiewandlung zu werden, muss noch eine drastische Kostenreduktion sowohl beim Brennstoffzellen-Stack als auch bei den zu seinem Betrieb notwendigen Hilfsaggregaten erreicht werden. Für Fahrzeugantriebe muss außerdem eine Antwort auf die noch offene Treibstofffrage (Infrastruktur, H2-Erzeugung und H2-Speicherung) gefunden werden.

  12. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-05-28

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  13. Ein mobiler und offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin und Materialforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg

    2005-09-01

    An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene und mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen und unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil und die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten und modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.

  14. Theoretical and experimental determination of L -shell decay rates, line widths, and fluorescence yields in Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Sampaio, J. M.; Madeira, T. I.; Parente, F.; Indelicato, P.; Marques, J. P.; Santos, J. P.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Loperetti, L.; Zeeshan, F.; Müller, M.; Unterumsberger, R.; Beckhoff, B.

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence yields (FYs) for the Ge L shell were determined by a theoretical and two experimental groups within the framework of the International Initiative on X-Ray Fundamental Parameters Collaboration. Calculations were performed using the Dirac-Fock method, including relativistic and QED corrections. The experimental value of the L3FY ωL 3 was determined at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt undulator beamline of the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin, Germany, and the L α1 ,2 and L β1 line widths were measured at the Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, using monochromatized synchrotron radiation and a von Hamos x-ray crystal spectrometer. The measured fluorescence yields and line widths are compared to the corresponding calculated values.

  15. High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. PMID:24709611

  16. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the PTB and the BIPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Selbach, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate (RAKR) for 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the PTB in September 2011. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for a transfer standard and expressed as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for reference air kerma rate, is 1.0003 with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.0099. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Umsetzung von CE-Prozessen durch neue Methoden und interaktive 3-D-Modelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Andrea; Schulz, Torsten; Szymanski, Hans

    Innerhalb der EU gelten einheitliche Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Maschinen, die in Form von grundlegenden Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzanforderungen in der Maschinenrichtlinie (MaschRL) formuliert sind. Ihre Einhaltung dokumentiert der Hersteller mit der Konformitätserklärung und der Vergabe des CE-Zeichens. Die Maschinenrichtlinie ist ein Element des 1985 von der Europäischen Gemeinschaft (EG) beschriebenen "New Approach“ Rechtsetzungsmodells, das technologische Innovation ermöglicht und die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der europäischen Industrie regelt. Es wurde erschaffen, um technische Handelshemmnisse im europäischen Binnenmarkt zu beseitigen und ein einheitliches Niveau hinsichtlich der Sicherheit der Produkte und dem Gesundheits- bzw. Verbraucherschutz zu gewährleisten. Alle Produkt-Richtlinien der EG, die später auf Grundlage des New Approach entstanden sind, weisen eine einheitliche Vorgehensweise auf, mit der diese Ziele erreicht werden sollen (VDI Verlag 11/2008).

  18. Analysis of the product gas from biomass gasification by means of laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karellas, S.; Karl, J.

    2007-09-01

    The use of biomass and waste for decentralised combined heat and power production (CHP) requires highly efficient gasification processes. In the Technische Universität München (TUM), an innovative gasification technology has been developed. This allothermal gasifier is producing a hydrogen- rich, high-calorific gas, that can be further used in a microturbine or a fuel cell producing energy. For the operation of such a system, the online analysis of the composition of the product gas is of high importance, since the efficient working of the machines is linked with the gas quality. For this purpose an optical measurement system based on laser spectroscopy has been applied. This system can measure not only the basic components of the product gas (H 2, CH 4, CO, CO 2, H 2O), but it also gives information concerning the content of high hydrocarbons, the so-called tars, in the product gas.

  19. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Strength of Materials (ICSMA-15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Biermann, Horst; Heilmaier, Martin

    2010-04-01

    . This is a very good ratio showing that we could attract the young generation. There have been 272 oral and 135 poster presentations. It is our pleasure to thank the members of the International ICSMA Committee for their valuable help, especially for proposing and choosing the 18 plenary speakers. 187 papers were submitted for publication in the proceedings, 167 were accepted after reviewing. We would like to express our thanks to all referees for their efficient and prompt efforts. We acknowledge particularly support from the German Research Society (DFG), the Saxon Ministry for Science and Art and the City of Dresden. We are also grateful for industrial support from PLANSEE Metall GmbH, Goodfellow GmbH, MTS Systems GMB, Nagoya University and IOP Publishing. Finally we thank all members of the Local Organizing Committee, Intercom Dresden and Conwerk / Laboratory Ten for the excellent organization of ICSMA 15 and the very pleasant collaboration. During the conference the International ICSMA Committee decided to convene the next conference in Bangalore, India, in 2012. We wish the organizers of ICSMA 16 great success and look forward to meeting you in Bangalore. Werner Skrotzki (Technische Universität Dresden) Carl-Georg Oertel (Technische Universität Dresden) Horst Biermann (Bergakademie Technische Universität Freiberg) Martin Heilmaier (Technische Universität Darmstadt) Guest Editors Dresden, June 23, 2009 (* Corresponding author; e-mail address: werner.skrotzki@physik.tu-dresden.de)

  20. Nuclear physics experiments for the astrophysical p process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, A.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Hasper, J.; Hennig, A.; Netterdon, L.; Zilges, A.

    2011-04-01

    We studied the two astrophysically interesting reactions 141PrPm and 92MoTc with the activation method and with the in-beam method, respectively. The 141PrPm experiment was performed at the cyclotron of the ‘Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)’ in Braunschweig, Germany, and the reaction was studied within and just above the so-called Gamow window. In this proceedings, we present the experimental details of this measurement. The proton-capture reaction on the neutron-magic nucleus 92Mo was studied at energies relevant for the astrophysical p process. The reaction was investigated by the in-beam technique using the γ-ray detector array HORUS (High efficient Observatory for γ-Ray Unique Spectroscopy) at the TANDEM ion accelerator at the University of Cologne. The preliminary experimental results are compared to data stemming from other measurements.

  1. Calibration of far-IR and sub-mm detectors traceable to the international system of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ralf; Gutschwager, Berndt; Monte, Christian; Steiger, Andreas; Hollandt, Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Precision power measurement of electromagnetic radiation is required to establish metrological applications, e.g. remote sensing. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), as the national metrology institute of Germany, has started to determine the spectral responsivity of detectors for THz radiation. In this work, the THz spectral range denotes the wavelength range from 60 μm to 300 μm, corresponding to 5 THz to 1 THz, which is traditionally the overlap between far-IR and the sub-mm range. Traceability of power measurement to the international system of units (SI) has been missing in the THz region in the past. The PTB establishes this traceability by using two complementary optical approaches, source- and detector-based radiometry. Both methods have been successfully prototyped. These primary investigations led to the design of a new measurement facility for the determination of THz radiant power and the responsivity calibration of THz detectors traceable to the SI.

  2. Internet discussion forums as part of a student-centred teaching concept of pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Sucha, Michael; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The world wide web opens up new opportunities to interconnect electronic and classroom teaching and to promote active student participation. In this project article we describe the use of internet discussion forums as part of a student-centred teaching concept of pharmacology and discuss its advantages and disadvantages based on evaluation data and current literature. Methods and Results: Final year medical students at the Technische Universität München (Munich, Germany) with the elective pharmacology moderated an internet forum that allowed all students to discuss pharmacology-related questions. Evaluation results of forum participants and elective students demonstrated a learning benefit of internet forums in pharmacology teaching. Conclusion: Internet discussion forums offer an easy-to-implement and effective way to actively engage students and increase the learning benefit of electronic and classroom teaching in pharmacology. PMID:23467549

  3. Aerodynamic analysis of a helicopter fuselage with rotating rotor head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reß, R.; Grawunder, M.; Breitsamter, Ch.

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments obtained during a research programme aimed at drag reduction of the fuselage of a twin engine light helicopter configuration. A 1 : 5 scale model of a helicopter fuselage including a rotating rotor head and landing gear was investigated in the low-speed wind tunnel A of Technische Universität a München (TUM). The modelled parts of the helicopter induce approxiu mately 80% of the total parasite drag thus forming a major potential for shape optimizations. The present paper compares results of force and moment measurements of a baseline configuration and modified variants with an emphasis on the aerodynamic drag, lift, and yawing moment coefficients.

  4. New prospects in solar cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Grupp, M.; Klingshirn, A.

    1992-12-31

    Two studies have been completed recently for Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit and German Appropriate Technology Exchange. The first of these studies contains the following: a classification scheme for solar cookers according to collector type, heat transfer mechanism, and type of use; an assessment of the potential interest of different cooker concepts; a catalogue of 160 different solar cookers that have been tested and/or used in the field. The second study highlights the potential advantages of multi-energy (solar plus back-up) cooking and analyzes its particular boundary conditions. A choice of possible concepts for use in institutions is presented. Particular attention is paid to the problem of efficient heat transfer into removable cooking vessels. Social and cultural factors concerning the acceptance of new technologies are also discussed.

  5. Response function stability of single crystal diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zbořil, Miroslav Zimbal, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Detectors based on single crystal synthetic diamond show promise as neutron spectrometers for the ITER project. In this work, the stability of the response function of two diamond detectors was tested at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) accelerator using a 14 MeV neutron field and a method of time-resolved fluence monitoring. In addition, measurements at the PTB ion-microbeam were made to investigate the charge collection properties of the detectors in more detail. The {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be peak response of one of the detectors was found to be stable within 1% after irradiation with a neutron fluence of 8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. The absolute value of the peak response of this detector was determined as 8.65(26) × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}.

  6. Demonstration of the two-chamber approach for high-voltage measurements using collinear laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Elisa; Ullmann, Johannes; Frömmgen, Nadja; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Kaufmann, Simon; Krieger, Andreas; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2014-06-01

    An electronic measurement of high-voltages of several ten kV with accuracy as required for precision experiments is currently only feasible using highly sophisticated voltage dividers. Collinear laser spectroscopy can provide a direct and precise measurement of high-voltages using the Doppler shift of accelerated ions. Although proposed already in 1982, a measurement with relative accuracy better than 10-4 was not reported so far. To improve this accuracy, a dedicated new setup for high-voltage measurements will be installed at the Technische Universität Darmstadt. A two-chamber approach will be used to remove uncertainties due to the insufficiently known starting potential inside the ion source. Here we present a demonstration of the pump-and-probe technique performed in preparatory studies at the TRIGA-LASER experiment in Mainz.

  7. An in-flight blackbody calibration source for the GLORIA interferometer onboard an airborne research platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppmann, R.; Olschewski, F.; Steffens, P.; Rolf, C.; Preusse, P.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Kleinert, A.; Piesch, C.; Hollandt, J.; Gutschwager, B.; Monte, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) deployed on board different research aircraft provides detailed pictures of the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region. GLORIA uses a two-dimensional detector array for infrared limb observations. GLORIA's in-flight calibration sources are two identical large-area high-precision blackbodies, which are independently controlled at two different temperatures. Thermo-Electric Coolers (TECs) are used to control the temperature of the calibration sources. The calibration sources have been comprehensively characterized for their spatially and spectrally resolved radiation properties in terms of radiation temperature traceable to the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany.

  8. Traceable calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector using characterized synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ingmar; Klein, Roman M.; Werner, Lutz

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric calibrations of fibre-coupled single photon detectors are experiencing growing demand, especially at the telecommunication wavelengths. In this paper, the radiometric calibration of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector at the telecom wavelength 1.55 µm by means of well-characterized synchrotron radiation is described. This substitution method is based on the unique properties of synchrotron radiation and the Metrology Light Source, the dedicated electron storage ring of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, and is suitable for fibre-coupled single photon detectors. The Metrology Light Source is used as a light source with a high dynamic range of the radiant power to bridge the radiometric gap occurring in the transition from radiant power measurements and the counting of photons with single photon detectors. Very low uncertainties below 2% have been achieved in the measurement of the detection efficiency of a fibre-coupled superconducting nano-wire single photon detector.

  9. Automatische Montagemaschinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Stefan

    Seit den 1950er Jahren werden Produkte in größerem Ausmaß automatisch montiert. Besonders bei ausgesprochenen Massenprodukten wurde inzwischen ein hoher technischer Stand erreicht. Die dazu benutzten Montageautomaten sind Sondermaschinen, die fur ein Produkt individuell angepasst sind. Typisch sind mittlerweile ein modularer Aufbau and die Kombination von erprobten Baukastenkomponenten zu einer Anlage. Es gibt verschiedene Bauformen, von denen sich jede in Verbindung mit bestimmten Erzeugnissen and Bedingungen bewährt hat. In manchen Anwendungen mit kleinen Stückzahlen, zahlreichen Varianten oder bei einzelnen diffizilen Arbeitsschritten können Handarbeitsplätze erforderlich sein, was zu sog. hybriden Montagesystemen als Kombination von Hand- und Maschinenarbeitsplätzen führt.

  10. Response function stability of single crystal diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zbořil, Miroslav; Zimbal, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Detectors based on single crystal synthetic diamond show promise as neutron spectrometers for the ITER project. In this work, the stability of the response function of two diamond detectors was tested at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) accelerator using a 14 MeV neutron field and a method of time-resolved fluence monitoring. In addition, measurements at the PTB ion-microbeam were made to investigate the charge collection properties of the detectors in more detail. The (12)C(n,α)(9)Be peak response of one of the detectors was found to be stable within 1% after irradiation with a neutron fluence of 8 × 10(9) cm(-2). The absolute value of the peak response of this detector was determined as 8.65(26) × 10(-5) cm(2). PMID:25430252

  11. Development of forced flow cooled current leads for fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, R.; Fink, S.; Friesinger, G.; Kienzler, A.; Lingor, A.; Schleinkofer, G.; Süßer, M.; Ulbricht, A.; Wüchner, F.; Zahn, G.

    2001-03-01

    During the past 15 years, the Institut für Technische Physik of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, has developed current leads cooled by forced-flow supercritical helium in the current range from 20 to 80 kA. The design is based on a separation of the current carrying part and the heat exchanger part as well as the presence of the so-called superconductor inserts made of Nb 3Sn wires inside the conductor in the heat exchanger area which allows the operation of the current lead at minimum helium mass flow in a wide current range. The paper describes the design and construction of the current leads as well as operation results obtained during various tests performed in the coil test facility TOSKA at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.

  12. A new method for determining allowable medium temperature during transient operation of thick-walled elements in a supercritical power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, Piotr; Rząsa, Dariusz

    2010-09-01

    Construction elements of supercritical power plants are subjected to high working pressures and high temperatures while operating. Under these conditions high stresses in the construction are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stress limit. The goal is to find optimum operating parameters that can assure safe heating and cooling processes [1-5]. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the allowable stresses are not exceeded and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. In this work new numerical method for determining optimum working parameters is presented. Based on these parameters heating operations were conducted. Stresses were monitored during the entire processes. The results obtained were compared with the German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301.

  13. Diagnostic analysis of the Lake Uluabat in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Degirminci, Hasan; Alp, Ahmet; Buyukcangaz, Hakan

    2006-05-01

    Diagnostic analysis of wetlands is an ordered/structured method of examining wetland systems to identify their values and constraints for the solution of the environmental problems. This study focuses on the diagnostic analysis of Lake Uluabat on the feasibility of "Objective Oriented Project Planning (OOPP)" approach, created by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and further improved by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). Negative changes both in water quality and quantity were determined as the core problems. The main results were summarized as the water pollution and fluctuation in the water level caused by the urban and agricultural waste disposals, sedimentation, and overfishing. These negative effects cause loss of biodiversity and damage to crops. Disposal control, training, adequate regulations, and a centralized control and monitoring authority have been proposed to cope with the determined problems. PMID:17436539

  14. Fully automated hybrid diode laser assembly using high precision active alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, Gunnar; Weber, Daniel; Scholz, Friedemann; Schröder, Henning; Schneider-Ramelow, Martin; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Fraunhofer IZM, Technische Universität Berlin and eagleyard Photonics present various implementations of current micro-optical assemblies for high quality free space laser beam forming and efficient fiber coupling. The laser modules shown are optimized for fast and automated assembly in small form factor packages via state-of-the-art active alignment machinery, using alignment and joining processes that have been developed and established in various industrial research projects. Operational wavelengths and optical powers ranging from 600 to 1600 nm and from 1 mW to several W respectively are addressed, for application in high-resolution laser spectroscopy, telecom and optical sensors, up to the optical powers needed in industrial and medical laser treatment.

  15. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  16. Measurement of the electron energy and energy spread at the electron storage ring BESSY I.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Mayer, T; Kuske, P; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    1998-05-01

    Knowledge of the electron energy with a small uncertainty is necessary for the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to operate the electron storage ring BESSY I, and the future BESSY II, as a primary radiation source standard of calculable synchrotron radiation. At BESSY I the electron energy can now be measured either by the long-established method of resonant spin depolarization or by the newly set up method of Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons (CO(2) laser, lambda = 10.6 micro m). Results obtained at different electron energies by these two independent methods are presented. They agree within a relative uncertainty of better than 10(-4). The advantages and disadvantages of these two complementary techniques are described and applications of CBS for the measurement of other storage-ring parameters, e.g. the electron energy spread, are given. PMID:15263521

  17. Postirradiation effects in alanine dosimeter probes of two different suppliers.

    PubMed

    Anton, Mathias

    2008-03-01

    The measurand relevant for the dosimetry for radiation therapy is the absorbed dose to water, DW. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is establishing a secondary standard for DW for high-energy photon and electron radiation based on electron spin resonance (ESR) of the amino acid alanine. For practical applications, like, for example, intercomparison measurements using the ESR/alanine dosimetry system, the temporal evolution of the ESR signal of irradiated probes is an important issue. This postirradiation behaviour is investigated for alanine pellets of two different suppliers for different storage conditions. The influence of the storage conditions on the temporal evolution may be dependent on the type of probes used. The measurement and analysis method developed at the PTB is able to circumvent the apparent difficulties in the case of alanine/paraffin probes. Care has to be taken in case this method cannot be applied. PMID:18296760

  18. Gernot Renger (1937-2013): his life, Max-Volmer Laboratory, and photosynthesis research.

    PubMed

    Siggel, Ulrich; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Messinger, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Gernot Renger (October 23, 1937-January 12, 2013), one of the leading biophysicists in the field of photosynthesis research, studied and worked at the Max-Volmer-Institute (MVI) of the Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, for more than 50 years, and thus witnessed the rise and decline of photosynthesis research at this institute, which at its prime was one of the leading centers in this field. We present a tribute to Gernot Renger's work and life in the context of the history of photosynthesis research of that period, with special focus on the MVI. Gernot will be remembered for his thought-provoking questions and his boundless enthusiasm for science. PMID:27312337

  19. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase. PMID:18855420

  20. Ginger: Measuring Gravitomagnetic Effects by Means of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    GINGER is a proposal for a new experiment aimed to the detection of the gravito-magnetic Lense-Thirring effect at the surface of the Earth. A three-dimensional set of ring lasers will be mounted on a rigid "monument". In a ring laser a light beam traveling counterclockwise is superposed to another beam traveling in the opposite sense. The anisotropy in the propagation leads to standing waves with slightly different frequencies in the two directions; the resulting beat frequency is proportional to the absolute rotation rate in space, including the gravito-magnetic drag. The experiment is planned to be built in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy and is based on an international collaboration among four Italian groups, the Technische Universität München and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch (NZ).

  1. SMARD-REXUS-18: Development and Verification of an SMA Based CubeSat Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grulich, M.; Koop, A.; Ludewig, P.; Gutsmiedl, J.; Kugele, J.; Ruck, T.; Mayer, I.; Schmid, A.; Dietmann, K.

    2015-09-01

    SMARD (Shape Memory Alloy Reusable Deployment Mechanism) is an experiment for a sounding rocket developed by students at Technische Universität MUnchen (TUM). It was launched in March 2015 on REXUS 18 (Rocket Experiments for University Students). The goal of SMARD was to develop a solar panel holddown and release mechanism (HDRM) for a CubeSat using shape memory alloys (SMA) for repeatable actuation and the ability to be quickly resettable. This paper describes the technical approach as well as the technological development and design of the experiment platform, which is capable of proving the functionality of the deployment mechanism. Furthermore, the realization of the experiment as well as the results of the flight campaign are presented. Finally, the future applications of the developed HDRM and its possible further developments are discussed.

  2. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-15

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  3. Reduction of the uncertainty of the PTB vacuum pressure scale by a new large area non-rotating piston gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Th; Ahrendt, H.; Jousten, K.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the metrological characterization of a new large area piston gauge (FRS5, Furness Rosenberg Standard) installed at the vacuum metrology laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The operational procedure and the uncertainty budget for pressures between 30 Pa and 11 kPa are given. Comparisons between the FRS5 and a mercury manometer, a rotary piston gauge and a force-balanced piston gauge are described. We show that the reproducibility of the calibration values of capacitance diaphragm gauges is enhanced by a factor of 6 compared with a static expansion primary standard (SE2). Improvements of the SE2 performance by reducing the number of expansions and smaller uncertainties of expansion ratios are discussed.

  4. Ground Testing Of Hypervelocity Impact Effects Of Micrometeoroids And Space Debris On Solar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmerohn, Martin; Rott, Martin; Gerhard, Andreas; Osterholz, Jens; Schafer, Frank; D'Accolti, Gianfelice

    2011-10-01

    Solar arrays are the satellite component most exposed to micrometeoroid and space debris (MM/SD) impacts. The damage potential of hypervelocity impacts (HVI) is characterized by considerable energy released at the impact interface leading to mechanical damage and the generation of plasma. Impact experiments performed in the past indicate that the impact plasma can induce arcing, which consequently may lead to permanent power losses as known from electrostatic discharges. An ESA study is currently ongoing, the objective of which is to study and test the susceptibility of state-of-the art solar arrays to HVI. This paper describes potential failure modes, a ground testing approach to simulate them and its implementation for the test campaign, which will be performed at Fraunhofer EMI using a light gas gun and at Technische Universität München using a plasma-dynamic accelerator. Solar array simulation equipment and comprehensive plasma diagnostics are to be applied for ground testing.

  5. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  6. Two highly accurate methods for pitch calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Härtig, F.; Osawa, S.; Sato, O.

    2009-11-01

    Among profiles, helix and tooth thickness pitch is one of the most important parameters of an involute gear measurement evaluation. In principle, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) and CNC-controlled gear measuring machines as a variant of a CMM are suited for these kinds of gear measurements. Now the Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) and the German national metrology institute the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have each developed independently highly accurate pitch calibration methods applicable to CMM or gear measuring machines. Both calibration methods are based on the so-called closure technique which allows the separation of the systematic errors of the measurement device and the errors of the gear. For the verification of both calibration methods, NMIJ/AIST and PTB performed measurements on a specially designed pitch artifact. The comparison of the results shows that both methods can be used for highly accurate calibrations of pitch standards.

  7. A new facility for the synchrotron radiation-based calibration of transfer radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornagel, Reiner; Fliegauf, Rolf; Klein, Roman; Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has a long tradition in the calibration of radiation sources in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with traceability to calculable synchrotron radiation. Within this context, new instrumentation in the PTB laboratory at the Metrology Light Source (MLS) has been put into operation that opens up extended and improved calibration possibilities. A new facility for radiation source calibrations has been set up in the spectral range from 7 nm to 400 nm based on a combined normal incidence-grazing incidence monochromator. The facility can be used for the calibration of transfer sources in terms of spectral radiant intensity or mean spectral radiance, with traceability to the MLS primary source standard. We describe the design and performance of the experimental station and give examples of some commissioning results.

  8. elecTUM: Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmayer, Sabine; Gergintchev, Ivan

    An der TUM wurde ein umfassendes und integriertes eLearning-Konzept umgesetzt, welches Präsenzstudium und eLearning in allen Leistungsbereichen der Universität miteinander verzahnt. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt lag dabei in der Schaffung einer effizienten und wettbewerbsfähigen integrierten eLearning Infrastruktur in Hinblick auf die noch weiter steigenden Studienanfängerzahlen ab dem Jahr 2011 sowie die Umsetzung von eBologna. Die Etablierung einer hochschulweiten Lernplattform stellte eine wesentliche Basis für die Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie dar. Die wissenschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Anschlussfähigkeit im Hinblick auf eine Verwertung der Projektergebnisse wurde durch die aktive Beteiligung an einer Vielzahl hochschulübergreifender Arbeitskreise, Fachtagungen und Kooperationen, vor allem über Organisations- und Dienstleistungsmodelle sowie innovative technische Entwicklungen, sichergestellt.

  9. Absolute measurement of F2-laser power at 157 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, Stefan; Brandt, Friedhelm; Kremling, Hans-Albert; Gottwald, Alexander; Hoehl, Arne; Richter, Mathias

    2006-05-10

    We report a comparison of laser power measurements at the F2-laser wavelength oaf nm made at two facilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute. At the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in Berlin, the scale for laser power was directly traced to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 157 nm, whereas at the PTB laser radiometry facility in Braunschweig the calibration of transfer detectors was performed with a newly developed standard for laser power at 157 nm, which is traceable in several steps to a cryogenic radiometer operating at 633 nm. The comparison was performed under vacuum conditions with laser pulse energies of?10 {mu}J, however with different average powers because different primary standard radiometers were used. The relative deviation for the responsivity of the transfer detector was 4.8% and thus within the combined standard uncertainty.

  10. Nova reaction rates and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S.; Herlitzius, C.; Fiehl, J.

    2011-04-01

    Oxygen-neon novae form a subset of classical novae events known to freshly synthesize nuclei up to mass number A≲40. Because several gamma-ray emitters lie in this mass range, these novae are also interesting candidates for gamma-ray astronomy. The properties of excited states within those nuclei in this mass region play a critical role in determining the resonant (p,γ) reaction rates, themselves, largely unknown for the unstable nuclei. We describe herein a new Doppler shift lifetime facility at the Maier-Leibnitz tandem laboratory, Technische Universität München, with which we will map out important resonant (p,γ) nova reaction rates.

  11. Molar-mass measurement of a 28Si-enriched silicon crystal for determination of the Avogadro constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Kuramoto, Naoki; Fujii, Kenichi

    2014-06-01

    The molar mass of a 28Si-enriched crystal was measured at the National Metrology Institute of Japan to determine the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method as part of the International Avogadro Coordination project. The molar mass was determined by isotope ratio measurements using a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer combined with an isotope dilution technique. The 28Si-enriched crystal was dissolved in tetramethylammonium hydroxide and three different blended solutions were used to correct for mass bias in the measurement. The molar mass of the 28Si-enriched crystal was determined to be 27.976 970 09 g mol-1 with a standard uncertainty of 0.000 000 14 g mol-1. This corresponds to a relative standard uncertainty of 5.2 × 10-9. This result is consistent with measurements reported by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.

  12. Cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons at energies between 300 and 3000 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingjie; Rudek, Benedikt; Bennett, Daniel; de Vera, Pablo; Bug, Marion; Buhr, Ticia; Baek, Woon Yong; Hilgers, Gerhard; Rabus, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Double-differential cross sections for ionization of tetrahydrofuran by protons with energies from 300 to 3000 keV were measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt ion accelerator facility. The electrons emitted at angles between 15∘ and 150∘ relative to the ion-beam direction were detected with an electrostatic hemispherical electron spectrometer. Single-differential and total ionization cross sections have been derived by integration. The experimental results are compared to the semiempirical Hansen-Kocbach-Stolterfoht model as well as to the recently reported method based on the dielectric formalism. The comparison to the latter showed good agreement with experimental data in a broad range of emission angles and energies of secondary electrons. The scaling property of ionization cross sections for tetrahydrofuran was also investigated. Compared to molecules of different size, the ionization cross sections of tetrahydrofuran were found to scale with the number of valence electrons at large impact parameters.

  13. Determining orbital particle parameters of impacts into germanium using morphology analysis and calibration data from hypervelocity impact experiments in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done at the Lehrstuhl fur Raumfahrttechnik (lrt) at the Technische Universitat Munchen to examine particle impacts into germanium surfaces which were flown on board the LDEF satellite. Besides the description of the processing of the samples, a brief overview of the particle launchers at our institute is given together with descriptions of impact morphology of high- and hypervelocity particles into germanium. Since germanium is a brittle, almost glass-like material, the impact morphology may also be interesting for anyone dealing with materials such as optics and solar cells. The main focus of our investigations is to learn about the impacting particle's properties, for example mass, velocity and direction. This is done by examining the morphology, various geometry parameters, crater obliqueness and crater volume.

  14. Nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine NPMM-200—a new powerful tool for large-range micro- and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, G.; Manske, E.; Hausotte, T.; Müller, A.; Balzer, F.

    2016-09-01

    High-precision metrology has emerged as an enabling technology for modern key technologies. Therefore, at the Technische Universität Ilmenau, a new nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine NPMM-200 with a measuring range of 200 mm × 200 mm × 25 mm, and a resolution of 0.02 nm was developed. The machine represents the great improvement of the extended three-dimensional Abbe comparator principle to achieve nanometre accuracy. All six degrees of freedom of the mirror plate with the measuring object are measured by fibre-coupled laser interferometers, the signals of which are then used together with the probe system signals for a high-precision position and orientation control and surface and coordinate measurements. This paper presents the metrological concept, the realized design as well as the metrological parameters.

  15. Integration of a silicon-based microprobe into a gear measuring instrument for accurate measurement of micro gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, N.; Krah, T.; Jeong, D. C.; Metz, D.; Kniel, K.; Dietzel, A.; Büttgenbach, S.; Härtig, F.

    2014-06-01

    The integration of silicon micro probing systems into conventional gear measuring instruments (GMIs) allows fully automated measurements of external involute micro spur gears of normal modules smaller than 1 mm. This system, based on a silicon microprobe, has been developed and manufactured at the Institute for Microtechnology of the Technische Universität Braunschweig. The microprobe consists of a silicon sensor element and a stylus which is oriented perpendicularly to the sensor. The sensor is fabricated by means of silicon bulk micromachining. Its small dimensions of 6.5 mm × 6.5 mm allow compact mounting in a cartridge to facilitate the integration into a GMI. In this way, tactile measurements of 3D microstructures can be realized. To enable three-dimensional measurements with marginal forces, four Wheatstone bridges are built with diffused piezoresistors on the membrane of the sensor. On the reverse of the membrane, the stylus is glued perpendicularly to the sensor on a boss to transmit the probing forces to the sensor element during measurements. Sphere diameters smaller than 300 µm and shaft lengths of 5 mm as well as measurement forces from 10 µN enable the measurements of 3D microstructures. Such micro probing systems can be integrated into universal coordinate measuring machines and also into GMIs to extend their field of application. Practical measurements were carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by qualifying the microprobes on a calibrated reference sphere to determine their sensitivity and their physical dimensions in volume. Following that, profile and helix measurements were carried out on a gear measurement standard with a module of 1 mm. The comparison of the measurements shows good agreement between the measurement values and the calibrated values. This result is a promising basis for the realization of smaller probe diameters for the tactile measurement of micro gears with smaller modules.

  16. A comparison between the bottom-track data of an ADCP and Laserscanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2015-04-01

    Simon Lutz Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Peter Rutschmann Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany A standard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is constructed, as the name suggests, to gain data about the flow velocity and discharge of e.g. a river. The device is in fact similar to a sonar and uses the Doppler effect to detect the velocity of particles in the water column below the transducers. Beside that standard function it also can track the bottom of a river or sea. The pulses are scattered by the bottom and the shift in the detected velocities between bottom and bulk phase can be used to identify the surface. However this data set depends on the quality of the signal and can be influenced inter alia when the river-bed is moving. Under in situ conditions it is almost not possible to evaluate the quality of this bottom track data. On the other hand e.g. a minimum water depth is needed to get proper results with the ADCP which causes problems in a lab flume. Therefore a reservoir was used for the comparison measurement which could be drained and set nearby dry so the scanning with a RIEGL terrestrial laser scanner became feasible. Within the reservoir due to sedimentation of silt and fine sand fractions a nature-like bottom structure has developed including a talweg, steeper and more shallow areas. This is a perfect structure for the comparison of the results of these two measurement devices. With the Laser-scanning data a 3D model is generated. The bottom track cross sections of the ADCP can be implemented in this model and compared.

  17. Physik des erdnahen Weltraums. Eine Einführung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröss, Gerd W.

    Dieses Buch, das in die Gebiete, Methoden und Ergebnisse der Extraterrestrischen Physik einführen möchte, wendet sich an ein relativ breites Publikum. Vorausgesetzt werden lediglich Grundkenntnisse der Mathematik und Physik, wie sie in den ersten Semestern eines natur- oder ingenieurwissenschaftlichen Studiums erworben werden. Spezielleres Wissen wird im Zusammenhang mit dem jeweils betrachteten Phänomen abgeleitet. Es eignet sich daher sowohl zum Selbststudium für Quereinsteiger als auch vorlesungsbegleitend für alle Studenten der Fachrichtungen Physik, Geophysik, Meteorologie und Astronomie. Contents: 1. Einleitung. 2. Neutrale Hochatmosphäre. 3. Absorption und Dissipation von Sonnenstrahlungsenergie. 4. Ionosphäre. 5. Magnetosphäre. 6. Interplanetares Medium. 7. Absorption und Dissipation von Sonnenwindenergie. 8. Geosphärenstürme.

  18. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  19. Reduktion der Invasivität bei nadelbasierter Bewegungskompensation für navigierte Eingriffe im Abdomen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Hein, L.; Tekbas, A.; Franz, A. M.; Tetzlaff, R.; Müller, S. A.; Pianka, F.; Wolf, I.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Schmied, B. M.; Meinzer, H.-P.

    Diese Arbeit stellt eine in-vivo Genauigkeitsstudie über das Kombinieren interner und externer Marker für die Bewegungskompensation bei Leberinterventionen vor. Abhängig von der Anzahl und Anordnung der verwendeten Marker sowie der angewandten Echtzeittransformation wurde bei kontinuierlicher Atmung eine Schätzgenauigkeit der Zielposition zwischen 1 und 5 mm erreicht. Das Hinzufügen einer einzigen Hilfsnadel zu einer Menge von Hautmarkern führte zu einer Fehlerreduktion von über 50%. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie können in der Praxis verwendet werden, um basierend auf dem Tradeoff zwischen geringer Invasivität und hoher Genauigkeit eine geeignete Kombination von internen und externen Markern für eine gegebene Fragestellung zu wählen.

  20. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  1. Evaluation der zentralen TUM-Lernplattform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Elvira; Baume, Matthias; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan

    Die Notwendigkeit der Qualitätssicherung und -kontrolle für innovative universitäre Lehr-/Lernszenarien ist in der Praxis unbestritten. Die Wirksamkeit der Einführung der zentralen Lernplattform CLIX Campus der imc AG an der TUM wurde mittels quantitativer und qualitativer Evaluation überprüft. Als statistische Bewertungsgrundlage wurde der Erreichungsgrad bestimmter Projektziele herangezogen. Aufbauend auf den theoretischen Grundlagen der Evaluation von Bildungsangeboten gibt diese Studie Aufschluss über die Ergebnisse der Datenerhebungen sowie die Einschätzung der Plattform aus Nutzersicht und belegt die wesentliche Bedeutung der durchgängigen IT-Infrastruktur und speziell der einheitlichen Verfügbarkeit der eLearning Angebote.

  2. Herausforderungen und Best Practices bei der Speicherung von multi-valued Attributen in LDAP-basierten Verzeichnisdiensten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Pluta, Daniel

    LDAP-basierte Verzeichnisdienste unterscheiden sich von relationalen Datenbankmanagementsystemen unter anderem stark bezüglich der Datenmodellierung. Dieser Artikel vertieft eingangs die Herausforderungen bei der LDAP-spezifischen Abbildung von Relationen zwischen mehreren multivalued Attributen. Die Diskussion erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund, dass einerseits Verzeichnisdienste generell nur bedingt zur Speicherung von Relationen geeignet sind und dass andererseits multi-valued Attribute ein mächtiges LDAP-Instrument sind, zu dem es in relationalen Datenbanksystemen keine direkte Entsprechung gibt. Anschließend werden Lösungskonzepte vorgestellt und mögliche Weiterentwicklungen des IntegraTUM-LDAP-Schemas zu deren Umsetzung skizziert, eine exemplarische Implementierung präsentiert und die Ergebnisse der bisherigen Entwicklung des IntegraTUM-Schemas gegenübergestellt.

  3. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von Hausärzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen Einflüssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhängig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie präsentiert, in der die Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische ärztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome für eine depressive Erkrankung äußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten für Allgemeinmedizin und hausärztlich tätigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten über das gezeigte Gespräch hinausgehende Fragen stellen würde, welche Diagnosen er für wahrscheinlich hält, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen würde, ob er den Patienten überweisen würde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben würde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene Hausärzte in Deutschland nur geringfügig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird

  4. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schießl, Peter

    2000-09-01

    Vorwort. Teil I: Rißbreiten (Gert König) 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Erhöhung der Vorhersagegenauigkeit über die Rißbreiten unter Betriebsbedingungen (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 1.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 1.2 Versuchsprogramm. 1.3 Meßtechnik. 1.4 Belastung und Versuchsdurchführung. 1.5 Literatur. 2 Rißbreiten und Verformungszunahme vorgespannter Bauteile unter wiederholter Last - und Zwangbeanspruchung (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 2.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 2.2 Versuchsprogramm. 2.3 Auswertung. 2.4 Ausblick. 2.5 Literatur. 3 Rißverhalten von Beton bei plötzlicher Abkühlung (Viktor Mechtcherine und Harald S. Müller). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 3.3 Formulierung eines Stoffgesetzes für thermisch beanspruchten Beton. 3.4 Riß entwicklung in einer Betonplatte unter Temperaturschock. 3.5 Zusammenfassung. 3.6 Literatur. 4 Stahlfaserbeton unter Betriebsbedingungen bei Dauerbeanspruchung (Bo Soon Kang, Bernd Schnütgen und Friedhelm Stangenberg). 4.1 Einleitung. 4.2 Wirkung von Stahlfasern im Beton. 4.3 Versuchsprogramm. 4.4 Untersuchungen zum Verbundverhalten. 4.5 Untersuchungen zum Verhalten unter Biegebeanspruchung. 4.6 Theoretische Untersuchungen. 4.7 Literatur. 5 Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Stahlbeton-Zugkörpern unter wiederholter Belastung zur Ermittlung des versteifenden Einflusses der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen (Petra Seibel und Gerhard Mehlhorn). 5.1 Einleitung. 5.2 Ansatz zur Bestimmung der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen nach Eurocode 2, Model Code 90 und Günther. 5.3 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 5.4 Ergebnisse. 5.5 Zusammenfassung. 5.6 Literatur. 6 Riß- und Verformungsverhalten von vorgefertigten Spannbetonträgern unter Betriebsbedingungen bei besonderer Berücksichtigung des Betonalters (Monika Maske, Heinz Meichsner und Lothar Schubert). 6.1 Einleitung. 6.2 Beschreibung der Fertigteilträger. 6.3 Belastungsversuche. 6.4 Ergebnisse. 6.5 Zusammenfassung. 6

  5. Sonification of acoustic emission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian

    2014-05-01

    purposes (students, co-workers). On goal is to establish a real-time frequency transformation into the audio range to avoid time consuming visual data processing during the experiments. It is also the intention to analyze the signals using psycho-acoustic methods with the help of specialists from electrical engineering. Reference: Raith, Manuel (2013). "Schallemissionsanalyse bei Pulloutexperimenten an Verbunddübeln" Masterarbeit. Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung. Malm, Fabian (2012). "Schallemissionsanalyse am humanen Femur" Masterarbeit. Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung. Richter R. (2009): Einsatz der Schallemissionsanalyse zur Detektion des Riss und Abplatzungsverhaltens von Beton unter Brandeinwirkung. Diplomarbeit. Materialprüfungsanstalt Universität Stuttgart Keywords: Acoustic emission, bonded anchors, femur, pullout test, fire-spalling

  6. ESPACE - a geodetic Master's program for the education of Satellite Application Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, K.; Kirschner, S.; Seitz, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades there has been a rapid development of new geodetic and other Earth observation satellites. Applications of these satellites such as car navigation systems, weather predictions, and, digital maps (such as Google Earth or Google Maps) play a more and more important role in our daily life. For geosciences, satellite applications such as remote sensing and precise positioning/navigation have turned out to be extremely useful and are meanwhile indispensable. Today, researchers within geodesy, climatology, oceanography, meteorology as well as within Earth system science are all dependent on up-to-date satellite data. Design, development and handling of these missions require experts with knowledge not only in space engineering, but also in the specific applications. That gives rise to a new kind of engineers - satellite application engineers. The study program for these engineers combines parts of different classical disciplines such as geodesy, aerospace engineering or electronic engineering. The satellite application engineering program Earth Oriented Space Science and Technology (ESPACE) was founded in 2005 at the Technische Universität München, mainly from institutions involved in geodesy and aerospace engineering. It is an international, interdisciplinary Master's program, and is open to students with a BSc in both Science (e.g. Geodesy, Mathematics, Informatics, Geophysics) and Engineering (e.g. Aerospace, Electronical and Mechanical Engineering). The program is completely conducted in English. ESPACE benefits from and utilizes its location in Munich with its unique concentration of expertise related to space science and technology. Teaching staff from 3 universities (Technische Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilian University, University of the Federal Armed Forces), research institutions (such as the German Aerospace Center, DLR and the German Geodetic Research Institute, DGFI) and space industry (such as EADS or Kayser-Threde) are

  7. Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for in-flight experiments under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Unruh, Eckehardt

    Life Sciences as Related to Space (F) Influence of Spaceflight Environment on Biological Systems (F44) Immunotoxicity and genotoxicity testing for In-flight experiments under microgravity Sensing approaches for ecosystem and human health Author: Peter D. Hansen Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, a Institute for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany Peter-diedrich.hansen@tu-berlin.de Eckehardt Unruh Technische Universit¨t Berlin, Faculty VI - Planen, Bauen, Umwelt, Institute a for Ecological Research and Technology, Department for Ecotoxicology, Berlin, Germany An immune response by mussel hemocytes is the selective reaction to particles which are identified as foreign by its immune system shown by phagocytosis. Phagocytotic activity is based on the chemotaxis and adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation. The attachment at the surface of the hemocytes and consequently the uptake of the particles or bacteria can be directly quantified in the format of a fluorescent assay. Another relevant endpoint of phagocytosis is oxidative burst measured by luminescence. Phagocytosis-related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonised zymosan. The hemocytes will be stored frozen at -80oC and reconstituted in-flight for the experiment. The assay system of the TRIPLELUX-B Experiment has been performed with a well-defined quantification and evaluation of the immune function phagocytosis. The indicator cells are the hemocytes of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). The signals of the immuno cellular responses are translated into luminescence as a rapid optical reporter system. The results expected will determine whether the observed responses are caused by microgravity and/or radiation (change in permeability, endpoints in genotoxicity: DNA unwinding). The samples for genotoxicity will be processed after returning to earth. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The

  8. Neutron laminography—a novel approach to three-dimensional imaging of flat objects with neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfen, L.; Xu, F.; Schillinger, B.; Calzada, E.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Baumbach, T.

    2011-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a three-dimensional (3D) imaging method which, for compact or prolate (i.e. rather isotropically extended around the rotation axis) specimens, can yield artefact-free reconstructed cross-sections. Laterally extended specimens like plate-like objects, however, are much less amenable to CT since reliable projection data cannot be acquired from angles where the plate is oriented parallel to the irradiation direction. To overcome this drawback, computed laminography (CL) was introduced recently to imaging set-ups at synchrotron storage rings. Here, we report on the first implementation of computed laminography with neutron radiation, showing measurements that were performed at the ANTARES neutron imaging facility at the FRM II research reactor of Technische Universität München. In general, neutrons are highly interesting probes for imaging since they provide a sensitivity to chemical elements very different from X-rays, yielding complementary information about the specimens investigated. Like for X-ray laminography, we avoid the projection directions where the beam is parallel to the long extensions of the specimen. We accomplish this by tilting of the rotation axis with respect to the transmitted-beam to an angle smaller than 90° (which would be the limiting case of CT) and roughly aligning the specimen's surface normal parallel to this rotation axis. The principles of neutron laminography are introduced and first test experiments are described.

  9. Self-triggering readout system for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisbauer, D.; Bai, Y.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Steffen, D.

    2016-02-01

    PENeLOPE is a neutron lifetime measurement developed at the Technische Universität München and located at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) aiming to achieve a precision of 0.1 seconds. The detector for PENeLOPE consists of about 1250 Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) with a total active area of 1225 cm2. The decay proton detector and electronics will be operated at a high electrostatic potential of -30 kV and a magnetic field of 0.6 T. This includes shaper, preamplifier, ADC and FPGA cards. In addition, the APDs will be cooled to 77 K. The 1250 APDs are divided into 14 groups of 96 channels, including spares. A 12-bit ADC digitizes the detector signals with 1 MSps. A firmware was developed for the detector including a self-triggering readout with continuous pedestal calculation and configurable signal detection. The data transmission and configuration is done via the Switched Enabling Protocol (SEP). It is a time-division multiplexing low layer protocol which provides determined latency for time critical messages, IPBus, and JTAG interfaces. The network has a n:1 topology, reducing the number of optical links.

  10. Novel control scheme for a high-speed metrological scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorbringer-Dorozhovets, N.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Shen, J. C.; Jäger, G.

    2011-09-01

    Some time ago, an interferometer-based metrological scanning probe microscope (SPM) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany. The specialty of this SPM is the combined deflection detection system that comprises an interferometer and a beam deflection. Due to this system it is possible to simultaneously measure the displacement, bending and torsion of the probe (cantilever). The SPM is integrated into a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) and allows measurements with a resolution of 0.1 nm over a range of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm. Excellent results were achieved for measurements of calibrated step height and lateral standards and these results are comparable to the calibration values from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Dorozhovets N et al 2007 Proc. SPIE 6616 661624-1-7). The disadvantage was a low attainable scanning speed and accordingly large expenditure of time. Control dynamics and scanning speed are limited because of the high masses of the stage and corner mirror of the machine. For the vertical axis an additional high-speed piezoelectric drive is integrated in the SPM in order to increase the measuring dynamics. The movement of the piezoelectric drive is controlled and traceable measured by the interferometer. Hence, nonlinearity and hysteresis in the actuator do not affect the measurement. The outcome of this is an improvement of the bending control of the cantilever and much higher scan speeds of up to 200 µm s-1.

  11. Dynamic system simulation of small satellite projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raif, Matthias; Walter, Ulrich; Bouwmeester, Jasper

    2010-11-01

    A prerequisite to accomplish a system simulation is to have a system model holding all necessary project information in a centralized repository that can be accessed and edited by all parties involved. At the Institute of Astronautics of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen a modular approach for modeling and dynamic simulation of satellite systems has been developed called dynamic system simulation (DySyS). DySyS is based on the platform independent description language SysML to model a small satellite project with respect to the system composition and dynamic behavior. A library of specific building blocks and possible relations between these blocks have been developed. From this library a system model of the satellite of interest can be created. A mapping into a C++ simulation allows the creation of an executable system model with which simulations are performed to observe the dynamic behavior of the satellite. In this paper DySyS is used to model and simulate the dynamic behavior of small satellites, because small satellite projects can act as a precursor to demonstrate the feasibility of a system model since they are less complex compared to a large scale satellite project.

  12. Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kienlin, Andreas von; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher G.; Steinle, Helmut; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Krumrey, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Kippen, R. Marc

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of the GBM instrument for GRBs is determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground calibration measurements, performed extensively with the individual detectors at the MPE in 2005. All flight and spare detectors were irradiated with calibrated radioactive sources in the laboratory (from 14 keV to 4.43 MeV). The energy/channel-relations, the dependences of energy resolution and effective areas on the energy and the angular responses were measured. Due to the low number of emission lines of radioactive sources below 100 keV, calibration measurements in the energy range from 10 keV to 60 keV were performed with the X-ray radiometry working group of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the BESSY synchrotron radiation facility, Berlin.

  13. Validation of short-pulse-laser-based measurement setup for absolute spectral irradiance responsivity calibration.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Michaela; Nevas, Saulius; Sperling, Armin

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the validation process of mode-locked lasers in the "tunable lasers in photometry" (TULIP) setup at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) regarding spectral irradiance responsivity calibrations. Validation has been carried out in the visible spectral range, 400-700 nm, with two different photometer heads and in the long wavelength range, 690-780 nm, with a filtered radiometer. A comparison of the results against those from two different validated measurement setups has been carried out for validation. For the visible spectral range, the comparison is conducted against the data obtained from a lamp-based monochromator setup for spectral irradiance responsivity calibrations and against the photometric values (integral quantity) measured at the photometric bench setup of PTB. For the long wavelength range, comparisons against results from two different lamp-based monochromator measurement setups were made. Additionally, the effect of different radiation bandwidths on interference oscillations has been determined for a filter radiometer without a diffuser. A procedure for the determination of the optimum bandwidth of the setup for the respective measurement device is presented. PMID:24921865

  14. World record in high speed laser surface microstructuring of polymer and steel using direct laser interference patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Valentin; Roch, Teja; Lasagni, Andrés. F.

    2016-03-01

    Periodic surfaces structures with micrometer or submicrometer resolution produced on the surface of components can be used to improve their mechanical, biological or optical properties. In particular, these surfaces can control the tribological performance of parts, for instance in the automotive industry. In the last years, substantial efforts have been made to develop new technologies capable to produce functionalized surfaces. One of these technologies is the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technology, which permits to combine high fabrication speed with high resolution even in the sub-micrometer range. In DLIP, a laser beam is split into two or more coherent beams which are guided to interfere on the work piece surface. This causes modulated laser intensities over the component's surface, enabling the direct fabrication of a periodic pattern based on selective laser ablation or melting. Depending on the angle between the laser beams and the wavelength of the laser, the pattern's spatial period can be perfectly controlled. In this study, we introduce new modular DLIP optical heads, developed at the Fraunhofer IWS and the Technische Universität Dresden for high-speed surface laser patterning of polymers and metals. For the first time it is shown that effective patterning speeds of up to 0.90 m2/min and 0.36 m2/min are possible on polymer and metals, respectively. Line- and dot-like surface architectures with spatial periods between 7 μm and 22 μm are shown.

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE: From single photons to milliwatt radiant power—electron storage rings as radiation sources with a high dynamic range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Roman; Thornagel, Reiner; Ulm, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    The spectral radiant intensity of synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings can be calculated from basic electrodynamic relations (Schwinger equation) and it is directly proportional to the stored electron beam current, i.e. the number of stored electrons. With the necessary equipment installed to measure and control the electron beam current over a wide dynamic range, the radiant intensity of the synchrotron radiation can be adjusted accordingly without changing the spectrum. This is done, e.g., at the Metrology Light Source (MLS), the dedicated electron storage ring of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The MLS is operated as a primary radiation source standard from the near IR up to the soft x-ray region and its operational parameters can be adjusted and accurately measured in a wide range: the electron beam current can be varied from 1 pA (one stored electron) up to 200 mA and thus the radiant intensity can be changed by more than 11 decades. The photon flux or radiant power for typical angular acceptances can thus be varied from single photons to milliwatts. This is a very powerful tool, e.g., for the characterization of the linearity of the response of radiation detectors or for the calibration of photon counting detectors. In this article we present an overview of past, current and possible future activities exploiting this feature.

  16. Status of the Metrology Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.; Ulm, G.; Feikes, J.; Hartrott, M. von; Wuestefeld, G.

    2010-06-23

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, has set up the low-energy electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) in close cooperation with the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB, formerly BESSY). This new storage ring has been in regular user operation since April 2008 and is dedicated to synchrotron-radiation-based metrology and technological developments in the far-IR/THz, IR, UV, VUV and EUV spectral range. The MLS has a double-bend-achromate lattice structure, injection is from a 105 MeV racetrack microtron. The electron energy can be ramped to any value from 105 MeV up to 630 MeV and the electron beam current covers the range from one stored electron (1 pA) up to 200 mA. The MLS is the first electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation, based on an electron bunch shortening mode. In this mode, MLS delivers coherent radiation in the far-IR/THz spectral range with enhanced intensity as compared to the normal mode of operation. Several beamlines are in operation or in construction, including one undulator beamline, bending magnet beamlines for the calibration of radiation sources and detectors and for reflectometry, an EUV metrology beamline and three IR/THz beamlines.

  17. Elektrotechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, A.; Schulz, P.; Lau, H.; Claußnitzer, W.; Schusterius, C.

    Die elektrische Leitfähigkeit von Metallen im Zustande höchster Reinheit und ihre Abhängigkeit von der Stromrichtung bei nicht regulären Kristallen ist ausführlich in Bd. II behandelt. Die folgende Tabelle enthält nur die technisch wichtigsten Metalle. Da Verunreinigungen, mechanische Bearbeitung und alle Störungen der kristallinen Struktur die Leitfähigkeit herabsetzen, sind die Werte der Leitfähigkeit der reinen Metalle als obere Grenzwerte anzusehen, die von technischen Metallen nicht erreicht werden. Außer der Leitfähigkeit ϰ in Ω-1cm-1 und dem spezifischen Widerstand ϱ in Ω cm oder in Ω mm2/m = 10-4Ω cm ist auch der Temperaturkoeffizient des Widerstandes zwischen 0 °C und 100 °C {α _0}^circ ;100^circ = 1/{100} bullet {β 100^circ - {β _0}^circ }/{{β _0^circ }} angegeben. Der Temperaturkoeffizient wächst mit steigender Reinheit des Metalles. Schon geringe fremde Beimengungen drücken ihn stark herab, Härtung durch mechanische Bearbeitung verkleinert ihn in geringem Maße; dagegen wird er durch Ausglühen vergrößert.

  18. High-accuracy X-ray detector calibration based on cryogenic radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.

    2010-06-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2 %, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3 %. For some silicon photodiodes, the photocurrent is not linear with the incident radiant power.

  19. Non-invasive experimental determination of a CT source model.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Babak; Büermann, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive methods to determine equivalent X-ray source models of a CT scanner are presented. A high-precision technique called TRIC ("Time Resolved Integrated Charge") was developed and used to characterize the bow tie filters (BT) of the CT scanner installed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Aluminum (Al) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) equivalent thicknesses of the BT filters at all tube high voltages were evaluated, assuming that those consist of only one material. Thereby two different dose probes were used, a solid state detector and an ionization chamber, the former characterized by a significant and the latter by an almost negligible energy dependence of the air kerma response. A method was developed to correct for the energy dependence of the solid state dose probe. Next, a two-component material was assumed and equivalent BT filters were evaluated. The latter method was also applied using the known real BT filter materials and compared with the shape of the real BT filters. Finally, the results obtained by the TRIC method were compared with those obtained by using the so-called COBRA method ("Characterization Of Bow tie Relative Attenuation"), the latter being more suitable for measurements in a clinical environment. PMID:26602858

  20. Results for the response function determination of the Compact Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Reginatto, M.; Zimbal, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Compact Neutron Spectrometer (CNS) is a Joint European Torus (JET) Enhancement Project, designed for fusion diagnostics in different plasma scenarios. The CNS is based on a liquid scintillator (BC501A) which allows good discrimination between neutron and gamma radiation. Neutron spectrometry with a BC501A spectrometer requires the use of a reliable, fully characterized detector. The determination of the response matrix was carried out at the Ion Accelerator Facility (PIAF) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). This facility provides several monoenergetic beams (2.5, 8, 10, 12 and 14 MeV) and a white field (Emax ~ 17 MeV), which allows for a full characterization of the spectrometer in the region of interest (from ~ 1.5 MeV to ~ 17 MeV). The energy of the incoming neutrons was determined by the time of flight method (TOF), with time resolution in the order of 1 ns. To check the response matrix, the measured pulse height spectra were unfolded with the code MAXED and the resulting energy distributions were compared with those obtained from TOF. The CNS project required modification of the PTB BC501A spectrometer design, to replace an analog data acquisition system (NIM modules) with a digital system developed by the Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente (ENEA). Results for the new digital system were evaluated using new software developed specifically for this project.

  1. Research on new dynamic force calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li

    2008-06-01

    Sinusoidal force calibration method based on electrodynamic shaker and interferometric system was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In that system a load mass are screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition F(t) = ma(t), where m is the total mass acting on the sensing element of the force transducer and a is the time and spatial-dependent acceleration of the mass, which is directly measured by a laser interferometer. This paper will introduce a new dynamic force calibration system developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electrodynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1N to 20kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. A new air bearing system is developed to increase the performance of shakers and an active vibration isolator is used to reduce enviromental disturbance to the interferometric system.

  2. Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

  3. Calibration of the GLAST Burst Monitor Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    von Kienlin, Andreas; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher G.; Steinle, Helmut; Krumrey, Michael; Gerlach, Martin; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles; Bhat, Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Diehl, Roland; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R.Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2011-11-29

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will augment the capabilities of GLAST for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray bursts by extending the energy range (20 MeV to > 300 GeV) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) towards lower energies by 2 BGO-detectors (150 keV to 30 MeV) and 12 NaI(Tl) detectors (10 keV to 1 MeV). The physical detector response of the GBM instrument for GRBs is determined with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, which are supported and verified by on-ground calibration measurements, performed extensively with the individual detectors at the MPE in 2005. All flight and spare detectors were irradiated with calibrated radioactive sources in the laboratory (from 14 keV to 4.43 MeV). The energy/channel-relations, the dependences of energy resolution and effective areas on the energy and the angular responses were measured. Due to the low number of emission lines of radioactive sources below 100 keV, calibration measurements in the energy range from 10 keV to 60 keV were performed with the X-ray radiometry working group of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the BESSY synchrotron radiation facility, Berlin.

  4. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project: Evaluation of Models to Calculate Thermal Diffusivity of Layered Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Amanda J.; Gardner, Levi D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Huber, Tanja K.; Breitkreutz, Harald

    2015-02-11

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel plate samples and perform analyses in support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. A key portion of the scope associated with this project was to measure the thermal properties of fuel segments harvested from plates that were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Thermal diffusivity of samples prepared from the fuel segments was measured using laser flash analysis. Two models, one developed by PNNL and the other developed by the Technische Universität München (TUM), were evaluated to extract the thermal diffusivity of the uranium-molybdenum alloy from measurements made on the irradiated, layered composites. The experimental data of the “TC” irradiated fuel segment was evaluated using both models considering a three-layer and five-layer system. Both models are in acceptable agreement with one another and indicate that the zirconium diffusion barrier has a minimal impact on the overall thermal diffusivity of the monolithic U-Mo fuel.

  5. Report of pilot study CCM.P-P1 for international comparison of absolute pressure measurements in gas from 3 × 10-9 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hajime; Arai, Kenta; Komatsu, Eiichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Bock, Thomas; Jousten, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A bilateral comparison of absolute gas pressure measurements from 3 × 10-9 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa was performed between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). It is a pilot study CCM.P-P1 for the next international comparison in this pressure range to test the stability of ultrahigh vacuum gauges (UHV gauges) as transfer standards. Two spinning rotor gauges (SRGs), an axial-symmetric transmission gauge (ATG), and an extractor gauge (EXG) were used as transfer standards. The calibration ratio of one SRG was sufficiently stable, but the other was not. This result indicates that improvements in the transport mechanism for SRG are needed. The two ionization gauges ATG and EXG, on the other hand, were sufficiently stable. Provisional equivalence of the pressures realized by the primary standards at NMIJ and PTB was found. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM-WGS.

  6. Bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 for absolute pressure measurements from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedchak, J. A.; Bock, Th; Jousten, K.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) for absolute pressure in the range from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa. This comparison was a follow-up to the comparison CCM.P-K3. Two ionization gauges and two spinning rotor gauges (SRGs) were used as the transfer standards for the comparison. The SRGs were used to compare the standards at a pressure of 9 × 10-4 Pa and to normalize the ionization gauge readings. The two ionization gauges were used to compare the standards in the pressure range of from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 3 × 10-4 Pa. Both laboratories used dynamic expansion chambers as standards in the comparison. The two labs showed excellent agreement with each other and with the CCM.P-K3 key comparison reference value (KCRV) over the entire range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Final report on bilateral supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S5 in hydraulic gauge pressure from 1 MPa to 10 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, J.; Yang, Y.; Sabuga, W.

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S5 for hydraulic gauge pressure in the range of 1 MPa to 10 MPa, which is a bilateral comparison carried out at the National Institute of Metrology, China (NIM) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany (PTB) during the period June 2014 to June 2015. NIM piloted the comparison and provided the transfer standard, which was a piston-cylinder assembly (PCA) of 1 cm2 nominal effective area built in a hydraulic pressure balance manufactured by Fluke Corporation. The laboratory standards of NIM and PTB are both hydraulic pressure balances equipped with PCAs, of which the nominal effective area is 1 cm2 for NIM and 5 cm2 for PTB. The results of the comparison successfully demonstrated that the hydraulic gauge pressure standards of NIM and PTB in the range of 1 MPa to 10 MPa are equivalent within their claimed uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Toward a standard reference database for computer-aided mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Gueld, Mark O.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo; Ott, Bastian; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2008-03-01

    Because of the lack of mammography databases with a large amount of codified images and identified characteristics like pathology, type of breast tissue, and abnormality, there is a problem for the development of robust systems for computer-aided diagnosis. Integrated to the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, we present an available mammography database developed from the union of: The Mammographic Image Analysis Society Digital Mammogram Database (MIAS), The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and routine images from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. Using the IRMA code, standardized coding of tissue type, tumor staging, and lesion description was developed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) tissue codes and the ACR breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). The import was done automatically using scripts for image download, file format conversion, file name, web page and information file browsing. Disregarding the resolution, this resulted in a total of 10,509 reference images, and 6,767 images are associated with an IRMA contour information feature file. In accordance to the respective license agreements, the database will be made freely available for research purposes, and may be used for image based evaluation campaigns such as the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). We have also shown that it can be extended easily with further cases imported from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS).

  9. Diffraction efficiency of radially-profiled off-plane reflection gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; Peterson, Thomas J.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Menz, Benedikt; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Future X-ray missions will require gratings with high throughput and high spectral resolution. Blazed off-plane reflection gratings are capable of meeting these demands. A blazed grating profile optimizes grating efficiency, providing higher throughput to one side of zero-order on the arc of diffraction. This paper presents efficiency measurements made in the 0.3 - 1.5 keV energy band at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) BESSY II facility for three holographically-ruled gratings, two of which are blazed. Each blazed grating was tested in both the Littrow configuration and anti-Littrow configuration in order to test the alignment sensitivity of these gratings with regard to throughput. This paper outlines the procedure of the grating experiment performed at BESSY II and discuss the resulting efficiency measurements across various energies. Experimental results are generally consistent with theory and demonstrate that the blaze does increase throughput to one side of zero-order. However, the total efficiency of the non-blazed, sinusoidal grating is greater than that of the blazed gratings, which suggests that the method of manufacturing these blazed profiles fails to produce facets with the desired level of precision. Finally, evidence of a successful blaze implementation from first diffraction results of prototype blazed gratings produce via a new fabrication technique at the University of Iowa are presented.

  10. Power spectrum analyses of nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P. A.; Lasenby, R. N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Hoft, A. W.; Horan, T. J.; Jenkins, J. H.; Kerford, J. L.; Lee, R. H.; Longman, A.; Mattes, J. J.; Morreale, B. L.; Morris, D. B.; Mudry, R. N.; Newport, J. R.; O'Keefe, D.; Petrelli, M. A.; Silver, M. A.; Stewart, C. A.; Terry, B.

    2010-10-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are not a direct synchronous modulation. We conclude that the annual periodicity in these data sets is a real effect, but that further study involving additional carefully controlled experiments will be needed to establish its origin.

  11. Potential of GPS Common Clock Single-differences for Deformation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, Steffen; Pham, Hue Kiem; Kersten, Tobias; Leute, Julia; Bauch, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) are a standard measurement device for deformation monitoring. In many applications, double-differences are used to reduce distance dependent systematic effects, as well as to eliminate the receiver and satellites clock errors. However, due to the navigation principle of one way ranging used in GPS, the geometry of the subsequent adjustment is weakened. As a result, the height component is generally determined three times less precisely than the horizontal coordinates. In addition, large correlations between the height and elevation dependent effects exist such as tropospheric refraction, mismodelled phase center variations, or multipath which restricts the attainable accuracy. However, for a kinematic analysis, i. e. for estimating high rate coordinate time series, the situation can be significantly improved if a common clock is connected to different GNSS receivers in a network or on a baseline. Consequently, between-station single-differences are sufficient to solve for the baseline coordinates. The positioning geometry is significantly improved which is reflected by a reduction of the standard deviation of kinematic heights by about a factor 3 underlining the benefits of this new approach. Real data from baselines at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt campus at Braunschweig where receivers are connected over 290 m via an optical fiber link to a common clock was analysed.

  12. Uncertainty of cesium-beam time standards due to beam asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1980-12-01

    As a consequence of the spatial phase distribution in the resonators of cesium-beam time and frequency standards, the generated frequency depends on the specific path of the atomic beam. A change of the position of the atomic beam source may result in a beam displacement normal to the beam direction. For a deflection system consisting of a combination of quadrupole and hexapole magnets for two-dimensional beam deflection, the displacement of the center of mass of the beam resulting from a misalignment of the beam source is computed. To this end, the distribution of the beam intensity on the collector is first determined. It is shown that for the cesium-beam time and frequency standard CS1 of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the uncertainty of the position of the center of mass of the beam entails a contribution to the uncertainty of the standard of less than 1 x 10 to the -15th. The amount of the displacement of the center of mass of the beam can be determined from the decrease of the beam flux on the collector caused by an adjustment of the beam source.

  13. Learning tumor diagnostics and medical image processing via the WWW--the case-based radiological textbook ODITEB.

    PubMed

    Horsch, A; Balbach, T; Melnitzki, S; Knauth, J

    2000-09-01

    New Internet technologies offer excellent chances to build high-quality on-line learning media for the education in medicine. Especially, the teaching of diagnostics with medical imaging as well as medical image processing can be supported by the excellent visualization and interaction capabilities. In cooperation with three radiological departments at German universities in Munich, Erlangen and Würzburg, the case-based open distributed Internet text book (ODITEB) for tumor diagnosis of the GI-tract, liver, pancreas and thorax has been developed at the Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie (IMSE) of the Technische Universität München. It offers a big collection of clinical tumor cases located on servers at the provider sites Munich, Erlangen and Würzburg, visualization and interaction similar to a real CT or MRI console, original DICOM data, X-rays and endoscopic and endosonographic videos, and expert-guided tours through the cases. In a first evaluation in summer 1998, 32 medical students graded the application with 1.9 ('good') on a scale from 1 ('very good') to 5 ('very bad'). The textbook supports German language, an English version is in preparation. In a second part, it contains lessons in medical image processing for students of medical informatics. An ODITEB release 2 with several improvements will be finished until February 2000. The use of the textbook is free of cost. PMID:10978908

  14. Numerical modeling of thermocapillary two-phase flows with evaporation using a two-scalar approach for heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Bothe, D.

    2013-01-01

    A one-field model is derived from the sharp interface continuum mechanical balances for two-phase evaporative and thermocapillary flows. Emphasis is put on a clear distinction of the different velocities at the interface which appear due to phase transfer. The one-field model is solved numerically within a Finite Volume scheme and the interface is captured using an extended Volume of Fluid method, where the interface is reconstructed linearly with the PLIC technique. The numerical heat transfer is based on a two-scalar approach where two separate temperature fields are used for the temperature inside the two phases. This results in an accurate treatment of the interfacial heat transfer, specifically the interface temperature which is crucial numerically, both for evaporation and thermocapillarity. The method is validated for two-phase heat conduction, with analytical solution in case of no evaporation and with experimental measurement in case of incorporated evaporation effect. The method is applied to realistic cases dealing with non-uniformly heated thin liquid films, i.e. liquid films on (i) structured heated substrates and (ii) locally heated substrates. The numerical predictions in terms of flow pattern, surface deformation, temperature and velocity are compared with experiments conducted at the Université Libre de Bruxelles for (i) and at the Technische Universität Darmstadt for (ii). Qualitative agreement is achieved and shows the potential of this approach to simulate thermocapillary flows with dynamically deformable interfaces combined with evaporation.

  15. The Rules of Ferrous Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which the sciences have been delineated and categorized throughout history provide insights into the formation, stabilization, and establishment of scientific systems of knowledge. The Dresdener school’s approach for explaining and categorizing the genesis of the engineering disciplines is still valid, but needs to be complemented by further-reaching methodological and theoretical reflections. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social practice is applied to the question of how individual agents succeed in influencing decisively a discipline’s changing object orientation, institutionalisation and self-reproduction. Through the accumulation of social, cultural and economic capital, they succeed in realising their own organisational ideas and scientific programs. Key concepts for the analysis include the struggle for power and resources, monopolies of interpretation, and the degree of autonomy. A case study from the Aachener Technische Hochschule shows that the consolidation of ferrous metallurgy can be conceived as a symbolical struggle between Fritz Wüst, professor for ferrous metallurgy, and the German Iron and Steel Institute, leading to a construction of a system of differences in which scientists accepted being scientists rather than entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs accepted becoming entrepreneurs and renounced science.

  16. PREFACE: Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions Electrorheological fluids and magnetorheological suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbach, Stefan; Borin, Dmitry

    2010-08-01

    The 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR08) was organized between 25-29 August 2008 at the Technische Universität Dresden in Germany. The conference's scientific program focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of fluids which can be controlled by external electric or magnetic fields. Within this framework electrorheological fluids, magnetorheological suspensions, ferrofluids and—for the first time—magnetorheological elastomers, which have attracted great interest in recent years, formed the class of materials discussed during the conference. With more than 180 participants from 24 different countries and 85 oral presentations in non-parallel sessions, including 8 plenary talks and 81 posters, it has been the largest ERMR meeting held during the last decade. This growth is at least partly driven by the synthesis of improved fluids and elastomers, which open new possibilities for applications as well as in basic research characterizing the flow and properties of such materials under the influence of external magnetic and electric fields. The general proceedings of ERMR08 include 116 peer-reviewed papers covering all conference topics. They were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series volume 149 in 2009. The present special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains six selected papers dealing with basic research problems which will be of general interest to the condensed matter community. We hope that this selection will provide an insight into the fascination of soft matter controlled by external fields.

  17. Environment Characterisation by Using Innovative Debris Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, W.; Barschke, M.; Romberg, O.

    The knowledge about small (> 100 µm) but abundant objects in space is low. To analyze the quantity of space debris and micrometeoroids in space, an innovative in-situ impact detection method has been developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Bremen, Germany. The Solar generator based Impact Detector, SOLID, uses solar panels for impact detection. Since solar panels provide large detection areas, this method allows the collection of large amounts of data. Such data enhances space debris and micrometeoroid population datasets and permits for related model validation. A ground verification of the detection method has been performed by Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) tests at Fraunhofeŕs Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI), Freiburg, Germany. The objective of this investigation was to test the applicability of the developed method concerning in-situ detection of space debris and micrometeoroids. The achieved test results are in agreement with ESA developed damage equations and the functionality of the detector has clearly been demonstrated. This paper presents the already manufactured hardware planned for on orbit test on the Technische Universität Berlin's TechnoSat mission in early 2016. The expected impact frequencies at corresponding probabilities and uncertainties regarding object size estimation are also outlined.

  18. The Second Mössbauer Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, Paul

    "The Second Mössbauer Effect" was the headline of the "Spiegel" (a German weekly journal like the "Times") from May 13, 1964 for announcing the foundation of the "Physik-Department" at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), as it was still called at this time. Maier-Leibnitz was irritated by this headline because the article did not mention at all his contribution to the consolidation of the structure of the three physics institutes (Experimental, Technical, and Theoretical Physics) in the beginning of the sixties. Already in the late fifties ML's Institute for Technical Physics was overloaded with students working on their diploma or doctoral theses, because research in the new field of applied nuclear physics was very attractive and ML had for each student who applied an interesting research project. In the average, ML had to supervise between 150-200 diploma students, an impossible task. So, young postdoctoral students had to help him out by taking over the duties of professors. In a letter to the Bavarian Ministry of Education and Arts in 1957 he complained: "The directors of the institutes are hopelessly surcharged and the institutes are overcrowded, the resources for research projects are totally insufficient and lots of time and energy is wasted for finding additional resources."

  19. Low-cost approach of a 3D display for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Gottfried; Sperl, Roman; Karl, Wunibald

    2001-08-01

    A low cost 3D-display and navigation system is described which presents guidance information in a 3-dimensional format to the pilot. For achieving the low cost goal, Commercial-off-the-Shelf components are used. The visual information provided by the 3D-display includes a presentation of the future flight path and other guidance elements as well as an image of the outside world. For generating the displayed information, a PC will be used. An appropriate computer software is available to generate the displayed information in real-time with an adequately high update rate. Precision navigation data which is required for accurately adjusting the displayed guidance information are provided by an integrated low cost navigation system. This navigation system consists of a differential global positioning system and an inertial measurement unit. Data from the navigation system is fed into an onboard-computer, using terrain elevation and feature analysis data to generate a synthetic image of the outside world. The system is intended to contribute to the safety of General Aviation aircraft, providing an affordable guidance and navigation aid for this type of aircraft. The low cost 3D display and navigation system will be installed in a two-seat Grob 109B aircraft which is operated by the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Flight Control of the Technische Universitchen as a research vehicle.

  20. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, R.; Trosseille, C.; Caillaud, T.; Allouche, V.; Bourgade, J. L.; Briat, M.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Le Breton, J. P.; Llavador, P.; Loupias, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Oudot, G.; Perez, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Rousseaux, C.; Rubbelynck, C.; Stemmler, P.; Troussel, P.; Ulmer, J. L.; Wrobel, R.; Beauvais, P.; Pallet, M.; Prevot, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  1. Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelinck, Roger; Rosielle, Nick; Steinbuch, Maarten; Doelman, Niek

    New deformable mirror technology is developed by the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Delft University of Technology and TNO Science and Industry. Several prototype adaptive deformable mirrors are realized mirrors, up to 427 actuators and ∅150mm diameter, with characteristics suitable for future AO systems. The prototypes consist of a 100µm thick, continuous facesheet on which low voltage, electromagnetic, push-pull actuators impose out-of-plane displacements. The variable reluctance actuators with ±10µm stroke and nanometer resolution are located in a standard actuator module. Each module with 61 actuators connects to a single PCB with dedicated, 16 bit, PWM based, drivers. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. An Ethernet-LVDS bridge enables any commercial PC to control the mirror using the UDP standard. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented.

  2. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai; Mor, Ilan

    2015-07-15

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.

  3. Analysis of terrain data based on satellite imagery for aviation purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilmus, B.; Heidelmeyer, G.; Klingauf, U.

    2007-10-01

    Due to the regulation of the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), which requires the provision of electronic terrain data with a certain quality by each contracting state for its territory, the demand for terrain data for aviation purposes increases. This regulation poses a problem particularly for developing and newly industrialising countries, which have not the financial resources for the generation of terrain data meeting the required specifications. Studies performed at the Institute of Flight Systems and Automatic Control at the Technische Universitaet Darmstadt show that a promising and cost-effective method to encounter this challenge is the use of high resolution optical satellite imagery with a stereoscopic coverage. This method can be performed without the acquisition of ground control points and leads by this to cost reductions. To validate this method, the accuracy of terrain data generated from satellite imagery is analysed. Due to the various available very high resolution satellites, the accuracy is not limited by the spatial resolution of the imagery, but principally by the accuracy of the geolocation. This is why furthermore methods are proposed that may help to increase the accuracy, to eliminate blunders as well as systematic errors and thus to enhance the reliability of the acquired terrain information in order to achieve applicability in aviation.

  4. Die zwei Kulturen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankolekar, Anupriya; Krötzsch, Markus; Tran, Than; Vrandecic, Denny

    Oft werden zwei mögliche Entwicklungen des Webs diskutiert - das Web 2.0 und das Semantic Web. Wenn wir diese zwei Visionen für das zukünftige Web unter die Lupe nehmen, dann lässt sich feststellen, dass sich die Ideen in ihrem Kern und ihren Technologien gegenseitig ergänzen. Dementsprechend können und sollen beide Visionen von den Erfahrungen und Stärken der anderen profitieren. Wir glauben daran, dass zukünftige Webanwendungen den Web 2.0-Fokus auf Community und Benutzerfreundlichkeit beibehalten und, darüber hinaus, auch von Technologien des Semantic Web zur Vereinfachung der mashupähnlichen Datenintegration profitieren werden. Auf Basis eines Semantic Blog-Szenarios werden wir hier die Vorteile einer möglichen Kombination von Semantic Web und Web 2.0 illustrieren, die zeitnah realisiert werden kann. Wir werden auch auf technische Probleme eingehen, die bei der Erweiterung dieses Szenarios entstehen. Wir stellen dar, wie aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Semantic Web Forschung diese Probleme angehen können, und setzen zugleich auch Schwerpunkte für die zukünftige Forschung, die in diesem Zusammenhang relevant sind.

  5. Dünne Beschichtungen auf Biomaterialien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, Doris; Lahann, Jörg; Plüster, Wilhelm

    Ein Schwerpunkt der Implantatentwicklung liegt in der Synthese und Verarbeitung geeigneter Biomaterialien, die bezüglich ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften und ihrer Stabilität die erwünschte Funktion im Organismus erfüllen sollen. Die biologische Antwort auf Biomaterialien im Implantateinsatz wird jedoch hauptsächlich von der chemischen Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Implantatoberfläche bestimmt [1]. Sie ist entscheidend für die Langzeitverträglichkeit eines Implantats. Geeignete Ansätze zur Verbesserung der Grenzflächenverträglichkeit von Biomaterialien, ohne die mechanischen Eigenschaften und die Funktionalität des Implantates zu verändern, beruhen auf die Aufbringung einer definierten, falls erforderlich biologisch aktiven Beschichtung auf die Werkstoffoberfläche. Bei den eingesetzten Beschichtungsverfahren handelt es sich vielfach um bekannte Verfahren zur Oberflächenmodifizierung technischer Werkstoffe, die auf physikalischen und chemischen Prozessen basieren. Je nach Beschichtungsverfahren können unterschiedliche Schichtdicken erzielt werden. Zur Charakterisierung der Zusammensetzung und Struktur der beschichteten Biomaterialoberflächen ist der Einsatz oberflächensensitiver Analytik unverzichtbar. Vielfach wird eine Kombination von Methoden eingesetzt, die sich hinsichtlich ihrer Informationstiefe und Informationsaussage unterscheiden [1].

  6. Safe and secure remote control for the Twin Radio Telescope Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhardt, A.; Ettl, M.; Mühlbauer, M.; Kronschnabl, G.; Alef, W.; Himwich, E.; Beaudoin, C.; Plötz, C.; Lovell, J.

    2013-08-01

    More VLBI stations, more experiments, more data and a faster analysis for a real-time monitoring of earth parameters and reference frames are the goals of the future VLBI2010 network. One key technology is e-VLBI. But also the control might follow to adapt and to manage these new challenges. Therefore the Technische Universität München (TUM), Germany realizes concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Germany. The development is funded by the European Seventh Framework program in the three year project “Novel EXploration Pushing Robust e-VLBI Services (NEXPReS)” of the European VLBI Network (EVN). Within this project, the TUM focuses on developments for a safe, secure and reliable remote control (e-RemoteCtrl) of the NASA Field System with authentication, authorization and user roles to operate and automate radio telescopes, like the new Twin Radio Telescope Wettzell (TTW) at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany. One of these telescopes will become operative this year, so that this is a first real-life test for the new control software and realizations.

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Final report for CCQM-K17: pH determination on a phthalate buffer by Harned cell measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Petra; Hongyu, Xiu; Dazhou, Chen; Famnin, Men; Bjame Kristensen, Hans; Hjelmer, Bettina; Nakamura, Susumu; Hwang, Euijin; Lee, Hwashim; Castro, Esther; Monroy Mendoza, Marcela; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Wyszynska, Joanna; Mateuszuk, A.; Pawlina, Monika; Karpov, Oleg V.; Zdorikov, Nicolaj; Seyku, Elena; Maximov, Igor; Vyskocil, Leos; Máriássy, Michal; Pratt, Kenneth W.; Vospelova, Alena; Giera, Janine; Eberhard, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    The second key comparison for the quantity pH, CCQM-K17, was carried out to assess the degree of equivalence of the national primary measurement procedures used to determine the pH of primary standard buffer solutions. The CCQM-K17 comparison allows estimations of the capability of ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) to determine the pH of a phthalate buffer of unknown concentration at different temperatures. The key comparison was co-ordinated by the CCQM Working Group on Electrochemical Analysis and piloted by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) with assistance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU). The measurement results of the NMIs agreed not at the same level as for the first key comparison on pH CCQM-K9. The results obtained by seven of the eleven participants agree very well within the uncertainty stated by the participants. Four participants obtained results somewhat lower. The two groups of results are most obviously evident at a measurement temperature of 37 °C. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. A novel instrument for quantitative nanoanalytics involving complementary X-ray methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubeck, J.; Beckhoff, B.; Fliegauf, R.; Holfelder, I.; Hoenicke, P.; Mueller, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Reinhardt, F.; Weser, J.

    2013-04-15

    A novel ultra-high vacuum instrument for X-ray reflectometry and spectrometry-related techniques for nanoanalytics by means of synchrotron radiation has been constructed and commissioned. This versatile instrument was developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute, and includes a 9-axis manipulator that allows for an independent alignment of the samples with respect to all degrees of freedom. In addition, a rotational and translational movement of several photodiodes as well as a translational movement of an aperture system in and out of the beam is provided. Thus, the new instrument enables various analytical techniques based on energy dispersive X-ray detectors such as reference-free X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), total-reflection XRF, grazing-incidence XRF in addition to optional X-ray reflectometry measurements or polarization-dependent X-ray absorption fine structure analyses. With this instrument samples having a size of up to 100 mm Multiplication-Sign 100 mm can be analyzed with respect to their mass deposition, elemental or spatial composition, or the species in order to probe surface contamination, layer composition and thickness, the depth profile of matrix elements or implants, the species of nanolayers, nanoparticles or buried interfaces as well as the molecular orientation of bonds. Selected applications of this advanced ultra-high vacuum instrument demonstrate both its flexibility and capability.

  9. Surviving the Glut: The Management of Event Streams in Cyberphysical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Alejandro

    Alejandro Buchmann is Professor in the Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, where he heads the Databases and Distributed Systems Group. He received his MS (1977) and PhD (1980) from the University of Texas at Austin. He was an Assistant/Associate Professor at the Institute for Applied Mathematics and Systems IIMAS/UNAM in Mexico, doing research on databases for CAD, geographic information systems, and objectoriented databases. At Computer Corporation of America (later Xerox Advanced Information Systems) in Cambridge, Mass., he worked in the areas of active databases and real-time databases, and at GTE Laboratories, Waltham, in the areas of distributed object systems and the integration of heterogeneous legacy systems. 1991 he returned to academia and joined T.U. Darmstadt. His current research interests are at the intersection of middleware, databases, eventbased distributed systems, ubiquitous computing, and very large distributed systems (P2P, WSN). Much of the current research is concerned with guaranteeing quality of service and reliability properties in these systems, for example, scalability, performance, transactional behaviour, consistency, and end-to-end security. Many research projects imply collaboration with industry and cover a broad spectrum of application domains. Further information can be found at http://www.dvs.tu-darmstadt.de

  10. Radiometric calibration of the in-flight blackbody calibration system of the GLORIA interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, C.; Gutschwager, B.; Adibekyan, A.; Kehrt, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Olschewski, F.; Hollandt, J.

    2014-01-01

    GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere) is an airborne, imaging, infrared Fourier transform spectrometer that applies the limb-imaging technique to perform trace gas and temperature measurements in the Earth's atmosphere with three-dimensional resolution. To ensure the traceability of these measurements to the International Temperature Scale and thereby to an absolute radiance scale, GLORIA carries an on-board calibration system. Basically, it consists of two identical large-area and high-emissivity infrared radiators, which can be continuously and independently operated at two adjustable temperatures in a range from -50 °C to 0 °C during flight. Here we describe the radiometric and thermometric characterization and calibration of the in-flight calibration system at the Reduced Background Calibration Facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This was performed with a standard uncertainty of less than 110 mK. Extensive investigations of the system concerning its absolute radiation temperature and spectral radiance, its temperature homogeneity and its short- and long-term stability are discussed. The traceability chain of these measurements is presented.

  11. Slănic-Prahova low background calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Celarel, Aurelia; Duliu, O G; Bercea, S; Cenusa, C

    2016-03-01

    The reduced background of 2 nSv h(-1) of the Slănic-Prahova Low Background Radiation Laboratory allowed installing a calibration stand for low-dose-rates dosimetry. The stand is provided with (60)Co, (137)Cs and (241)Am low activity sources. A Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt-calibrated AUTOMESS 6150 AD-6 dose rate meter with a 6150 AD-b/H external probe was used to check to what extent this stand could serve as a low background calibration facility. A detailed analysis of possible uncertainties in measuring dose rates evidenced an extended uncertainty related to the certified calibration as well as instrument readings of about 3 % for a confidence level of 95 %. In these conditions, the experimentally determined dose rates for all three gamma ray sources and for source-to-probe distances varying between 0.3 and 2.0 m confirmed a good correlation between the calculated and measured dose rates. At the same time, dose rates perfectly obey to an inverse squared distances law. PMID:26001826

  12. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona

  13. Comparison of the NIST and PTB Air-Kerma Standards for Low-Energy X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Michelle; Bueermann, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the air-kerma standards for low-energy x rays at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The comparison involved a series of measurements at the PTB and the NIST using the air-kerma standards and two NIST reference-class transfer ionization chamber standards. Results are presented for the reference radiation beam qualities in the range from 25 kV to 50 kV for low energy x rays, including the techniques used for mammography dose traceability. The tungsten generated reference radiation qualities, between 25 kV and 50 kV used for this comparison, are new to NIST; therefore this comparison will serve as the preliminary comparison for NIST and a verification of the primary standard correction factors. The mammography comparison will repeat two previously unpublished comparisons between PTB and NIST. The results show the standards to be in reasonable agreement within the standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.4 %.

  14. Numerical method for determining the allowable medium temperature during transient operation of a thick-walled boiler element in power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.

  15. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  16. SI-traceable determination of the spring constant of a soft cantilever using the nanonewton force facility based on electrostatic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, V.; Belai, O.; Nies, D.; Buetefisch, S.; Mueller, M.; Ahbe, T.; Naparty, D.; Popadic, R.; Wolff, H.

    2016-08-01

    The PTB’s (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany) nanonewton force facility, first presented in work by Nesterov (2007 Meas. Sci. Technol. 18 360–6), Nesterov (2009 Meas. Sci. Technol. 20 084012) and Nesterov et al (2009 Metrologia 46 277–82), has been significantly improved and used to measure the stiffness of a cantilever. The facility is based on a disc pendulum with electrostatic reduction of its deflection and stiffness. In this paper, we will demonstrate that the facility is able to measure horizontal forces in the range below 1 μN with a resolution below 5 pN and an uncertainty below 2.7% for a measured force of 1 nN at a measurement duration of about 20 s. We will demonstrate the possibility of using this facility as a calibration device that can accurately determine spring constants of soft cantilevers (K ≲ 0.1 N m‑1) with traceability to the SI units. The method and the results of measuring the spring constant of a soft cantilever (K  =  0.125 N m‑1) in air, in a medium vacuum, in a high vacuum and in nitrogen are presented. We will show that a relative standard uncertainty of the spring constant calibration of better than 0.3% (measurement in a medium vacuum) and a repeatability of better than 0.04% are achieved.

  17. High-energy response of the PRESCILA and WENDI-II neutron rem meters.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Richard H; McLean, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    WENDI-II was designed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) specifically as a wide-range rem meter, suitable for applications at particle accelerators, with response extension to 5 GeV. PRESCILA was also designed at LANL, mainly as a lightweight alternative to traditional rem meters, but has shown excellent response characteristics above 20 MeV. This Note summarises measurements performed over a span of 4 y to characterise the high-energy neutron response (>20 MeV) of these meters to several hundred million electron volts. High-energy quasi-monoenergetic beams utilised as part of this study were produced by the cyclotron facilities at the Université Catholique de Louvain (33 and 60 MeV) and the T. Svedberg Laboratory ( 46, 95, 143 and 173 MeV). In addition, measurements were also conducted at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, 800 MeV spallation neutron source, in broad energy fields with an average energy of 345 MeV. For the sake of completeness, data collected between 2.5 and 19 MeV in monoenergetic neutron fields at the German Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility are also included in this study. PMID:18381335

  18. Remote atomic clock synchronization via satellites and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piester, D.; Rost, M.; Fujieda, M.; Feldmann, T.; Bauch, A.

    2011-07-01

    In the global network of institutions engaged with the realization of International Atomic Time (TAI), atomic clocks and time scales are compared by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and by employing telecommunication satellites for two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT). The frequencies of the state-of-the-art primary caesium fountain clocks can be compared at the level of 10-15 (relative, 1 day averaging) and time scales can be synchronized with an uncertainty of one nanosecond. Future improvements of worldwide clock comparisons will require also an improvement of the local signal distribution systems. For example, the future ACES (atomic clock ensemble in space) mission shall demonstrate remote time scale comparisons at the uncertainty level of 100 ps. To ensure that the ACES ground instrument will be synchronized to the local time scale at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) without a significant uncertainty contribution, we have developed a means for calibrated clock comparisons through optical fibers. An uncertainty below 40 ps over a distance of 2 km has been demonstrated on the campus of PTB. This technology is thus in general a promising candidate for synchronization of enhanced time transfer equipment with the local realizations of Coordinated Universal Time UTC. Based on these experiments we estimate the uncertainty level for calibrated time transfer through optical fibers over longer distances. These findings are compared with the current status and developments of satellite based time transfer systems, with a focus on the calibration techniques for operational systems.

  19. Standard conforming involute gear metrology using an articulated arm coordinate measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härtig, Frank; Lin, Hu; Kniel, Karin; Shi, Zhaoyao

    2012-10-01

    Standard conforming involute gear measurements were taken by a manually operating articulated arm system and the respective task-specific measurement uncertainties were estimated. User-friendly templates were developed to provide almost unambiguous and repeatable measurement results. They allow the metrologist to easily detect and gather the single measurement points according to existing guidelines and standards commonly used in gear metrology. The research activities were carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany in the Department of Coordinate Metrology. Measurements were taken on a robust and highly accurate large gear measurement standard of PTB, in the following called the gear standard. This gear standard materializes a left-hand and a right-hand gear as well as a spur gear. The 1 m outside diameter of the gear standard is similar to the gears used in wind power plants. A commercial articulated arm coordinate measuring system was used for the measurements. A high temperature stability of ±0.2 °C was provided to minimize thermal influences. The results of profile and helix measurements will be presented. This worldwide first investigation, on the basis of a calibrated involute gear standard, gives users of the articulating arm system quantitative information on a task-specific performance of a representative gear measurement.

  20. Supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S24 on involute gear standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniel, K.; Chanthawong, N.; Eastman, N.; Frazer, R.; Kupko, V.; Osawa, S.; Xue, Z.

    2014-01-01

    At its meeting in 2007, the EURAMET TC-Length decided to run an intercomparison of involute gear standards as a regional comparison with non-European involvement. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig und Berlin, Germany (PTB) was identified as the pilot laboratory, responsible for planning, organizing and analyzing the comparison. In all, seven participants from China, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom and USA were asked to measure three different gear standards specialized for profile, helix and pitch measurements. The measurements started mid 2008 and were finished at the end of 2010. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The comparison was registered as the supplementary comparison EURAMET.L-S24. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL WG-MRA, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Organizational responses to a changing aid environment: the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ).

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S

    2002-01-01

    As a major European donor, German government development assistance faces a series of challenges. Recent political changes have raised expectations for demonstrable health outcomes as a result of German development assistance; there has been a deepened commitment to collaboration with other bilateral and multilateral donors; and partner countries are increasingly open to new approaches to development. German development assistance also reflects a new ethos of partnership and the shift to programmatic and sector based development approaches. At the same time, its particular organizational structure and administrative framework highlight the extent of structural and systems reforms required of donors by changing development relationships, and the tensions created in responding to these. This paper examines organizational changes within the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische, Zusammenarbeit) (GTZ), aimed at increasing its Regional, Sectoral, Managerial and Process competence as they affect health and related sectors. These include the decentralization of GTZ, the trend to integration of projects, the increasing focus on policy and health systems reform, increased inter-sectoral collaboration, changes in recruitment and training, new perspectives in planning and evaluation and the introduction of a quality management programme. PMID:12298144

  2. Study of glass hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyun; Wang, Jintao; Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Glass hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. Glass hydrometers calibration based on the Archimedes law, using silicon ring as a reference standard solid density, n-tridecane with density stability and low surface tension as the standard working liquid, based on hydrostatic weighing method designs a glass hydrometer calibration system. Glass hydrometer calibration system uses CCD image measurement system to align the scale of hydrometer and liquid surface, with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm. Surface tension of the working liquid is measured by Whihemy plate. According to twice glass hydrometer weighing in the air and liquid can calculate the correction value of the current scale. In order to verify the validity of the principle of the hydrostatic weighing method of glass hydrometer calibration system, for measuring the density range of (770-790) kg/m3, with a resolution of 0.2 kg/m3 of hydrometer. The results of measurement compare with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) ,verifying the validity of the calibration system.

  3. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on supplementary comparison SADCMET.AUV.V-S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Ian; von Martens, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    A supplementary comparison (SADC.AUV.V-S1) was organized to compare measurements of sinusoidal linear accelerations in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. In this bilateral comparison between the CSIR National Metrology Laboratory (CSIR-NML), South Africa and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany both NMIs applied laser interferometry in compliance with method 3 of the international standard ISO 16063-11:1999. The complex charge sensitivity (magnitude and phase) of two different transfer standards (single-ended accelerometers) was measured at 37 frequencies. The results of the SADCMET.AUV.V-S1 are a set of comparison values and their uncertainties, and degrees of equivalence between these and between the two laboratories. From this complete set of results, six matrices of equivalence per accelerometer were selected and are demonstrated graphically. The deviations between the PTB and NML results were smaller than 0.6° and 2° for the phase shift measurements for the Endevco and Brüel & Kjær accelerometers respectively (37 measurement points each). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SADCMET, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  4. Monoenergetic Neutrons for Stellar Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosconi, M.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Mengoni, A.; Nolte, R.

    2009-09-01

    With modern techniques, neutron-capture cross sections can be determined with uncertainties of a few percent. However, Maxwellian averaged cross sections calculated from such data require a correction (because low-lying excited states are thermally populated in the hot stellar photon bath) which has to be determined by theoretical calculations. These calculations can be improved with information from indirect measurements, in particular by the inelastic scattering cross section. For low-lying levels, the inelastically scattered neutrons are difficult to separate from the dominant elastic channel. This problem is best solved by means of pulsed, monoenergetic neutron beams. For this reason, a pulsed beam of 30 keV neutrons with an energy spread of 7 to 9 keV FWHM and a width from 10 to 15 ns has been produced at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe using the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction directly at the reaction threshold. With this neutron beam the inelastic scattering cross section of the first excited level at 9.75 keV in 187Os was determined with a relative uncertainty of 6%. The use of monoenergetic neutron beams has been further pursued at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig, including the 3H(p, n)3He reaction for producing neutrons with an energy of 64 keV.

  5. Next generation KATRIN high precision voltage divider for voltages up to 65kV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, S.; Berendes, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Rosendahl, S.; Thümmler, T.; Schmidt, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2013-10-01

    The KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment aims to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino with a sensitivity of 200 meV by precisely measuring the electron spectrum of the tritium beta decay. This will be done by the use of a retarding spectrometer of the MAC-E-Filter type. To achieve the desired sensitivity the stability of the retarding potential of -18.6 kV has to be monitored with a precision of 3 ppm over at least two months. Since this is not feasible with commercial devices, two ppm-class high voltage dividers were developed, following the concept of the standard divider for DC voltages of up to 100 kV of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In order to reach such high accuracies different effects have to be considered. The two most important ones are the temperature dependence of resistance and leakage currents, caused by insulators or corona discharges. For the second divider improvements were made concerning the high-precision resistors and the thermal design of the divider. The improved resistors are the result of a cooperation with the manufacturer. The design improvements, the investigation and the selection of the resistors, the built-in ripple probe and the calibrations at PTB will be reported here. The latter demonstrated a stability of about 0.1 ppm/month over a period of two years.

  6. Precision high voltage divider for the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, Th; Marx, R.; Weinheimer, Ch

    2009-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment aims to determine the absolute mass of the electron antineutrino from a precise measurement of the tritium β-spectrum near its endpoint at 18.6 keV with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV c-2. KATRIN uses an electrostatic retardation spectrometer of MAC-E filter type for which it is crucial to monitor high voltages of up to 35 kV with a precision and long-term stability at the ppm level. Since devices capable of this precision are not commercially available, a new high voltage divider for direct voltages of up to 35 kV has been designed, following the new concept of the standard divider for direct voltages of up to 100 kV developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)PTB is the German National Metrology Institute providing scientific and technical services.. The electrical and mechanical design of the divider, the screening procedure for the selection of the precision resistors, and the results of the investigation and calibration at the PTB are reported here. During the latter, uncertainties at the low ppm level have been deduced for the new divider, thus qualifying it for the precision measurements of the KATRIN experiment.

  7. Thermographic techniques and adapted algorithms for automatic detection of foreign bodies in food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinlschmidt, Peter; Maergner, Volker

    2003-04-01

    At the moment foreign substances in food are detected mainly by using mechanical and optical methods as well as ultrasonic technique and than they are removed from the further process. These techniques detect a large portion of the foreign substances due to their different mass (mechanical sieving), their different colour (optical method) and their different surface density (ultrasonic detection). Despite the numerous different methods a considerable portion of the foreign substances remain undetected. In order to recognise materials still undetected, a complementary detection method would be desirable removing the foreign substances not registered by the a.m. methods from the production process. In a project with 13 partner from the food industry, the Fraunhofer - Institut für Holzforschung (WKI) and the Technische Unsiversität are trying to adapt thermography for the detection of foreign bodies in the food industry. After the initial tests turned out to be very promising for the differentiation of food stuffs and foreign substances, more and detailed investigation were carried out to develop suitable algorithms for automatic detection of foreign bodies. In order to achieve -besides the mere visual detection of foreign substances- also an automatic detection under production conditions, numerous experiences in image processing and pattern recognition are exploited. Results for the detection of foreign bodies will be presented at the conference showing the different advantages and disadvantages of using grey - level, statistical and morphological image processing techniques.

  8. Observing of entrainment using small UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Bange, J.; Beyrich, F.

    2012-04-01

    Entrainment processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere are important concerning vertical exchange of momentum, energy, water vapor, trace gases and aerosol. The transition zone between the convectively mixed boundary layer and the stably stratified free atmosphere is called the entrainment zone (EZ). The EZ restrains the domain of turbulence by a temperature inversion and acts as a lid to pollutants. Measurement flights of the mini meteorological aerial vehicle (M2AV) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig were performed in spring 2011 to determine the capability of the unmanned aerial system (UAS) to measure the structure of the EZ. The campaign took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg / Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service, which is located close to Berlin. Besides the M2AV flights, standard observations were performed by a 12 m and 99 m tower, a sodar, ceilometer and radiosondes. A tethered balloon with measurement units at six different levels was operated especially for this campaign. The measurements of these systems were used to determine the inversion layer and to capture its diurnal cycle. The talk will be focused on vertical profiles of the M2AV up to the free atmosphere, detailed analysis of spatial series of w'θ' at different altitudes and on vertical profiles of normalized variances of the vertical wind component and the potential temperature.

  9. Industry: Power fluidics - the state in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Whetton, C.

    1996-03-01

    Fluidics is the science of fluid control without moving parts. To many people, fluidics is dead technology, long displaced by electronic logic. In the case of low-power fluidics, this is undoubtedly true except for a few highly specialized cases. Power fluidics, the control of large, industrial-scale flows, is very much alive and well, controlling sewer systems, {open_quotes}deslugging{close_quotes} mixed oil and gas flows, pumping highly corrosive radioactive liquids, and handling various applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The first fluidic device was the vortex diode or vortex throttle, developed in 1936 by Thomas Zobel of the Muenchen Technische Hochschule (Technical University of Munich). This device, the prototype of which still exists in working order, allowed fluid to flow easily in one direction, but offered a high resistance to reverse flow. Typical forward to reverse flow rates were 10:1, with a similar pressure ratio of 100:1. By adding a control port to the vortex diode, a vortex amplifier was achieved so that a large fluid flow could be controlled by a much smaller flow without moving parts. By the mid-1960s, practical vortex amplifiers had been developed and applied to the control of {open_quotes}difficult{close_quotes} fluids. With no moving parts, fluidic devices required minimal maintenance, a definite bonus if the device was located in a hot area. 6 figs.

  10. The Angular Distribution of Neutrons Scattered from Deuterium below 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nankov, N.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S.; Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D.; Rao, R.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Hannaske, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Yakorev, D.; Wagner, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Canton, L.; Nolte, R.; Röttger, S.; Beyer, J.; Svenne, J.

    2014-05-01

    Neutron elastic scattering measurements were carried out at the nELBE neutron time-of-flight facility at a 6 m flight path. Energies below 2 MeV were studied using a setup consisting of eight 6Li-glass detectors placed at nominal angles of 15∘ and 165∘ with respect to the incident neutron beam. A deuterated polyethylene sample with 99.999% enrichment in deuterium was used. These angles were chosen since an earlier study showed that the ratio of the differential cross section at these angles is the most sensitive to differences in evaluated files and model calculations. Accurate 165∘/15∘ angle ratios were obtained. Above 1 MeV these are somewhat larger than given by ENDF/B-VII. Simultaneously the early day experiments using a proportional counter to infer angular distributions from deuterium recoil pulse height distributions are being studied through a new experiment with such a device at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). At 500 keV this experiment favors ENDF/B-VII over JENDL-4.0, while at lower energies agreement with the data is similar.

  11. Oral histories in meteoritics and planetary science - XXII: John T. Wasson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2014-04-01

    In this interview, John Wasson (Fig. 1) describes his childhood and undergraduate years in Arkansas and his desire to pursue nuclear chemistry as a graduate student at MIT. Upon graduation, John spent time in Munich (Technische Hochschule), the Air Force Labs in Cambridge, MA, and a sabbatical at the University of Bern where he developed his interests in meteorites. Upon obtaining his faculty position at UCLA, John established a neutron activation laboratory and began a long series of projects on the bulk compositions of iron meteorites and chondrites. He developed the chemical classification scheme for iron meteorites, gathered a huge set of iron meteorite compositional data with resultant insights into their formation, and documented the refractory and moderately volatile element trends that characterize the chondrites and chondrules. He also spent several years studying field relations and compositions of layered tektites from Southeast Asia, proposing an origin by radiant heating from a mega-Tunguska explosion. Recently, John has explored oxygen isotope patterns in meteorites and their constituents believing the oxygen isotope results to be some of the most important discoveries in cosmochemistry. John also describes the role of postdoctoral colleagues and their important work, his efforts in the reorganization and modernization of the Meteoritical Society, his contributions in reshaping the journal Meteoritics, and how, with UCLA colleagues, he organized two meetings of the society. John Wasson earned the Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society in 1992 and the J. Lawrence Smith Medal of the National Academy in 2003.

  12. Stray-field-induced quadrupole shift and absolute frequency of the 688-THz {sup 171}Yb{sup +} single-ion optical frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Tamm, Chr.; Weyers, S.; Lipphardt, B.; Peik, E.

    2009-10-15

    We report experimental investigations of a single-ion optical frequency standard based on {sup 171}Yb{sup +}. The ion is confined in a cylindrically symmetric radiofrequency Paul trap. The reference transition is the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}(F=0)-{sup 2}D{sub 3/2}(F{sup '}=2) electric quadrupole transition at 688 THz. Using a differential measurement scheme, we determine the shift of the reference transition frequency that occurs due to the interaction of the electric quadrupole moment of the {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} state with the gradient of the electrostatic stray field in the trap. We determine an upper limit for the instability of the quadrupole shift over times between 100 s to 20 h. We also observe the variations in the shift and in the applied stray-field compensation voltages that result from loading a new ion into the trap and during a subsequent storage period of 74 days. This information is utilized to measure the absolute frequency of the reference transition with an uncertainty that is a factor of 3 smaller than that of the previous measurement. Using a fiber laser based optical frequency comb generator and the cesium fountain clock CSF1 of PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), the frequency at 300 K temperature is determined as 688 358 979 309 306.62{+-}0.73 Hz.

  13. Gas-Monitor Detector for Intense and Pulsed VUV/EUV Free-Electron Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Bobashev, S. V.; Feldhaus, J.; Gerth, Ch.; Gottwald, A.; Hahn, U.; Kroth, U.; Richter, M.; Shmaenok, L. A.; Steeg, B.; Tiedtke, K.; Treusch, R.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of current developments of new powerful VUV and EUV radiation sources, like VUV free-electron-lasers or EUV plasma sources for 13-nm lithography, we developed a gas-monitor detector in order to measure the photon flux of highly intense and extremely pulsed VUV and EUV radiation in absolute terms. The device is based on atomic photoionization of a rare gas at low particle density. Therefore, it is free of degradation and almost transparent, which allows the detector to be used as a continuously working beam-intensity monitor. The extended dynamic range of the detector allowed its calibration with relative standard uncertainties of 4% in the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron-storage ring BESSY II in Berlin using spectrally dispersed synchrotron radiation at low photon intensities and its utilization for absolute photon flux measurements of high power sources. In the present contribution, we describe the design of the detector and its application for the characterization of VUV free-electron-laser radiation at the TESLA test facility in Hamburg. By first pulse resolved measurements, a peak power of more than 100 MW at a wavelength of 87 nm was detected.

  14. Radiopurity of CaWO4 crystals for direct dark matter search with CRESST and EURECA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, A.; Sivers, M. v.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Gorla, P.; Gütlein, A.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Laubenstein, M.; Loebell, J.; Ortigoza, Y.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Puimedon, J.; Reindl, F.; Roth, S.; Rottler, K.; Sailer, C.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Scholl, S.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2014-05-01

    The direct dark matter search experiment CRESST uses scintillating CaWO4 single crystals as targets for possible WIMP scatterings. An intrinsic radioactive contamination of the crystals as low as possible is crucial for the sensitivity of the detectors. In the past CaWO4 crystals operated in CRESST were produced by institutes in Russia and the Ukraine. Since 2011 CaWO4 crystals have also been grown at the crystal laboratory of the Technische Universität München (TUM) to better meet the requirements of CRESST and of the future tonne-scale multi-material experiment EURECA. The radiopurity of the raw materials and of first TUM-grown crystals was measured by ultra-low background γ-spectrometry. Two TUM-grown crystals were also operated as low-temperature detectors at a test setup in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. These measurements were used to determine the crystals' intrinsic α-activities which were compared to those of crystals produced at other institutes. The total α-activities of TUM-grown crystals as low as 1.23±0.06 mBq/kg were found to be significantly smaller than the activities of crystals grown at other institutes typically ranging between ~ 15 mBq/kg and ~ 35 mBq/kg.

  15. Recent work of decay spectroscopy at RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Pär-Anders

    2014-09-01

    β- and isomer-decay spectroscopy are sensitive probes of nuclear structure, and are often the only techniques capable of providing data for exotic nuclei that are producted with very low rates. Decay properties of exotic nuclei are also essential to model astrophysical events responible for the evolution of the universe such as the rp- and r-process. The EURICA project (EUROBALL RIKEN Cluster Array) has been launched in 2012 with the goal of performing spectroscopy of very exotic nuclei. Since 2012, four experimental campaigns have been successfully completed using fragmentation of 124Xe beam and in-flight-fission of 238U beam, approaching for example the key nuclei 78Ni, 110Zr, 100Sn, 128Pd, and 138Sn. This contribution highlights the experiments performed, results obtained, and discusses the future perspective of the EURICA project. In collaboration with Shunji Nishimura, Hidetada Baba, RIKEN Nishina Center; Frank Browne, Brighton University; Pieter Doornenbal, RIKEN Nishina Center; Guillaume Gey, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble; Tadaaki Isobe and Giuseppe Lorusso, RIKEN Nishina Center; Daniel Lubos, Technische Universitat Munchen; Kevin Mochner, University of Cologne; Zena Patel and Simon Rice, University of Surrey; Hiroyoshi Sakurai, RIKEN Nishina Center; Laura Sinclair, University of York; Toshiyuki Sumikama, Tohoku University; Jan Taprogge, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Zsolt Vajta, MTA Atomki; Hiroshi Watanabe, Beihang University; Jin Wu, Peking University; and Zhengyu Xu, University of Tokyo.

  16. Radiopurity of CaWO{sub 4} crystals for direct dark matter search with CRESST and EURECA

    SciTech Connect

    Münster, A.; Sivers, M. v.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Gütlein, A.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Potzel, W.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Hauff, D.; Petricca, F.; Pröbst, F.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Gorla, P.; Laubenstein, M.; Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Kraus, H.; Ortigoza, Y. E-mail: msivers@ph.tum.de; and others

    2014-05-01

    The direct dark matter search experiment CRESST uses scintillating CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for possible WIMP scatterings. An intrinsic radioactive contamination of the crystals as low as possible is crucial for the sensitivity of the detectors. In the past CaWO{sub 4} crystals operated in CRESST were produced by institutes in Russia and the Ukraine. Since 2011 CaWO{sub 4} crystals have also been grown at the crystal laboratory of the Technische Universität München (TUM) to better meet the requirements of CRESST and of the future tonne-scale multi-material experiment EURECA. The radiopurity of the raw materials and of first TUM-grown crystals was measured by ultra-low background γ-spectrometry. Two TUM-grown crystals were also operated as low-temperature detectors at a test setup in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. These measurements were used to determine the crystals' intrinsic α-activities which were compared to those of crystals produced at other institutes. The total α-activities of TUM-grown crystals as low as 1.23±0.06 mBq/kg were found to be significantly smaller than the activities of crystals grown at other institutes typically ranging between ∼ 15 mBq/kg and ∼ 35 mBq/kg.

  17. Establishing an optimized patient-specific verification program for volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Serna, Alfredo; Mata, Fernando; Puchades, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) increases the workload significantly. We compared the results from 4 verification methods to establish an efficient VMAT QA. Planning for VMAT treatments was carried out for 40 consecutive patients. Pretreatment verifications were carried out with ion chamber array Physikalish-Technische Werkstätten (PTW729), electronic portal dosimetry (EPID), ion chamber measurements, and independent dose calculation with Diamond program. 2D analyses were made using the gamma analysis (3mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference relative to maximum, 10% dose threshold). Average point dose difference calculated by Eclipse relative to ion chamber measurements and Diamond were 0.1%±0.9% and 0.6%±2.2%, respectively. Average pass rate for PTW729 was 99.2%±1.9% and 98.3%±1.3% for EPID. The total required time (linac occupancy time given in parentheses) for each QA method was: PTW729 43.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), EPID 14.5 minutes (2.5 minutes), ion chamber 34.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), and Diamond 12.0 minutes (0 minute). The results were consistent and allowed us to establish an optimized protocol, considering safety and accuracy as well as workload, consisting of 2 verification methods: EPID 2D analysis and independent dose calculation. PMID:23540493

  18. Evaluation of a digital data acquisition system and optimization of n-{gamma} discrimination for a compact neutron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Giacomelli, L.; Zimbal, A.; Reginatto, M.; Tittelmeier, K.

    2011-01-15

    A compact NE213 liquid scintillation neutron spectrometer with a new digital data acquisition (DAQ) system is now in operation at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). With the DAQ system, developed by ENEA Frascati, neutron spectrometry with high count rates in the order of 5x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} is possible, roughly an order of magnitude higher than with an analog acquisition system. To validate the DAQ system, a new data analysis code was developed and tests were done using measurements with 14-MeV neutrons made at the PTB accelerator. Additional analysis was carried out to optimize the two-gate method used for neutron and gamma (n-{gamma}) discrimination. The best results were obtained with gates of 35 ns and 80 ns. This indicates that the fast and medium decay time components of the NE213 light emission are the ones that are relevant for n-{gamma} discrimination with the digital acquisition system. This differs from what is normally implemented in the analog pulse shape discrimination modules, namely, the fast and long decay emissions of the scintillating light.

  19. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Kurt

    Das Fließpressen zählt neben dem Stauchen und Gleitziehen zu den Kernverfahren des Kaltmassivumformens. In beschränktem Maße wird es auch im halbwarmen Bereich zwischen 600ºC und 800°C werkstoff- oder verfahrensbedingt angewandt. Besondere technisch-wirtschaftliche Bedeutung hat das Kaltfließpressen von Stahl erlangt, nachdem 1934 durch Phosphatieren der Rohteile nach dem Singer-Patent die sichere Umformung von Stahlwerkstoffen in Stahlwerkzeugen ohne Kaltverschweißen möglich geworden war. Die Werkstückmassen liegen beim Kaltfließpressen zwischen wenigen Gramm und einigen Kilogramm, seltener auch darüber. Grenzen sind die Werkzeugbelastung einerseits und die hohen Umformkräfte andererseits. Grundsätzlich lassen sich fast alle knetbaren Metalle durch Fließpressen umformen. Heute ist diese Verfahrensgruppe eine leistungsfähige Technologie, die die Fertigung präziser, geometrisch komplexer, hochbeanspruchbarer Werkstücke aus hochfesten Stählen für weite Einsatzbereiche mit geringstem Werkstoffeinsatz ermöglicht.

  20. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time. PMID:22267274

  1. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  2. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 of the absorbed dose to water standards of the PTB, Germany and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Krauss, A.

    2016-01-01

    An indirect comparison has been made of the standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co radiation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), Germany and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The measurements at the BIPM were carried out in October 2015. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and evaluated as a ratio of the PTB and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9977 with a combined standard uncertainty of 3.8 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Phasenübergänge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Bisher haben wir nur das thermische Verhalten von Stoffen einheitlicher Konsistenz diskutiert. Eines der auffälligsten Phänomene in der Physik der Wärme ist aber, dass ein Stoff in verschiedenen Aggregatzuständen vorliegen kann: fest, flüssig oder gasförmig, und dass durch Wärmezufuhr und -abfuhr Übergänge zwischen diesen verschiedenen Phasen bewirkt werden. Zunächst werden wir die Phasenübergänge flüssig-gasförmig und fest-gasförmig ausführlich diskutieren. Dann zeigen wir, dass der Phasenübergang fest-flüssig auf ganz ähnliche Weise beschrieben werden kann. Eine zusammenfassende Darstellung der Phasenübergänge ist in der Form von Zustandsdiagrammen möglich. Die Untersuchung solcher Diagramme führt auf das interessante Phänomen des kritischen Punktes. Am Schluss des Kapitels betrachten wir Phasenübergänge in Zweistoffsystemen. Sie weisen einige Eigenschaften auf, die nicht nur merkwürdig und physikalisch interessant, sondern vor allem auch technisch von Bedeutung sind.

  4. > Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spath, Dieter; Pischetsrieder, Bernd

    Rund 40 Prozent aller Fahrzeuge fahren elektrisch. Ein Zustand, der aus heutiger Sicht noch in weiter Ferne liegt, war vor über 100 Jahren bereits Realität. Um 1900, einige Jahre nach der Erfindung des Automobils, wurden Fahrzeuge durch unterschiedliche Antriebskonzepte angetrieben. Die drei wichtigsten waren Dampfantrieb, Elektroantrieb und der Benzinmotor. Durch die überlegene Energiedichte und eine kostengünstige sowie scheinbar unendliche Verfügbarkeit des Energieträgers Öl entwickelte sich der Verbrennungsmotor zum dominanten Antriebskonzept. Der Einsatz von Elektrofahrzeugen beschränkte sich im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts auf wenige Nischenanwendungen. Der verbrennungsmotorbasierte Antriebsstrang ist dem Elektroantrieb auch heute noch technisch und ökonomisch überlegen. Die Randbedingungen ändern sich jedoch. Die Verknappung des fossilen Brennstoffs Öl und die stetige Verschärfung der CO2-Emissionsziele in Verbindung mit einer starken Zunahme individueller Mobilität im asiatischen Raum und vielen weiteren Regionen der Welt stellen den Verbrennungsmotors als die dominante Antriebstechnologie in Frage. Trotz des Optimierungspotentials, welches auch nach über 120-jähriger Entwicklung noch im Verbrennungsmotor liegt, ist diese Technologie immer mit lokalen Schadstoff- und Lärmemissionen verbunden. Die Notwendigkeit der Reduktion von Treibhausgasen verbunden mit einem steigenden Urbanisierungsgrad wird in Zukunft einen Technologiewechsel vom Verbrennungsmotor zum elektrischen Antrieb attraktiv machen. Dieser Technologiewechsel bedeutet jedoch weit mehr als das Austauschen des Antriebsstranges, Elektromobilität ist ein komplexes Themengebiet mit unterschiedlichen Dimensionen.

  5. Calorimetric determination of kQ factors for NE 2561 and NE 2571 ionization chambers in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Achim; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter

    2007-10-01

    The relative uncertainty of the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, in the reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams is in the order of 1.5% and is dominated by the uncertainty of the calculated chamber- and energy-dependent correction factors kQ. In the present investigation, kQ values were determined experimentally in 5 cm × 5 cm and 10 cm × 10 cm radiotherapy beams of 8 MV and 16 MV bremsstrahlung by means of a water calorimeter operated at 4 °C. Ionization chambers of the types NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calibrated directly in the water phantom of the calorimeter. The measurements were carried out at the linear accelerator of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. It is shown that the kQ factor of a single ionization chamber can be measured with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. No significant variations of kQ were found for the different lateral sizes of the radiation fields used in this investigation.

  6. [Basic concept for the judgement of the results of dustfall measuring in the Alps (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kofler, W; Benger, J

    1976-02-01

    At the time extensive measurements are made in the Austrian part of the Alps to find out the elevation of the fundamental load of dustfall according to the methode of BERGERHOFF. Thereby the authors had to solve the fundamental question to find a system for estimation. In Austria the results of measurements of dustfall were classified usually according to the "Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft 1964." It appeared that the introduction did not achieve the problem because of the special geografical, meteorological and economical data of the researched part of the Alps which at that time has about 30 000 km2. Similar applies to the new standards of the TAL 1974 and that recommendations of the "Deutscher Bäderverband" to estimate health resorts, recreation areas and mineral springs. Therefore a special model for estimating was developed which differentiate among the average of a year and the maximum of the average of a month, the general housing-areas, recreation areas and standards for industrial areas. The suggested limits are under the limits which are used today in Germany. The results of measurements of dustfall are discussed. PMID:1274505

  7. Establishing an optimized patient-specific verification program for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Serna, Alfredo; Mata, Fernando; Puchades, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    Quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) increases the workload significantly. We compared the results from 4 verification methods to establish an efficient VMAT QA. Planning for VMAT treatments was carried out for 40 consecutive patients. Pretreatment verifications were carried out with ion chamber array Physikalish-Technische Werkstätten (PTW729), electronic portal dosimetry (EPID), ion chamber measurements, and independent dose calculation with Diamond program. 2D analyses were made using the gamma analysis (3 mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference relative to maximum, 10% dose threshold). Average point dose difference calculated by Eclipse relative to ion chamber measurements and Diamond were 0.1%±0.9% and 0.6%±2.2%, respectively. Average pass rate for PTW729 was 99.2%±1.9% and 98.3%±1.3% for EPID. The total required time (linac occupancy time given in parentheses) for each QA method was: PTW729 43.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), EPID 14.5 minutes (2.5 minutes), ion chamber 34.5 minutes (26.5 minutes), and Diamond 12.0 minutes (0 minute). The results were consistent and allowed us to establish an optimized protocol, considering safety and accuracy as well as workload, consisting of 2 verification methods: EPID 2D analysis and independent dose calculation.

  8. Final report on APMP supplementary comparison APMP.L-S3: Calibration of gauge blocks by mechanical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praba Drijarkara, A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the result of a comparison of length standards conducted between seven members of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP). Two sets of gauge blocks made of steel and tungsten carbide, each with nominal values 1 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 50 mm and 100 mm were used as travelling standards. The comparison was coordinated by the Research Centre for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences (KIM-LIPI) and assisted by the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), sponsored by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) through APMP's Developing Economies' Committee (DEC). The comparison was carried out from October 2006 to January 2009. Preparatory and concluding workshops were organized to assist the participants in preparing for the comparison and analyzing it. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Three-element trap filter radiometer based on large active area silicon photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Salim, S G R; Anhalt, K; Taubert, D R; Hollandt, J

    2016-05-20

    This paper shows the opto-mechanical design of a new filter radiometer built at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, for the accurate determination of the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature blackbodies. The filter radiometer is based on a three-element reflection-type trap detector that uses three large active area silicon photodiodes. Its spectral coverage and field of view are defined by a detachable narrow-band filter and a diamond-turned precision aperture, respectively. The temperature of the filter radiometer is stabilized using a water-streamed housing and is measured using a thin-film platinum thermometer placed onto the first photodiode element. The trap "mount" has been made as compact as possible, which, together with the large active area of the chosen photodiodes, allows a wide field of view. This work presents the design of the filter radiometer and discusses the criteria that have been considered in order for the filter radiometer to suit the application. PMID:27411121

  10. Concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Rottmann, H.; Mühlbauer, M.; Plötz, C.; Himwich, E.; Beaudoin, C.; Szomoru, A.

    2011-07-01

    In the newly funded "Novel EXploration Pushing Robuste-VLBI Services", - project (NEXPReS) the Technische Universitaet Muenchen realize concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn. NEXPReS is a three-year project aimed at further developing e-VLBI services of the European VLBI Network (EVN), with the goal of incorporating e-VLBI into every astronomical observation conducted by the EVN. This project focus on developments of an operational e-control system with authentication and authorization. It includes an appropriate role management with different remote access states for future observation strategies. To allow a flexible control of different systems in parallel sophisticated graphical user interfaces are designed and realized. It requires also a session oriented data management. Because of the higher degree of automation additional system parameters and information is collected with a new system monitoring. The whole system for monitoring and control is fully compatible to the NASA field system as extension. The concept will be proofed with regular tests between Wettzell and Effelsberg.

  11. Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods: Dimensional and Related Measurements in the Micro- and Nanometer Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkening, Günter; Koenders, Ludger

    2005-08-01

    The quantitative determination of the properties of micro- and nanostructures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. The knowledge of the geometrical dimensions of structures in most cases is the base, to which other physical and chemical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements require reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as appropriate calibration artefacts and methods. The seminar "NanoScale 2004" (6th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy and 2nd Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods) at the National Metrology Institute (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB), Braunschweig, Germany, continues the series of seminars on Quantitative Microscopy. The series stimulates the exchange of information between manufacturers of relevant hard- and software and the users in science and industry. Topics addressed in these proceedings are a) the application of quantitative measurements and measurement problems in: microelectronics, microsystems technology, nano/quantum/molecular electronics, chemistry, biology, medicine, environmental technology, materials science, surface processing b) calibration & correction methods: calibration methods, calibration standards, calibration procedures, traceable measurements, standardization, uncertainty of measurements c) instrumentation and methods: novel/improved instruments and methods, reproducible probe/sample positioning, position-measuring systems, novel/improved probe/detector systems, linearization methods, image processing

  12. Extreme-ultraviolet collector mirror measurement using large reflectometer at NewSUBARU synchrotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Haruki; Hashimoto, Hiraku; Kuki, Masaki; Harada, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Watanabe, Takeo; Platonov, Yuriy Y.; Kriese, Michael D.; Rodriguez, Jim R.

    2016-06-01

    In extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, the development of high-power EUV sources is one of the critical issues. The EUV output power directly depends on the collector mirror performance. Furthermore, mirrors with large diameters are necessary to achieve high collecting performance and take sufficient distance to prevent heat and debris from a radiation point of the source. Thus collector mirror development with accurate reflectometer is important. We have developed a large reflectometer at BL-10 beamline of the NewSUBARU synchrotron facility that can be used for mirrors with diameters, thicknesses, and weights of up to 800 mm, 250 mm, and 50 kg, respectively. This reflectometer can measure reflectivity with fully s-polarized EUV light. In this study, we measured the reflectance of a 412-mm-diameter EUV collector mirror using a maximum incident angle of 36°. We obtained the peak reflectance, center wavelength and reflection bandwidth results and compared our results with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt results.

  13. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Mor, Ilan; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai

    2015-07-01

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.

  14. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system.

    PubMed

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Mor, Ilan; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai

    2015-07-01

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously. PMID:26233413

  15. Time-resolved Fast Neutron Radiography of Air-water Two-phase Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Bromberger, Benjamin; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    Neutron imaging, in general, is a useful technique for visualizing low-Z materials (such as water or plastics) obscured by high-Z materials. However, when significant amounts of both materials are present and full-bodied samples have to be examined, cold and thermal neutrons rapidly reach their applicability limit as the samples become opaque. In such cases one can benefit from the high penetrating power of fast neutrons. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of time-resolved, fast neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick flow channel with Aluminum walls and rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. Exposure times down to 3.33 ms have been achieved at reasonable image quality and acceptable motion artifacts. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two-phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and bubble velocities have been measured.

  16. Concepts for VLBI Station Control as Part of NEXPReS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettl, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Schönberger, M.; Alef, W.; Himwich, E.; Beaudoin, C.; Plötz, C.; Lovell, J.; Hase, H.

    2012-12-01

    In the Novel EXploration Pushing Robust e-VLBI Services-project (NEXPReS) the Technische Universität München (TUM) realizes concepts for continuous quality monitoring and station remote control in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn. NEXPReS is a three-year project, funded within the European Seventh Framework program. It is aimed to develop e-VLBI services for the European VLBI Network (EVN), which can also support the IVS observations (VLBI2010). Within this project, the TUM focuses on developments of an operational remote control system (e-RemoteCtrl) with authentication and authorization. It includes an appropriate role management with different remote access states for future observation strategies. To allow a flexible control of different systems in parallel, sophisticated graphical user interfaces are designed and realized. The software is currently under test in the new AuScope network, Australia/New Zealand. Additional system parameters and information are collected with a new system monitoring (SysMon) for a higher degree of automation, which is currently under preparation for standardization within the IVS Monitoring and Control Infrastructure (MCI) Collaboration Group. The whole system for monitoring and control is fully compatible with the NASA Field System and extends it.

  17. CONCERNING THE PHASES OF THE ANNUAL VARIATIONS OF NUCLEAR DECAY RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, P. A.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Jenkins, J. H.; Mattes, J. J.; Javorsek, D. II

    2011-08-20

    Recent analyses of data sets acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt both show evidence of pronounced annual variations, suggestive of a solar influence. However, the phases of decay-rate maxima do not correspond precisely to the phase of minimum Sun-Earth distance, as might then be expected. We here examine the hypothesis that decay rates are influenced by an unknown solar radiation, but that the intensity of the radiation is influenced not only by the variation in Sun-Earth distance, but also by a possible north-south asymmetry in the solar emission mechanism. We find that this can lead to phases of decay-rate maxima in the range 0-0.183 or 0.683-1 (September 6 to March 8) but that, according to this hypothesis, phases in the range of 0.183-0.683 (March 8 to September 6) are 'forbidden'. We find that phases of the three data sets analyzed here fall in the allowed range.

  18. Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Degering, Detlev; Zuber, Kai

    2013-08-08

    We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup −6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

  19. Study of the Smith-Purcell effect in the relativistic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Doucas, G.; Dumitru, M.; Korschinck, G.

    1995-12-31

    We propose to investigate the spontaneous emission of radiation arising out of the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a metallic grating (the Smith-Purcell effect). The work will concentrate, primarily, in the 50-120 {mu}m part of the infrared spectrum and will be an extension of the work begun by the Oxford-Dartmouth-Essex collaboration; one of the early objectives of the project will be to develop a quantitative understanding of the power spectrum of the emitted radiation over a wide range of emission angles. In particular, the limits of relativistic peaking of forward directed emission will be investigated. The electron beam will be produced by laser irradiation of a metallic cathode in the terminal of a small Van de Graff accelerator located in the Technische Universitaet, Muenchen. Beam energies will be in the range of 2 - 4 MeV. Initial tests on photoproduction of electrons have yielded 10 mA pulses with a width of about 20 ns. The electron pulse length is long enough to not only produce easily observed levels of spontaneous emission, but in principle gain due to stimulated emission should also be observable. Observation of gain is a second goal of the project. The manufacture of the grating chamber and the voltage tests on the accelerator will progress in parallel. This is a 3-year project and is supported, in part, by the British-German Academic Research Collaboration (ARC) program.

  20. Excitation energy transfer in intact cells and in the phycobiliprotein antennae of the chlorophyll d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Christoph; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Pieper, Jörg; Nganou, Collins; Grehn, Moritz; Vitali, Marco; Olliges, Rachel; Eichler, Hans Joachim; Eckert, Hann-Jörg

    2011-08-15

    The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is unique because it mainly contains Chlorophyll d (Chl d) in the core complexes of PS I and PS II instead of the usually dominant Chl a. Furthermore, its light harvesting system has a structure also different from other cyanobacteria. It has both, a membrane-internal chlorophyll containing antenna and a membrane-external phycobiliprotein (PBP) complex. The first one binds Chl d and is structurally analogous to CP43. The latter one has a rod-like structure consisting of three phycocyanin (PC) homohexamers and one heterohexamer containing PC and allophycocyanin (APC). In this paper, we give an overview on the investigations of excitation energy transfer (EET) in this PBP-light-harvesting system and of charge separation in the photosystem II (PS II) reaction center of A. marina performed at the Technische Universität Berlin. Due to the unique structure of the PBP antenna in A. marina, this EET occurs on a much shorter overall time scale than in other cyanobacteria. We also briefly discuss the question of the pigment composition in the reaction center (RC) of PS II and the nature of the primary donor of the PS II RC. PMID:21396735

  1. Capabilities and limitations of the self-calibration of angle encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Link, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Elster, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), a self-calibration method for the fast and precise in situ calibration of angle encoders without recourse to external reference standards has been developed. It relies on a suitable geometric arrangement of multiple reading heads which read out the radial grating of the angle encoder at different angular positions. Fourier-based algorithms are used to analyse the measurement differences of pairs of heads to recover the graduation error of the grating. A comprehensive overview, both theoretical and experimental, of the capabilities and limitations of the self-calibration method is presented, including experimental data obtained with the high-precision primary angle standard of PTB. The evaluation and, where it is possible, correction of error influences due to lateral shifts of the centre of the encoder's grating during its rotation, including its eccentricity, the reading heads’ angular positions, and their non-uniform response, are discussed in detail, as well as the resulting uncertainty budget.

  2. Development and evaluation of thermal model reduction algorithms for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiml, Michael; Suderland, Martin; Reiss, Philipp; Czupalla, Markus

    2015-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the topic of the reduction of thermal models of spacecraft. The work presented here has been conducted in cooperation with the company OHB AG, formerly Kayser-Threde GmbH, and the Institute of Astronautics at Technische Universität München with the goal to shorten and automatize the time-consuming and manual process of thermal model reduction. The reduction of thermal models can be divided into the simplification of the geometry model for calculation of external heat flows and radiative couplings and into the reduction of the underlying mathematical model. For simplification a method has been developed which approximates the reduced geometry model with the help of an optimization algorithm. Different linear and nonlinear model reduction techniques have been evaluated for their applicability in reduction of the mathematical model. Thereby the compatibility with the thermal analysis tool ESATAN-TMS is of major concern, which restricts the useful application of these methods. Additional model reduction methods have been developed, which account to these constraints. The Matrix Reduction method allows the approximation of the differential equation to reference values exactly expect for numerical errors. The summation method enables a useful, applicable reduction of thermal models that can be used in industry. In this work a framework for model reduction of thermal models has been created, which can be used together with a newly developed graphical user interface for the reduction of thermal models in industry.

  3. Collection of cometary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lell, P.; Igenbergs, E.; Kuczera, H.; Pailer, N.

    Rendezvous Missions to Comets lead to low velocities at the nucleus of the comet. The resulting impact velocity of the cometary dust on a target will range between 10 and 400 m/s. The dust particle which impacts on a target can be collected for a subsequent in-situ analysis. The collection efficiency of a target depends in addition to obvious geometrical conditions upon the surface of the target. The surface characteristics can be divided into two groups: ``dirty'' surfaces, covered with silicate or hydrocarbon compounds (for example vacuum grease), ``clean'' surfaces, like gold (with additional sputtering). This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical investigation of the collection efficiency of ``clean'' targets. Laboratory experiments are described which were conducted at the Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Raumfahrttechnik, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. In both experiments an electromagnetic accelerator is used to accelerate different types of dust in vacuum to velocities between 10 and 400 m/s. The target is then examined under the microscope and a secondary ion mass spectrometer (which is a model of the laboratory carried on board of the spacecraft for ``in situ'' analysis). The adhesion of the dust grains at the target is evaluated experimentally in an ultracentrifuge.

  4. A Primary Dead-Weight Tester for Pressures (0.05–1.0) MPa

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Kamlesh; Bowers, Walt; Schmidt, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in technology on two fronts, 1) the fabrication of large-diameter pistons and cylinders with good geometry, and 2) the ability to measure the dimensions of these components with high accuracy, have allowed dead-weight testers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to generate pressures that approach total relative uncertainties previously obtained only by manometers. This paper describes a 35 mm diameter piston/cylinder assembly (known within NIST as PG-39) that serves as a pressure standard in which both the piston and the cylinder have been accurately dimensioned by Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Both artifacts (piston and cylinder) appeared to be round within ±30 nm and straight within ±100 nm over a substantial fraction of their heights. Based on the diameters at 20 °C provided by PTB (±15 nm) and on the good geometry of the artifact, the relative uncertainties for the effective area were estimated to be about 2.2 × 10−6 (1σ).

  5. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility.

    PubMed

    Rosch, R; Trosseille, C; Caillaud, T; Allouche, V; Bourgade, J L; Briat, M; Brunel, P; Burillo, M; Casner, A; Depierreux, S; Gontier, D; Jadaud, J P; Le Breton, J P; Llavador, P; Loupias, B; Miquel, J L; Oudot, G; Perez, S; Raimbourg, J; Rousseau, A; Rousseaux, C; Rubbelynck, C; Stemmler, P; Troussel, P; Ulmer, J L; Wrobel, R; Beauvais, P; Pallet, M; Prevot, V

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here. PMID:27036783

  6. From plane to spatial angles: PTB's spatial angle autocollimator calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranz, Oliver; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael; Osten, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Electronic autocollimators are utilised versatilely for non-contact angle measurements in applications like straightness measurements and profilometry. Yet, no calibration of the angle measurement of an autocollimator has been available when both its measurement axes are engaged. Additionally, autocollimators have been calibrated at fixed distances to the reflector, although its distance may vary during the use of an autocollimator. To extend the calibration capabilities of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) regarding spatial angles and variable distances, a novel calibration device has been set up: the spatial angle autocollimator calibrator (SAAC). In this paper, its concept and its mechanical realisation will be presented. The focus will be on the system's mathematical modelling and its application in spatial angle calibrations. The model considers the misalignments of the SAAC's components, including the non-orthogonalities of the measurement axes of the autocollimators and of the rotational axes of the tilting unit. It allows us to derive specific measurement procedures to determine the misalignments in situ and, in turn, to correct the measurements of the autocollimators. Finally, the realisation and the results of a traceable spatial angle calibration of an autocollimator will be presented. This is the first calibration of this type worldwide.

  7. Mesoporous silica material TUD-1 as a drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, T; Salonen, J; Tuura, J; Hamdy, M S; Mul, G; Kumar, N; Salmi, T; Murzin, D Yu; Laitinen, L; Kaukonen, A M; Hirvonen, J; Lehto, V-P

    2007-02-22

    For the first time the feasibility of siliceous mesoporous material TUD-1 (Technische Universiteit Delft) for drug delivery was studied. Model drug, ibuprofen, was adsorbed into TUD-1 mesopores via a soaking procedure. Characterizations with nitrogen adsorption, XRD, TG, HPLC and DSC demonstrated the successful inclusion of ibuprofen into TUD-1 host. The amount of ibuprofen adsorbed into the nanoreservoir of TUD-1 material was higher than reported for other mesoporous silica drug carriers (drug/carrier 49.5 wt.%). Drug release studies in vitro (HBSS buffer pH 5.5) demonstrated a fast and unrestricted liberation of ibuprofen, with 96% released at 210 min of the dissolution assay. The drug dissolution profile of TUD-1 material with the random, foam-like three-dimensional mesopore network and high accessibility to the dissolution medium was found to be much faster (kinetic constant k = 10.7) and more diffusion based (release constant n = 0.64) compared to a mesoporous MCM-41 material with smaller, unidirectional mesopore channels (k = 4.7, n = 0.71). Also, the mesoporous carriers were found to significantly increase the dissolution rate of ibuprofen, when compared to the pure crystalline form of the drug (k = 0.6, n = 0.96). TUD-1 was constituted as a potential drug delivery device with fast release property, with prospective applications in the formulation of poorly soluble drug compounds. PMID:17046183

  8. ARGon{sup 3}: ''3D appearance robot-based gonioreflectometer'' at PTB

    SciTech Connect

    Hoepe, A.; Atamas, T.; Huenerhoff, D.; Teichert, S.; Hauer, K.-O.

    2012-04-15

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany, a new facility for measuring visual appearance-related quantities has been built up. The acronym ARGon{sup 3} stands for ''3D appearance robot-based gonioreflectometer''. Compared to standard gonioreflectometers, there are two main new features within this setup. First, a photometric luminance camera with a spatial resolution of 28 {mu}m on the device under test (DUT) enables spatially high-resolved measurements of luminance and color coordinates. Second, a line-scan CCD-camera mounted to a spectrometer provides measurements of the radiance factor, respectively the bidirectional reflectance distribution function, in full V({lambda})-range (360 nm-830 nm) with arbitrary angles of irradiation and detection relative to the surface normal, on a time scale of about 2 min. First goniometric measurements of diffuse reflection within 3D-space above the DUT with subsequent colorimetric representation of the obtained data of special effect pigments based on the interference effect are presented.

  9. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Ido AdamMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Henrik AdorfLeibniz Universität Hannover Mohammad Ali-AkbariIPM, Tehran Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Martin Ammon Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Christopher AndreyÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Laura AndrianopoliPolitecnico di Torino David AndriotLPTHE, Université UPMC Paris VI Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Pantelis ApostolopoulosUniversitat de les Illes Balears, Palma Gleb ArutyunovInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Davide AstolfiUniversità di Perugia Spyros AvramisUniversité de Neuchâtel Mirela BabalicChalmers University, Göteborg Foday BahDigicom Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Igor BandosUniversidad de Valencia Jose L F BarbonIFTE UAM/CSIC Madrid Till BargheerMax-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (AEI), Potsdam Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich James BedfordImperial College London Raphael BenichouLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Alice BernamontiVrije Universiteit, Brussel Julia BernardLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Marco Billo' Università di Torino Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Guillaume BossardAlbert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Leonardo BriziÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Johannes BroedelLeibniz Universität Hannover (AEI) Tom BrownQueen Mary, University of London Ilka BrunnerEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Erling BrynjolfssonUniversity of Iceland Dmitri BykovSteklov Institute, Moscow and Trinity College, Dublin Joan CampsUniversitat de Barcelona

  10. Untersuchung der Richtwirkung der Einkopplung von ebenen Wellen in eine Leitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdowski, M.; Vick, R.

    2013-07-01

    Elektrische Leitungen und Kabel stellen häufig die Haupteinfallstore für elektromagnetische Felder in die daran angeschlossenen Geräte und Systeme dar. Für die Einkopplung einer ebenen Welle kann der in eine Leitung eingekoppelte Strom unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen mit Hilfe der Leitungstheorie sehr effizient bestimmt werden. Er hängt dabei von den Abmessungen der Leitung, den Leitungsabschlüssen sowie der Amplitude, der Wellenlänge und der Einfallsrichtung der ebenen Welle ab. In dieser Arbeit wird die Abhängigkeit der Einkopplung von der Einfallsrichtung näher untersucht. Dazu werden Richtdiagramme der Einkopplung berechnet, dargestellt und hinsichtlich der mittleren und maximalen Einkopplung über alle Einfallsrichtungen und Polarisationen ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse werden genutzt, um die maximale Direktivität der Einkopplung in eine Leitung zu bestimmen. Fasst man die Einkopplung externer Felder in eine Leitung als einen Störfestigkeitstest auf, so kann die maximale Direktivität benutzt werden, um einen Vergleich zwischen unterschiedlichen Messumgebungen wie Absorberhallen und Modenverwirbelungskammern herzustellen.

  11. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. PMID:27160086

  12. Magnetisches Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Wegner, Ingmar; Kenngott, Hannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gutt, Carsten N.

    In dieser Studie wurde untersucht ob in einem typischen OP-Aufbau mit dem da Vinci® Telemanipulator elektromagnetisches Tracking für die Realisation eines Navigationssystems eingesetzt werden kann. Hierfür wurde in einem realen OP-Aufbau untersucht, wie stark metallische und ferromagnetisch wirksame Objekte wie Operationstisch und Telemanipulator das elektromagnetische Feld des Trackingsystems beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Telemanipulator nur unwesentlich die Störung des Magnetfeldes durch den OP-Tisch verstärkt. Insbesondere die Bewegung der Instrumente im Trackingvolumen verursachte keine zusätzliche relevante Störung des Magnetfeldes. Bei Begrenzung des Trackingvolumens auf eine Länge von 190 mm, Höhe von 200mm und Breite von 400 mm war der maximale Fehler in diesem Bereich an allen Messpunkten kleiner 10 mm. Der Einsatz von elektromagnetischem Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System ist somit in einem begrenzten Arbeitsvolumen mit hinreichender Genauigkeit möglich.

  13. Ray effects in the discrete-ordinate solution for surface radiation exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, B.-T.; Wu, C.-Y.

    A study of the application of the discrete-ordinate method (DOM) with remedy for the ray effects to the solution of surface radiation exchange is presented in this paper. The remedy for the ray effects is achieved by dividing the radiative intensity into the attenuated incident and the medium emitting components. To demonstrate the application of the technique, this work considers radiative heat transfer in a two-dimensional cylindrical enclosure filled with a nearly transparent medium. The results obtained by the present DOM are in excellent agreement with those by the radiosity/irradiation method. Zusammenfassung In der Arbeit wird ein Weg aufgezeigt, wie die Störstrahlungseffekte bei Anwendung der Methode der diskreten Ordinaten auf die Berechnung des Energietausches zwischen Oberflächenstrahlern vermieden werden können. Dies läßt sich durch Aufspaltung der Strahlungsintensität in die abgeschwächte einfallende und die vom Medium emittierte Komponente erreichen. Als Beispiel für die Anwendung dieses Verfahrens dient der Wärmeaustausch durch Strahlung in einem zweidimensionalen zylindrischen Behältnis, das mit einem nahezu transparenten Medium befüllt ist. Die mit der modifizierten Methode erhaltenen Ergebnisse stimmen ausgezeichnet mit jenen nach dem klassischen Brutto-Verfahren überein.

  14. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  15. Review of access, licenses and understandability of open datasets used in hydrology research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Arheimer, Berit; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma

    2015-04-01

    The amount of open data available for hydrology research is continually growing. In the EU-funded project SWITCH-ON (Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs), we are addressing water concerns by exploring and exploiting the untapped potential of these new open data. This work is enabled by many ongoing efforts to facilitate the use of open data. For instance, a number of portals (such as the GEOSS Portal and the INSPIRE community geoportal) provide the means to search for such open data sets and open spatial data services. However, in general, the systematic use of available open data is still fairly uncommon in hydrology research. Factors that limits (re)usability of a data set include: (1) accessibility, (2) understandability and (3) licences. If you cannot access the data set, you cannot use if for research. If you cannot understand the data set you cannot use it for research. Finally, if you are not permitted to use the data, you cannot use it for research. Early on in the project, we sent out a questionnaire to our research partners (SMHI, Universita di Bologna, University of Bristol, Technische Universiteit Delft and Technische Universitaet Wien) to find out what data sets they were planning to use in their experiments. The result was a comprehensive list of useful open data sets. Later, this list of data sets was extended with additional information on data sets for planned commercial water-information products and services. With the list of 50 common data sets as a starting point, we reviewed issues related to access, understandability and licence conditions. Regarding access to data sets, a majority of data sets were available through direct internet download via some well-known transfer protocol such as ftp or http. However, several data sets were found to be inaccessible due to server downtime, incorrect links or problems with the host database management system. One possible explanation for this

  16. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbach, Stefan; Borin, Dmitry

    2009-07-01

    Materials with properties controllable by external fields become more and more important for modern product design. Magnetorheological suspensions, electrorheological fluids and ferrofluids are classical examples for such smart materials exhibiting magnetic or electric field dependent properties. Their development over the past 60 years has shown how complex research and development of fluids with tailored properties can be. The demands of potential applications are the driving force for the synthesis of new fluids. The changes in the synthetic process and the composition of the fluids based on an increasing understanding of the relevant microscopic processes leads to certain macroscopic properties of the material. Only intense cooperation between basic and application oriented research, synthesis, characterisation, theory and application design can finally lead to fluids suitable for the envisaged use. The International Conferences on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions have provided over more than 20 years a platform for interdisciplinary discussions strengthening the scientific progress in the field. Besides being a forum for scientific exchange about recent developments in electro- and magnetorheological fluids. The 11th International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions (ERMR08) which has been organized by the chair of Magnetofluiddynamics at the Technische Universität Dresden in August 2008 in Dresden has continued this fruitful tradition. With more than 180 participants from 24 different countries it has been the largest ERMR meeting during the last decade - a tendency showing the high potential and promising development of the field of electrically and magnetically controllable fluids. A significant proportion of the participants were PhD students, a fact that also highlights the sustainability of the field. In total 85 oral presentations - including 8 plenary talks - and 81 posters were

  17. PREFACE: The International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism HFM2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Ilya; Brenig, Wolfram; Kremer, Reinhard; Litterst, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    The International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism 2008 (HFM2008) took place on 7-12 September 2008 at the Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig, Germany. This conference was the fourth event in a series of meetings, which started in Waterloo, Canada (HFM 2000), followed by the second one in Grenoble, France (HFM 2003), and the third meeting in Osaka, Japan (HFM 2006). HFM2008 attracted more than 220 participants from all over the world. The number of participants of the HFM conference series has been increasing steadily, from about 80 participants at HFM 2000, to 120 participants at HFM 2003, and 190 participants at HFM 2006, demonstrating that highly frustrated magnetism remains a rapidly growing area of research in condensed matter physics. At the end of HFM2008 it was decided that the next International Conference on Highly Frustrated Magnetism will be held in Baltimore, USA in 2010. HFM2008 saw four plenary talks by R Moessner, S Nakatsuji, S-W Cheong, and S Sachdev, 18 invited presentations, 30 contributed talks and about 160 poster presentations from all areas of frustrated magnetism. The subjects covered by the conference included: Kagome systems Itinerant frustrated systems Spinels and pyrochlore materials Triangular systems Unconventional order and spin liquids Chain systems Chain systems Novel frustrated systems This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the proceedings of HFM2008 with 83 papers that provide a scientific record of the scientific topics covered by the conference. All articles have been refereed by experts in the field. It is our hope that the reader will enjoy and profit from the HFM2008 Proceedings. Ilya Eremin Proceedings Editor Wolfram Brenig, Reinhard Kremer, and Jochen Litterst Co-Editors International Advisory Board L Balents (USA) F Becca (Italy) S Bramwell (UK) P Fulde (Germany) B D Gaulin (Canada) J E Greedan (Canada) A Harrison (France) Z Hiroi (Japan) H Kawamura (Japan) A Keren

  18. IN MEMORIAM: Hermann Anton Haus, 1925 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    Photograph Hermann Anton Haus, an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was to have been a Keynote Speaker at the Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics Conference, from which the papers in this special issue derive. Sadly, on May 21, 2003 - less than two weeks before the conference - Professor Haus succumbed to a heart attack after arriving home in Lexington, Massachusetts, from his regular, 15-mile commute by bicycle from MIT. He was 77. Throughout his lengthy and illustrious career, Professor Haus had repeatedly and very successfully addressed problems of fluctuations and noise, with special focus on the fundamental issues that arise in quantum optics. To honour Professor Haus' legacy to our technical community, this special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is dedicated to his memory. Professor Haus was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the former Yugoslavia, on 8 August 1925. After attending the Technische Hochschule, Graz, and the Technische Hochschule, Wien, in Austria, he received his Bachelor of Science degree from Union College in Schenectady, New York in 1949. In 1951, he graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, and came to MIT, where he earned his Doctorate of Science and joined the faculty in 1954. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958, to Professor in 1962, and to Elihu Thomson Professor in 1973. In 1986, he was conferred the honour of Institute Professor. Professor Haus had a lifelong fascination with noise. While still an undergraduate at Union College, he became aware of Norbert Wiener's theories of statistical phenomena - the new mathematics needed to understand and quantify the random fluctuations we refer to as noise. So it was that noise theory formed the core of Professor Haus' research during the 1950s: noise in electron beams, noise in microwave amplifiers, and noise in amplifier cascades. Two of

  19. Reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of semiconductor surfaces with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fliegauf, Rolf; Kolbe, Michael; Müller, Matthias; Weser, Jan; Ulm, Gerhard

    2007-10-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a well-established method to monitor lowest level contamination on semiconductor surfaces. Even light elements on a wafer surface can be excited effectively when using high-flux synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray range. To meet current industrial requirements in nondestructive semiconductor analysis, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates dedicated instrumentation for analyzing light element contamination on wafer pieces as well as on 200- and 300-mm silicon wafer surfaces. This instrumentation is also suited for grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis and conventional energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried and surface nanolayered structures, respectively. The most prominent features are a high-vacuum load-lock combined with an equipment front end module and a UHV irradiation chamber with an electrostatic chuck mounted on an eight-axis manipulator. Here, the entire surface of a 200- or a 300-mm wafer can be scanned by monochromatized radiation provided by the plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation in the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This beamline provides high spectral purity and high photon flux in the range of 0.078-1.86 keV. In addition, absolutely calibrated photodiodes and Si(Li) detectors are used to monitor the exciting radiant power respectively the fluorescence radiation. Furthermore, the footprint of the excitation radiation at the wafer surface is well-known due to beam profile recordings by a CCD during special operation conditions at BESSY II that allow for drastically reduced electron beam currents. Thus, all the requirements of completely reference-free quantitation of TXRF analysis are fulfilled and are to be presented in the present work. The perspectives to arrange for reference-free quantitation using X-ray tube-based, table-top TXRF analysis are also addressed. PMID:17880182

  20. Can near-peer medical students effectively teach a new curriculum in physical examination?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Students in German medical schools frequently complain that the subject ‘clinical examination’ is not taught in a satisfying manner due to time constraints and lack of personnel resources. While the effectiveness and efficiency of practice-oriented teaching in small groups using near-peer teaching has been shown, it is rarely used in German medical schools. We investigated whether adding a new near-peer teaching course developed with student input plus patient examination under supervision in small groups improves basic clinical examination skills in third year medical students compared to a traditional clinical examination course alone. Methods Third year medical students registered for the mandatory curricular clinical examination course at the medical faculty of the Technische Universität München were invited to participate in a randomised trial with blinded outcome assessment. Students were randomised to the control group participating in the established curricular physical examination course or to the intervention group, which received additional near-peer teaching for the same content. The learning success was verified by a voluntary objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Results A total of 84 students were randomised and 53 (63%) participated in the final OSCE. Students in the control group scored a median of 57% (25th percentile 47%, 75th percentile 61%) of the maximum possible total points of the OSCE compared to 77% (73%, 80%; p < 0.001) for students in the intervention group. Only two students in the intervention group received a lower score than the best student in the control group. Conclusion Adding a near-peer teaching course to the routine course significantly improved the clinical examination skills of medical students in an efficient manner in the context of a resource-constrained setting. PMID:24325639

  1. Bilateral Intercomparison of Spectral Directional Emissivity Measurement Between CENAM and PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Monte, C.

    2014-07-01

    Both Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM, Mexico) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) are national metrology institutes and provide the dissemination of the spectral directional emissivity as a calibration service. CENAM started this service recently. The emissivity measurement capability of PTB took part in two international comparisons performed in the past among other national institutes. The measurement instrumentation and techniques used for emissivity measurements at CENAM and PTB are both based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometers. Both setups are based on the principle of a spectral comparison of the radiances of the sample and blackbody radiator. In detail, the setups differ: CENAM has the capability of measuring the directional spectral emissivity normal to the sample surface, while PTB measures the directional spectral emissivity at angles of observation ranging from to , and provides the hemispherical spectral and total emissivity of samples as well. For this comparison, it was agreed to compare the value of the directional spectral emissivity normal to the sample surface obtained by CENAM with the one determined at an angle of by PTB. Four samples of different spectral directional emissivities were measured by the two institutes. For the samples, four copper disks with a diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 5 mm were used. Three of them were coated with Comex 1402470 (white), 1402471 (aluminum), and 1402474 (black) paints, respectively, and the other one with Nextel 811-21 paint. Measurements were obtained for each sample at a temperature of about C, and in the spectral range from to ( to ). The description of the experimental setups used and the comparison results are presented in this paper. It was found that the results obtained at CENAM and at PTB agree well within the declared standard uncertainties.

  2. A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Wolff, Helmut; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument, the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z-piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyne interferometers in the x, y, and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper, further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore, an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm (p-v). Versatile scanning functions, for example, radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions, have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring, for instance, the step height, lateral pitch, line width, nanoroughness, and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures. Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated, showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument.

  3. An LAPW Study of d - Plutonium and the (001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. K.

    2005-03-01

    The electronic structure properties of bulk fcc δ-Plutonium and the quantum size effects in the surface energies and the work functions of the (001) ultra thin films (UTF) up to 7 layers have been investigated with periodic density functional theory calculations within the full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave approach.^1 Several levels of theory, namely NSP-NSO, NSP-SO, SP-NSO, and SP-SO, have been examined and our calculated equilibrium atomic volume of 178.3 a.u.^3 and bulk modulus of 24.9 GPa at the fully relativistic level of theory are in good agreement with experimental results. The energy difference brought by spin-orbit coupling, about 7-8 eV, is dominant, but the energy difference brought by spin-polarization, from a few tenths to 2 eV, has a stronger dependence on the atomic volume. Density of states show that 5f electrons are more itinerant when the volume of δ-plutonium is compressed and they are more localized when the volume is expanded. The surface energy converges rapidly and the semi-infinite surface energy is predicted to be 0.692eV. Quantum size effects for the work function is not pronounced for (001) surface. ^*Work supported by the Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER15409) and the Welch Foundation (Grant No. Y-1525). ^1 P. Blaha, K. Schwarz, G. K. H. Madsen, D. Kvasnicka and J. Luitz, WIEN2k (Technische Universitat Wien, Austria, 2001)

  4. [Laser-based radiometric calibration].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-gang; Zheng, Yu-quan

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly higher demands are put forward to spectral radiometric calibration accuracy and the development of new tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration technology is promoted, along with the development of studies of terrestrial remote sensing, aeronautical and astronautical remote sensing, plasma physics, quantitative spectroscopy, etc. Internationally a number of national metrology scientific research institutes have built tunable laser based spectral radiometric calibration facilities in succession, which are traceable to cryogenic radiometers and have low uncertainties for spectral responsivity calibration and characterization of detectors and remote sensing instruments in the UK, the USA, Germany, etc. Among them, the facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCCUS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA and the Tunable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany have more representatives. Compared with lamp-monochromator systems, laser based spectral radiometric calibrations have many advantages, such as narrow spectral bandwidth, high wavelength accuracy, low calibration uncertainty and so on for radiometric calibration applications. In this paper, the development of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration and structures and performances of laser-based radiometric calibration facilities represented by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, NIST and PTB are presented, technical advantages of laser-based spectral radiometric calibration are analyzed, and applications of this technology are further discussed. Laser-based spectral radiometric calibration facilities can be widely used in important system-level radiometric calibration measurements with high accuracy, including radiance temperature, radiance and irradiance calibrations for space remote sensing instruments, and promote the

  5. Accurate Determination of the TOA Solar Spectral NIR Irradiance Using a Primary Standard Source and the Bouguer-Langley Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Decuyper, W.; Gillotay, D.; Yu, H.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Cuevas, E.; Redondas, A.; Hernandéz, Y.; Weber, M.

    2014-07-01

    We describe an instrument dedicated to measuring the top of atmosphere (TOA) solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the near-infrared (NIR) between 600 nm and 2300 nm at a resolution of 10 nm. Ground-based measurements are performed through atmospheric NIR windows and the TOA SSI values are extrapolated using the Bouguer-Langley technique. The interest in this spectral range arises because it plays a main role in the Earth's radiative budget and also because it is employed to validate models used in solar physics. Moreover, some differences were observed between recent ground-based and space-based instruments that take measurements in the NIR and the reference SOLSPEC(ATLAS3) spectrum. In the 1.6 μm region, the deviations vary from 6 % to 10 %. Our measuring system named IRSPERAD has been designed by Bentham (UK) and has been radiometrically characterized and absolutely calibrated against a blackbody at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany), respectively. A four-month measurement campaign was carried out at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Canary Islands, 2367 m a.s.l.). A set of top-quality solar measurements was processed to obtain the TOA SSI in the NIR windows. We obtained an average standard uncertainty of 1 % for 0.8 μm< λ<2.3 μm. At 1.6 μm, corresponding to the minimum opacity of the solar photosphere, we obtained an irradiance of 234.31±1.29 mWm-2 nm-1. Between 1.6 μm and 2.3 μm, our measurements show a disagreement varying from 6 % to 8 % relative to ATLAS3, which is not explained by the declared standard uncertainties of the two experiments.

  6. Werner Ernst Reichardt Ph.D: founder of modern computational visual neurophysiology and anti-Nazi resistance fighter.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J T

    1999-01-01

    Werner Ernst Reichardt was born on January 30, 1924 in Berlin and at age 19 was drafted into the Luftwaffe and assigned to an electronic signals section laboratory. He became an active member of a resistance group and supplied radios for the movement in Germany. He emerged from the ashes of the Second World War and dedicated his scientific life to the development of the newborn specialty of biological physics. Following graduation from the Technische Hochschule Charlottenburg, he did a fellowship at CalTech under Max Delbrück. On returning to Germany he joined the Max Planck Institut and later became Director of the Max Planck Institut für Biologische Kybernetik in Tübingen, West Germany. Reichardt was one of the founders of the quantitative study of visually controlled orientation in animals. His work is very nearly unique in its close dialectic between elegant non-linear mathematical theory and quantitative experimental test of their predictions. During the 1950s Reichardt and his collaborators jointly developed an autocorrelation model (i.e. the firing rate of the involved visual neurones is closely correlated with the features of the pattern stimulating them) of how moving patterns are perceived by motion detectors in the visual system of the fly. This was the first mathematical description of a biological abstraction process. His findings apply to vertebrate vision, including motion detection and figure-ground description in human vision. His Max Planck Institute became a world renowned center for the computational approach to information processing by the nervous system. At his retirement party from the Institute he founded, Reichardt died on the evening of September 11th, 1992. PMID:11108122

  7. Final report on the EURAMET.PR-K1.a-2009 comparison of spectral irradiance 250 nm—2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Teresa; Servantes, William; Woolliams, Emma; Sperfeld, Peter; Simionescu, Mihai; Blattner, Peter; Källberg, Stefan; Khlevnoy, Boris; Dekker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the results of the EURAMET.PR-K1.a-2009 comparison of spectral irradiance over the wavelength range 250 nm—2500 nm. Seven laboratories took part, including the pilot. In general the results are consistent, with a few exceptions as explained in the report. The EURAMET.PR-K1.a key comparison detailed in this report was carried out to establish the degrees of equivalence for the participating European laboratories with respect to the Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) of the CCPR-K1.a key comparison. The EURAMET.PR-K1.a key comparison was piloted by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), who also acted as pilot for the CCPR-K1.a key comparison; a further linkage to the KCRV of the CCPR-K1.a key comparison was provided through the participation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in both comparisons. The other participants were: National Institute of Metrology of Romania (INM-RO), Federal Office of Metrology (METAS), VSL Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL), SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) and All Russian Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI). Measurements were made by each laboratory at 44 designated wavelengths, or a subset of these wavelengths. The link laboratories made measurements at all 44 wavelengths. For the purposes of analysis each wavelength has been treated independently, as for the CCPR K1.a comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. 'BioQuaRT' project: design of a novel in situ protocol for the simultaneous visualisation of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei after irradiation at microbeam facilities.

    PubMed

    Patrono, C; Monteiro Gil, O; Giesen, U; Langner, F; Pinto, M; Rabus, H; Testa, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the 'BioQuaRT' (Biologically weighted Quantities in RadioTherapy) project is to develop measurement techniques for characterising charged particle track structure on different length scales, and to correlate at the cellular level the track structure properties with the biological effects of radiation. This multi-scale approach will allow characterisation of the radiation qualities used in radiotherapy and the related biological effects. Charged-particle microbeam facilities were chosen as the platforms for all radiobiology experiments in the 'BioQuaRT' project, because they allow targeting single cells (or compartments of a cell) with a predefined number of ionising particles and correlating the cell-by-cell induced damage with type and energy of the radiation and with the number of ions per cell. Within this project, a novel in situ protocol was developed for the analysis of the misrepaired and/or unrepaired chromosome damage induced by charged-particle irradiations at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) ion microbeam facility. Among the cytogenetic biomarkers to detect and estimate radiation-induced DNA damage in radiobiology, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were chosen. The characteristics of the PTB irradiation system required the design of a special in situ assay: specific irradiation dishes with a base made from a biofoil 25-µm thick and only 3000-4000 cells seeded and irradiated per dish. This method was developed on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, one of the most commonly used cell lines in radiobiology in vitro experiments. The present protocol allows the simultaneous scoring of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei on the same irradiated dish. Thanks to its versatility, this method could also be extended to other radiobiological applications besides the single-ion microbeam irradiations. PMID:25877532

  9. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    SciTech Connect

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Kettler, J.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-19

    The Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA). The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  10. Seasonal variations of decay rate measurement data and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Measurement data of long-lived radionuclides, for example, (85)Kr, (90)Sr, (108m)Ag, (133)Ba, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (226)Ra, and particularly the relative residuals of fitted raw data from current measurements of ionization chambers for half-life determination show small periodic seasonal variations with amplitudes of about 0.15%. The interpretation of these fluctuations is a matter of controversy whether the observed effect is produced by some interaction with the radionuclides themselves or is an artifact of the measuring chain. At the origin of such a discussion there is the exponential decay law of radioactive substances used for data fitting, one of the fundamentals of nuclear physics. Some groups of physicists use statistical methods and analyze correlations with various parameters of the measurement data and, for example, the Earth-Sun distance, as a basis of interpretation. In this article, data measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and published earlier are the subject of a correlation analysis using the corresponding time series of data with varying measurement conditions. An overview of these measurement conditions producing instrument instabilities is given and causality relations are discussed. The resulting correlation coefficients for various series of the same radionuclide using similar measurement conditions are in the order of 0.7, which indicates a high correlation, and for series of the same radionuclide using different measurement conditions and changes of the measuring chain of the order of -0.2 or even lower, which indicates an anti-correlation. These results provide strong arguments that the observed seasonal variations are caused by the measuring chain and, in particular, by the type of measuring electronics used. PMID:27258217

  11. OnlineTED.com − a novel web-based audience response system for higher education. A pilot study to evaluate user acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Kühbeck, Felizian; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: Audience response (AR) systems are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education. However, high costs and complexity of conventional AR systems often limit their use. Here we present a novel AR system that is platform independent and does not require hardware clickers or additional software to be installed. Methods and results: “OnlineTED” was developed at Technische Universität München (TUM) based on Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) with a My Structured Query Language (MySQL)-database as server- and Javascript as client-side programming languages. “OnlineTED” enables lecturers to create and manage question sets online and start polls in-class via a web-browser. Students can participate in the polls with any internet-enabled device (smartphones, tablet-PCs or laptops). A paper-based survey was conducted with undergraduate medical students and lecturers at TUM to compare "OnlineTED" with conventional AR systems using clickers. "OnlineTED" received above-average evaluation results by both students and lecturers at TUM and was seen on par or superior to conventional AR systems. The survey results indicated that up to 80% of students at TUM own an internet-enabled device (smartphone or tablet-PC) for participation in web-based AR technologies. Summary and Conclusion: “OnlineTED” is a novel web-based and platform-independent AR system for higher education that was well received by students and lecturers. As a non-commercial alternative to conventional AR systems it may foster interactive teaching in undergraduate education, in particular with large audiences. PMID:24575156

  12. Final report on APMP.M.P-S4: Results of the bilateral supplementary comparison on pressure measurements in the range (60 to 350) kPa of gauge pressure in gas media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priruenrom, T.; Sabuga, W.; Konczak, T.

    2013-01-01

    The bilateral supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S4 on pressure measurements in the range (60 to 350) kPa of gauge pressure in gas media was organized by National Institute of Metrology of Thailand, NIMT, as the pilot laboratory, comparing with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt of Germany, PTB. The objective of this comparison is to check equivalence of gas pressure standards between NIMT and PTB. The period of measurement covered November to December 2012. NIMT provided a transfer standard, which was a WC-WC piston-cylinder assembly (PCA) with a nominal effective area of 10 cm2 manufactured by Fluke Corporation, DHI. The measurements were performed at pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350) kPa. The NIMT laboratory standard used was a pressure balance with a PCA of 10 cm2 manufactured by DHI and identified by serial number 0693. The PTB laboratory standard used was a pressure balance with a PCA of 10 cm2 manufactured by Desgranges et Huot (DH) and identified by serial number 288. The results of this comparison show that the relative difference of the effective area values obtained by NIMT and PTB is not larger than 4.3 ppm, which corresponds to En = 0.26. Therefore, it confirms that the gas pressure standards maintained by the two institutes, NIMT and PTB, in the pressure range (60 to 350) kPa in gauge mode are equivalent under their uncertainties claimed. The result of this comparison is essential to support the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) of NIMT in this pressure range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the APMP, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of traceable atomic force microscope pitch measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Chernoff, Donald A.; Wang, Shihua; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Tan, Siew Leng; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Fu, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Advanced Surface Microscopy (ASM), and the National Metrology Centre (NMC) of the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore have completed a three-way interlaboratory comparison of traceable pitch measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The specimen being used for this comparison is provided by ASM and consists of SiO2 lines having a 70 nm pitch patterned on a silicon substrate. NIST has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. One component of this effort is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM). The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser - a recommended wavelength for realization of the SI (Système International d'Unités, or International System of Units) meter. NIST used the C-AFM to participate in this comparison. ASM used a commercially available AFM with an open-loop scanner, calibrated by a 144 nm pitch transfer standard. In a prior collaboration with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, ASM's transfer standard was calibrated using PTB's traceable optical diffractometry instrument. Thus, ASM's measurements are also traceable to the SI meter. NMC/A*STAR used a large scanning range metrological atomic force microscope (LRM-AFM). The LRM-AFM integrates an AFM scanning head into a nano-stage equipped with three built-in He-Ne laser interferometers so that its measurement related to the motion on all three axes is directly traceable to the SI meter. The measurements for this interlaboratory comparison have been completed and the results are in agreement within their expanded uncertainties and at the level of a few parts in 104.

  14. A new high-aperture 193 nm microscope for the traceable dimensional characterization of micro- and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, G.; Pilarski, F.; Bergmann, D.; Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new deep UV transmission microscope for traceable micro- and nanometrology is currently being set up at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The new microscope is especially designed to enable linewidth measurements of micro- and nanostructures with an unsurpassed absolute measurement uncertainty of down to 10 nm (95% confidence interval). The optical resolution is about 100 nm. The main field of this tool will be critical dimension (CD) metrology of photomasks used in optical lithography. In particular, this system offers the possibility of 'at-wavelength' metrology for the currently applied 193 nm lithography technology. The high lateral resolution will be attained by means of 193 nm excimer laser radiation for illumination in conjunction with a high-aperture objective (NA = 0.9). The illumination and imaging system will provide various imaging modalities, ranging from ordinary brightfield to specially structured illumination schemes. Traceability to the SI unit 'meter' will be accomplished by means of laser interferometry. The mechanical set-up is characterized by an ultra-stable bridge construction on a granite base and has been designed with special emphasis on realizing a positioning stability in the nanometer range. The instrument is being set up in the Clean Room Centre of the PTB and will be ready for operation in mid 2009. Simulation calculations, based on a rigorous optical modeling of the expected microscope images, are presented. These simulations are made for the important application of measuring Cr structures on quartz photomasks. Based on these simulations and on available data of the uncertainties of various experimental parameters—including instrument and sample parameters—expected uncertainty budgets for the measurement of the width of Cr lines on quartz substrates are estimated.

  15. Comparison of nanodosimetric parameters of track structure calculated by the Monte Carlo codes Geant4-DNA and PTra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarakis, P.; Bug, M. U.; Gargioni, E.; Guatelli, S.; Rabus, H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2012-03-01

    The concept of nanodosimetry is based on the assumption that initial damage to cells is related to the number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) directly produced by single particles within, or in the close vicinity of, short segments of DNA. The ionization cluster-size distribution and other nanodosimetric quantities, however, are not directly measurable in biological targets and our current knowledge is mostly based on numerical simulations of particle tracks in water, calculating track structure parameters for nanometric target volumes. The assessment of nanodosimetric quantities derived from particle-track calculations using different Monte Carlo codes plays, therefore, an important role for a more accurate evaluation of the initial damage to cells and, as a consequence, of the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. The aim of this work is to assess the differences in the calculated nanodosimetric quantities obtained with Geant4-DNA as compared to those of the ad hoc particle-track Monte Carlo code ‘PTra’ developed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The comparison of the two codes was made for incident electrons of energy in the range between 50 eV and 10 keV, for protons of energy between 300 keV and 10 MeV, and for alpha particles of energy between 1 and 10 MeV as these were the energy ranges available in both codes at the time this investigation was carried out. Good agreement was found for nanodosimetric characteristics of track structure calculated in the high-energy range of each particle type. For lower energies, significant differences were observed, most notably in the estimates of the biological effectiveness. The largest relative differences obtained were over 50%; however, generally the order of magnitude was between 10% and 20%.

  16. Comparison of nanodosimetric parameters of track structure calculated by the Monte Carlo codes Geant4-DNA and PTra.

    PubMed

    Lazarakis, P; Bug, M U; Gargioni, E; Guatelli, S; Rabus, H; Rosenfeld, A B

    2012-03-01

    The concept of nanodosimetry is based on the assumption that initial damage to cells is related to the number of ionizations (the ionization cluster size) directly produced by single particles within, or in the close vicinity of, short segments of DNA. The ionization cluster-size distribution and other nanodosimetric quantities, however, are not directly measurable in biological targets and our current knowledge is mostly based on numerical simulations of particle tracks in water, calculating track structure parameters for nanometric target volumes. The assessment of nanodosimetric quantities derived from particle-track calculations using different Monte Carlo codes plays, therefore, an important role for a more accurate evaluation of the initial damage to cells and, as a consequence, of the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation. The aim of this work is to assess the differences in the calculated nanodosimetric quantities obtained with Geant4-DNA as compared to those of the ad hoc particle-track Monte Carlo code 'PTra' developed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The comparison of the two codes was made for incident electrons of energy in the range between 50 eV and 10 keV, for protons of energy between 300 keV and 10 MeV, and for alpha particles of energy between 1 and 10 MeV as these were the energy ranges available in both codes at the time this investigation was carried out. Good agreement was found for nanodosimetric characteristics of track structure calculated in the high-energy range of each particle type. For lower energies, significant differences were observed, most notably in the estimates of the biological effectiveness. The largest relative differences obtained were over 50%; however, generally the order of magnitude was between 10% and 20%. PMID:22330641

  17. Quantitative comparison between PGNAA measurements and MCNP calculations in view of the characterization of radioactive wastes in Germany and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhofer, E.; Havenith, A.; Carasco, C.; Payan, E.; Kettler, J.; Ma, J. L.; Perot, B.

    2013-04-01

    The Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ), together with the Aachen University Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA Cadarache) are involved in a cooperation aiming at characterizing toxic and reactive elements in radioactive waste packages by means of Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) [1]. The French and German waste management agencies have indeed defined acceptability limits concerning these elements in view of their projected geological repositories. A first measurement campaign was performed in the new Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility called MEDINA, at FZJ, to assess the capture gamma-ray signatures of some elements of interest in large samples up to waste drums with a volume of 200 liter. MEDINA is the acronym for Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation. This paper presents MCNP calculations of the MEDINA facility and quantitative comparison between measurement and simulation. Passive gamma-ray spectra acquired with a high purity germanium detector and calibration sources are used to qualify the numerical model of the crystal. Active PGNAA spectra of a sodium chloride sample measured with MEDINA then allow for qualifying the global numerical model of the measurement cell. Chlorine indeed constitutes a usual reference with reliable capture gamma-ray production data. The goal is to characterize the entire simulation protocol (geometrical model, nuclear data, and postprocessing tools) which will be used for current measurement interpretation, extrapolation of the performances to other types of waste packages or other applications, as well as for the study of future PGNAA facilities.

  18. Status of the nanometer comparator at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluegge, Jens; Koening, Rainer G.

    2001-10-01

    Due to increasing demands on the photolithography of integrated circuits and the progress of interferometric linear encoders, length measurement systems with a reproducibility under 3 nm are used in industry today, whereas the connection to the unit of length exhibits an uncertainty of about 25 nm. To resolve this problem a new one dimensional length comparator, the nanometer comparator, was developed in a cooperation between the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the Dr. Johannes Heidenhain GmbH and Werth Me#technik GmbH. The nanometer comparator will be able to perform one dimensional calibrations of photo masks, line-graduation scales, incremental linear encoders and laser interferometers in one axis up to a maximum length of 610 mm. To ensure the highest level of measurement performance, the interferometer is completely located in vacuum using metal bellows, whilst the calibration objects can be mounted under atmospheric conditions. The interferometer set-up compensates the dilatation and the bending of the granite base and minimizes the measurement circle of the comparator. This will minimize the influence of thermal and mechanical distortions. The interferometer design can be used with a heterodyne or a homodyne signal detection electronics. Due to their high power dissipation, the laser is arranged far apart from the comparator and light is fed to the interferometers by means of glass fibers. The light source is a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser frequency stabilized by an iodine absorption line. Different measuring systems for the structure localization can be attached to an universal sensor carrier on a solid bridge above the measuring carriage. Incremental reading heads and two photoelectric microscopes are now available for this purpose.

  19. The in-flight blackbody calibration system for the GLORIA interferometer on board an airborne research platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olschewski, F.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gutschwager, B.; Hollandt, J.; Kleinert, A.; Monte, C.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Rolf, C.; Steffens, P.; Koppmann, R.

    2013-06-01

    traceable to the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany.

  20. The in-flight blackbody calibration system for the GLORIA interferometer on board an airborne research platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olschewski, F.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gutschwager, B.; Hollandt, J.; Kleinert, A.; Monte, C.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Rolf, C.; Steffens, P.; Koppmann, R.

    2013-11-01

    traceable to the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the national metrology institute of Germany.

  1. Concentrations of iodine isotopes ((129)I and (127)I) and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Riebe, B; Walther, C; Wershofen, H; Schlosser, C; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A

    2016-04-01

    New data about (129)I, (127)I concentrations and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from the trace survey station of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Northern Germany, are presented and discussed in this paper. The investigated samples were collected on a weekly basis during the years 2011 to 2013. Iodine was extracted from aerosol filters using a strong basic solution and was separated from the matrix elements with chloroform and was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for (129)I and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for (127)I. The concentrations of (127)I and (129)I in aerosol filters ranged from 0.31 to 3.71 ng m(-3) and from 0.06 to 0.75 fg m(-3), respectively. The results of (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios were in the order 10(-8) to 10(-7). The (129)I originated directly from gaseous emissions and indirectly from liquid emissions (via sea spray) from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague. In comparison with the results of (131)I after the Fukushima accident, no contribution of (129)I from this accident was detectable in Central Europe due to the high background originating from the (129)I releases of the European reprocessing plants. (129)I atmospheric activity concentrations were compared with those of an anthropogenic radionuclide ((85)Kr). We did not find any correlation between (129)I and (85)Kr, both having nuclear reprocessing plant as the main source. PMID:26867099

  2. Depth profile characterization of ultra shallow junction implants.

    PubMed

    Hönicke, Philipp; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Kolbe, Michael; Giubertoni, Damiano; van den Berg, Jaap; Pepponi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    A need for analysis techniques, complementary to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), for depth profiling dopants in silicon for ultra shallow junction (USJ) applications in CMOS technologies has recently emerged following the difficulties SIMS is facing there. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis in the soft X-ray range is a high-potential tool for this purpose. It provides excellent conditions for the excitation of the B-K and the As-L(iii,ii) shells. The X-ray standing wave (XSW) field associated with GIXRF on flat samples is used here as a tunable sensor to obtain information about the implantation profile because the in-depth changes of the XSW intensity are dependent on the angle of incidence. This technique is very sensitive to near-surface layers and is therefore well suited for the analysis of USJ distributions. Si wafers implanted with either arsenic or boron at different fluences and implantation energies were used to compare SIMS with synchrotron radiation-induced GIXRF analysis. GIXRF measurements were carried out at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II using monochromatized undulator radiation of well-known radiant power and spectral purity. The use of an absolutely calibrated energy-dispersive detector for the acquisition of the B-Kalpha and As-Lalpha fluorescence radiation enabled the absolute determination of the total retained dose. The concentration profile was obtained by ab initio calculation and comparison with the angular measurements of the X-ray fluorescence. PMID:19941133

  3. Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe through the Development of a Transportable Unit (QASUME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, J.; Qasume Members

    2003-04-01

    QASUME is a European Commission funded project that aims to develop and test a transportable spectrometer system for providing quality assurance to solar ultraviolet (UV) spectroradiometric measurements in Europe. The spectrometer system essentially consists of a temperature stabilised Bentham DM-150 spectroradiometer, a shaped teflon diffuser input optic optimised for global irradiance measurements and a portable calibrator with a set of 100 W lamps. The irradiance scale is traceable to the primary standard of the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig, Germany through a set of 1000 W quartz halogen lamps held at the JRC. During the first year of operation, the system was assembled and characterised and validated against a selected number of reference spectroradiometers from different monitoring sites in Europe. In May 2002 a two week campaign held at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy compared solar UV measurements from the transportable unit to the six spectroradiometers and established a reference for all subsequent intercomparisons. In the following five months (June to October) the travelling unit visited in turn the home sites of all participating laboratories to check the consistency of the travelling unit and its stability during travel. The overall results from the six site visits are the following: Innsbruck (A), -2/+2% (intercomparison/home site); RIVM (NL), +5/+6%; UMIST (GB), +3/+26%; FMI (FI), +5/+4%; UHAN (D), -5/-5%; LAP (GR), +5/+3%. These values can be partly explained by the differences in irradiance standards used by the participating laboratories. We estimate that these results have an uncertainty range of ±6% based on the observed diurnal variations between the instruments. We conclude that presently, the travelling unit is able to provide quality assurance with an uncertainty of ±5% and an absolute irradiance scale traceable to six independent solar UV monitoring laboratories in Europe.

  4. A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Gaoliang; Wolff, Helmut; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-04-15

    A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument, the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z-piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyne interferometers in the x, y, and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper, further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore, an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm (p-v). Versatile scanning functions, for example, radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions, have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring, for instance, the step height, lateral pitch, line width, nanoroughness, and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures. Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated, showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument.

  5. A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Dai, Gaoliang; Wolff, Helmut; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument, the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z-piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyne interferometers in the x, y, and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper, further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore, an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm (p-v). Versatile scanning functions, for example, radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions, have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring, for instance, the step height, lateral pitch, line width, nanoroughness, and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures. Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated, showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument. PMID:19405661

  6. Multiple Fixed-Point Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edler, F.; Ederer, P.

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the construction and investigation of multiple fixed-point cells usable for the calibration of thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 C. These fixed-point cells made of pure graphite are characterized by a simple construction as well as by a flexible application. The cylindrical basic mount is equipped with a central hole for the insertion of a thermocouple, and with eight drill holes containing exchangeable cartridges which surround the central bore axially symmetrically. The cartridges are filled with different metal-carbon (Me-C) eutectics: cobalt-carbon (Co-C), nickel-carbon (Ni-C), palladium-carbon (Pd-C), and rhodium-carbon (Rh-C). The melting temperatures of the different Me-C eutectics of the cartridges were compared to the melting temperatures of commonly used Me-C eutectic fixed-point cells of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by using a Pt/Pd thermocouple (Co-C, Ni-C) and Type B thermocouples (Pd-C, Rh-C). The uncertainties () of the emfs measured at the inflection points of the melting curves are in the order of a few V which correspond to temperature equivalents between 0.3 K and 0.6 K. Furthermore, the difference between the melting temperatures of the Co-C and Ni-C cartridges was found to be 4.2 K by using simultaneously two sets of four cartridges filled with the two materials and placed alternately in the eight outer holes of one basic mount.

  7. Evidence for a Solar Influence on Gamma Radiation from Radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Steinitz, G.; Fischbach, E.; Javorsek, D.; Jenkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon confined to an airtight vessel at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between January 28 2007 and May 10 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of strong periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year-1 and 12.5 year-1. We consider it significant that these same oscillations have previously been detected in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and at the Physiklisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. We have suggested that these oscillations are due to some form of solar radiation (possibly neutrinos) that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. Time-frequency analysis also yields quite different results from daytime and nighttime data. These procedures have also been applied to data collected from subsurface geological sites in Israel, Tenerife, and Italy, which have a variety of geological and geophysical scenarios, different elevations, and depths below the surface ranging from several meters to 1000 meters. In view of these results, and in view of the fact that there is at present no clear understanding of the behavior of radon in its natural environment, there would appear to be a need for multi-disciplinary research. Investigations that clarify the nature and mechanisms of solar influences may help clarify the nature and mechanisms of geological influences.

  8. Relationships between atmospheric circulation indices and rainfall in Northern Algeria and comparison of observed and RCM-generated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taibi, S.; Meddi, M.; Mahé, G.; Assani, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work aims, as a first step, to analyze rainfall variability in Northern Algeria, in particular extreme events, during the period from 1940 to 2010. Analysis of annual rainfall shows that stations in the northwest record a significant decrease in rainfall since the 1970s. Frequencies of rainy days for each percentile (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) and each rainfall interval class (1-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-50, and ≥50 mm) do not show a significant change in the evolution of daily rainfall. The Tenes station is the only one to show a significant decrease in the frequency of rainy days up to the 75th percentile and for the 10-20-mm interval class. There is no significant change in the temporal evolution of extreme events in the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. The relationships between rainfall variability and general atmospheric circulation indices for interannual and extreme event variability are moderately influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Mediterranean Oscillation. Significant correlations are observed between the Southern Oscillation Index and annual rainfall in the northwestern part of the study area, which is likely linked with the decrease in rainfall in this region. Seasonal rainfall in Northern Algeria is affected by the Mediterranean Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation in the west. The ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) are assessed using the bias method to test their ability to reproduce rainfall variability at different time scales. The Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM), Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), and Forschungszentrum Geesthacht (GKSS) models yield the least biased results.

  9. Utilization of coincidence criteria in absolute length measurements by optical interferometry in vacuum and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.

    2015-08-01

    Traceability of length measurements to the international system of units (SI) can be realized by using optical interferometry making use of well-known frequencies of monochromatic light sources mentioned in the Mise en Pratique for the realization of the metre. At some national metrology institutes, such as Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany, the absolute length of prismatic bodies (e.g. gauge blocks) is realized by so-called gauge-block interference comparators. At PTB, a number of such imaging phase-stepping interference comparators exist, including specialized vacuum interference comparators, each equipped with three highly stabilized laser light sources. The length of a material measure is expressed as a multiple of each wavelength. The large number of integer interference orders can be extracted by the method of exact fractions in which the coincidence of the lengths resulting from the different wavelengths is utilized as a criterion. The unambiguous extraction of the integer interference orders is an essential prerequisite for correct length measurements. This paper critically discusses coincidence criteria and their validity for three modes of absolute length measurements: 1) measurements under vacuum in which the wavelengths can be identified with the vacuum wavelengths, 2) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained from environmental parameters using an empirical equation, and 3) measurements under air in which the air refractive index is obtained interferometrically by utilizing a vacuum cell placed along the measurement pathway. For case 3), which corresponds to PTB’s Kösters-Comparator for long gauge blocks, the unambiguous determination of integer interference orders related to the air refractive index could be improved by about a factor of ten when an ‘overall dispersion value,’ suggested in this paper, is used as coincidence criterion.

  10. Specialised teams or personal continuity across inpatient and outpatient mental healthcare? Study protocol for a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Domenico; Bird, Victoria Jane; McCrone, Paul; Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo; Pfennig, Andrea; Bauer, Michael; Ruggeri, Mirella; Lasalvia, Antonio; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Welbel, Marta; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mental healthcare organisation can either pursue specialisation, that is, distinct clinicians and teams for inpatient and outpatient care or personal continuity of care, that is, the same primary clinician for a patient across the two settings. Little systematic research has compared these approaches. Existing studies subject have serious methodological shortcomings. Yet, costly reorganisations of services have been carried out in different European countries, inconsistently aiming to achieve specialisation or personal continuity of care. More reliable evidence is required on whether specialisation or continuity of care is more effective and cost-effective, and whether this varies for different patient groups and contexts. Design and methods In a natural experiment, we aim to recruit at least 6000 patients consecutively admitted to inpatient psychiatric care in Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the UK. In each country, care approaches supporting specialisation and personal continuity coexist. Patients will be followed up at 1 year to compare outcomes, costs and experiences. Inclusion criteria are: 18 years of age or older; clinical diagnosis of psychosis, affective disorder or anxiety/somatisation disorder; sufficient command of the language of the host country; absence of cognitive deterioration and/or organic brain disorders; and capacity to provide informed consent. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained in all countries: (1) England: NRES Committee North East—Newcastle & North Tyneside (ref: 14/NE/1017); (2) Belgium: Comité d'Ethique hospitalo-facultaire des Cliniques St-Luc; (3) Germany: Ethical Board, Technische Universität Dresden; (4) Italy: Comitati Etici per la sperimentazione clinica (CESC) delle provincie di Verona, Rovigo, Vicenza, Treviso, Padova; (5) Poland: Komisja Bioetyczna przy Instytucie Psychiatrii i Neurologii w Warszawie. We will disseminate the findings through scientific publications and a study

  11. Determination of line profiles on nano-structured surfaces using EUV and x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Wernecke, Jan; Haase, Anton; Probst, Jürgen; Schoengen, Max; Krumrey, Michael; Scholze, Frank; Pomplun, Jan; Burger, Sven

    2014-09-01

    Non-imaging techniques like X-ray scattering are supposed to play an important role in the further development of CD metrology for the semiconductor industry. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) provides directly assessable information on structure roughness and long-range periodic perturbations. The disadvantage of the method is the large footprint of the X-ray beam on the sample due to the extremely shallow angle of incidence. This can be overcome by using wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, EUV small angle scattering (EUVSAS), which allows for much steeper angles of incidence but preserves the range of momentum transfer that can be observed. Generally, the potentially higher momentum transfer at shorter wavelengths is counterbalanced by decreasing diffraction efficiency. This results in a practical limit of about 10 nm pitch for which it is possible to observe at least the +/- 1st diffraction orders with reasonable efficiency. At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the available photon energy range extends from 50 eV up to 10 keV at two adjacent beamlines. PTB commissioned a new versatile Ellipso-Scatterometer which is capable of measuring 6" square substrates in a clean, hydrocarbon-free environment with full flexibility regarding the direction of the incident light polarization. The reconstruction of line profiles using a geometrical model with six free parameters, based on a finite element method (FEM) Maxwell solver and a particle swarm based least-squares optimization yielded consistent results for EUV-SAS and GISAXS. In this contribution we present scatterometry data for line gratings and consistent reconstruction results of the line geometry for EUV-SAS and GISAXS.

  12. Final report on the key comparison CCPR-K2.c-2003: Spectral responsivity in the range of 200 nm to 400 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The CCPR K2.c key comparison of spectral power responsivity of detectors in the ultraviolet spectral range from 200 nm to 400 nm was carried out in the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by 14 participating national metrology institutes. The key comparison was piloted by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The comparison was carried out through the calibration of sets of transfer detectors. Three types of transfer detectors based on two types of photodiodes have been used to handle probable changes of the spectral responsivity of the detectors in the ultraviolet spectral range. The results of the key comparison in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 240 nm are based on single-element windowless PtSi/n-Si Schottky photodiodes while in the range from 250 nm to 400 nm the results are based on single-element photodiode detectors and three-element reflection trap detectors, both made up of windowless Si pn junction photodiodes. The comparison was organized in a star pattern and conducted in three groups of participants. The report describes the measurements made by the pilot laboratory, summarizes the reports submitted by the participants and describes the data analysis carried out to determine the key comparison reference values and degrees of equivalence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Bubble reconstruction method for wire-mesh sensors measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukin, Roman V.

    2016-08-01

    A new algorithm is presented for post-processing of void fraction measurements with wire-mesh sensors, particularly for identifying and reconstructing bubble surfaces in a two-phase flow. This method is a combination of the bubble recognition algorithm presented in Prasser (Nuclear Eng Des 237(15):1608, 2007) and Poisson surface reconstruction algorithm developed in Kazhdan et al. (Poisson surface reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the fourth eurographics symposium on geometry processing 7, 2006). To verify the proposed technique, a comparison was done of the reconstructed individual bubble shapes with those obtained numerically in Sato and Ničeno (Int J Numer Methods Fluids 70(4):441, 2012). Using the difference between reconstructed and referenced bubble shapes, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm was estimated. At the next step, the algorithm was applied to void fraction measurements performed in Ylönen (High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle (Diss., Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule ETH Zürich, Nr. 20961, 2013) by means of wire-mesh sensors in a rod bundle geometry. The reconstructed bubble shape yields bubble surface area and volume, hence its Sauter diameter d_{32} as well. Sauter diameter is proved to be more suitable for bubbles size characterization compared to volumetric diameter d_{30}, proved capable to capture the bi-disperse bubble size distribution in the flow. The effect of a spacer grid was studied as well: For the given spacer grid and considered flow rates, bubble size frequency distribution is obtained almost at the same position for all cases, approximately at d_{32} = 3.5 mm. This finding can be related to the specific geometry of the spacer grid or the air injection device applied in the experiments, or even to more fundamental properties of the bubble breakup and coagulation processes. In addition, an application of the new algorithm for reconstruction of a large air-water interface in a tube bundle is

  14. Experimental determination of gravitomagnetic effects by means of ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    A new experiment aimed to the detection of the gravito-magnetic Lense-Thirring effect at the surface of the Earth will be presented; the name of the experiment is GINGER. The proposed technique is based on the behavior of light beams in ring-lasers, also known as gyrolasers. A three-dimensional array of ringlasers will be attached to a rigid "monument"; each ring will have a different orientation in space. Within the space-time of a rotating mass the propagation of light is indeed anisotropic; part of the anisotropy is purely kinematical (Sagnac effect), part is due to the interaction between the gravito-electric field of the source and the kinematical motion of the observer (de Sitter effect), finally there is a contribution from the gravito-magnetic component of the Earth (gravito-magnetic frame dragging or Lense-Thirring effect). In a ring-laser a light beam traveling counterclockwise is superposed to another beam traveling in the opposite sense. The anisotropy in the propagation leads to standing waves with slightly different frequencies in the two directions; the final effect is a beat frequency proportional to the size of the instrument and its effective rotation rate in space, including the gravito-magnetic drag. Current laser techniques and the performances of the best existing ring-lasers allow at the moment a sensitivity within one order of magnitude of the required accuracy for the detection of gravito-magnetic effects, so that the objective of GINGER is in the range of feasibility and aims to improve the sensitivity of a couple of orders of magnitude with respect to present. The experiment will be underground, probably in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy, and is based on an international collaboration among four Italian groups, the Technische Universität München and the University of Canterbury in Christchurch (NZ).

  15. Absolute silicon molar mass measurements, the Avogadro constant and the redefinition of the kilogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.; Turk, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    The results of an absolute silicon molar mass determination of two independent sets of samples from the highly 28Si-enriched crystal (AVO28) produced by the International Avogadro Coordination are presented and compared with results published by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany), the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ, Japan). This study developed and describes significant changes to the published protocols for producing absolute silicon isotope ratios. The measurements were made at very high resolution on a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to dissolve and dilute all samples. The various changes in the measurement protocol and the use of TMAH resulted in significant improvements to the silicon isotope ratio precision over previously reported measurements and in particular, the robustness of the 29Si/30Si ratio of the AVO28 material. These new results suggest that a limited isotopic variability is present in the AVO28 material. The presence of this variability is at present singular and therefore its significance is not well understood. Fortunately, its magnitude is small enough so as to have an insignificant effect on the overall uncertainty of an Avogadro constant derived from the average molar mass of all four AVO28 silicon samples measured in this study. The NIST results confirm the AVO28 molar mass values reported by PTB and NMIJ and confirm that the virtual element-isotope dilution mass spectrometry approach to calibrated absolute isotope ratio measurements developed by PTB is capable of very high precision as well as accuracy. The Avogadro constant NA and derived Planck constant h based on these measurements, together with their associated standard uncertainties, are 6.02214076(19) × 1023 mol-1 and 6.62607017(21) × 10-34 Js, respectively.

  16. Calibration of a Bonner sphere extension (BSE) for high-energy neutron spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Howell, R.M.; Burgett, E.A.; Wiegel, B.; Hertel, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent work, we constructed modular multisphere system which expands upon the design of an existing, commercially available Bonner sphere system by adding concentric shells of copper, tungsten, or lead. Our modular multisphere system is referred to as the Bonner Sphere Extension (BSE). The BSE was tested in a high energy neutron beam (thermal to 800 MeV) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and provided improvement in the measurement of the neutron spectrum in the energy regions above 20 MeV when compared to the standard BSS (Burgett, 2008 and Howell et al., 2009). However, when the initial test of the system was carried-out at LANSCE, the BSE had not yet been calibrated. Therefore the objective of the present study was to perform calibration measurements. These calibration measurements were carried out using monoenergetic neutron ISO 8529-1 reference beams at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany. The following monoenergetic reference beams were used for these experiments: 14.8 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 565 keV, and 144 keV. Response functions for the BSE were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Code, eXtended (MCNPX). The percent difference between the measured and calculated responses was calculated for each sphere and energy. The difference between measured and calculated responses for individual spheres ranged between 7.9 % and 16.7 % and the arithmetic mean for all spheres was (10.9 ± 1.8) %. These sphere specific correction factors will be applied for all future measurements carried-out with the BSE. PMID:22888283

  17. Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

    2011-09-01

    A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x-y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments.

  18. Autocollimators for Deflectometry: Current Status and Future Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas; Krause, Michael; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-06-15

    The proliferation of autocollimator-based surface profilometers at synchrotron metrology laboratories worldwide necessitates a detailed understanding of the parameters influencing their angular response. A comprehensive overview of the current status of autocollimator characterization and calibration at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and its implications for their optimal application are provided, as well as information on future challenges and expected progress. Autocollimator-based deflectometric profilometers are in operation at the PTB, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, the BESSY II, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Germany, and the Diamond Light Source Ltd (DLS), UK. A continuous topic of research at the PTB is to investigate the factors influencing the angular response of autocollimators and to provide the most accurate calibration of the instruments to aid users in their application and manufacturers in their improvements [1-3]. At the PTB, the calibration of autocollimators is realized by a direct comparison of the devices with the primary angle reference standard [1]. With highly stable autocollimators, calibrations with standard measurement uncertainties of u = 0.003 arcsec (15 nrad) have been achieved [2,3]. The influence of a number of parameters on the angle measurement with autocollimators have been investigated in detail, such as the reflectivity of the surface under test (SUT), the diameter and shape of the aperture stop, its position both along the autocollimator's optical axis and perpendicular to it [2], as well as the optical path length of the autocollimator beam [3]. Extensive information on these errors and their minimization will be presented.

  19. CALIBRATION OF X-RAY IMAGING DEVICES FOR ACCURATE INTENSITY MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M J; Charest, M R; Ross, P W; Lee, J J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Teruya, A T

    2012-02-16

    National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.

  20. Dynamic registration of an optical see-through HMD into a wide field-of-view rotorcraft flight simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertler, Franz; Hajek, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the challenge of helicopter flight in degraded visual environments, current research considers headmounted displays with 3D-conformal (scene-linked) visual cues as most promising display technology. For pilot-in-theloop simulations with HMDs, a highly accurate registration of the augmented visual system is required. In rotorcraft flight simulators the outside visual cues are usually provided by a dome projection system, since a wide field-of-view (e.g. horizontally > 200° and vertically > 80°) is required, which can hardly be achieved with collimated viewing systems. But optical see-through HMDs do mostly not have an equivalent focus compared to the distance of the pilot's eye-point position to the curved screen, which is also dependant on head motion. Hence, a dynamic vergence correction has been implemented to avoid binocular disparity. In addition, the parallax error induced by even small translational head motions is corrected with a head-tracking system to be adjusted onto the projected screen. For this purpose, two options are presented. The correction can be achieved by rendering the view with yaw and pitch offset angles dependent on the deviating head position from the design eye-point of the spherical projection system. Furthermore, it can be solved by implementing a dynamic eye-point in the multi-channel projection system for the outside visual cues. Both options have been investigated for the integration of a binocular HMD into the Rotorcraft Simulation Environment (ROSIE) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Pros and cons of both possibilities with regard on integration issues and usability in flight simulations will be discussed.

  1. SUMIRAD: a near real-time MMW radiometer imaging system for threat detection in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Rudolf, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The armed forces are nowadays confronted with a wide variety of types of operations. During peace keeping missions in an urban environment, where small units patrol the streets with armored vehicles, the team leader is confronted with a very complex threat situation. The asymmetric imminence arises in most cases from so called IEDs (Improvised explosive devices) which are found in a multitude of versions. In order to avoid risky situations the early detection of possible threats due to advanced reconnaissance and surveillance sensors will provide an important advantage. A European consortium consisting of GMV S.A. (Spain, "Grupo Tecnològico e Industrial"), RMA (Belgium, "Royal Military Academy"), TUM ("Technische Universität München") and DLR (Germany, "Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt") developed in the SUM project (Surveillance in an urban environment using mobile sensors) a low-cost multi-sensor vehicle based surveillance system in order to enhance situational awareness for moving security and military patrols as well as for static checkpoints. The project was funded by the European Defense Agency (EDA) in the Joint Investment Program on Force Protection (JIP-FP). The SUMIRAD (SUM imaging radiometer) system, developed by DLR, is a fast radiometric imager and part of the SUM sensor suite. This paper will present the principle of the SUMIRAD system and its key components. Furthermore the image processing will be described. Imaging results from several measurement campaigns will be presented. The overall SUM system and the individual subsystems are presented in more detail in separate papers during this conference.

  2. Rudolf Mössbauer in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvius, G. M.; Kienle, P.

    Mössbauer and one of the authors (PK) started in 1949 studying physics at the Technische Hochschule München (THM), which was still under reconstruction from the war damages. It offered two directions for studying physics: "Physik A" and "Physik B." I took courses in "Physik A," which meant Technical Physics; Mössbauer studied "Physik B," which was General Physics. Actually, the lectures of both directions were not too different up to the forth semester, followed by a "pre-diploma" examination, which Mössbauer passed in 1952. I as "Physik A" student had besides the various physics, chemistry, and mathematics courses, in addition lectures in Technical Electricity, Technical Mechanics, Technical Thermodynamics, and later Measurement Engineering offered by very famous professors, such as W.O. Schumann, L. Föppl, W. Nußelt, and H. Piloty. Our physics teachers were G. Joos (Experimental physics), G. Hettner (Theoretical Physics), and W. Meissner (Technical Physics); in mathematics, we enjoyed lectures by J. Lense and R. Sauer, and interesting chemistry lectures by W. Hieber. Thus we received a high-class classical education, but quantum mechanics was not a compulsory subject. Mössbauer complained about this deficiency when he realized that the effect he found was a quantum mechanical phenomenon. Quantum mechanics was offered as an optional subject by Prof. Fick and Prof. Haug. Mössbauer just missed to take these advanced lectures, although he was highly talented in mathematics and received even a tutoring position in the mathematics institute of Prof. R. Sauer, while I worked in engineering projects and had extensive industrial training.

  3. Broad-band efficiency calibration of ITER bolometer prototypes using Pt absorbers on SiN membranes.

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Willmeroth, M; Zhang, D; Gottwald, A; Krumrey, M; Scholze, F

    2013-12-01

    The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels. PMID:24387428

  4. 1550 nm VCSEL-based 0.48 Tb/s transmission scheme employing PAM-4 and WDM for active optical cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markou, S.; Dris, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Avramopoulos, H.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, Dimitris M.

    2014-05-01

    With this paper we investigate the system-level performance of VCSELs, parameterized with true experimental LI-VI data and dynamic characteristics of state-of-the-art VCSELs with 3 dB modulation bandwidth at 15 GHz, and propose their deployment as high-speed multi-level optical sources in a mid-range active optical cable (AOC) model for performance prediction of a rack-to-rack interconnection. The AOC architecture combines a 6-element 1550 nm VCSEL array, each directly modulated with 40 Gbaud PAM-4 data, with a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), in order to implement a parallel link with aggregate traffic of 0.48 Tb/s. Transmission reach exceeded 300 m by deploying a two-tap feed forward equalizer filter at the electrical VCSEL driver. Bit Error Rate (BER) measurements and analysis were carried out in MATLAB. In practice, the thermal behavior and basic operational characteristics of the VCSELs fabricated by the Technische Universität München (TUM) were used to study the thermal performance and operational range of the complete AOC model. The VCSELs were initially operated at 20°C and BER measurements showed power penalties of 1.7 dB and 3.5 dB at 300 m and 500 m of transmission distance respectively for all 6 data channels. System performance was also investigated for elevated operating temperatures of the VCSEL module and the additional system degradation and BER penalties introduced by operation at 50°C and 65°C were also investigated for transmission distances of 300 m and 500 m.

  5. Frequency Comparison of [Formula: see text] Ion Optical Clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP.

    PubMed

    Leute, J; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Christian; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2016-07-01

    We used precise point positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled [Formula: see text] ions operated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), U.K. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. At both institutes, an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator which is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the (2)S1/2(F=0)-(2)D3/2(F=2) electric quadrupole transition in [Formula: see text] via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS-link measurements, we extrapolate the fractional frequency difference over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS-link instability. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS-link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using the extrapolation scheme with the smallest combined uncertainty, we find a fractional frequency difference [Formula: see text] of -1.3×10(-15) with a combined uncertainty of 1.2×10(-15) for a total measurement time of 67 h. This result is consistent with an agreement of the frequencies realized by both optical clocks and with recent absolute frequency measurements against caesium fountain clocks within the corresponding uncertainties. PMID:26863657

  6. Calibration measurements on the DEPFET Detectors for the MIXS instrument on BepiColombo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, P.; Aschauer, F.; Aschauer, S.; Bähr, A.; Bergbauer, B.; Hilchenbach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Laubis, C.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Scholze, F.; Soltau, H.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; Treis, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (MIXS) will be launched on board of the 5th ESA cornerstone mission BepiColombo. The two channel instrument MIXS is dedicated to the exploration of the elemental composition of the mercurian surface by imaging x-ray spectroscopy of the elemental fluorescence lines. One of the main scientific goals of MIXS is to provide spatially resolved elemental abundance maps of key rock-forming elements. MIXS will be the successor of the XRS instrument, which is currently orbiting Mercury on board of NASAs satellite MESSENGER. MIXS will provide unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution due to its innovative detector and optics concepts. The MIXS target energy band ranges from 0.5 to 7 keV and allows to directly access the Fe-L line at 0.7 keV, which was not accessible to previous missions. In addition, the high spectroscopic resolution of FWHM ≤ 200 eV at the reference energy of 1 keV after one year in Mercury orbit, allows to separate the x-ray fluorescence emission lines of important elements like Mg (1.25 keV) and Al (1.49 keV) without the need for any filter. The detectors for the energy and spatially resolved detection of x-rays for both channels are identical DEPFET (DEpleted P-channel FET) active pixel detectors. We report on the calibration of the MIXS flight and flight spare detector modules at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) beamlines at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Each detector was calibrated at least at 10 discrete energies in the energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV. The excellent spectroscopic performance of all three detector modules was verified.

  7. Chemical management and control strategies: experiences from the GTZ pilot project on chemical safety in Indonesian small and medium-sized enterprises.

    PubMed

    Tischer, M; Scholaen, S

    2003-10-01

    In 1998 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) launched the Convention Project on Chemical Safety in developing countries. The project aims to support developing countries in the implementation of the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, create human resources and institutional capacities and to demonstrate via pilot measures how chemical safety in the partner countries can be improved and sustainably implemented in line with international standards. With this objective the development of a Chemical Management Guide (CM Guide) for small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries has been initiated. The guide describes a step-by-step approach which is based on identifying 'hot-spots' as a first step, and making a chemical inventory as a second step. The third step is the continuous improvement of chemical management. In total, there are six tools that aim to support the chemical management process: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; using material safety data sheets (MSDSs); risk phrases for hazardous substances; safety phrases for hazardous substances; symbols used for labelling hazardous substances. In the course of the test-implementation of the CM Guide in Indonesia, it was found that MSDSs were not available in most of the smaller companies. In contrast, medium-sized and larger companies do have more MSDSs available. It was also found that the way to engage the minds of company owners and managers is with economic arguments related to the loss, waste and expiry of materials, and quality standards expected from importing countries. PMID:14530183

  8. Development of a system for neutron radiography and tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlbauer, Martin J.; Calzada, Elbio; Schillinger, Burkhard

    2005-04-01

    Neutron radiography and tomography are getting more and more popular. Since they use the white thermal neutron spectrum, they are especially feasible even at small neutron sources, where the flux is too low for efficient scattering experiments requiring monochromatization of the beam. High-end tomography systems require the investment of several ten thousand Euros, with the costs often hindering the initiative for a new tomography setup. Based on the experiences gathered at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, we developed a cheaper system based on standard components that cannot compete with the sensitivity of a high-grade system, but is perfectly capable of doing neutron radiography and tomography. The system is meant as a startup construction kit for initiating tomography programs even at small neutron sources. The system is built from scratch, enabling the user to gain an understanding for the influence of each component on the image results. With the experience thus gained, he should be able to design his next and more advanced system by himself. To keep the whole system simple and cheap (the price should reach only a few percent of a high-end system), standard parts are used whenever possible, and all components are designed in such a way that they can be built without special equipment. Public domain and freeware software is used for data processing. Such a system is being built at FRM2 in Garching within the scope of a master thesis. After completion, a website will be installed with descriptions, diagrams and software for building and operating the system. Both hardware and software are discussed.

  9. Providing radiometric traceability for the calibration home base of DLR by PTB

    SciTech Connect

    Taubert, D. R.; Hollandt, J.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Hoepe, A.; Hauer, K.-O.; Gege, P.; Schwarzmaier, T.; Lenhard, K.; Baumgartner, A.

    2013-05-10

    A dedicated calibration technique was applied for the calibration of the spectral radiance transfer standard (RASTA) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), consisting of two independent but complementing calibration procedures to provide redundancy and smallest possible calibration uncertainties. Procedure I included two calibration steps: In a first step the optical radiation source of RASTA, an FEL lamp, was calibrated in terms of its spectral irradiance E{sub {lambda}}({lambda}) in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 2400 nm using the PTB Spectral Irradiance Calibration Equipment (SPICE), while in a second step the spectral radiance factor {beta}{sub 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign }({lambda}) of the RASTA reflection standard was calibrated in a 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign -viewing geometry in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 1700 nm at the robot-based gonioreflectometer facility of PTB. The achieved relative standard uncertainties (k= 1) range from 0.6 % to 3.2 % and 0.1 % to 0.6 % respectively. Procedure II was completely independent from procedure I and allowed to cover the entire spectral range of RASTA from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In the second procedure, the 0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign -viewing geometry spectral radiance L{sub {lambda},0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign }({lambda}) of RASTA was directly calibrated at the Spectral Radiance Comparator Facility (SRCF) of PTB. The relative uncertainties for this calibration procedure range from 0.8 % in the visible up to 7.5 % at 2500 nm (k= 1). In the overlapping spectral range of both calibration procedures the calculated spectral radiance L{sub {lambda},0 Degree-Sign :45 Degree-Sign ,calc}({lambda}) from procedure I is in good agreement with the direct measurement of procedure II, i.e. well within the combined expanded uncertainties (k= 2) of both procedures.

  10. The discovery of slowness--recent progress in DC-MEG research.

    PubMed

    Mackert, B M

    2004-01-01

    The non-invasive electrical recording of Direct Current (DC) phenomena in the frequency range below 0.1 Hz, e.g., occurring in metabolic injuries to brain cells in stroke or migraine (anoxic depolarization, peri-infarct depolarization, spreading depression), is technically restricted due to large drift artifacts caused by electrochemical instabilities at the electrode-skin interface. This limitation could be overcome by invasive approaches only. However, as early as 1969 first magnetic fields in this frequency range have been recorded over the human torso by oscillating the subject vertically in front of a magnetic field detector using a see-saw. By this technique the DC field is conversed to a higher frequency, where the external noise level is less. In the last decade, the modulation based DC-magnetoencephalography (DC-MEG) has been methodically refined, which allowed monitoring low-amplitude magnetic fields in this frequency domain arising not only from injured tissue, but also generated by functional cortical activation. Furthermore, the combination of DC-MEG and NearInfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) opens up a new avenue to study cortical neurovascular coupling, as vascular and neuronal activations could be analyzed simultaneously even without averaging in a single-trial mode. Recordings inside the novel magnetically shielded room (BMSR-2 of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin) exhibiting an extremely low background noise level in the DC frequency range, and alleviating the need of sensor-to-source modulation, allow to resolve additionally the short-term (subsecond) dynamics of neuronal DC-processes. PMID:16012603

  11. Dose measurements in pulsed radiation fields with commercially available measuring components.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Sabrina; Hupe, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    Dose measurements in pulsed radiation fields with dosemeters using the counting technique are known to be inappropriate. Therefore, there is a demand for a portable device able to measure the dose in pulsed radiation fields. As a detector, ionisation chambers seem to be a good alternative. In particular, using a secondary standard ionisation chamber in combination with a reliable charge-measuring system would be a good solution. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) uses secondary standard ionisation chambers in combination with PTB-made measuring electronics for dose measurements at its reference fields. However, for general use, this equipment is too complex. For measurements on-site, a mobile special electronic system [Hupe, O. and Ankerhold, U. Determination of ambient and personal dose equivalent for personnel and cargo security screening. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 121: (4), 429-437 (2006)] has been used successfully. Still, for general use, there is a need for a much simpler but a just as good solution. A measuring instrument with very good energy dependence for H*(10) is the secondary standard ionisation chamber HS01. An easy-to-use and commercially available electrometer for measuring the generated charges is the UNIDOS by PTW Freiburg. Depending on the expected dose values, the ionisation chamber used can be selected. In addition, measurements have been performed by using commercially available area dosemeters, e.g. the Mini SmartION 2120S by Thermo Scientific, using an ionisation chamber and the Szintomat 6134 A/H by Automess, using a scintillation detector. PMID:26056377

  12. Intercomparison of Nine National High-vacuum Standards under the Auspices of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messer, G.; Jitschin, W.; Rubet, L.; Calcatelli, A.; Redgrave, F. J.; Keprt, A.; Wei-nan, Fei; Sharma, J. K. N.; Dittmann, S.; Ono, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures has initiated world-wide intercomparisons of pressure standards. The intercomparison in the regime of very low pressures, i.e. 10-4 to 1 Pa, using Ar as the test gas, has now been completed with the participation of laboratories in nine countries (in alphabetical order): Czechoslovakia, Federal Republic of Germany, France, India, Italy, Japan, People's Republic of China, UK and United States of America. In addition, five of these laboratories made measurements using H2 as the test gas. Four spinning-rotor gauges were employed as transfer standards. The achieved transfer uncertainty between the pilot laboratory (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) and a participating laboratory lies between 0.16% and 0.30% (1σ) for Ar and has allowed an intercomparison at this level of accuracy. At all investigated pressures the standards in the various laboratories lie within an interval of +/-3% around the standard of the pilot laboratory. For a brief synopsis of the intercomparison results, the calibration data of each laboratory for one gas species are reduced to a single number, i.e., the average over the pressure range 10-3 to 1 Pa, although this procedure is somewhat arbitrary and obscures scatter and pressure-dependence of some calibration results. These averages deviate from their mean by not more than about 1%. Systematic deviations between some laboratories are clearly identifiable: however, for most of the laboratories it appears that these are compatible with the estimated uncertainties of the pressure generation and the transfer uncertainty.

  13. Capillary blood islet autoantibody screening for identifying pre-type 1 diabetes in the general population: design and initial results of the Fr1da study

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Jennifer; Haupt, Florian; Scholz, Marlon; Matzke, Claudia; Warncke, Katharina; Lange, Karin; Assfalg, Robin; Weininger, Katharina; Wittich, Susanne; Löbner, Stephanie; Beyerlein, Andreas; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; Lang, Martin; Laub, Otto; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Bonifacio, Ezio; Achenbach, Peter; Winkler, Christiane; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed at an early presymptomatic stage by the detection of islet autoantibodies. The Fr1da study aims to assess whether early staging of type 1 diabetes (1) is feasible at a population-based level, (2) prevents severe metabolic decompensation observed at the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes and (3) reduces psychological distress through preventive teaching and care. Methods and analysis Children aged 2–5 years in Bavaria, Germany, will be tested for the presence of multiple islet autoantibodies. Between February 2015 and December 2016, 100 000 children will be screened by primary care paediatricians. Islet autoantibodies are measured in capillary blood samples using a multiplex three-screen ELISA. Samples with ELISA results >97.5th centile are retested using reference radiobinding assays. A venous blood sample is also obtained to confirm the autoantibody status of children with at least two autoantibodies. Children with confirmed multiple islet autoantibodies are diagnosed with pre-type 1 diabetes. These children and their parents are invited to participate in an education and counselling programme at a local diabetes centre. Depression and anxiety, and burden of early diagnosis are also assessed. Results Of the 1027 Bavarian paediatricians, 39.3% are participating in the study. Overall, 26 760 children have been screened between February 2015 and November 2015. Capillary blood collection was sufficient in volume for islet autoantibody detection in 99.46% of the children. The remaining 0.54% had insufficient blood volume collected. Of the 26 760 capillary samples tested, 0.39% were positive for at least two islet autoantibodies. Discussion Staging for early type 1 diabetes within a public health setting appears to be feasible. The study may set new standards for the early diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and education. Ethics dissemination The study was approved by the ethics committee of Technische Universit

  14. Final report on regional comparison EURAMET.PR-K4: luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, Matthias; Maass, Robert; Sauter, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the EURAMET comparison for luminous flux carried out at 12 participating national metrology laboratories (NMIs). More than a decade ago, the CCPR initialised a key comparison for luminous flux denoted as CCPR K4. The reference value CCPR-KCRV for luminous flux is maintained since that time by the participants of that early CCPR comparison. Beside the pilot laboratory, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), two additional former participants acted as link laboratories for this EURAMET-Key-Comparison. The luminous flux CCPR-KCRV, maintained at the link laboratories and transferred by batches of incandescent lamps, was used to evaluate a reference value (EURAMET-RV) at the pilot laboratory as a weighted luminous flux average for this comparison. Finally, the realized or preserved luminous flux values of all other participants were compared with the EURAMET-RV in a star-type comparison at the pilot with batches of three to six lamps of various types. The DOEs of the values of the participants with respect to the reference value and mutually with all other luminous flux values are evaluated and published in the report together with the associated uncertainties. The deviations from the EURAMET-RV and hence from the CCPR-KCRV are within the declared expanded uncertainties for all participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Final report on regional comparison EURAMET.PR-K3.a: Luminous intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, A.; Sauter, G.; Lindner, D.; Eltmann, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the EURAMET comparison for luminous intensity carried out at 16 participating national metrology laboratories (NMIs). More than a decade ago, the CCPR initialised a key comparison for luminous intensity denoted as CCPR-K3.a. The reference value CCPR-KCRV for luminous intensity has been maintained since that time by the participants of that early CCPR comparison. Beside the pilot laboratory, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), two additional former participants acted as link laboratories for this EURAMET Key Comparison. The luminous intensity CCPR-KCRV, maintained at the link laboratories and transferred by batches of incandescent lamps, was used to evaluate a reference value (EURAMET-RV) at the pilot laboratory as a weighted luminous intensity average for this comparison. Finally, the realized or preserved luminous intensity values of all other participants were compared with the EURAMET-RV in a star-type comparison at the pilot with batches of three to eight lamps of various types. The DOEs of the values of the participants with respect to the reference value and mutually with all other luminous intensity values are evaluated and published in the report together with the associated uncertainties. The deviations from the EURAMET-RV and hence from the CCPR-KCRV are within the declared expanded uncertainties for all participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Broad-band efficiency calibration of ITER bolometer prototypes using Pt absorbers on SiN membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, H.; Willmeroth, M.; Zhang, D.; Gottwald, A.; Krumrey, M.; Scholze, F.

    2013-12-01

    The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels.

  17. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  18. Application of advanced shearing techniques to the calibration of autocollimators with small angle generators and investigation of error sources.

    PubMed

    Yandayan, T; Geckeler, R D; Aksulu, M; Akgoz, S A; Ozgur, B

    2016-05-01

    The application of advanced error-separating shearing techniques to the precise calibration of autocollimators with Small Angle Generators (SAGs) was carried out for the first time. The experimental realization was achieved using the High Precision Small Angle Generator (HPSAG) of TUBITAK UME under classical dimensional metrology laboratory environmental conditions. The standard uncertainty value of 5 mas (24.2 nrad) reached by classical calibration method was improved to the level of 1.38 mas (6.7 nrad). Shearing techniques, which offer a unique opportunity to separate the errors of devices without recourse to any external standard, were first adapted by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to the calibration of autocollimators with angle encoders. It has been demonstrated experimentally in a clean room environment using the primary angle standard of PTB (WMT 220). The application of the technique to a different type of angle measurement system extends the range of the shearing technique further and reveals other advantages. For example, the angular scales of the SAGs are based on linear measurement systems (e.g., capacitive nanosensors for the HPSAG). Therefore, SAGs show different systematic errors when compared to angle encoders. In addition to the error-separation of HPSAG and the autocollimator, detailed investigations on error sources were carried out. Apart from determination of the systematic errors of the capacitive sensor used in the HPSAG, it was also demonstrated that the shearing method enables the unique opportunity to characterize other error sources such as errors due to temperature drift in long term measurements. This proves that the shearing technique is a very powerful method for investigating angle measuring systems, for their improvement, and for specifying precautions to be taken during the measurements. PMID:27250375

  19. Complete identification of states in 208Pb below Ex=6.2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, A.; Jolos, R. V.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; von Brentano, P.

    2016-05-01

    The Q3D magnetic spectrograph at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Technische Universität München (Garching, Germany), was used to study the 208Pb(p ,p' ) , 206,207,208Pb (d,p), and 208Pb(d ,d' ) reactions. One hundred fifty-one states at Ex<6.20 MeV in 208Pb are identified and spin and parity assigned. Four states are newly identified and new spins and/or parities are assigned to 25 states. Tentative spin assignments are done to five states at 5.90

  20. The subjective experience of collaboration in interprofessional tutor teams: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Tobias; Hoffmann, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Center for Interprofessional Training in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, has offered courses covering interprofessional material since the winter semester 2014/15. The unusual feature of these courses is that they are co-taught by peer tutors from medicine and nursing. This study investigates the subjective experiences of these tutors during the collaborative preparation and teaching of these tutorials with the aim of identifying the effects of equal participation in the perceptions and assessments of the other professional group. Method: Semi-structured, guideline-based interviews were held with six randomly selected tutors. The interviews were analyzed using structuring content analysis. Results: The results show that collaborative work led to reflection, mostly by the university student tutors, on the attitudes held. However, the co-tutors from each professional group were perceived to different degrees as being representative of those in their profession. Asked to master a shared assignment in a non-clinical context, the members of the different professional groups met on equal footing, even if the medical students had already gathered more teaching experience and thus mostly assumed a mentoring role over the course of working on and realizing the teaching units. The nursing tutors were primarily focused on their role as tutor. Both professional groups emphasized that prior to the collaboration they had an insufficient or no idea about the theoretical knowledge or practical skills of the other professional group. Overall, the project was rated as beneficial, and interprofessional education was endorsed. Conclusion: In the discussion, recommendations based on the insights are made for joint tutor training of both professional groups. According to these recommendations, harmonizing the teaching abilities of all tutors is essential to ensure equality during cooperation. Ideally

  1. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response

    SciTech Connect

    Troussel, Ph.; Villette, B.; Oudot, G.; Tassin, V.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-15

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods.

  2. Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response.

    PubMed

    Troussel, Ph; Villette, B; Emprin, B; Oudot, G; Tassin, V; Bridou, F; Delmotte, F; Krumrey, M

    2014-01-01

    CEA implemented an absolutely calibrated broadband soft X-ray spectrometer called DMX on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in 1999 to measure radiant power and spectral distribution of the radiation of the Au plasma. The DMX spectrometer is composed of 20 channels covering the spectral range from 50 eV to 20 keV. The channels for energies below 1.5 keV combine a mirror and a filter with a coaxial photo-emissive detector. For the channels above 5 keV the photoemissive detector is replaced by a conductive detector. The intermediate energy channels (1.5 keV < photon energy < 5 keV) use only a filter and a coaxial detector. A further improvement of DMX consists in flat-response X-ray channels for a precise absolute measurement of the photon flux in the photon energy range from 0.1 keV to 6 keV. Such channels are equipped with a filter, a Multilayer Mirror (MLM), and a coaxial detector. We present as an example the development of channel for the gold M emission lines in the photon energy range from 2 keV to 4 keV which has been successfully used on the OMEGA laser facility. The results of the radiant power measurements with the new MLM channel and with the usual channel composed of a thin titanium filter and a coaxial detector (without mirror) are compared. All elements of the channel have been calibrated in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's National Metrology Institute, at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin using dedicated well established and validated methods. PMID:24517761

  3. FOREWORD: Conference on Advanced Metrology for Cancer Therapy 2011 Conference on Advanced Metrology for Cancer Therapy 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankerhold, Ulrike

    2012-10-01

    Although physical treatments play a central role in cancer therapy, SI-traceable metrology has only been established for some of them. Several forms of treatment currently used (particularly intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hadron therapy, high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) and brachytherapy) suffer from the limited metrological support, which restricts the success of these techniques. Recognizing this deficit, the European Union identified metrology for health as one of the first four Targeted Programmes in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) running from 2008 to 2011. This programme included two EMRP projects addressing metrology for cancer therapy: project T2.J06 dealing with brachytherapy project T2.J07 dealing with external beam cancer therapy using ionizing radiation and high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Primary measurement standards applicable to modern treatment conditions were developed under both projects, together with measurement techniques which are meant as a basis for future protocols for dosimetry, treatment planning and monitoring. In order to provide a platform for the presentation of current developments in clinical measurement techniques for cancer therapy, together with the achievements of both projects, an international Conference on Advanced Metrology for Cancer Therapy (CAMCT) was held from 29 November to 1 December 2011 at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The main sessions of the conference: Primary and secondary standards of absorbed dose to water for IMRT and brachytherapy, 3D dose distributions and treatment planning for IMRT and brachytherapy, Hadron therapy (protons and carbon ions), High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU), were geared to the main foci of the projects. Metrologists and medical physicists from countries all over the world attended the conference and made it into a forum for the exchange of information and expertise

  4. Goniochromatic and sparkle properties of effect pigmented samples in multidimensional configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpe, Andreas; Hauer, Kai-Olaf; Teichert, Sven; Hünerhoff, Dirk; Strothkämper, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The effects of goniochromatism and sparkle are gaining more and more interest for surface refinement applications driven by demanding requirements from such different branches as automotive, cosmetics, printing and packaging industry. The common background and intention in all of these implementations is improvement of the visual appearance of the related commercial products. Goniochromatic materials show strong angular-dependent reflection characteristics and hence a color impression depending on the effective spatial arrangement of illumination and observation relative to the surface of the artifact. Sparkle is a texture related effect giving a surface which is irradiated directionally, like direct sun light, a bright glittering effect, similar to twinkling stars at the night sky. The prototype for this new effect is the Xirallic® pigment of MERCK KGaA, Germany. The same pigment shows in diffuse irradiation, like on a cloudy day, a different visual effect called graininess (coarseness) which appears as a granular structure of the surface. Both effects were studied on especially manufactured samples of a dilution series in pigment concentration and a tonality series with carbon black. The experiments were carried out with the robot-based gonioreflectometer and integrating sphere facilities at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in multidimensional configurations of directional and diffuse irradiation. The research is part of the European Metrology Research Program (EMRP), which is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research & Development (R&D) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). More information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.

  5. Final Report on the Torque Key Comparison CCM.T-K2 Measurand Torque: 0 kN·m, 10 kN·m, 20 kN·m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röske, D.; Ogushi, K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the CIPM comparison CCM.T-K2 was to compare the measuring capabilities up to 20 kN m of deadweight torque standard machines with supported lever and reference-type torque standard machines in national metrology institutes. Five institutes participated, with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) acting as the pilot laboratory. Two very stable torque transducers with well-known properties were used as travelling standards. The circulation of these transducers started in October 2008 and ended in May 2010. According to the technical protocol, torque steps of 10 kN m and 20 kN m had to be measured both in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. Corrections had to be applied to the results reported by the participants taking into account the use of different amplifiers, the creep (due to different loading times of the machines) and the environmental conditions in the laboratories (temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air). For each of the two torque steps and both senses of direction of the torque vector, a key comparison reference value was calculated. One participant had a problem with the own machine and the measurement results could not be used for the calculation of the corresponding reference values. The agreement between the results of the other participants is very good. The smallest relative standard uncertainty of the machines stated by the participants is between 1 × 10-5 and 2.5 × 10-4. The results of the comparison support these uncertainty statements. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Neutron field measurements of the CRNA OB26 irradiator using a Bonner sphere spectrometer for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Mazrou, H; Allab, M

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with the Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS) measurements performed, to support the authors' Monte-Carlo calculations, to estimate accurately the main characteristics of the neutron field of the (241)Am-Be-based OB26 irradiator acquired for radiation protection purposes by the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers. The measurements were performed at a reference irradiation position selected at 150 cm from the geometrical centre of the neutron source. The spectrometric system in use is based on a central spherical (3)He thermal neutron proportional counter. The response matrix of the present spectrometer has been taken to be similar to the original Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Braunschweig, Germany) BSS's response matrix, with a five bins per decade energy group structure, as there is no significant difference in the BSS's physical characteristics. Thereafter, the authors' BSS measurements were used together with MCNP5 results to unfold the neutron spectrum by means of MAXED and GRAVEL computer codes from the U.M.G. 3.3 package, developed at PTB. Besides, sensitivity analysis has been performed to test the consistency of the unfolding procedure. It reveals that no significant discrepancy was observed in the total neutron fluence and total ambient dose values following the perturbation of some pertinent unfolding parameters except for the case where a 10 bins energy structure was assumed for the guess spectrum. In this latter case, a 5 % difference was observed in the ambient dose equivalent compared with the reference case. Finally, a comparative study performed between different counting systems together with MCNP5 and predictive formulas results shows that they were globally satisfactory, highlighting thereby the relevance of the unfolding procedure and the reliability of the obtained results. PMID:22345213

  7. The MICROSCOPE inertial sensor: qualification status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Francoise; Bodoville, Guillaume

    The payload of the MICROSCOPE space mission embarks two pairs of test-masses, made of Platinum Rhodium alloy and Titanium alloy, that are used to perform the test of the Uni-versality of free fall, i.e. of the Equivalence Principle (EP). These cylindrical test-masses are at the core of the inertial sensors used to perform the full drag-free and attitude control of the satellite. Based on electrostatic space accelerometers developed in ONERA, the payload has been designed with challenging technologies for the electronics and for the sensor core. Following a very specific development plan, the payload is currently in the qualification phase, by being integrated after a long period of challenging accurate production and metrology. The results obtained for the driving components of the expected performance will be addressed. In particular, the micrometric metrology of the instrument core, made in gold coated silica, will be presented: the specific ultra-sonic machining processes, optimized for this production, indeed exhibit a few micrometers accuracy. Similar accuracy is obtained for the geometry of the test-masses, produced and controlled in collaboration with the PTB, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. This accurate geometry and the specific selected shape is mandatory to balance the mass moment of inertia for gravity gradient rejection and to highly decouple the instru-ment measurement axes. The first results of the flight model electronics will be also presented demonstrating micro-volt low noise and weak thermal sensitivity in good agreement with the requirements. At last, the development status of the payload will be mentioned insisting on the coming milestones.

  8. Different survival outcomes after curative R0-resection for Eastern Asian and European gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Woo; Joo, Jungnam; Yoon, Hong Man; Eom, Bang Wool; Ryu, Keun Won; Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong Cherl; Schuhmacher, Christoph; Siewert, Joerg Ruediger; Reim, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several retrospective analyses on patients who underwent gastric cancer (GC) surgery revealed different survival outcomes between Eastern (Korean, Japanese) and Western (USA, Europe) countries due to potential ethnical and biological differences. This study investigates treatment outcomes between specialized institution for GC in Korea and Germany. The prospectively documented databases of the Gastric Cancer Center of the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCCK) and the Department of Surgery of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Germany were screened for patients who underwent primary surgical resection for GC between 2002 and 2008. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ2 testing, and 2 cohorts were matched using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Patients’ survival was estimated using Kaplan–Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used for comparison. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-five patients were included in the final analysis, 3542 from Korea and 253 from Germany. Baseline characteristics revealed statistically significant differences for age, tumor location, pT stage, grading, lymphatic vessel infiltration (LVI), comorbidities, number of dissected lymph nodes (LN), postoperative complications, lymph-node ratio stage, and application of adjuvant chemotherapy. After PSM, 171 patients in TUM were matched to NCCK patients, and baseline characteristics for both cohorts were well balanced. Patients in Korea had significantly longer survival than those in Germany both before and after PSM. When the analysis was performed for each UICC stage separately, same trend was found over all UICC stages before PSM. However, significant difference in survival was observed only for UICC I after PSM. This analysis demonstrates different survival outcomes after surgical treatment of GC on different continents in specialized centers after balancing of baseline characteristics by PSM. PMID:27428238

  9. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  10. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  11. The European Academia Network on Future Space Exploration Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, K.; Schulze, R.; Igenbergs, E.; Reimert, M.; Schmitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    research within the European context of space exploration. Both aspects are best supported by a co-operating partnership between ESA and technical universities as an element of the overall ESA-academia-industry triangle. Initially, the academia network was defined in support of the Aurora Space Exploration Programme (which will be presented in a separate paper) only. However, as experiences in this partnership for Aurora will be gathered, its terms may be enlarged in the future to also capture support to other space development and application programmes. Similar partnerships have been existing in the United States already for many years and can, with no doubt, be considered a success. The presentation outlines the different aspects and the status of this newly founded network, which is currently consisting of 20 European academic institutions and facilitated by the Astronautics Division of Technische Universität München.

  12. Optical Property Characterization of Far IR Materials Critical for CLARREO Mission Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanssen, L. M.; Wilthan, B.; Mekhontsev, S.; Monte, C.; Hollandt, J.; McKenna, P.; Szczesniak, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) and other climate science and remote sensing applications require accurate thermal and far infrared (IR) spectral radiance measurements, which are dependent on reference blackbody sources that have high and well-characterized spectral emissivity. The design and performance of blackbody sources are strongly affected by the spectral emittance of available coatings. Hence the emittance or reflectance of such coatings need to be accurately characterized. The measurement metrology for the reflectance of near-ambient targets in the thermal IR spectral range (2.5 to 15 microns) is well established and validated. The equivalent metrology for the far IR spectral range (15 to 50 microns and longer) is currently being established at National Measurement Institutes (NMIs), such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), but will take several years to become operational and validated. Other existing facilities, such as at Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), do not have well characterized uncertainty budgets and are not traceable to the SI, but may be useful to provide support of the R&D for CLARREO. The direct measurement of the spectral emittance can also be used to obtain or validate reflectance data, but until cryo-vacuum facilities become fully functional at an NMI, such measurements are possible only for targets at elevated temperatures (typically above 200 °C). This limitation prevents the characterization of several critically important coatings. This paper describes ongoing efforts to establish the uncertainty of reflectance measurements at the SOC calibration facility over the far IR spectral range. For this purpose, NIST and PTB emittance facilities are used to measure the spectral emittance of transfer standard targets at 200 °C at wavelengths from 10 to 100 microns. Subsequently, these samples are measured at the SOC facility

  13. PRESCILA: a new, lightweight neutron rem meter.

    PubMed

    Olsher, Richard H; Seagraves, David T; Eisele, Shawna L; Bjork, Christopher W; Martinez, William A; Romero, Leonard L; Mallett, Michael W; Duran, Michael A; Hurlbut, Charles R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional neutron rem meters currently in use are based on 1960's technology that relies on a large neutron moderator assembly surrounding a thermal detector to achieve a rem-like response function over a limited energy range. Such rem meters present an ergonomic challenge, being heavy and bulky, and have caused injuries during radiation protection surveys. Another defect of traditional rem meters is a poor high-energy response above 10 MeV, which makes them unsuitable for applications at high-energy accelerator facilities. Proton Recoil Scintillator-Los Alamos (PRESCILA) was developed as a low-weight (2 kg) alternative capable of extended energy response, high sensitivity, and moderate gamma rejection. An array of ZnS(Ag) based scintillators is located inside and around a Lucite light guide, which couples the scintillation light to a sideview bialkali photomultiplier tube. The use of both fast and thermal scintillators allows the energy response function to be optimized for a wide range of operational spectra. The light guide and the borated polyethylene frame provide moderation for the thermal scintillator element. The scintillators represent greatly improved versions of the Hornyak and Stedman designs from the 1950's, and were developed in collaboration with Eljen Technology. The inherent pulse height advantage of proton recoils over electron tracks in the phosphor grains eliminates the need for pulse shape discrimination and makes it possible to use the PRESCILA probe with standard pulse height discrimination provided by off-the-shelf health physics counters. PRESCILA prototype probes have been extensively tested at both Los Alamos and the German Bureau of Standards, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Test results are presented for energy response, directional dependence, linearity, sensitivity, and gamma rejection. Initial field tests have been conducted at Los Alamos and these results are also given. It is concluded that PRESCILA offers a viable

  14. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S8 in hydraulic gauge pressure from 100 MPa to 1000 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobata, Tokihiko; Ide, Kazunori; Kajikawa, Hiroaki; Sabuga, Wladimir; Scheppner, Steffen; Schultz, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the results of a supplementary comparison of hydraulic high-pressure standards at two national metrology institutes (NMIs) - National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST (NMIJ/AIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany - which was carried out during the period January 2007 to March 2007 within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) and the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) in order to determine their degrees of equivalence at pressures in the range 100 MPa to 1000 MPa for gauge mode. The pilot institute was NMIJ/AIST. NMIJ/AIST used a hydraulic pressure balance and a pressure multiplier, and PTB used a controlled-clearance pressure balance as their pressure standards. High-precision pressure transducers were used as a transfer standard. The sensing element of the transducers was a foil strain gauge. To ensure the reliability of the transfer standard, two pressure transducers were used on the transfer standard unit. At the beginning and the end of this comparison, the transfer standard was calibrated at the pilot institute. From the calibration results, the behaviour of the transfer standard during the comparison period was characterized and it was found that the capability of the transfer standard for the purpose of this supplementary comparison was sufficient. The degrees of equivalence of the national measurement standards were expressed in terms of deviations from the supplementary comparison reference values and from each other, considered in combination with associated uncertainties of these deviations. The hydraulic pressure standards in the range 100 MPa to 1000 MPa for gauge mode of the two participating NMIs were found to be equivalent within their claimed uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report

  15. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  16. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    SciTech Connect

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by

  17. Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N2+, N+, and N2++ nitrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, R.; Alcaraz, C.; Dutuit, O.; Nicolas, C.; Soldi-Lose, H.; Zabka, J.; Franceschi, P.

    Laboratory experiments for Titan's ionosphere : the chemistry of N+ , N+ , and N2+ nitrogen ions 2 2 R. Thissen (1), C. Alcaraz (1), O. Dutuit (1), C. Nicolas (2), H. Soldi-Lose (3), J. Zabka (4), P. Franceschi (5) (1) LCP, Bât. 350, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France, (2) Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, (3) Institut für Chemie, Fachgruppe Organische Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin, (4) J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, CZ 18223 Praha 8 - Kobylisy, Czech Republik, (5) Dept. of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (TN), Italy (christian.alcaraz@lcp.u-psud.fr) N2 is the major neutral componant of Titan's atmosphere, its ionisation by solar radiation and by magnetospheric electron impact is the most important production of ions in Titan's ionosphere. These primary processes not only lead to N+ molecular 2 monocations but also to N+ atomic ions and to N2+ molecular dications, which can 2 pertain some internal or translational excitation. This contribution will summarize our efforts to caracterize in gaz phase laboratory experiments the reactivity of the nitrogen ions with the most important neutral targets of the Titan's atmosphere [1-3]: • N+ + CH4 , C2 H2 , and C2 H6 2 • N+ (3 P, 1 D) + CH4 , and C2 H4 • N2+ + N2 , CH4 , and C2 H4 2 In this work, particular attention has been paid on the effect of internal and/or translational excitation of the primary nitrogen ions on the rate constant and branching ratio of these ion-molecule reactions. The results from these studies have been compared to the literature values when available and some significant differences have been found. These new values have been used as input data in 1D models of the Titan's ionosphere to show the effect on the final density profiles of the main ions [4] and to demonstrate the existence of a N2+2 dication

  18. Evaluating the impact of role-playing simulations on global competency in an online transnational engineering course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wold, Kari

    Successfully interacting with those from different cultures is essential to excel in any field, particularly when global, transnational collaborations in the workplace are increasingly common. However, many higher education students in engineering are not explicitly taught how to display the global competency skills desired by future employers. To display global competency skills means students must be able to visibly respect and recognize differences among those from different cultures. Global competency also means students must be able to show they can adjust their behaviors and integrate others' ideas when working with those with cultural backgrounds other than their own. While these skills are now deemed essential for future engineers, many institutions are struggling with determining which strategies and activities are universally effective to allow students to practice the global competency skills now crucial for success. Immersing engineering students in interactive role-playing simulations in transnational environments is one way institutions are encouraging students to illustrate and develop global competency skills. Role-playing simulations in transnational education provide environments where students adopt roles, interact with other students, and together explore and address realistic global problems. However, no studies have addressed whether or how role-playing simulations can help develop global competency in transnational engineering courses, students' perceptions regarding whether they change their abilities to display global competency in those environments, and their perspectives the effectiveness of using role-playing simulations for this purpose. To address this gap, this study assesses the impact of two subsequent role-playing simulations involving nuclear energy policy in a transnational course involving engineering students from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia, and from Technische Universitat Dortmund in Dortmund

  19. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    Armani Paolo (Università di Trento) Benhar Omar (INFN Roma) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonanno Luca (Università di Ferrara) Catara Francesco (Università di Catania) Cò Giampaolo (Università di Lecce) Colonna Maria (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN Catania) Colonna Nicola (INFN Bari) Conti Francesco (Università di Pavia) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Cristoforetti Marco (Technische Universität München, Germania) Cuofano Carmine (Università di Ferrara) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) Drago Alessandro (Università di Ferrara) Faccioli Pietro (Università di Trento) Farina Nicola (INFN Roma) Finelli Paolo (Università di Bologna) Fiorentini Giovanni (Università di Ferrara) Fortunato Lorenzo (Università di Padova) Gambacurta Danilo (Università di Catania) Gandolfi Stefano (Università di Trento) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (INFN Pisa) Giusti Carlotta (INFN Pavia) Illarionov Alexei (SISSA Trieste) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Leidemann Winfried (Università di Trento) Lenzi Silvia (Università di Padova) Lipparini Enrico (Università di Trento) Lissia Marcello (Università di Cagliari) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Maieron Chiara (Università di Lecce) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Millo Raffaele (Università di Trento) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pastore Alessandro (Univeristy of Jyväskylä, Finlandia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pisent Gualtiero (Università di Padova) Prete Gianfranco (INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) Quarati Piero (Politecnico di Torino) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Salmè Giovanni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Traini Marco (Università di Trento) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Vitturi Andrea (Universit

  20. Developments in glass micro pore optics for x-ray applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Collon, Maximilien; Bavdaz, Marcos; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Krumrey, Michael

    2006-06-01

    ESA is developing technologies for x-ray imaging to reduce the mass and volume of future missions. Applications of x-ray optics are foreseen in future planetary x-ray imagers, x-ray timing observatories and in observatories for high-energy astrophysics. With reference to planetary x-ray imagers the use of glass micro-pore material is being investigated. This technology allows the formation of a monolithic, glass structure that can be used to focus x-rays by glancing reflections off the pore walls. A technique to form x-ray focusing plates that contain thousands of square micro-pores has been developed with Photonis. The square pores are formed in a process that fuses blocks of extruded square fibres, which can then be sliced, etched and slumped to form the segment of an optic with a specific radius. A proposed imager would be created from 2 optics, slumped with different radii, and mounted to form an approximation of a Wolter I optic configuration. Reflection can be improved by coating the channel surfaces with a heavy element, such as nickel. Continuing developments have been made to enhance the manufacturing processes and improve the characteristics of the manufactured x-ray focusing plates, such as improved surface roughness and squareness of pore walls, improved pore alignment from fibre stacking through to optic segment slumping and development of pore wall coatings. In order to measure improvements x-ray measurements are performed by ESA and cosine Research BV, using the BESSY-II synchrotron facility four-crystal monochromator beamline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, on multifibres, sectors and slumped sectors. A probing beam is used to investigate a number of pores to determine x-ray transmission, focussing characteristics as they relate to the overall transmission, x-ray reflectivity of channel walls, radial alignment of fibres, slumping radius and fibre position in a fused block. SEM measurements and microscope inspection have also been used

  1. Evidence for a Thinned Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Azores Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutt, D. L.; Solomon, S. C.; Burkett, P. G.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the Coordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores (COSEA) - a cooperative project being carried out by the Centro de Geofisica da Universidade de Lisboa; the Universidade dos Acores; the Instituto de Meteorologia, Portugal; the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich; the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP); and the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism (DTM) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington - DTM has operated broadband portable seismic stations on five of the islands in the Azores archipelago for the past two years. One of the goals of COSEA is to understand the mantle structure beneath the Azores hotspot. Several other oceanic hotspots that have been the focus of seismic imaging experiments (Iceland, Hawaii, Galapagos, Society) have mantle transition zones resolvably thinner than the global average. Because the top and bottom of the transition zones are defined by discontinuities associated with phase transformations having positive and negative Clapeyron slopes, respectively, this thinning has been attributed to anomalously high temperatures, consistent with penetration of a plume of hot upwelling material from the lower mantle. We present a preliminary assessment of transition zone structure beneath the Azores Islands and Platform from the differential times of the converted phases P410s and P660s, determined from radial receiver functions. Using data from the DTM stations, as well as from the GSN station CMLA, we stack low-pass filtered receiver functions corrected for moveout. Stacking is an essential step, because wave-induced noise is substantial in this locale and affects the number of events that can be used. The converted phases can be identified in the stacked receiver functions, and the differential P660s - P410s time is 2-3 s less than predicted by the iasp91 global Earth model. The transition zone is therefore thinner than that in the average radial Earth by more than 20 km, a degree of thinning comparable to

  2. A comparison of moment magnitude estimates for the European-Mediterranean and Italian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, Paolo; Lolli, Barbara; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Boschi, Enzo

    2012-09-01

    With the goal of constructing a homogeneous data set of moment magnitudes (Mw) to be used for seismic hazard assessment, we compared Mw estimates from moment tensor catalogues available online. We found an apparent scaling disagreement between Mw estimates from the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the US Geological Survey and from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) project. We suspect that this is the effect of an underestimation of Mw > 7.0 (M0 > 4.0 × 1019 Nm) computed by NEIC owing to the limitations of their computational approach. We also found an apparent scaling disagreement between GCMT and two regional moment tensor catalogues provided by the 'Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich' (ETHZ) and by the European-Mediterranean Regional Centroid Moment Tensor (RCMT) project of the Italian 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia' (INGV). This is probably the effect of the overestimation of Mw < 5.5 (M0 < 2.2 × 1017 Nm), up to year 2002, and of Mw < 5.0 (M0 < 4.0 × 1016 Nm), since year 2003, owing to the physical limitations of the standard CMT inversion method used by GCMT for the earthquakes of relatively low magnitude. If the discrepant data are excluded from the comparisons, the scaling disagreements become insignificant in all cases. We observed instead small absolute offsets (≤0.1 units) for NEIC and ETHZ catalogues with respect to GCMT whereas there is an almost perfect correspondence between RCMT and GCMT. Finally, we found a clear underestimation of about 0.2 units of Mw magnitudes computed at the INGV using the time-domain moment tensor (TDMT) method with respect to those reported by GCMT and RCMT. According to our results, we suggest appropriate offset corrections to be applied to Mw estimates from NEIC, ETHZ and TDMT catalogues before merging their data with GCMT and RCMT catalogues. We suggest as well to discard the probably discrepant data from NEIC and GCMT if other Mw estimates from different sources are

  3. A Possible Role of Neutrinos in Stimulating Beta Decays and its Significance for Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.; Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2014-06-01

    We find evidence from measurements of Ag108, Ba133, Eu152, Eu154, Ra226 and Sr90 (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany), Rn222 (Geological Survey of Israel), Co60, Pu239, and Sr90 (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia), Cl36 and Si32 (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) and Mn54 (Purdue University, USA) that beta-decay rates tend to be variable, and that the Sun is responsible for some - perhaps all - of the variability. One variation is an annual oscillation with amplitude about 0.1% and maximum in January or February, presumably related to the annually varying Sun-Earth distance. We also find evidence for two rotational modulations, one with a measured (synodic) frequency of about 12.5 year-1 (an absolute, sidereal frequency of 13.5 year-1), due perhaps to processes in the radiative zone, and another with a synodic frequency of about 11 year-1 (12 year-1 sidereal), due perhaps to processes in an inner tachocline between the core and the radiative zone. A steep gradient in angular velocity (as in a tachocline) is known to be unstable and generate r-mode oscillations. These may be detectable as Rieger-type oscillations in the outer tachocline, and to similar oscillations (with correspondingly lower frequencies, in proportion to the sidereal rotation frequencies) in the inner tachocline. We find evidence for such r-mode oscillations not only in beta-decay data, but also in solar diameter data. A possible explanation of the apparent beta-decay variability is that decays may be stimulated by neutrinos. Since the flavor composition of the neutrino flux can be modified by the Sun’s internal magnetic field (via Resonant Spin Flavor Precession), magnetohydrodynamic processes in the deep solar interior may be detectable on Earth as neutrino-stimulated beta-decay fluctuations. Experiments suggest that a nuclide such as 32Si has a beta-decay-equivalent-cross-section of order 10-25 cm2, larger than the neutrino-equivalent-cross-section of an electron or

  4. PREFACE: Brazil MRS Meeting 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    The annual meetings, organized by the Brazilian materials research society - B-MRS, are amongst the most import discussion forums in the area of materials science and engineering in Brazil, with a growing interest from the national and international scientific society. In the last 4 years, more than 1,500 participants have attended the B-MRS meetings, promoting an auspicious environment for presentation and discussion of scientific and technological works in the materials science area. The XIII Brazilian Materials Research Society Meeting was held from 28 September to 02 October, 2014, in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. The Meeting congregated more than 1650 participants from the whole of Brazil and from 28 other countries. More than 2100 abstracts were accepted for presentation, distributed along 19 Symposia following the format used in traditional meetings of Materials Research Societies. These involved topics such as: synthesis of new materials, computer simulations, optical, magnetic and electronic properties, traditional materials as clays and cements, advanced metals, carbon and graphene nanostructures, nanomaterials for nanostructures, energy storage systems, composites, surface engineering and others. A novelty was a symposium dedicated to innovation and technology transfer in materials research. The program also included 7 Plenary Lectures presented by internationally renowned researchers: Alberto Salleo from Stanford University, United States of America; Roberto Dovesi from Universita' degli Studi di Torino, Italy; Luís Antonio F. M. Dias Carlos from Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal; Jean Marie Dubois from Institut Jean-Lamour, France; Sir Colin Humphreys from University of Cambridge, England; Karl Leo from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Robert Chang from Northwestern University, Evanston, United States of America. The numbers of participants in the B-MRS meetings have been growing continuously, and in this meeting we had almost 2200 presentations

  5. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  6. Microstructure and porosity of Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, M. E.; Laurich, B.; Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    each individual mineral phase. For example, pores in the clay matrix are distributed following a power law exponent of 2.3 regardless of the facies or cross-section. As a first qualitative result, pore morphology and microfabric varies towards faults, ranging from undisturbed to anastomosing fracture network in damage zones to even brecciated structures in fault cores containing various vein generations. [1] Bossart, P. & Thury, M. (2007) Research in the Mont Terri Rock laboratory: Quo vadis?, physics and chemistry of the Earth, 32, 19-31. [2] Desbois G., Urai J.L. and Kukla P.A. (2009) Morphology of the pore space in claystones - evidence from BIB/FIB ion beam sectioning and cryo-SEM observations. E-Earth, 4 :15-22. [3] NAGRA (2002) Technischer Bericht 02-03, Projekt Opalinuston: Synthese der geowissenschaftlichen Untersuchungsergebnisse, Dezember 2002.

  7. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  8. EDITORIAL: 10th anniversary of attosecond pulses 10th anniversary of attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, Reinhard; Chang, Zenghu; Nam, Chang Hee

    2012-04-01

    Attosecond science is an emerging field prompted by the development of attosecond light sources during the last decade. Since shorter light sources can diagnose faster phenomena, the generation of very short light pulses is critical in ultrafast measurements. In 2001 two groups at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Saclay, and Technische Universität Wien (TUW), Vienna, succeeded in proving the production of attosecond pulse trains and isolated attosecond pulses using high harmonic generation processes, respectively. For the temporal characterization, cross correlation techniques such as RABITT and FROG CRAB that make use of the photoionization of atoms by harmonic and infrared pulses have been demonstrated, in addition to autocorrelation techniques. Femtosecond laser technology has progressed so well that carrier envelope phase (CEP)-stabilized few cycle lasers are now widely used in the production of attosecond pulses. For the generation of isolated attosecond pulses the high-harmonic generation processes have been controlled: the amplitude gating method has been powerful with CEP-stabilized sub-two-cycle laser pulses and the temporal gating methods, including polarization gating and double optical gating, have been effective in accommodating multi-cycle laser pulses. In achieving near transform-limited attosecond pulses the compensation of the inherent attosecond chirp by material dispersion has been useful. The attosecond pulse duration has reached sub-100 attoseconds both for attosecond pulse trains and isolated attosecond pulses, and it is expected that attosecond pulses shorter than one atomic unit (24 as) will be obtained soon. With attosecond light sources, attosecond science has become an active research field. Ultrafast phenomena in atoms and molecules have been looked at in detail, especially in the time domain. The photoionization processes of atoms and molecules occurring in sub-optical cycles have been analyzed, and ultrafast characteristic

  9. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Système international d'unités, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by

  10. Random walk approach for dispersive transport in pipe networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sämann, Robert; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: particle transport, random walk, pipe, network, HYSTEM-EXTAN, OpenGeoSys After heavy pluvial events in urban areas the available drainage system may be undersized at peak flows (Fuchs, 2013). Consequently, rainwater in the pipe network is likely to spill out through manholes. The presence of hazardous contaminants in the pipe drainage system represents a potential risk to humans especially when the contaminated drainage water reaches the land surface. Real-time forecasting of contaminants in the drainage system needs a quick calculation. Numerical models to predict the fate of contaminants are usually based on finite volume methods. Those are not applicable here because of their volume averaging elements. Thus, a more efficient method is preferable, which is independent from spatial discretization. In the present study, a particle-based method is chosen to calculate transport paths and spatial distribution of contaminants within a pipe network. A random walk method for particles in turbulent flow in partially filled pipes has been developed. Different approaches for in-pipe-mixing and node-mixing with respect to the geometry in a drainage network are shown. A comparison of dispersive behavior and calculation time is given to find the fastest model. The HYSTEM-EXTRAN (itwh, 2002) model is used to provide hydrodynamic conditions in the pipe network according to surface runoff scenarios in order to real-time predict contaminant transport in an urban pipe network system. The newly developed particle-based model will later be coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). References: Fuchs, L. (2013). Gefährdungsanalyse zur Überflutungsvorsorge kommunaler Entwässerungssysteme. Sanierung und Anpassung von Entwässerungssystemen-Alternde Infrastruktur und Klimawandel, Österreichischer Wasser-und Abfallwirtschaftsverband, Wien, ISBN, 978-3. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie Gmb

  11. AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Slob, Evert; Turk, Ahmet Serdar; Crocco, Lorenzo; Catapano, Ilaria; Di Matteo, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The FP7-IRSES project AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging is based on a well-combined network among research institutions of EU, Associate and Third Countries (National Research Council of Italy - Italy, Technische Universiteit Delft - The Netherlands, Yildiz Technical University - Turkey, Bauman Moscow State Technical University - Russia, Usikov Institute for Radio-physics and Electronics and State Research Centre of Superconductive Radioelectronics "Iceberg" - Ukraine and University of Sao Paulo - Brazil) with the aims of achieving scientific advances in the framework of microwave and millimeter imaging systems and techniques for security and safety social issues. In particular, the involved partners are leaders in the scientific areas of passive and active imaging and are sharing their complementary knowledge to address two main research lines. The first one regards the design, characterization and performance evaluation of new passive and active microwave devices, sensors and measurement set-ups able to mitigate clutter and increase information content. The second line faces the requirements to make State-of-the-Art processing tools compliant with the instrumentations developed in the first line, suitable to work in electromagnetically complex scenarios and able to exploit the unexplored possibilities offered by new instrumentations. The main goals of the project are: 1) Development/improvement and characterization of new sensors and systems for active and passive microwave imaging; 2) Set up, analysis and validation of state of art/novel data processing approach for GPR in critical infrastructure and subsurface imaging; 3) Integration of state of art and novel imaging hardware and characterization approaches to tackle realistic situations in security, safety and subsurface prospecting applications; 4) Development and feasibility study of bio-radar technology (system and data processing) for vital signs detection and

  12. Mitigation of Atmospheric Delay in SAR Absolute Ranging Using Global Numerical Weather Prediction Data: Corner Reflector Experiments at 3 Different Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiaoying; Balss, Ulrich; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Base of Far-Distributed Test Sites; EUSAR 2014; 10th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar; Proceedings of. VDE, 2014: 1-4. [3] Eineder M., Balss U., Gisinger C., et al. TerraSAR-X pixel localization accuracy: Approaching the centimeter level, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2014 IEEE International. IEEE, 2014: 2669-2670. [4] Cong X., Balss U., Eineder M., et al. Imaging Geodesy -- Centimeter-Level Ranging Accuracy With TerraSAR-X: An Update. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, 2012, 9(5): 948-952. [5] Cong X. SAR Interferometry for Volcano Monitoring: 3D-PSI Analysis and Mitigation of Atmospheric Refractivity. München, Technische Universität München, Dissertation, 2014.

  13. Uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based absorbed dose calculations for an experimental benchmark.

    PubMed

    Renner, F; Wulff, J; Kapsch, R-P; Zink, K

    2015-10-01

    There is a need to verify the accuracy of general purpose Monte Carlo codes like EGSnrc, which are commonly employed for investigations of dosimetric problems in radiation therapy. A number of experimental benchmarks have been published to compare calculated values of absorbed dose to experimentally determined values. However, there is a lack of absolute benchmarks, i.e. benchmarks without involved normalization which may cause some quantities to be cancelled. Therefore, at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt a benchmark experiment was performed, which aimed at the absolute verification of radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy. A thimble-type ionization chamber in a solid phantom was irradiated by high-energy bremsstrahlung and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume was measured per incident electron of the target. The characteristics of the accelerator and experimental setup were precisely determined and the results of a corresponding Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc are presented within this study. For a meaningful comparison, an analysis of the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is necessary. In this study uncertainties with regard to the simulation geometry, the radiation source, transport options of the Monte Carlo code and specific interaction cross sections are investigated, applying the general methodology of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Besides studying the general influence of changes in transport options of the EGSnrc code, uncertainties are analyzed by estimating the sensitivity coefficients of various input quantities in a first step. Secondly, standard uncertainties are assigned to each quantity which are known from the experiment, e.g. uncertainties for geometric dimensions. Data for more fundamental quantities such as photon cross sections and the I-value of electron stopping powers are taken from literature. The significant uncertainty contributions are identified as

  14. Final report on CCQM-K87: Mono-elemental calibration solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienitz, Olaf; Schiel, Detlef; Görlitz, Volker; Jährling, Reinhard; Vogl, Jochen; Velina Lara-Manzano, Judith; Zon, Agnieszka; Fung, Wai-hong; Buzoianu, Mirella; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; dos Reis, Lindomar Augusto; Valiente, Liliana; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Hill, Sarah; Champion, Rachel; Fisicaro, Paola; Bing, Wu; Turk, Gregory C.; Winchester, Michael R.; Saxby, David; Merrick, Jeffrey; Hioki, Akiharu; Miura, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Linsky, Maré; Barzev, Alex; Máriássy, Michal; Cankur, Oktay; Ari, Betül; Tunç, Murat; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Yu A.; Bezruchko, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this comparison was to demonstrate the capability of national metrology institutes to measure elemental mass fractions at a level of w(E) ≈ 1 g/kg as found in almost all mono-elemental calibration solutions. These calibration solutions represent an important link in traceability systems in inorganic analysis. Virtually all traceable routine measurements are linked to the SI through these calibration solutions. Every participant was provided with three solutions of each of the three selected elements chromium, cobalt and lead. This comparison was a joint activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) and the Electrochemical Analysis Working Group (EAWG) of the CCQM and was piloted by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) with the help of the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM, Berlin, Germany), the Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM, Querétaro, Mexico) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, Gaithersburg, USA). A small majority of participants applied inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) in combination with a variety of calibration strategies (one-point-calibration, bracketing, calibration curve, each with and without an internal standard). But also IDMS techniques were carried out on quadrupole, high resolution and multicollector ICP-MS machines as well as a TIMS machine. Several participants applied titrimetry. FAAS as well as ICP-MS combined with non-IDMS calibration strategies were used by at least one participant. The key comparison reference values (KCRV) were agreed upon during the IAWG/EAWG meeting in November 2011 held in Sydney as the added element content calculated from the gravimetric sample preparation. Accordingly the degrees of equivalence were calculated. Despite the large variety of methods applied no superior method could be identified. The relative deviation of the median of the participants' results from the

  15. Uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based absorbed dose calculations for an experimental benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, F.; Wulff, J.; Kapsch, R.-P.; Zink, K.

    2015-10-01

    There is a need to verify the accuracy of general purpose Monte Carlo codes like EGSnrc, which are commonly employed for investigations of dosimetric problems in radiation therapy. A number of experimental benchmarks have been published to compare calculated values of absorbed dose to experimentally determined values. However, there is a lack of absolute benchmarks, i.e. benchmarks without involved normalization which may cause some quantities to be cancelled. Therefore, at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt a benchmark experiment was performed, which aimed at the absolute verification of radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy. A thimble-type ionization chamber in a solid phantom was irradiated by high-energy bremsstrahlung and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume was measured per incident electron of the target. The characteristics of the accelerator and experimental setup were precisely determined and the results of a corresponding Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc are presented within this study. For a meaningful comparison, an analysis of the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is necessary. In this study uncertainties with regard to the simulation geometry, the radiation source, transport options of the Monte Carlo code and specific interaction cross sections are investigated, applying the general methodology of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Besides studying the general influence of changes in transport options of the EGSnrc code, uncertainties are analyzed by estimating the sensitivity coefficients of various input quantities in a first step. Secondly, standard uncertainties are assigned to each quantity which are known from the experiment, e.g. uncertainties for geometric dimensions. Data for more fundamental quantities such as photon cross sections and the I-value of electron stopping powers are taken from literature. The significant uncertainty contributions are identified as

  16. Peer review statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    University China Peter PELZ Darmstadt University Germany František POCHYLY Brno University Czech Republic Rudolf SCHILLING Technische Universität München Germany Minguan YANG Jiangsu University China Smaine KOUIDRI Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) France Kazuhiro TANAKA Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Xuelin TANG Tsinghua University China Yoshinobu TSUJIMOTO Osaka University Japan Fujun WANG China Agriculture University China Guoyu WANG Beijing University of Sci & Tech China Wenwu SONG NULL China Zhengwei WANG Tsinghua University China Hongyuan XU Tsinghua University China Lefu XIAO NULL China Fan YANG Tsinghua University China Yuan ZHENG Hehai University China Zhigang ZUO Tsinghua University China Hongwu ZHU China Petroleum University China Lixiang ZHANG Yunnan University of Sci & Tech China Shengchang ZHANG Zhejiang University of Tech China

  17. Total Column Greenhouse Gas Monitoring in Central Munich: Automation and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia; Heinle, Ludwig; Paetzold, Johannes C.; Le, Long

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to use in-situ surface measurements of CO2 and CH4 to derive emission fluxes in urban regions. Surface concentrations typically have high variance due to the influence of nearby sources, and they are strongly modulated by mesoscale transport phenomena that are difficult to simulate in atmospheric models. The integrated amount of a tracer through the whole atmosphere is a direct measure of the mass loading of the atmosphere given by emissions. Column measurements are insensitive to vertical redistribution of tracer mass, e.g. due to growth of the planetary boundary layer, and are also less influenced by nearby point sources, whose emissions are concentrated in a thin layer near the surface. Column observations are more compatible with the scale of atmospheric models and hence provide stronger constraints for inverse modeling. In Munich we are aiming at establishing a regional sensor network with differential column measurements, i.e. total column measurements of CO2 and CH4 inside and outside of the city. The inner-city station is equipped with a compact solar-tracking Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker EM27/SUN) in the campus of Technische Universität München, and our measurements started in Aug. 2015. The measurements over seasons will be shown, as well as preliminary emission studies using these observations. To deploy the compact spectrometers for stationary monitoring of the urban emissions, an automatic protection and control system is mandatory and a challenging task. It will allow solar measurements whenever the sun is out and reliable protection of the instrument when it starts to rain. We have developed a simplified and highly reliable concept for the enclosure, aiming for a fully automated data collection station without the need of local human interactions. Furthermore, we are validating and combining the OCO-2 satellite-based measurements with our ground-based measurements. For this purpose, we have developed a software tool that

  18. V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olthoff, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination

  19. The Role of Marangoni Convection for the FZ-Growth of Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dold, P.; Croll, A.; Schweizer, M.; Kaiser, Th.; Szofran, F.; Nakamura, S.; Hibiya, T.; Benz, K. W.

    1998-01-01

    In growing crystals by the floating zone (FZ) technique under microgravity, the size restriction we have under earth conditions because of the hydrostatic pressure are avoided. Further, buoyancy related convection is eliminated to a high degree. But in the case of silicon, the gravity independent thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection is time-dependent even for small zone geometries. This has been demonstrated in several Technische Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit (TEXUS) - technical experiments under reduced gravity) flights. Thus, to really take advantage of microgravity with respect to improve crystal quality, tools are required to control Marangoni convection in space facilities. Applying magnetic fields, convection can be influenced; fluid flow can either be damped (static magnetic fields) or overlaid by a regular flow regime (rotating magnetic fields). In floating zones of 8-10mm diameter and height (Ma approximately equals 6 x 10(exp 3)), a static magnetic field of about 2OOmT is sufficient to suppress time-dependent Marangoni convection to a high degree, but in dependence on the kind and the concentration of the added dopant, a new type of strongly pronounced dopant inhomogeneities have been detected. They are originated by thermoelectromagnetic convection. This can be avoided as well as detrimental effects on the radial dopant distribution by using rotating magnetic fields instead of static ones. Applying 75mT/50Hz to the FZ, the intensity of the dopant fluctuations is reduced to a high degree. Considering the rather low power consumption of rotating magnetic fields, this will be a useful tool for control or elimination of time-dependent Marangoni convection under microgravity. The strong time dependent character of thermocapillary flow and its influence on the temperature field has been measured in silicon half-zones for Marangoni numbers of Ma is approximately equal to 1-1.5 x 10(exp 4): temperature fluctuations up to 4C have been determined. Their

  20. Discussion of thermal extraction chamber concepts for Lunar ISRU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Hager, Philipp; Parzinger, Stephan; Dirlich, Thomas; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas; Walter, Ulrich

    The Exploration group of the Institute of Astronautics (LRT) of the Technische Universitüt a München focuses on long-term scenarios and sustainable human presence in space. One of the enabling technologies in this long-term perspective is in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). When dealing with the prospect of future manned missions to Moon and Mars the use of ISRU seems useful and intended. The activities presented in this paper focus on Lunar ISRU. This basically incorporates both the exploitation of Lunar oxygen from natural rock and the extraction of solar wind implanted particles (SWIP) from regolith dust. Presently the group at the LRT is examining possibilities for the extraction of SWIPs, which may provide several gaseous components (such as H2 and N2) valuable to a human presence on the Moon. As a major stepping stone in the near future a Lunar demonstrator/ verification experiment payload is being designed. This experiment, LUISE (LUnar ISru Experiment), will comprise a thermal process chamber for heating regolith dust (grain size below 500m), a solar thermal power supply, a sample distribution unit and a trace gas analysis. The first project stage includes the detailed design and analysis of the extraction chamber concepts and the thermal process involved in the removal of SWIP from Lunar Regolith dust. The technique of extracting Solar Wind volatiles from Regolith has been outlined by several sources. Heating the material to a threshold value seems to be the most reasonable approach. The present paper will give an overview over concepts for thermal extraction chambers to be used in the LUISE project and evaluate in detail the pros and cons of each concept. The special boundary conditions set by solar thermal heating of the chambers as well as the material properties of Regolith in a Lunar environment will be discussed. Both greatly influence the design of the extraction chamber. The performance of the chamber concepts is discussed with respect to the

  1. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  2. PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias

    2008-03-01

    The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage http://www.quantumdynamics.de The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany mkleber@ph.tum.de Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany tobias.kramer@physik.uni-regensburg.de Guest Editors Conference photograph Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J

  3. Thermal use of groundwater: International legislation and ecological considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hähnlein, S.; Griebler, C.; Blum, P.; Bayer, P.

    2009-04-01

    biocoenoses. For a profound quantification and interpretation of an ecologically sustainable thermal use of groundwater more data from lab experiments and in situ surveys are needed. We can conclude that for sustainable use of groundwater legally-binding minimum distances between adjacent installations are crucial. However, they have to be based on geological arguments. Also relative temperature limits for cooling and heating of groundwater to avoid negative changes in the groundwater ecosystem should be defined. Overall, there is a need for a legal framework, ideally developed nationally and internationally, which thoroughly addresses legal, technical, ecological and economical aspects. References: Hähnlein, S., Grathwohl, P., Bayer P., Blum, P. (2008a): Cold plumes of ground source heat pumps: Their length and legal situation. EGU, Vienna. Hähnlein, S., Kübert, M., Bayer, P., Walker-Hertkorn, S., Blum, P. (2008b): Rechtliche und technische Aspekte einer nachhaltigen thermischen Grundwassernutzung. FH-DGG Tagung, Göttingen.

  4. EDITORIAL: MacroScale 2011: Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements MacroScale 2011: Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schödel, R.; Thalmann, R.

    2012-09-01

    The MacroScale 2011 conference was held at the Swiss Federal Office of Metrology METAS from 4-6 October 2011, and was jointly organized by METAS and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB. The conference subtitle 'Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements' is reminiscent of a conference series which most recently took place in San Diego in 2005. It is intended that the MacroScale conference be held every three years at different locations worldwide. As the conference was organized under the auspices of CCL, the Consultative Committee for Length within the Metre Convention, it brought together 70 participants, mainly researchers from national metrology institutes, but also from academia and industry, representing 32 countries all together. It provided a forum for experts and scientists in the area of dimensional metrology for an exchange of information, for discussions and for the transfer of new results to the scientific community. The participants were encouraged to submit their papers to Measurement Science and Technology, and as a result we are delighted to present a selection in this special issue of MacroScale 2011. As in the previous conferences on 'Recent Developments in Traceable Dimensional Measurements' the focus of the MacroScale is on the highest level length measurements of objects ranging from µm to km in size and on their traceability to the SI unit of length. At the MacroScale 2011 the following fields were addressed: interferometry, calibration of length standards, coordinate metrology, form measurements, surface texture measurements, tactile, optical and electronic sensors for surface or structure localization, temperature and force measurements and angle metrology. A total of 31 oral and 17 poster presentations were given during the conference, demonstrating the progress in the development of instruments, in methods and algorithms, in the determination of measurement uncertainty as well as on results of international

  5. Large-angle ionization chambers for brachytherapy air-kerma-strength measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culberson, Wesley S.

    There has been a significant increase in the use of low-energy photon-emitting radionuclides in the past decade to treat cancer with a special form of radiation therapy called brachytherapy. For treating prostate cancer, brachytherapy sources are approximately the size of a grain of rice and are normally radioactive 125I or 103Pd sources encapsulated in titanium or plastic. Although these sources have proven effective in the treatment of cancer, the clinical dosimetry is difficult due to the unique varieties available and their typically. A large-angle free-air chamber at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) called the Wide-Angle Free-Air Chamber (WAFAC) is the current standard for measuring the strength of low-energy photon-emitting radionuclides for brachytherapy. This chamber has served the clinical medical physics community well and is a significant improvement over previous standards. However, it has some shortcomings. This thesis describes the development of a new large-angle ionization chamber at the University of Wisconsin called the Variable-Aperture Free-Air Chamber (VAFAC) to measure brachytherapy sources with extended capabilities. This chamber is constructed to explore characteristics in the calibration of brachytherapy seeds by quantifying potential variations caused by anisotropy and the change in response with integration angle. In addition, the characterization of yet another large-angle free-air chamber called the Grossvolumen Extrapolationskammer (GROVEX) in the German national standards institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is also presented. The objective of this thesis is to present improved measurement techniques with free-air ionization chambers that will improve the accuracy of the dose delivered to patients. First, it will be shown that the UW VAFAC is capable of measuring conventional 125I or 103Pd seeds as well as longer sources, coiled sources, and miniature x-ray tubes. Additionally, the VAFAC

  6. Io Volcano Observer (IVO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.; Thomas, N.; Johnson, T.; Christensen, P.; Wurz, P.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Shinohara, C.; Girard, T.

    2009-04-01

    flow, and constrain silicate lava compositions. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer, to be contributed by the University of Bern and the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, will determine the composition of Io's escaping species, atmosphere, and volcanic plumes. Two Fluxgate Magnetometers are to be contributed by the Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, to characterize magnetospheric interactions with Io, and perhaps place tighter constraints on whether or not Io has an internally generated magnetosphere. Various science enhancement options are being considered.

  7. From the Hensen net toward four-dimensional biological oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Peter H.; Benfield, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    The development of quantitative zooplankton collecting systems began with Hensen (1887 Berichte der Kommssion wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere in Kiel5, 1-107; 1895 Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humbolt-Stiftung. Kiel and Leipzig: Lipsius and Tischer ). Non-opening closing nets, opening closing nets (mostly messenger based), high-speed samplers, and planktobenthos net systems all had their start in his era - the late 1800s and early 1900s. This was also an era in which many of the fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the plankton in the worlds oceans were first posed. Fewer new systems were introduced between 1912 and 1950 apparently due in part to the two World Wars. The continuous plankton recorder stands out as a truly innovative device developed during this period ( Hardy 1926b Nature, London118, 630 ). Resurgence in development of mechanically-based instruments occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. A new lineage of high-speed samplers, the Gulf series, began in the 1950s and a number of variants were developed in the 1960s and 1970s. Net systems specifically designed to collect neuston first appeared in the late 1950s. During the 1960s, many focused field and experimental tank experiments were carried out to investigate the hydrodynamics of nets, and much of our knowledge concerning net design and construction criteria was developed. The advent of reliable electrical conducting cables and electrically-based control systems during this same period gave rise first to a variety of cod-end samplers and then to the precursors of the acoustically and electronically-controlled multi-net systems and environmental sensors, which appeared in the 1970s. The decade of the 1970s saw a succession of multi-net systems based both on the Bé multiple plankton sampler and on the Tucker trawl. The advent of the micro-computer stimulated and enabled the development of sophisticated control and data logging electronics for these

  8. Hochenergieröntgenspektren der akkretierenden Röntgenpulsare Vela X-1 und A 0535+26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmar, Peter

    1996-04-01

    Beobachtungsstatistik der vorliegenden Daten erlaubte wegen der komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen den verschiedenen Parametern der untersuchten Modellspektren keine gesicherten Aussagen über die Variation der Linienparameter mit der Pulsphase. Tendenziell sprechen die Ergebnisse für stärker ausgeprägte Linienstrukturen in den Pulsen und zumindest im Falle von A 0535+26 für eine pencil beam Emissionsgeometrie.

  9. Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Ima; Kirsch, Reinhard; Scheer, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Geosciences Union Burval Working Group (2006) Groundwater Resources in buried valleys- a challenge for Geosciences. - Leibniz-Institut für Angewandte Geophysik, Hannover Scheer W, König B, Steinmann F (2012): Die Grundwasserverhältnisse von Föhr. - In: Der Untergrund von Föhr: Geologie, Grundwasser und Erdwärme - Ergebnisse des INTERREG-Projektes CLIWAT. - Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und ländliche Räume Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek

  10. Process interpretation of laminated lacustrine sediments from the valley of the river Alf, Quaternary West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Pirrung, Michael; Zolitschka, Bernd; Büchel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    (1): 83-88. Pirrung, M., et al. (2007). Hochauflösende fluviolakustrine Sedimente des jüngeren Pleistozän aus dem Alfbachtal bei Gillenfeld (Westeifel) - erste Ergebnisse. Mainzer geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen 35: 51-80. Zolitschka, B. (1991). Absolute dating of late-Quaternary lacustrine sediments by high resolution varve chronology. Hydrobiologia 214: 59-61.

  11. Micromorphological investigation on ring road sediments of the Early Bronze Age site Tell Chuera, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, Dagmar; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

    2010-05-01

    Tell Chuera is an Early Bronze Age settlement mount in NE-Syria close to the Turkish border. With a diameter of almost 1 km and a height of 18 m it is one of the biggest tells in the region between the rivers Balikh and Khabur. In 1958 the structures of the city wall was known first by Orthmann (1990). This city wall was built of air-dried mud bricks. The age of the founding of this construction is not yet clear. The earliest pottery from the place is dated around 2500 BC to 2350 BC. Inside the fortification a road was detected, which was first excavated by Novak (1995). We took sediment monoliths in 2004 from a new trench, which shows the same situation of the road. A geomagnetic prospection, that included the whole site, suggests that the road was part of the planned extension of the lower town and serves as a circular road (Meyer, in prep.). The micromorphological investigation focussed on the question, how the road was used. Did animals have had access to the town? The thin sections show different indications of the anthropogenic influence. In all samples pseudomorphs after straw are visible. In many parts ash, charred wood fragments, bone fragments, melted material and fragments of basalt and flint were observable, too. These materials are typical for sediments in streets (cf. Goldberg & Macphail, 2006). In some parts of the thin sections faecal spherulites and dung remains with faecal spherulites give an idea that ruminants used the road as well as men. Trampling structures support this assumption. Moreover, leaching of calcite, its redeposition in mottles, pseudomycels and concretions, hydromorphic stains and the translocation of silt indicate postdepositional pedogenic processes. Literature Goldberg, P., & Macphail, R. I. (2006). Practical and theoretical geoarchaeology: UK Blackwell Publishing. Meyer, J.-W. (in prep.). Überlegungen zur Siedlungsstruktur - eine erste Analyse der Ergebnisse der geomagnetischen Prospektion. In J.-W. Meyer (Ed.), Ausgrabungen

  12. Nomogramme der Sickerwasserprognose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Wilfried; Stöfen, Heinke

    Kurzfassung Modelle zur Sickerwasserprognose stehen in unterschiedlicher Komplexität zur Verfügung. Komplexe Modelle werden aufgrund der schwierigen Handhabung und des enormen Eingabedatenumfangs in der Praxis kaum angewandt. Grobe Abschätzmethoden sind dagegen nicht ausreichend wissenschaftlich fundiert, um damit justiziable Ergebnisse erzielen zu können. Um die Kluft zwischen komplexer und einfacher, jedoch justiziabler sowie wissenschaftlich fundierter Methode zu schmälern, wurden Nomogramme für Sickerwasserprognosen zur Berücksichtigung der Endlichkeit der Quelle entwickelt. Mithilfe der Nomogramme können ohne Modellierungserfahrung schnell und einfach die zu erwartenden Schadstoffkonzentrationen am Ort der Beurteilung abgeschätzt werden, falls die Endlichkeit der Quelle der hauptsächlich zur Abminderung führende Prozess ist. Die Nomogramme basieren auf analytischen Lösungen der eindimensionalen Advektions-Dispersions-Gleichung. Sie berücksichtigen die Prozesse Advektion, Diffusion in Bodenwasser und -luft, Dispersion, lineare Sorption, Abbau 1. Ordnung innerhalb einer aus mehreren Bodenschichten bestehenden Sickerwasserzone, wobei die Endlichkeit der Schadstoffmasse in der Bodenkontamination einbezogen wird. Die Genauigkeit der Nomogramme wird dargestellt. Models of different complexity are available for groundwater risk assessment. In practice complex models are hardly used, due to their difficult handling and large data requirement. Rough estimation methods are not sufficiently scientifically founded to produce justiciable results. To reduce the gap between complex and easy to use but justiciable and scientifically founded methods we developed nomograms for groundwater risk assessment which take into account the finite mass of contaminant in the source. With the help of the nomograms the expected concentrations at the point of compliance (transition between the unsaturated and saturated zone) can be estimated easily, fast and without any

  13. Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro

  14. New Large-Scale Topographic Maps of Planet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, S.; Lehmann, H.; Wahlisch, M.; Albertz, J.

    Introduction: The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) instrument is well suited for the special demands of stereophotogrammetry and cartography as well. Thus, color orthoimages, Digital Terrain Models (DTM), and - based on these two data sets - high quality topographic and thematic map products are generated, mainly in standard scale 1:200,000, i.e. the new Topographic Image Map Mars 1:200,000 map series. For supporting such a challenge and also aiming for automation of the mapping process, the cartographic software package Planetary Image Mapper (PIMap) has been developed at Technische Universität Berlin. Besides an overview of the cartographic concept and map generation, two recent projects - the mapping of the Iani Chaos region in three different scales and the generation of the first map sheets of the standard series for the north polar region - are described. The Cartographic Concept: The Topographic Image Map Mars 1:200,000 is defined as the standard map series of the Mars Express mission. In general, all map sheets are based on HRSC orthoimages, supplemented by contour lines derived from HRSC DTMs, topographic names, grids, and marginal information. The planet Mars is covered by 10,372 individual sheets in equal-area map projections, i.e. 10,324 of them within the ±85° latitude zone in Sinusoidal Projection and 48 around the poles in Lambert Azimuthal Equal-area Projection. While each of the quadrangles spans 2° in latitude, longitudinal extents increase from 2° near the equator up to 360° towards the poles in order to keep the mapped area approximately constant. The Martian reference body is the IAU 2000 Ellipsoid with an equatorial axis of 3396.19 km and a polar axis of 3376.20 km. Both Martian coordinate systems - i.e. the standard consisting of eastern longitudes and planetocentric latitudes as well as the formerly used system of western longitudes and planetographic latitudes - are shown within the map sheets. An areoid, i.e. the Martian geoid

  15. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  16. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    -review, with the aim to raise the quality of our content, three years later the number of published articles has remained stable at around 220 per year, whilst the number of downloads and citations to the journal has grown. In 2011, three topical issues have been published, on: (Nano)characterization of semiconductor materials and structures (Guest Editor: Alberta Bonanni, University of Linz, Austria) Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics (Guest Editors: Jang-Joo Kim, Min-Koo Han, Cambridge University, UK, and Yong-Young Noh, Seoul National University, Korea) From heterostructures to nanostructures: an 80th birthday tribute to Zhores Alferov (Guest Editor: Dieter Bimberg, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) For the coming years, I will strongly support that the number of published topical issues will continue on the same level or slightly rise. SST has planned the publication of the following topical issues for 2012: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors (Guest Editors: Jung Han, Yale University, USA, and Michael Kneissl, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) Topological insulators (Guest Editors: Alberto Morpurgo, Université de Genève, Switzerland and Björn Trauzettel, Universität Basel, Switzerland) Atomic layer deposition (Guest Editor: Marek Godlewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland) 50th Anniversary of the laser diode (Guest Editors: Mike Adams, Univeristy of Essex, UK and Stephane Calvez, University of Strathclyde, UK) In addition to the traditional topics of SST, I as Editor-in-chief, strongly support and welcome the submission of manuscripts on organic semiconductors, topological insulators, semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic, solid-state lighting and energy harvesting, IC application beyond Moore's law and fundamental works on semiconductors based on abundant materials. I am extremely optimistic about the future of SST. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to

  17. EDITORIAL: Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief Greetings from the new Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsch, Kornelius

    2012-01-01

    -review, with the aim to raise the quality of our content, three years later the number of published articles has remained stable at around 220 per year, whilst the number of downloads and citations to the journal has grown. In 2011, three topical issues have been published, on: (Nano)characterization of semiconductor materials and structures (Guest Editor: Alberta Bonanni, University of Linz, Austria) Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics (Guest Editors: Jang-Joo Kim, Min-Koo Han, Cambridge University, UK, and Yong-Young Noh, Seoul National University, Korea) From heterostructures to nanostructures: an 80th birthday tribute to Zhores Alferov (Guest Editor: Dieter Bimberg, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) For the coming years, I will strongly support that the number of published topical issues will continue on the same level or slightly rise. SST has planned the publication of the following topical issues for 2012: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors (Guest Editors: Jung Han, Yale University, USA, and Michael Kneissl, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany) Topological insulators (Guest Editors: Alberto Morpurgo, Université de Genève, Switzerland and Björn Trauzettel, Universität Basel, Switzerland) Atomic layer deposition (Guest Editor: Marek Godlewski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland) 50th Anniversary of the laser diode (Guest Editors: Mike Adams, Univeristy of Essex, UK and Stephane Calvez, University of Strathclyde, UK) In addition to the traditional topics of SST, I as Editor-in-chief, strongly support and welcome the submission of manuscripts on organic semiconductors, topological insulators, semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic, solid-state lighting and energy harvesting, IC application beyond Moore's law and fundamental works on semiconductors based on abundant materials. I am extremely optimistic about the future of SST. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to

  18. Reconstructing past environments and societies - interdisciplinary research in the open cast mine Jänschwalde, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, A.; Raab, T.; Takla, M.; Nicolay, A.; Müller, F.; Rösler, H.; Bönisch, E.

    2012-04-01

    Active lignite mines in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany) are a controversial discussed issue. Though lignite mining destroys whole landscapes, it offers the opportunity to investigate prehistory and landscape development on a landscape scale. Since 2010 scientists from Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus and archaeologists from Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum (BLDAM) collaborate to study human-environment interactions. Our study area is the open cast mine Jänschwalde, one out of four active lignite mines in Lower Lusatia. The mine is situated c. 150 km southeast of Berlin. Archaeological excavations have been carried out in the prefield over many years and the outcome is manifold. Different approaches are combined for a comprehensive reconstruction: archaeological investigations, geomorphological/pedological studies and historical research. The archaeological fieldwork includes prospection, the opening of test trenches and area excavations. These outcrop situations provide a view into the stratigraphy and are to some extent commonly used for archaeological and sedimentological/pedological studies. In addition, chronological information is obtained by different methods of relative and absolute (14C, OSL, dendrochronological) age determination. To build up a model for the landscape development, data (topographical maps, historical maps, physiogeographical information, etc.) is gathered and processed. The initial situation for our research is the historic charcoal burning in the former "königliche Taubendorfer Forst" and its impact on the environment. In the study area, this trade was carried out from the c. 17th to the 19th century and is very well documented by about 700 excavated ground plans of circular upright kilns and another c. 300 prospected kilns. It is assumed that charcoal was produced for the smelter at Peitz nearby, where bog iron ore was processed since 1567. There is

  19. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the 70th PTB Seminar which, the second on the subject "Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology", was held at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig from October 21 to 22, 1985. About 100 participants from the universities and various research institutes of the Federal Republic of Germany participated in the meeting. Besides a number of review lectures on various broader subjects there was a poster session which contained a variety of topical contributed papers ranging from the theory of the quantum Hall effect to reports on the status of the metrological experiments at the PTB. In addition, the participants were also offered the possibility to visit the PTB laboratories during the course of the seminar. During the preparation of the meeting we noticed that even most of the general subjects which were going to be discussed in the lectures are of great importance in connection with metrological experiments and should be made accessible to the scientific community. This eventually resulted in the idea of the publication of the papers in a regular journal. We are grateful to the editor of Metrologia for providing this opportunity. We have included quite a number of papers from basic physical research. For example, certain aspects of high-energy physics and quantum optics, as well as the many-faceted role of Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant, are covered. We think that questions such as "What are the intrinsic fundamental parameters of nature?" or "What are we doing when we perform an experiment?" can shed new light on the art of metrology, and do, potentially, lead to new ideas. This appears to be especially necessary when we notice the increasing importance of the role of the fundamental constants and macroscopic quantum effects for the definition and the realization of the physical units. In some cases we have reached a point where the limitations of our knowledge of a fundamental constant and

  20. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  1. PREFACE Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrez, Gérard; van der Mullen, Joost

    2011-01-01

    It is with pleasure and pride that we present the selected contributions from participants of the 11th High-Tech Plasma Processes conference. This conference, which took place in Brussels from June 28 to July 2 2010, is based on a European forum with a history of more than twenty years. The conference series started as a thermal plasma conference and gradually expanded to include other topics and fields as well. HTPP 11 was organized in collaboration with the Belgian Interuniversity Attraction Pole (IAP): Physical chemistry of Plasma-surface Interactions (PSI-ψ). The program was devised by the plasma group of the Technische Universiteit Eindhoven in collaboration with the IAP, the Association Arc Electrique and the International Scientific Committee. The organization was guided by the Steering Committee and supervised by the two founding members, Jacques Amouroux and Pierre Fauchais. HTPP aims to bring together different scientific communities to facilitate contacts between science, technology and industry, providing a platform for the exploration of elementary processes in and by plasmas. This implies that, apart from fundamental topics, considerable attention is paid to new plasma applications; plasma engineering in Europe is one of the main driving forces behind HTPP. The conference supports the dissemination of methods for plasma diagnostics and monitoring and the exchange of models for plasmas sources and plasma applications. A novelty of HTPP 11 was the model market; a special type of poster session where running models were demonstrated and spectators were challenged to assemble their own plasma models using one of the available construction platforms. For the first time in this series of conferences, the proceedings are published in two companion issues: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, which presents a selection of papers including invited and keynote papers, and the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The present volume of the Journal of Physics

  2. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  3. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    chaired by Henry Hutchinson (RAL, Chilton), and to the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion journal team (Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol), for their work on this conference. At the 2004 European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics, plenary invited speakers whose talks spanned the entire field were followed, each day, by multiple parallel sessions which also included invited talks. Invited speakers in both these categories were asked to contribute papers to this special issue (the contributed papers at this conference, and at all recent conferences in this series, are archived at http://epsppd.epfl.ch). The Programme Committee is very grateful to the many invited speakers who have responded positively to this request. Invited papers appear here in their order of presentation during the week beginning 28 June 2004; this ordering provides an echo of the character of the conference, as it was experienced by those who took part. Programme Committee 2004 Professor Richard Dendy UKAEA Culham Division, UK Chairman and guest editor Dr Jean-Luc Dorier Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne, Switzerland (Co-ordinator of dusty plasmas and guest editor) Professor Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany (Co-ordinator of laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics and guest editor) Dr Peter Norreys Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK (Scientific Secretary and guest editor) Dr Emilia R Solano CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Madrid, Spain ( Co-ordinator of magnetic confinement fusion and guest editor) Dr Shalom Eliezer Soreq Nuclear Research Centre, Israel Dr Wim Goedheer FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen, Netherlands Professor Henry Hutchinson Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK Professor John Kirk Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany Dr Raymond Koch Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Brussels, Belgium Professor Gerrit Kroesen Technische

  4. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Since 1991, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of this journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. The current breadth of topical areas that are covered by MST has made it advisable to expand the recognition of excellent publications. Hence, since 2005 the Editorial Board have presented 'Outstanding Paper Awards' in four subject categories: Fluid Mechanics; Measurement Science; Precision Measurements; and Sensors and Sensing Systems. This year also saw the introduction of a new category—Optical and Laser-based Techniques. 2009 Award Winners—Fluid Mechanics Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) robust phase correlation Adric Eckstein and Pavlos P Vlachos Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA This paper [1] represents a valuable improvement to the phase-only correlation technique (first proposed by Wernet in this journal in 2005 (Wernet M 2005 Symmetric phase-only filtering: a new paradigm for DPIV data processing Meas. Sci. Technol. 16 601-18) for particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) measurements of fluid flow. The authors establish a sound theoretical foundation and clearly describe the working principle of their robust phase correlation method. The methodology for assessing performance is excellent. Detailed results on several internationally recognized PIV test cases are presented. The robust phase correlation method is of general applicability and therefore can be expected to have substantial impact in this very active area of fluid-mechanics measurements. 2009 Award Winner—Precision Measurement A nanonewton force facility and a novel method for measurements of the air and vacuum permittivity at zero frequencies V Nesterov Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany This paper [2] describes a

  5. Foreword: Proceedings of the 15th International Winterschool on New Developments in Solid State Physics (Mauterndorf (Bad Hofgastein), 18 22 February 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantsch, Wolfgang; Ferry, David; Kuchar, Friedl

    2008-11-01

    Günther Bauer Günther Bauer. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is devoted to Günther Bauer, who celebrated his 65th birthday in September 2007. Günther has had a long career in condensed matter physics, but is known particularly for his studies of high magnetic field transport and optics in semiconductors and, more recently, for the discovery and x-ray analysis of self-organized 3D quantum dot crystals. However, his work is much broader than this, as indicated by the wide selection of topics which are represented in this special issue. Günther began his scientific career in Vienna, became associate Professor at the University of Ulm after habilitation at the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany, and then ascended to a full professorship at the Montanuniversität, Leoben, Austria, in 1980. He subsequently moved to the Johannes Kepler Universität, Linz, Austria, in 1990. Apart from his outstanding scientific achievements, Günther is also known for organizing the biannual winterschool on 'New Developments in Solid State Physics' beginning in 1980. Initially, he worked at this task together with Helmut Heinrich (until 2000) and Friedl Kuchar (1984 until now) and subsequently with Wolfgang Jantsch (who followed Helmut Heinrich in 2002). This winterschool was, and remains, very important in identifying new trends in solid state physics, and thus has a number of important proponents in the scientific community. It was at one of the first of these winterschools where the initial reports of the quantum Hall effect were presented, and it has been a meeting place where established experts (including three Nobel laureates) teach, and interact with students and young researchers. It is important to know that Günther's excellent international connections were necessary to maintain the high level of the winterschool over almost 30 years. After the first meeting in 1980 in Mariapfarr, these winterschools were held thirteen

  6. Combining the Observations from Different GNSS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dach, R.; Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Bock, H.; Jäggi, A.; Meindl, M.; Ostini, L.; Thaller, D.; Steinbach, A.; Beutler, G.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    For a very long time GPS has clearly dominated the use of GNSS measurements for scientific purposes. This picture is changing: we are moving from a GPS-only to a multi-GNSS world. This is, e.g., reflected by changing the meaning of the abbreviation IGS in March 2005 from International GPS to GNSS Service. The current situation can be described as follows: GPS has the leading role in the GNSS because it has provided a very stable satellite constellation over many years. Some of the currently active GPS satellites are nearly 15 years old. These old satellites are expected to be decommissioned within the next years. On the other hand, due to the increasing number of active GLONASS satellites and the improved density of multi-GNSS tracking stations in the IGS network, the quality of the GLONASS orbits has drastically improved during the last years. The European Galileo system is under development: currently two test satellites (GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B) are in orbit. The IOV (in-orbit-validation phase) will start soon. Also the first test satellites for the Chinese Compass system are in space. For the maximum benefit the observations of these GNSS will be processed in a combined multi-GNSS analysis in future. CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the IGS and has started in May 2003 with a rigorous combined processing of GPS and GLONASS measurements for the final, rapid, and even ultra-rapid product lines. All contributions from CODE to the IGS are in fact multi-GNSS products -- the only exception is the satellite and receiver clock

  7. An analytical tool that quantifies cellular morphology changes from three-dimensional fluorescence images.

    PubMed

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Naeemuddin, Mohammad; Bartlett, Selena E

    2012-01-01

    detection of the 3D neuronal filament-like however, this module has been developed to measure defined structures such as neurons, which are comprised of dendrites, axons and spines (tree-like structure). This module has been ingeniously utilized to make morphological measurements to non-neuronal cells, however, the output data provide information of an extended cellular network by using a software that depends on a defined cell shape rather than being an amorphous-shaped cellular model. To overcome the issue of analyzing amorphous-shaped cells and making the software more suitable to a biological application, Imaris developed Imaris Cell. This was a scientific project with the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, which has been developed to calculate the relationship between cells and organelles. While the software enables the detection of biological constraints, by forcing one nucleus per cell and using cell membranes to segment cells, it cannot be utilized to analyze fluorescence data that are not continuous because ideally it builds cell surface without void spaces. To our knowledge, at present no user-modifiable automated approach that provides morphometric information from 3D fluorescence images has been developed that achieves cellular spatial information of an undefined shape (Figure 1). We have developed an analytical platform using the Imaris core software module and Imaris XT interfaced to MATLAB (Mat Works, Inc.). These tools allow the 3D measurement of cells without a pre-defined shape and with inconsistent fluorescence network components. Furthermore, this method will allow researchers who have extended expertise in biological systems, but not familiarity to computer applications, to perform quantification of morphological changes in cell dynamics. PMID:22951512

  8. Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besser, B. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the "father of rocketry" in Western Europe - is Hermann Oberth. The others were Max Valier, Franz von Hoefft, Guido von Pirquet, Hermann Potocnik, Friedrich Schmiedl, Franz Ulinski, Eugen Saenger and others. Franz Ulinski (1890-1974) was born 1890 in Blosdorf, Moravia (now Mljadejow, Czech Republic). After attending schools in Wels, Upper Austria, he started a career in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910. During his service he worked beginning 1917 at an airplane engine plant in Fischamend and in 1919/20 at the "Fliegerarsenal" (aircraft arsenal) in Vienna. End of 1920 the army of the remaining republic of Austria had to severely reduce its forces and Ulinski was superannuated without further payment. Since 1917 he was also inscribed at the College for Advanced Technology in Vienna ("Technische Hochschule Wien"), but he never graduated, instead he autodidactically attained the VDI-Engineering-Diploma (VDI = "Verein Deutscher Ingenieure"- Association of German Engineers). During 1921-1924 he worked as a development engineer and later as a design engineer for a car factory. In 1925 he set up and ran his own company (radio sale enterprise) and in 1929 an engineering workshop. From 1938 to 1945 he first served as technical staff and later as a design engineer at the Siebel- Flugzeugwerke (Airplane-Factory) in Halle/Saale, Germany. After the Second World War he was employed as a design engineer at different engineering companies in Austria and he died 1974 in Wels. Ulinski's first contact with the topic of space flight occurred during the time period when he was a member of the Austro- Hungarian Army. Ulinski was one of the first in the german speaking part of Europe to publish an article with his ideas about space flight in 1920 (three years before Herman Oberth

  9. The role of biophysical indicators in the reconstruction of long-term late-spring - summer temperatures for the region of Western Hungary and Eastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Wilson, Rob; Holawe, Franz; Strömmer, Elisabeth; Bariska, István.

    2010-05-01

    , Sopron and Bratislava series and all presented analyses were developed within the framework of the EU project 'Millenium'. The Austrian series are partly based on published series (Pribram 1938, Lauscher 1985, Strömmer 2003) although in some cases modified and extended for this study, as well as newly developed data. The present work is a continuation of the 'Analysis of late spring-summer temperatures for Western Hungary based on vine, grain tithes and harvest records', presented at the annual congress of EGU in 2009 (Kiss and Wilson 2009). References Böhm, R., Jones, P.D., Hiebl, J., Frank, D., Brunetti, M., Maugeri and M. 2009: The early instrumental warm-bias: a solution for long central European temperature series 1760-2007. Climatic Change, doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9649-4. Kiss, A. and Wilson, R. 2009: Analysis of late spring-summer temperatures for Western Hungary based on vine, grain tithes and harvest records. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol 11, EGU2009-10945-1. Lauscher, F. 1985: Beiträge zur Wetterchronik seit dem Mittelalter. In: Sitzungsberichte, Abtheilung II, Mathematische, Physikalische und Technische Wissenschaften, Band 194, Heft 1-3. pp. 93-131. Leijonhufvud, L., Wilson, R., Möberg, A., Söderberg, J., Retső, D. and Söderlind, U. 2009: Five centuries of Stockholm winter/spring temperatures reconstructed from documentary evidence and instrumental observations. Climatic Change, doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9650-y. Pribram, A. F. 1938: Materialien zur Geschichte der Preise und Löhne in Österreich. Band. I. Carl Ueberreuters Verlag, Wien. pp. 364-370. Strömmer, E. 2003: Klima-Geschichte. Methoden der Rekonstruction und historische Perspektive. Ostösterreich 1700 bis 1830. Forschungen und Beiträge zur Wiener Stadtgescichte 39. Franz Deuticke, Wien. pp. 59-71.

  10. Light scattering by dust particles (PROGRA2 experiment): size and structure effects for transparent and absorbing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadamcik, E.; Renard, J.-B.; Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2007-08-01

    is found for compact grains, larger than the wavelength. Mixtures of fluffy silica and fined grained amorphous carbon or better Mg-Fe silicates with amorphous carbon are excellent cometary particles analogues (as light scattering is concerned) if they are mixed with some compact micron-sized grains [9]. Nevertheless the structure of the aggregates seems to play a major role to obtain the negative branch found on the polarimetric phase curves for comets [10]. 5- Discussion and conclusions The experiments purpose is to help to disentangle the different physical properties of dust particles that can be deduced from remote observations (cometary dust, regoliths). Differences between the main parameters influencing the variations of Pmax and the presence of a negative branch on the polarimetric phase curves for lifted and deposited particles (in huge agglomerates or not) will be discussed. Acknowledgments: Technische Universität Carolo-Wilhelmina, Braunschweig, Deutschland (Pr Blum, Dr Schräpler); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA (Pr Rietmeijer); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, USA (Dr Nuth) References [1] A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, JQSRT 79-80, 903 (2003) [2] J. Lasue, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, JQSRT 100, 220 (2006) [3] J.-B. Renard et al., ASR 31, 2511 (2003) [4] J.-B. Renard et al., Appl. Opt. 91, 609 (2002) [5] E. Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 106, 74 (2007) [6] J. Blum, R. Schreapler, Phys. Rev Let 93:115031 (2004) [7] J. Blum et al., Astrophys J 652, 1768 (2006) [8] R. West, Appl. Opt. 30, 5216 (1991) [9] E. Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 100, 143 (2006) [10] E. Hadamcik et al., Icarus, in press (2007)

  11. Hydrothermal Carbonization: a feasible solution to convert biomass to soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesch, Walter; Tesch, Petra; Pfeifer, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    ., Gomez-Eyles J.L., Harris H., Robinson B., Sizmur T.: A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution (159), p. 3269 - 3282, 2011. Behrendt F.: Direktverflüssigung von Biomasse - Reaktionsmechanismen und Produktverteilungen Institut für Energietechnik, Technische Universität Berlin Studie im Auftrag der Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung; Projektnummer 114-50-10-0337/05-B, 2006. European Commission: "Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe", COM(2011) 571. Lehmann J., Rillig M.C., Thies J., Masiello C.A., Hockaday W.C., Crowley D.: Biochar effects on soil biota - A review, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, p. 1-25, 2011. Myers Norman: "Environmental services of biodiversity", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 93, pp. 2764 - 2769, 1996. Rillig M.C., Wagner M., Salem M., Antunes P.M., George C., Ramke H.G., Titirici M.M., Antonietti M.: Material derived from hydrothermal carbonization: effects on plant growth and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Applied Soil Ecology (45), p. 238 - 242, 2010. Vorlop K.D., Schuchardt F., Prüße U.: Hydrothermale Carbonisierung Analyse und Ausblicke. FNR-Fachgespräch, Berlin, 2009.

  12. Research and Development on In-Situ Measurement Sensors for Micro-Meteoroid and Small Space Debris at JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Okudaira, Osamu; Kimoto, Yugo; Hanada, Toshiya; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Pauline, Faure; Sakurai, Akira; Funakoshi, Kunihiro; Yasaka, Testuo

    2015-04-01

    The history of Japanese R&D into in-situ sensors for micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) measurements is neither particularly long nor short. Research into active sensors started for the meteoroid observation experiment on the HITEN (MUSES-A) satellite of ISAS/JAXA launched in 1990, which had MDC (Munich Dust Counter) on-board sensors for micro meteoroid measurement. This was a collaboration between Technische Universität München and ISAS/JAXA. The main purpose behind the start of passive sensor research was SOCCOR, a late 80's Japan-US mission that planned to capture cometary dust and return to the Earth. Although this mission was canceled, the research outcomes were employed in a JAXA micro debris sample return mission using calibrated aerogel involving the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. There have been many other important activities apart from the above, and the knowledge generated from them has contributed to JAXA's development of a new type of active dust sensor. JAXA and its partners have been developing a simple in-situ active dust sensor of a new type to detect dust particles ranging from a hundred micrometers to several millimeters. The distribution and flux of the debris in the size range are not well understood and is difficult to measure using ground observations. However, it is important that the risk caused by such debris is assessed. In-situ measurement of debris in this size range is useful for 1) verifying meteoroid and debris environment models, 2) verifying meteoroid and debris environment evolution models, and 3) the real time detection of explosions, collisions and other unexpected orbital events. Multitudes of thin, conductive copper strips are formed at a fine pitch of 100 um on a film 12.5 um thick of nonconductive polyimide. An MMOD particle impact is detected when one or more strips are severed by being perforated by such an impact. This sensor is simple to produce and use and requires almost no calibration as

  13. ogs6 - a new concept for porous-fractured media simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Dmitri; Bilke, Lars; Fischer, Thomas; Rink, Karsten; Wang, Wenqing; Watanabe, Norihiro; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    the GitHub code hosting system (https://github.com/ufz/ogs). The very flexible revision control system Git in combination with issue tracking, developer feedback and the code review options improve the code quality and the development process in general. The continuous testing procedure of the benchmarks as it was established for OGS-5 is maintained. Additionally unit testing, which is automatically triggered by any code changes, is executed by two continuous integration frameworks (Jenkins CI, Travis CI) which build and test the code on different operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS), in multiple configurations and with different compilers (GCC, Clang, Visual Studio). To improve the testing possibilities further, XML based file input formats are introduced helping with automatic validation of the user contributed benchmarks. The first ogs6 prototype version 6.0.1 has been implemented for solving generic elliptic problems. Next steps are envisaged to transient, non-linear and coupled problems. Literature: [1] Kolditz O, Shao H, Wang W, Bauer S (eds) (2014): Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Fractured Porous Media: Modelling and Benchmarking - Closed Form Solutions. In: Terrestrial Environmental Sciences, Vol. 1, Springer, Heidelberg, ISBN 978-3-319-11893-2, 315pp. http://www.springer.com/earth+sciences+and+geography/geology/book/978-3-319-11893-2 [2] Naumov D (2015): Computational Fluid Dynamics in Unconsolidated Sediments: Model Generation and Discrete Flow Simulations, PhD thesis, Technische Universität Dresden.

  14. Mixtures of Bosonic and Fermionic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albus, Alexander

    2003-12-01

    The theory of atomic Boson-Fermion mixtures in the dilute limit beyond mean-field is considered in this thesis. Extending the formalism of quantum field theory we derived expressions for the quasi-particle excitation spectra, the ground state energy, and related quantities for a homogenous system to first order in the dilute gas parameter. In the framework of density functional theory we could carry over the previous results to inhomogeneous systems. We then determined to density distributions for various parameter values and identified three different phase regions: (i) a stable mixed regime, (ii) a phase separated regime, and (iii) a collapsed regime. We found a significant contribution of exchange-correlation effects in the latter case. Next, we determined the shift of the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature caused by Boson-Fermion interactions in a harmonic trap due to redistribution of the density profiles. We then considered Boson-Fermion mixtures in optical lattices. We calculated the criterion for stability against phase separation, identified the Mott-insulating and superfluid regimes both, analytically within a mean-field calculation, and numerically by virtue of a Gutzwiller Ansatz. We also found new frustrated ground states in the limit of very strong lattices. ----Anmerkung: Der Autor ist Träger des durch die Physikalische Gesellschaft zu Berlin vergebenen Carl-Ramsauer-Preises 2004 für die jeweils beste Dissertation der vier Universitäten Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin und Universität Potsdam. Ziel der Arbeit war die systematische theoretische Behandlung von Gemischen aus bosonischen und fermionischen Atomen in einem Parameterbereich, der sich zur Beschreibung von aktuellen Experimenten mit ultra-kalten atomaren Gasen eignet. Zuerst wurde der Formalismus der Quantenfeldtheorie auf homogene, atomare Boson-Fermion Gemische erweitert, um grundlegende Größen wie Quasiteilchenspektren

  15. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    PubMed

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A

    2000-01-01

    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  16. 100th anniversary of the birth of B M Pontecorvo (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    A scientific session "Prospects of Studies in Neutrino Particle Physics and Astrophysics," of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (DPS RAS), devoted to the centenary of B M Pontecorvo, was held on 2-3 September 2014 at the JINR international conference hall (Dubna, Moscow region).The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kudenko Yu G (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region; National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow) "Long-baseline neutrino accelerator experiments: results and prospects";(2) Spiering Ch (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Germany) "Results obtained by ICECUBE and prospects of neutrino astronomy";(3) Barabash A S (Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow) "Double beta decay experiments: current status and prospects";(4) Bilenky S M (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region; Technische Universitat M'unchen, Garching, Germany) "Bruno Pontecorvo and the neutrino";(5) Olshevskiy A G (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region) "Reactor neutrino experiments: results and prospects";(6) Gavrin V N (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Low-energy neutrino research at the Baksan Neutrino Laboratory";(7) Gorbunov D S (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow): "Sterile neutrinos and their role in particle physics and cosmology";(8) Derbin A V (Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad region) "Solar neutrino experiments";(9) Rubakov V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Prospects of studies in the field of neutrino particle physics and astrophysics." An article by V N Gavrin, close in essence to talk 6, was published in Usp. Fiz. Nauk 181 (9), 975 (2011) [Phys. Usp. 54 (9) 941 (2011)]. Articles by V A Rubakov, close in essence

  17. EDITORIAL: Optical mammography: Imaging and characterization of breast lesions by pulsed near-infrared laser light (OPTIMAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2005-06-01

    The Commission of the European Union (EU) conceived its Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) to identify the priorities for the European Union's research, technological development and demonstration activities for the period 1998-2002. By encouraging collaborative research between groups in different member countries, FP5 was intended to help solve problems the EU is facing and respond to major socio-economic challenges. The programme focused on a number of objectives and areas combining technological, industrial, economic, social and cultural aspects. A specific call was made, under its `Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources' section, for proposals which aim to explore improvements in non-invasive methods of imaging for early diagnosis and clinical evaluation of disease. Among the projects successfully funded under the FP5 programme was one entitled `Optical mammography: Imaging and characterization of breast lesions by pulsed near-infrared laser light', known by its acronym OPTIMAMM. The project involved a consortium of nine partners, comprising ten applied science and clinical research groups based in six EU countries, with overall administration and management provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany. The broad aim of the OPTIMAMM project was to combine multi-disciplinary basic (physics, engineering, mathematics, computer science) and clinical (oncology, histology) research to assess the diagnostic potential of time-domain optical and photoacoustic mammography as novel, non-invasive imaging modalities for the detection and clinical evaluation of breast lesions. Funding for the project, at a total cost of about 1.67 MEuro, began in December 2000 for a period of three years, although a zero-cost extension was granted to enable the ongoing project activities to continue until the end of May 2004. The importance of developing new tools for the detection and diagnosis of breast disease is evident from the very high incidence and

  18. Zinclipscombite, ZnFe{2/3+}(PO4)2(OH)2, a new mineral species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Möckel, S.; Zadov, A. E.; Dubinchuk, V. T.

    2007-12-01

    )) are 4.79(80)(111), 3.32(100)(113), 3.21(60)(210), 2.602(45)(213), 2.299(40)(214), 2.049(40)(106), 1.663(45)(226), 1.605(50)(421, 108). Zinclipscombite is an analogue of lipscombite, Fe2+Fe{2/3+} (PO4)2(OH)2 (tetragonal), with Zn instead of Fe2+. The mineral is named for its chemical composition, the Zn-dominant analogue of lipscombite. The type material of zinclipscombite is deposited in the Mineralogical Collection of the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany.

  19. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    -202. itwh (2002). Modellbeschreibung, Institut für technisch-wissenschaftliche Hydrologie GmbH, Hannover. Karpf, C. & Krebs, P. (2013). Modelling of groundwater infiltration into sewer systems. Urban Water Journal, 10:4, 221-229, DOI: 10.1080/1573062X.2012.724077. Kolditz, O., Bauer, S. et al. (2012). OpenGeoSys: an open source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Env. Earth Sci. 67(2):589-599. Wolf, L., Held, I., Eiswirth, M., & Hötzl, H. (2004). Impact of leaky sewers on groundwater quality. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 32(4-5), 361-373. doi:10.1002/aheh.200400538. Wolf, L. (2006). Influence of leaky sewer systems on groundwater resources beneath the city of Rastatt, Germany. Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe.

  20. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirlich, Thomas

    For the design and layout human spacecraft interiors the Neutral Body Posture (NBP) in micro-gravity is of great importance. The NBP has been defined as the stable, replicable and nearly constant posture the body "automatically" assumes when a human relaxes in microgravity. Furthermore the NBP, as published, suggests that there is one standard neutral posture for all individuals. Published experiments from space, parabolic flights and under water on the other hand show strong inter-individual variations of neutral (relaxed) postures. This might originate from the quite small sample sizes of subjects analyzed or the different experiment conditions, e. g. space and under water. Since 2008 a collaborative research project focussing on human postures and motions in microgravity has been ongoing at the Technische Univer-sitüt München (TUM). This collaborative effort is undertaken by the Institute of Astronautics a (LRT) and the Institute of Ergonomics (LfE). Several test campaigns have been conducted in simulated microgravity under water using a specially designed standardized experiment setup. Stereo-metric HD video footage and anthropometric data from over 50 subjects (female and male) has been gathered in over 80 experiments. The video data is analyzed using PCMAN software, developed by the LfE, resulting in a 3D volumetric CAD-based model of each subject and posture. Preliminary and ongoing analysis of the data offer evidence for the existence of intra-individually constant neutral postures, as well as continuously recurring relaxation strate-gies. But as with the data published prior the TUM experiments show quite a large variation of inter-individual postures. These variation might be induced or influenced by the special environmental conditions in the underwater experiment. Thus in present paper ways of stan-dardizing data and applying the findings gathered under water to real microgravity are being discussed. The following influences stemming from the

  1. Nanoscale 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenders, Ludger; Ducourtieux, Sebastien

    2014-04-01

    The accurate determination of the properties of micro- and nano-structures is essential in research and development. It is also a prerequisite in process control and quality assurance in industry. In most cases, especially at the nanometer range, knowledge of the dimensional properties of structures is the fundamental base, to which further physical properties are linked. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments, suitable measurement procedures as well as calibration artifacts and methods. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the NanoScale 2013 seminar held in Paris, France, on 25 and 26 April. It was the 6th Seminar on NanoScale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 10th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized with the Nanometrology Group of the Technical Committee-Length of EURAMET, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais. Three satellite meetings related to nanometrology were coupled to the seminar. The first one was an open Symposium on Scanning Probe Microscopy Standardization organized by the ISO/TC 201/SC9 technical committee. The two others were specific meetings focused on two European Metrology Research Projects funded by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) (see www.euramet.org), the first one focused on the improvement of the traceability for high accuracy devices dealing with sub-nm length measurement and implementing optical interferometers or capacitive sensors (JRP SIB08 subnano), the second one aiming to develop a new metrological traceability for the measurement of the mechanical properties of nano-objects (JRP NEW05 MechProNo). More than 100 experts from industry, calibration laboratories and metrology institutes from around the world joined the NanoScale 2013 Seminar to attend 23 oral and 64 poster

  2. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  3. Comparative study of gene expression during the differentiation of white and brown preadipocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, Stéphane

    2002-08-01

    by different expression levels of several genes. These results draw attention to interesting candidate genes for the determination of white and brown preadipocytes (necdin, vigilin and others) and furthermore indicate that potential importance of several functional groups in the differentiation of white and brown preadipocytes, mainly the complement system and extracellular matrix. Einleitung Säugetiere haben zwei verschiedene Arten von Fettgewebe: das weiße Fettgewebe, welches vorwiegend zur Lipidspeicherung dient, und das braune Fettgewebe, welches sich durch seine Fähigkeit zur zitterfreien Thermogenese auszeichnet. Weiße und braune Adipozyten sind beide mesodermalen Ursprungs. Die Mechanismen, die zur Entwicklung von Vorläuferzellen in den weißen oder braunen Fettzellphenotyp führen, sind jedoch unbekannt. Durch verschiedene experimentelle Ansätze konnte gezeigt werden, daß diese Adipocyten vermutlich durch die Differenzierung zweier Typen unterschiedlicher Vorläuferzellen entstehen: weiße und braune Preadipozyten. Von dieser Hypothese ausgehend, war das Ziel dieser Studie, die Genexpression weißer und brauner Preadipozyten auf Unterschiede systematisch zu analysieren. Methoden Die zu vergleichenden Zellen wurden aus primären Zellkulturen weißer und brauner Preadipozyten des dsungarischen Zwerghamsters gewonnen. "Representational Difference Analysis" wurde angewandt, um potentiell unterschiedlich exprimierte Gene zu isolieren. Die daraus resultierenden cDNA Fragmente von Kandidatengenen wurden mit Hilfe der Microarraytechnik untersucht. Die Expression dieser Gene wurde in braunen und weißen Fettzellen in verschiedenen Differenzierungsstadien und in braunem und weißem Fettgewebe verglichen. Ergebnisse 12 Gene, die in braunen und weißen Preadipozyten unterschiedlich exprimiert werden, konnten identifiziert werden. Drei Komplement Faktoren und eine Fettsäuren Desaturase werden in weißen Preadipozyten höher exprimiert; drei Struktur Gene

  4. Variabilität des Reviergesangs des Buchfinken (Fringilla coelebs) zur Raum-Zeit-Beschreibung von Metapopulationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, Björn

    2003-10-01

    Der Buchfinkengesang wurde in Potsdam in zwei Hauptpopulationen über drei Jahre aufgenommen. Jedes Individuum wurde eindeutig am individuellen Strophentypenrepertoire identifiziert. Ein weiterer Punkt der die individuelle Wiedererkennung bestätigt ist die hohe Standorttreue der adulten Männchen. Die beschriebene Methode eignet sich für die Untersuchung von gesamten Populationen, um den Wandel des Gesangs von Populationen in Raum und Zeit zu beschreiben. Die Haupterkenntnisse der Arbeit sind: - Die Gesamtanzahl der Grundstrophentypen innerhalb einer Population bleibt über Jahre konstant. - Die relative Häufigkeit jedes einzelnen Strophentyps variiert von Jahr zu Jahr und von Population zu Population. - Gesangslernen erfolgt exakt mit einem Korrektheitsgrad von mindestens 96%. - Das Song-Sharing ist innerhalb der Population hoch. Die diskutierten Mechanismen für das Song-Sharing sind: Die Lebenserwartung, das Zugverhalten, das Lernverhalten, die Etabliertheit von Strophentypen, Weibchenpräferenzen und die Reaktionen der territorialen Männchen. - Weiterhin wurde ein Modell zur kulturellen Evolution des Buchfinkengesangs programmiert, um die Rolle der Einflussfaktoren, wie Fehlerquote, Abwanderungsrate und Laufzeit zu ermitteln. Der Wandel des Dialektes erfolgt graduell in Raum und Zeit. Daher sind keine scharfen Dialektgrenzen anzutreffen. Trotz dieser Tatsache markieren die etablierten Strophentypen die Population. 50 % der Juvenilen siedeln am Geburtsort, auf diese Weise bleibt der Dialekt erhalten und Inzest wird vermieden. -Analysiert man das Repertoire benachbarten Männchen bei isolierten Alleen, so entspricht die Gesangsangleichung in etwa dem Zufall. -Intraindividuelle Vergleiche der quantitativen Parameter des jeweiligen Strophentyps wurden saisonal und annuell durchgeführt. Saisonal konnten für einen Strophentyp ein Trend ermittelt werden. Bei jährlichen Vergleichen konnten intraindividuell ausschließlich nicht signifikante Ergebnisse ermittelt

  5. Validation of Erosion 3D in Lower Saxony - Comparison between modelled soil erosion events and results of a long term monitoring project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bug, Jan; Mosimann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    obtain better results, the DEM needs a higher resolution, and soil and landuse parameters have to been optimized in tractor tracks and headlands (higher bulk density, less coverage). Other models like LINERO (Bug &Mosimann 2012) can help to get an overview over the location of erosion forms and the soil loss due to rill erosion. References: Bug J., & T. Mosimann (2012): Modellierung der linearen Bodenerosion. Entwicklung eines entscheidungsbasierten Modells zur flächenhaften Prognose der linearen Erosionsaktivität, Geosynthesis 15, Hannover, 105 S. Michael, A., Schmidt, J. & W. A. Schmidt (1996): EROSION 2D/3D - Ein Computermodell zur Simulation der Bodenerosion durch Wasser. Parameterkatalog Sachsen, Freiberg. Mosimann, T., Bug, J. Sanders, S. & F. Beisiegel (2009): Bodenerosionsdauerbeobachtung in Niedersachsen 2000-2008. Methodik, Erosionsgeschehen, Bodenabträge und Anwendung der Ergebnisse, Geosynthesis 14, Hannover, 101 S. Schmidt, J., & M. v. Werner (2000): Modeling sediment and heavy metal yields of drinking water reservoirs in the Osterzgebirge region of Saxony (Germany). In: Schmidt, J. (Ed.), Soil Erosion—Application of Physically Based Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 93- 108.

  6. Sedimentation architecture of the volcanically-dammed Alf valley in the West Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Luise; Lange, Thomas; Engelhardt, Jörn; Polom, Ulrich; Pirrung, Michael; Büchel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    . Due to the density of core locations in the valley and shear seismic data, an architecture model of this high resolution archive was established. Cipa, W. (1958). Erdmagnetische Vermessung einiger Lavaströme und Tuffschlote in der Vorder-Eifel. Geologisches Jahrbuch 75. Hemfler, M. and G. Büchel (1991). Influente Verhältnisse als Folge der Trinkwassergewinnung im Alfbachtal bei Strohn (Westeifel). Pollichia 78. Pirrung, M., G. Büchel and K.-H. Köppen (2007). Hochauflösende fluviolakustrine Sedimente des jüngeren Pleistozän aus dem Alfbachtal bei Gillenfeld (Westeifel) - erste Ergebnisse. Mainzer geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen 35. Sirocko, F., S. Dietrich, D. Veres, P. M. Grootes, K. Schaber-Mohr, K. Seelos, M.-J. Nadeau, B. Kromer, L. Rothacker, M. Röhner, M. Krbetschek, P. Appleby, U. Hambach, C. Rolf, M. Sudo and S. Grim (2013). Multi-proxy dating of Holocene maar lakes and Pleistocene dry maar sediments in the Eifel, Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 62.

  7. Achievable field strength in reverberation chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eulig, N.; Enders, A.; Krauthäuser, H. G.; Nitsch, J.

    2003-05-01

    Feldvariable Kammern (FVK, engl.: modestirred- chamber) werden unter anderem für EMV-Störfestigkeitsprüfungen verwendet. Ein häufig genanntes Argument, das die Einführung dieser Kammern als normgerechte Prüfumgebung vorantreiben soll, ist eine hohe Feldstärke, die im Vergleich zu anderen Testumgebungen mit relativ moderaten HF-Leistungen erreicht werden kann. Besonders für sicherheitskritische Geräte, wie Komponenten aus der Avionik- oder KFZ-Industrie, sind heutzutage Testfeldstärken von mehreren 100 V/m notwendig. Derart hohe Feldstärken können in Umgebungen, die ein ebenes Wellenfeld erzeugen oder nachbilden, nur mit großen HFLeistungen generiert werden. Durch die Resonanzeigenschaften einer FVK können demgegenüber mit sehr viel weniger Leistung und damit Verstärkeraufwand vergleichbare Werte der Feldstärke erzeugt werden. Allerdings sinkt mit zunehmendem Volumen die erreichbare Feldstärke bei gleicher Speiseleistung. Idealerweise sollen Feldvariable Kammern bei möglichst niedrigen Frequenzen für EMVTests nutzbar sein, was jedoch ein großes Kammervolumen erfordert. Das Problem, bei niedrigen Frequenzen hohe Feldstärken erzeugen zu können, relativiert deshalb den Vorteil von FVKn gegenüber bekannten Testumgebungen bei niedrigen Testfrequenzen. Der Posterbeitrag erläutert, welche Feldstärken in verschieden großen Feldvariablen Kammern beim Einspeisen einer bestimmten hochfrequenten Leistung erreicht werden können. Anhand dieser Ergebnisse wird aufgezeigt, oberhalb welcher Grenzfrequenz eine Anwendung von FVKn nur sinnvoll erscheint. Mode-stirred chambers (MSCs) can be used for radiated immunity tests in EMC testing. Advantageous compared to conventional test methods is the high field strength which can here be generated with less RF-Power. This point is often the main argument for pushing the standardization of MSCs as an other EMC testing environment. Especially for safety-critical electronic equipment like

  8. FORS am Very Large Telescope der Europäischen Südsternwarte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    von Aufnahmen verschiedener astronomischer Objekte, von denen einige hier wiedergegeben sind. Sie wurden alle mit FORS in der Standardauflösung gewonnen (Bildfeldgröße 6.8 x 6.8 Bogenminuten, Pixelgröße 0.20 Bogensekunden) und zeigen einige der eindrucksvollen Möglichkeiten, die das neue Instrument bietet. Spiralgalaxie NGC 1288 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 ESO PR Photo 37a/98 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 908 pix - 224k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3406 pix - 1.5Mb] Farbaufnahme der Spiralgalaxie NGC 1288, aufgenommen in der ersten Beobachtungsnacht von FORS ("Nacht des ersten Lichts"). Das erste Photo zeigt eine Dreifarbenaufnahme der schönen Spiralgalaxie NGC 1288 im südlichen Sternbild Fornax. PR Photo 37a/98 umfaßt das gesamte Feld, das mit der 2048 x 2048 Pixel großen CCD-Kamera abgebildet wurde. Es wurde aus drei CCD-Aufnahmen zusammengesetzt, die bei gutem Seeing in verschiedenen Farben in der "Nacht des ersten Lichts" (15. September 1998) aufgenommen wurden. Diese Galaxie mit einem Durchmesser von rund 200000 Lichtjahren ist etwa 300 Millionen Lichtjahre entfernt, ihre Fluchtgeschwindigkeit beträgt 4500 km/sec. Technische Informationen : Photo 37a/98 ist ein Komposit von drei Aufnahmen in den drei Filtern B (420nm, 6 Minuten belichtet), V (530nm, 3 Minuten) und I (800nm, 3 Minuten) während einer Periode mit 0.7 Bogensekunden Seeing. Das gezeigte Feld ist 6.8 x 6.8 Bogenminuten groß. Norden ist links, Osten unten. Entfernter Galaxienhaufen ESO PR Photo 37b/98 ESO PR Photo 37b/98 [Preview - JPEG: 657 x 800 pix - 248k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2465 x 3000 pix - 1.9Mb] Ein ungewöhnlicher Galaxienhaufen in der Umgebung des Quasars PB5763 . ESO PR Photo 37c/98 ESO PR Photo 37c/98 [Preview - JPEG: 670 x 800 pix - 272k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2512 x 3000 pix - 1.9Mb] Vergrößerung von PR Photo 37b/98; sie zeigt mehr Einzelheiten des ungewöhnlichen Galaxienhaufens. Die nächsten Photos wurden von einer 5-minütigen Aufnahme im Nahen Infrarot reproduziert, die ebenfalls in der "Nacht

  9. IN MEMORIAM: Hermann Anton Haus, 1925 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    Photograph Hermann Anton Haus, an Institute Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was to have been a Keynote Speaker at the Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics Conference, from which the papers in this special issue derive. Sadly, on May 21, 2003 - less than two weeks before the conference - Professor Haus succumbed to a heart attack after arriving home in Lexington, Massachusetts, from his regular, 15-mile commute by bicycle from MIT. He was 77. Throughout his lengthy and illustrious career, Professor Haus had repeatedly and very successfully addressed problems of fluctuations and noise, with special focus on the fundamental issues that arise in quantum optics. To honour Professor Haus' legacy to our technical community, this special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is dedicated to his memory. Professor Haus was born in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the former Yugoslavia, on 8 August 1925. After attending the Technische Hochschule, Graz, and the Technische Hochschule, Wien, in Austria, he received his Bachelor of Science degree from Union College in Schenectady, New York in 1949. In 1951, he graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, and came to MIT, where he earned his Doctorate of Science and joined the faculty in 1954. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1958, to Professor in 1962, and to Elihu Thomson Professor in 1973. In 1986, he was conferred the honour of Institute Professor. Professor Haus had a lifelong fascination with noise. While still an undergraduate at Union College, he became aware of Norbert Wiener's theories of statistical phenomena - the new mathematics needed to understand and quantify the random fluctuations we refer to as noise. So it was that noise theory formed the core of Professor Haus' research during the 1950s: noise in electron beams, noise in microwave amplifiers, and noise in amplifier cascades. Two of

  10. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on Physical Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, David

    1994-01-01

    the base and derived units of physics still being open to debate. Giving weight and coherence to this issue is the collective experience of the authors. Individually, they have made important contributions to measurement, have taken part in the operations of national standards laboratories and in the work in which such laboratories collaborate. They are members of the committees which negotiate terms for the use and recognition, at national, regional and international level, of the units which industrial laboratories maintain. Just under half of them are members of the Comité Consultatif des Unites (CCU), the committee to which the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), itself turns when it looks for advice on issues affecting the use of units. This issue deals with topics which are central to the decisions of the CIPM. This is an appropriate place, therefore, to mention the close interest which two members of the Comité International have taken in Metrologia and the unfailing support they have given it: Professor Dieter Kind and Professor Jan de Boer. As President of the Comité International, Professor Kind greatly influenced the decision that the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures should purchase Metrologia and did much to create the spirit of independent commentary in which the journal operates. Now that his retirement from his principal post as President of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, approaches, I take this opportunity, on behalf of Metrologia, its readers and its Editorial Board, to wish him a happy retirement and hope that in the future he will still find time to take an interest in the affairs of the journal. Professor de Boer's contribution to measurement is long and distinguished. His membership of the CIPM began in 1954 and he was its Secretary from 1962 to 1989. He thus took part in the debate which resulted in the decision to launch Metrologia in 1965. As the sole person to hold office as President of the

  11. N2O and CH4-emissions from energy crops - Can the use of organic fertilizers in form of biogas digestate be considered as a real alternative? Results from a three and a half year multi-site field study of energy crops fertilized with biogas digestate in so

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2016-04-01

    Gawan Heintze1,2, Matthias Drösler1, Ulrike Hagemann3and Jürgen Augustin3 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany 3Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany Together with industrial process-related emissions (8.1%) the actual GHG emissions from agriculture (7.5% - 70 million tones (Mt) of carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalents) representing after energy-related emissions from combustion processes of fossil fuels (83.7%) the second largest budget of the Germany-wide total emissions per year. To reduce the EU's CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020 the cultivation of energy crops for biogas production, ideally coupled to a subsequent return of the resulting residues in form of biogas digestate is intended as one key element in the pathway of renewable energy production. Despite an increasing cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas aiming to reduce the overall climate impact of the agricultural sector, it is still largely unknown how the application of ammonia-rich organic digestate effects field N2O emissions. Therefore, the collaborative research project "potential for reducing the release of climate-relevant trace gases in the cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas" was launched. The main objective of the study was to determine an improved process understanding and to quantify the influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization, biogas digestate application, crop type and crop rotation, to gain precise and generalizable statements on the exchange of trace gases like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) on the resulting climate impact. Gas fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured for three and a half years on two differently managed sites in maize monoculture with different applied organic

  12. Valles Marineris, Mars: High-Resolution Digital Terrain Model on the basis of Mars-Express HRSC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumke, A.; Spiegel, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.

    2009-04-01

    the DTM quality, image mosaicking also depends on the quality of exterior orientation data, and in order to generate high resolution DTMs and ortho-images, these data have to be corrected. For this purpose, new exterior and interior orientation data, based on tie-point matching and bundle adjustment have been used. The automated determination of tie points by software provided by the Leibniz Universität Hannover [6] are used as input in the bundle adjustment, provided by the Technische Universität München and Freie Universität Berlin. The bundle adjustment approach for photogrammetric point determination with a three-line camera is a least squares adjustment based on the well known collinearity equations. The approach estimates the parameters of the exterior orientation only at a few selected image lines. Because of Doppler shift measurements to estimate the position of the orbiter there are systematic effects in the observed exterior orientation. To model these effects in the bundle adjustment, additional observation equations for bias (offset) and drift have to be introduced. To use the MOLA DTM as control information, the least squares adjustment has to be extended with an additional observation equation for each HRSC point. These observations describe a relation between the MOLA DTM and these HRSC points. This approach is described in more detail in [7,8]. Derivation of DTMs and ortho-image mosaics are basically performed using software developed at the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Berlin and is using the Vicar environment developed at JPL. For the DTM derivation, the main processing tasks are first a prerectification of image data using the global MOLA-based DTM, then a least-squares area-based matching between nadir and the other channels (stereo and photometry) in a pyramidal approach and finally, DTM raster generation. Iterative low-pass image filtering (Gauss and mean filtering) is applied in order to improve the image matching process by increasing the

  13. Influence of plant productivity over variability of soil respiration: a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curiel Yuste, J.

    2009-04-01

    general controlled by the seasonality of substrate supply by plants (via photosynthates translocation and/or litter) to soil. Although soil temperature and soil moisture exert a strong influence over the variation in SR, our results indicates that substrate supply by plant activity could exert a more important than previously expected role in the variability of soil respiration. 1. CREAF (Centre de Recerca Ecológica i Aplicacions Forestals), Unitat d'Ecofisiologia i Canvi Global CREAF-CEAB-CSIC, BELLATERRA (Barcelona), Spain (j.curiel@creaf.uab.es) 2. University of Antwerp (UA), Antwerp, Belgium (ivan.janssens@ua.ac.be) 3. Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (michael.bahn@uibk.ac.at) 4. UMR Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestières, Centre INRA de Nancy, France (longdoz@nancy.inra.fr) 5. ESPM, University of Calicornia at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, US (baldocchi@nature.berkeley.edu) 6. The Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, USA (edavidson@whrc.org) 7. Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany (markus.reichstein@bgc-jena.mpg.de) 8. Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic (manuel@brno.cas.cz) 9. Università degli studi della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy (arriga@unitus.it) 10. Laurence Berkeley lab, Berkeley, CA, USA (mstorn@lbl.gov) 11. Gembloux Agricultural University, Gembloux, Belgium (aubinet.m@fsagx.ac.be) 12. Fundacion CEAM(Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo), Valencia, Spain (arnaud@ceam.es) 13. Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Pienner, Germany (gruenwald@forst.tu-dresden.de) 14. Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy (ilaria.inglima@unina2.it) 15. CNRS-CEFE Montpellier, France (Laurent.MISSON@cefe.cnrs.fr) 16. Agenzia Provinciale per l'Ambiente, Bolzano, Italy (leonar@inwind.it) 17. University of Helsinki Department of Forest Ecology, Helsinki, Finland (jukka

  14. EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Gao, Yongsheng; Krystek, Michael

    2008-08-01

    the other papers, two are related to length measurement, which forms the basis of dimensional measurement. Schödel et al from Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) describe the recent state of thermal expansion measurements with PTB's Precision Interferometer, which are based on the observation of the absolute length of samples by using phase stepping interferometry. Meiners-Hagen et al, also from PTB, investigate an improved method for compensation of the refractive index of air in length measurements by optical interferometry where the air pressure and the humidity are measured. Three papers concern surface metrology. Song et al from NIST (National Institutes of Standards and Technology) report topography measurement for determining the decay factors in surface replication of Standard Casing to support ballistics measurements in the US. Takahashi et al from the University of Tokyo present a lateral resolution improvement for a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope that employs the combined use of standing evanescent light and a scattering distribution retrieval algorithm with successive approximation. X Liu et al from Warwick University report on a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect the touch-feel perception, with the results showing that both the measured roughness and friction coefficient have a strong correlation with rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings. Measurement algorithms and calibration are described in the following three papers. Hessling from SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden presents a general unprecedented framework for dynamic evaluation of measurement systems, which separates physical experiments, analysis and signal processing methods into succeeding steps of evaluations. Wübbeler et al from PTB illustrate the Monte Carlo method required for the numerical calculations of the probability density function approach, which has been proposed for evaluation of measurement uncertainty

  15. Regional modelling of water and CO2-fluxes with a one-dimensional SVAT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, M.; Köstner, B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change affects site conditions for vegetation and may affect changes in the distribution of plant species. Investigations of these effects are difficult, because other influences on plant performance like land use and management also need to be considered. Carbon gain can be used as a sensitive indicator for changes in the vitality of the considered vegetation types that are affected by different climate and weather patterns. The objective of the presented study is the quantification of net photosynthesis rate, respiration and transpiration of different vegetation types on the regional scale. The study regions are the Weißeritz catchment in the Ore Mountains and the region Torgau-Oschatz in the Elbe basin both located in Saxony (East Germany) but significantly differing in elevation and site conditions. The carbon and water fluxes are simulated by an ecophysiological based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model for three periods (1996-2006, 2015-2025 and 2035-2045). The considered vegetation types are forest and grassland. The used model SVAT-CN is a multi-layer model, which enables the calculation of hourly carbon gain by coupling micrometerological data with ecophysiological processes. The calculations are based on the equations of Farquhar and Ball for net photosynthesis rate and stomata conductivity, respectively. It is a one-dimensional model which also considers soil water processes. The soil is coupled with the vegetation by one factor that depends on the matric potential and steers the calculation of the stomata conductivity. The equations of the soil water processes are based on a combination of bucket model and Richard's equation. Simulations are based on measured weather data (Dept. of Meteorology at Technische Universität Dresden and LfL Sachsen) with varying levels of atmospheric CO2 concentrations up to 580 ppm. Further, climate projections (ECHAM5-OM, IPCC emission scenario A1B), with downscaling to a 18x18km grid by the regional climate

  16. Corroboration for the influence of a component of solar irradiance on subsurface radon signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Kotlarsky, P.; Sturrock, P.; Maritn, C.

    2012-04-01

    ., Kotlarsky, P., 2011. Possible effect of solar tides on radon signals. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102, 749-765. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.04.002. 5. Steinitz, G., Piatibratova, O., Kotlarsky, P., 2011. Solar radiation tidal forcing of radon signals in subsurface air. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 13, EGU2011-733, 2011 6. Sturrock, P.A., Buncher , J.B., Fischbach, E., Gruenwald, J.T., Javorsek, D., Jenkins, J.H., Lee, R.H., Mattes, J.J., Newport, J.R., 2010b. Power Spectrum Analysis of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Decay-Rate Data: Evidence for Solar Rotational Modulation. Solar Physics, 267, 251-265. DOI: 10.1007/s11207-010-9659-4

  17. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, E.

    2006-09-01

    and researchers should turn to in order to get a complete and accessible education in radiation reaction? My answer is that while the book does indeed contain a lot of useful material, it is not a very accessible source of information, and it is certainly not a student-friendly textbook. Instead, the book presents a technical account of the author's personal take on the theory, and represents a culminating summary of the author's research contributions over more than a decade. The book is written in a fairly mathematical style (the author is Professor of Mathematical Physics at the Technische Universitat in Munich), and it very much emphasises mathematical rigour. This makes the book less accessible than I would wish it to be, but this is perhaps less a criticism than a statement about my taste, expectation, and attitude. The presentation of the classical theory begins with a point particle, but Spohn immediately smears the charge distribution to eliminate the vexing singularities of the retarded field. He considers both the nonrelativistic Abraham model (in which the extended particle is spherically symmetric in the laboratory frame) and the relativistic Lorentz model (in which the particle is spherical in its rest frame). In Spohn's work, the smearing of the charge distribution is entirely a mathematical procedure, and I would have wished for a more physical discussion. A physically extended body, held together against electrostatic repulsion by cohesive forces (sometimes called Poincaré stresses) would make a sound starting point for a classical theory of charged particles, and would have nicely (and physically) motivated the smearing operation adopted in the book. Spohn goes on to derive energy momentum relations for the extended objects, and to obtain their equations of motion. A compelling aspect of his presentation is that he formally introduces the 'adiabatic limit', the idea that the external fields acting on the charged body should have length and time

  18. PREFACE: International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberauer, Lothar; Raffelt, Georg; Wagner, Robert

    2012-07-01

    'Tor Vergata' K DanzmannMax Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics S DodelsonFermilab G DomogatskyINR Moscow E FioriniUniversità di Milano Bicocca & INFN K FreeseUniversity of Michigan M FukugitaICRR Tokyo T GaisserUniversity of Delaware G GerbierCEA Saclay F HalzenUniversity of Wisconsin W HaxtonLNBL & UC Berkeley J HoughGlasgow University E KomatsuUniversity of Texas E KatsavounidisMassachusetts Institute of Technology M LindnerMax Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics K LeskoLBNL & UC Berkeley A McDonaldQueens University & SNO Laboratory H MurayamaIPMU Tokyo & UC Berkeley A OlintoUniversity of Chicago L ResvanisUniversity of Athens A RubbiaETH Zurich S SarkarUniversity of Oxford A SmirnovICTP Trieste N SmithSNO Laboratory C SpieringDESY Zeuthen N SpoonerUniversity of Sheffield Y SuzukiICRR Tokyo M TeshimaMax Planck Institute for Physics J W F ValleIFIC & University of Valencia L VotanoLNGS E WaxmanWeizmann Institute J WilkersonUniversity of North Carolina TAUP Steering Committee F T AvignoneUniversity of South Carolina B C BarishCaltech E BellottiUniversity of Milan Bicoccia & INFN J BernabeuUniversity of Valencia A BottinoUniversity of Turin & INFN (chair) N FornengoUniversity of Turin & INFN T KajitaICRR Tokyo C W KimJohns Hopkins University & KIAS V MatveevINR Moscow G RaffeltMax Planck Institute for Physics D SinclairUniversity of Carleton M SpiroCEA Saclay Parallel Session Conveners Dark Matter - Candidates and Searches J-C LanfranchiTechnische Universität München T Marrodán UndagoitiaUniversity of Zurich T BringmannUniversität Hamburg Cosmology J WellerLudwig-Maximilians-Universität München S HannestadUniversity of Aarhus Double Beta Decay, Neutrino Mass M HirschIFIC/CSIC - University of Valencia A GiulianiCNRS Orsay Neutrino Oscillations T LachenmaierUniversität Tübingen F SuekaneTohoku University Low-Energy Neutrinos (Geo, Solar, Supernova) A DigheTIFR Mumbai M ChenQueen's University M WurmUniversität Hamburg Gravitational Waves E Coccia

  19. Electrical quantum standards and their role in the SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-12-01

    power of the rf irradiation, or both, do not change the voltage). The value of this quantized Josephson voltage is equal to nfh/2e, where n is the quantum step of the current-voltage characteristic curve. In this special feature there are three papers on dc Josephson voltage standards. Solve and Stock review the programme conducted by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) to perform on-site comparisons of Josephson voltage standards, and give a comprehensive analysis of the possible sources of errors of such comparisons. Behr et al summarize the developments of Josephson voltage standards at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and their applications in dc voltage and other areas of metrology. Finally, Georgakopoulos et al report a reduction, by a factor of a thousand, in the smallest voltage that can be generated by dc Josephson voltage standards. Although dc voltage standards are well established, significant challenges exist when extending this extremely precise technology to ac. There are two approaches to producing accurate ac voltages using the inverse Josephson effect: the programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) and the pulse-driven ac voltage standard. The PJVS contains an array of Josephson junctions, organized into independently biased segments. By biasing chosen, binary-related, segments on the first quantum step (positive or negative) or zero, the array can be made to behave as a quantum digital to analogue converter. The PJVS approach can produce stepwise approximated sine waves with rms values of some volts, but it suffers from parasitic capacitances and inductances distributed in the different parts of the system and, more importantly, the voltage is not quantized during the finite transition time between successive voltage levels. Hence the output frequency of PJVS-based systems is limited to a few kilohertz. In this special feature, Jeanneret et al review the Josephson locked synthesizer, a PJVS-based system where the effect

  20. SoCRocket: A Virtual Platform for SoC Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, Luca; Schuster, Thomas; Meyer, Rolf; Berekovic, Mladen

    2013-08-01

    approach in this sense, enabling embedded software developers to start development earlier in the system design cycle, and cutting the dependency on the physical system hardware. In order to successfully implement the described methodologies, it is requested to have access to the a wide selection of IP-Cores (and related SystemC/TLM models) and access to the latest Electronic Design Automation (EDA, [17]) tools. On the one hand, for what concerns the European Space landscape, such IP-Cores are provided by the European Space Agency [4] and a few other suppliers (e.g Aeroflex Gaisler with GRLIB [2]). On the other hand, for what concerns the related high abstraction models and related design methodologies (partly depicted in Figure 1), the European Space Agency, through the Braunschweig Technische Universitat, has started the development of the SoCRocket Virtual Platform [8]. Together with the Virtual Platform infrastructure SoCRocket contains a library of IP-Core models. The SoCRocket library has been built around the TrapGen LEON instruction set simulator [15]. The library contains a variety of SystemC simulation models such as caches, memory management unit, AMBA interconnect, memory controller, memories, interrupt controller, timer and more. All models are TLM2.0 compliant and come in both loosely-timed and approximately timed coding styles. As later-on presented more in detail, the runtime reconfiguration, the completeness of tools and models, as well as the fact that all simulation IPs have a freely available RTL counterpart differentiates SoCRocket from other commercially available Virtual Platforms. Moreover, due to their TLM2.0 compliance the provided models are not bound to the SoCRocket environment but they can be used with alternative tools, such as Cadence Virtual Platform [3] or Synopsys Platform Architect [10]. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the architecture of SoCRocket and the related library of SystemC models. Finally Section 3 shows

  1. EDITORIAL: Nanoscale metrology Nanoscale metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picotto, G. B.; Koenders, L.; Wilkening, G.

    2009-08-01

    Instrumentation and measurement techniques at the nanoscale play a crucial role not only in extending our knowledge of the properties of matter and processes in nanosciences, but also in addressing new measurement needs in process control and quality assurance in industry. Micro- and nanotechnologies are now facing a growing demand for quantitative measurements to support the reliability, safety and competitiveness of products and services. Quantitative measurements presuppose reliable and stable instruments and measurement procedures as well as suitable calibration artefacts to ensure the quality of measurements and traceability to standards. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions from the Nanoscale 2008 seminar held at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Torino, in September 2008. This was the 4th Seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods and the 8th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (the first being held in 1995). The seminar was jointly organized by the Nanometrology Group within EUROMET (The European Collaboration in Measurement Standards), the German Nanotechnology Competence Centre 'Ultraprecise Surface Figuring' (CC-UPOB), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and INRIM. A special event during the seminar was the 'knighting' of Günter Wilkening from PTB, Braunschweig, Germany, as the 1st Knight of Dimensional Nanometrology. Günter Wilkening received the NanoKnight Award for his outstanding work in the field of dimensional nanometrology over the last 20 years. The contributions in this special issue deal with the developments and improvements of instrumentation and measurement methods for scanning force microscopy (SFM), electron and optical microscopy, high-resolution interferometry, calibration of instruments and new standards, new facilities and applications including critical dimension (CD) measurements on small and medium structures and nanoparticle

  2. KEY COMPARISON: Results of the APMP Pressure key comparison APMP.M.P-K1c in gas media and gauge mode from 0.4 MPa to 4.0 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Woo, Sam Yong; Fitzgerald, Mark; Man, John; Ooiwa, Akira; Jescheck, M.; Jian, Wu; Fatt, Chen Soo; Chan, T. K.; Moore, Ken; El-Tawil, Alaaeldin A. E.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a regional key comparison (APMP-IC-2-97) under the aegis of the Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) for pressure measurements in gas media and in gauge mode from 0.4 MPa to 4.0 MPa. The transfer standard was a pressure-balance with a piston-cylinder assembly with nominal effective area 8.4 mm2 (V-407) and was supplied by the National Metrology Institute of Japan [NMIJ]. Ten standard laboratories from the APMP region with one specially invited laboratory from the EUROMET region, namely Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, participated in this comparison. The comparison started in October 1998 and was completed in May 2001. The pilot laboratory prepared the calibration procedure [1] as per the guidelines of APMP and the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) [2-4]. Detailed instructions for performing this key comparison were provided in the calibration protocol [1] and the required data were described in: (1) Annex 3 - characteristics of the laboratory standards, (2) Annex 4 - the effective area (A'p'/mm2) (the prime indicates values based on measured quantities) at 23°C of the travelling standard as a function of nominal pressure (p'/MPa) (five cycles both increasing and decreasing pressures at ten pre-determined pressure points) and (3) Annex 5 - the average effective area at 23°C (A'p'/mm2) obtained for each pressure p'/MPa with all uncertainty statements. The pilot laboratory processed the information and the data provided by the participants for these three annexes, starting with the information about the standards as provided in Annex 3. Based on this information, the participating laboratories are classified into two categories: (I) laboratories that are maintaining primary standards, and (II) laboratories that are maintaining standards loosely classified as secondary standards with a clear traceability as per norm of the BIPM. It is observed that out of these eleven laboratories, six

  3. KEY COMPARISON: Final report of APMP pressure key comparison (APMP.M.P-K6) in gas media and gauge mode from 20 kPa to 105 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Woo, Sam Yong; Fitzgerald, Mark; Man, John; Ooiwa, Akira; Jescheck, M.; Jian, Wu; Fatt, Chen Soo; Chan, T. K.; Moore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a regional key comparison (APMP-IC-2-97) under the aegis of Asia Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) for pressure measurements in gas media and in gauge mode from 20 kPa to 105 kPa. The transfer standard was a pressure-balance with a piston-cylinder assembly with nominal effective area 335.7 mm2 (TL-391) and was supplied by the National Metrology Institute of Japan [NMIJ]. Nine standards laboratories from the APMP region with one specially invited laboratory from the EUROMET region, namely Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, participated in this comparison. The comparison started in October 1998 and was completed in May 2001. The pilot laboratory prepared the calibration procedure as per the guidelines of APMP and International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) [1-4]. Detailed instructions for performing this key comparison were provided in the calibration protocol and the required data were described in: (1) Annex 3 - characteristics of the laboratory standards, (2) Annex 4 - the effective area (A'p'/mm2) (where the prime indicates values based on measured quantities) at 23 °C of the travelling standard as a function of nominal pressure (p'/kPa) (five cycles both increasing and decreasing pressures at five predetermined pressure points) and (3) Annex 5 - the average effective area at 23 °C (A'p'/mm2) obtained for each pressure p'/kPa with all uncertainty statements. The pilot laboratory processed the information and the data provided by the participants for these three annexes, starting with the information about the standards as provided in Annex 3. Based on this information, the participating laboratories are classified into two categories: (I) laboratories that are maintaining primary standards, and (II) laboratories that are maintaining standards loosely classified as secondary standards with a clear traceability from other established national metrology institutes (NMI) as per norm of the BIPM. It is

  4. Dedication: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The papers in this issue are dedicated to Professor Horst Paul Strunk on the occasion of his 65th birthday and his retirement from active teaching. This volume honours a scientist who has made a lasting impact on the field in electron microscopic characterisation of growth and relaxation phenomena in epitaxial growth of semiconductors. Born in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13 June 1940, he studied physics in Stuttgart where he received his degree in Physics in 1968. He joined the group of Prof. Seeger at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung and defended his Ph.D. on defects in NaCl at Stuttgart University in 1973. He spent one year at Cornell University as a visiting Professor before joining Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg in 1983. There he created the Zentralbereich Elektronenmikroskopie and was a professor for materials analytics from 1983 till 1989. In 1989 he changed to the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, where he established the Verbundlabor für hochauflösende Elektronenmikroskopie and directed the Lehrstuhl Mikrocharakterisierung at the Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften of the same university. He spent two research periods at the Universities of Rennes in France and Campinas in Brazil. Together with his colleague Prof. Jürgen Werner he created the series of conferences on polycrystalline semiconductors POLYSE which he has been supervising together with Jürgen Werner since 1990.The research activities of Horst P. Strunk are focused on microstructure of materials and their relation to macroscopic physical properties. Main topics are dislocations, their formation and interaction mechanisms, strain relaxation as well as fundamental mechanisms of epitaxial growth. The spectrum of materials covers a wide range starting from metals over ionic crystals, e.g. NaCl to elemental and compound semiconductors. From the beginning, the main tool of study has been the transmission electron microscope. However, Horst P. Strunk recognised that a

  5. Robust boosting via convex optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätsch, Gunnar

    2001-12-01

    analysiert, wie groß der Margin bei Boosting ist und ein verbesserter Algorithmus vorgeschlagen, der effizient Regeln mit maximalem Margin erzeugt. o Was ist der Zusammenhang von Boosting und Techniken der konvexen Optimierung? Um die Eigenschaften der entstehenden Klassifikations- oder Regressionsregeln zu analysieren, ist es sehr wichtig zu verstehen, ob und unter welchen Bedingungen iterative Algorithmen wie Boosting konvergieren. Wir zeigen, daß solche Algorithmen benutzt werden koennen, um sehr große Optimierungsprobleme mit Nebenbedingungen zu lösen, deren Lösung sich gut charakterisieren laesst. Dazu werden Verbindungen zum Wissenschaftsgebiet der konvexen Optimierung aufgezeigt und ausgenutzt, um Konvergenzgarantien für eine große Familie von Boosting-ähnlichen Algorithmen zu geben. o Kann man Boosting robust gegenüber Meßfehlern und Ausreissern in den Daten machen? Ein Problem bisheriger Boosting-Methoden ist die relativ hohe Sensitivität gegenüber Messungenauigkeiten und Meßfehlern in der Trainingsdatenmenge. Um dieses Problem zu beheben, wird die sogenannte 'Soft-Margin' Idee, die beim Support-Vector Lernen schon benutzt wird, auf Boosting übertragen. Das führt zu theoretisch gut motivierten, regularisierten Algorithmen, die ein hohes Maß an Robustheit aufweisen. o Wie kann man die Anwendbarkeit von Boosting auf Regressionsprobleme erweitern? Boosting-Methoden wurden ursprünglich für Klassifikationsprobleme entwickelt. Um die Anwendbarkeit auf Regressionsprobleme zu erweitern, werden die vorherigen Konvergenzresultate benutzt und neue Boosting-ähnliche Algorithmen zur Regression entwickelt. Wir zeigen, daß diese Algorithmen gute theoretische und praktische Eigenschaften haben. o Ist Boosting praktisch anwendbar? Die dargestellten theoretischen Ergebnisse werden begleitet von Simulationsergebnissen, entweder, um bestimmte Eigenschaften von Algorithmen zu illustrieren, oder um zu zeigen, daß sie in der Praxis tatsächlich gut funktionieren und

  6. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  7. Factors determining growth and vertical distribution of planktonic algae in extremely acidic mining lakes (pH 2.7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissinger, Vera

    2003-04-01

    Entstehung der Vertikalverteilung geprüft. Grazing der phagotrophen und phototrophen Alge Ochromonas sp. auf der phototrophen Alge Chlamydomonas sp. erwies sich als herausragender Faktor, der über top-down Kontrolle die Abundanz der Beute in höheren Wasserschichten beeinflussen kann. Gemeinsam mit der Tatsache, dass Chlamydomonas sp. DOC zur Wachstumssteigerung verwendet, führt dies zu einer Akkumulation von Chlamydomonas sp. in der Tiefe, ausgeprägt als DCM. Daher erscheint grazing als der Hauptfaktor, der die beobachtete Vertikalschichtung der Algen im TBS 111 hervorruft. Die erzielten Ergebnisse liefern grundlegende Informationen, um die Auswirkungen von Strategien zur Neutralisierung der TBS auf das Nahrungsnetz abschätzen zu können.

  8. Highly sensitive measurements of substrates and inhibitors on the basis of tyrosinase sensors and recycling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streffer, Katrin

    2002-12-01

    ötigten Probenvolumina sind klein und eine spezielle Probenvorbereitung ist nicht erforderlich. Ausserdem sind die Geräte einfach zu handhaben, billig sowohl in ihrer Herstellung als auch im Gebrauch und meist erlauben sie sogar eine kontinuierliche Messwerterfassung. Zahlreiche dieser in den letzten Jahren entwickelten Geräte greifen zurück auf 40 Jahre Forschung auf dem Gebiet der Biosensorik. Seit Clark und Lyons im Jahr 1962 in der Lage waren, mit einer einfachen Sauerstoffelektrode, ergänzt durch ein Enzym, Glucose zu messen, war die Entwicklung neuer Messtechnik nicht mehr aufzuhalten. Biosensoren, spezielle Messfühler, die aus einer Kombination aus biologischer Komponente (erlaubt eine spezifische Erkennung des Analyten auch ohne vorherige Reinigung der Probe) und einem physikalischen Messfühler (wandelt den primären physikochemischen Effekt in ein elektronisch messbares Signal um) bestehen, eroberten den Markt. Im Rahmen dieser Doktorarbeit wurden verschiedene Tyrosinasesensoren entwickelt, die je nach Herkunft und Eigenschaften der verwendeten Tyrosinase unterschiedliche Anforderungen erfüllen. Beispielsweise wurde einer dieser Tyrosinasesensoren für die Bestimmung phenolischer Verbindungen in Fluss- und Seewasserproben eingesetzt, und die mit diesem Sensor gemessenen Ergebnisse konnten sehr gut mit dem entsprechenden DIN-Test zur Bestimmung phenolischer Verbindungen korreliert werden. Ein anderer entwickelter Sensor zeigte eine sehr hohe Empfindlichkeit für Catecholamine, Substanzen die speziell in der medizinischen Diagnostik von Wichtigkeit sind. Ausserdem zeigten die ebenfalls im Rahmen dieser Doktorarbeit durchgeführten Untersuchungen zweier verschiedener Tyrosinasen, dass, will man in Zukunft noch empfindlichere Tyrosinasesensoren entwickeln, eine spezielle Tyrosinase (Tyrosinase aus Streptomyces antibioticus) die bessere Wahl sein wird, als die bisher im Bereich der Biosensorforschung verwendete Tyrosinase aus Agaricus bisporus. Desweiteren wurden erste

  9. IMP3 can predict aggressive behaviour of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    bezeichnet. Ergebnisse Von 90 Patienten mit Lungencarcinom waren 71 (78%) mänlich, durchschnittliches Alter war für Männer 61.5 Jahre (min-max 43–83) und 61 Jahre für Frauen (min-max 44–86). Pleurale Effusionen fand man in 15 Fällen (16.6%) und Fernmetastasen in 45 (50%) Fällen. Histologische Sybtypen waren: 2 lepidic Karzinome, 34 azinäre Karzinome, 2 papilläre und 52 solide Karzinome. IMP3 war exprimiert in 63 Fälle (70%). Positive IMP3 Expression war mit solidem Typ (P = 0.002) und negativer Napsin A Expression (P = 0.004) assoziert. Napsin A Expression war mit niedrigem Gradus (P = 0.031) und positiver TTF-1 Expression (P = 0.003) assoziert. Patienten mit IMP3 Überexpression öfter hatten Fernmetastasen als Patienten mit negativen IMP3, 55.5% versus 33.3% (P = 0.033). Non solide Subtyp mit IMP3 Überexpression entwickelten Fernmetastasen Meer häufiger als nicht festem Subtyp mit negativen IMP3, 72% versus 35% (P = 0.028). Schlussworte Die Expression von IMP3 ist mit negaativer Expression von Napsin A, solidem Subtyp und Metastasen verbunden und hat praktische predictive Werte in der pathologischen Diagnose des Adenokarzinoms der Lunge. Die Expression von IMP3 korreliert mit soliden Subtyp und mit Fernmetastasen unabhängig von histologische Subtyp Lungenadenokarzinom. PMID:23190601

  10. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    antigenpräsentierender Zellen verantwortlich sein. Durch die Modifikation einer Methode zur intrazellulären IFN-gamma Färbung konnten in vakzinierten Mäusen tumorantigenspezifische CTL sensitiv und quantitativ detektiert werden. Die so bestimmte CTL-Frequenz, nicht jedoch die humorale Antwort, korrelierte mit der in vivo Wirksamkeit der verschiedenen Vakzinen: DNA vakzinierte Tiere entwickeln starke tumorantigenspezifische CTL-Antworten, wohingegen in MVA-vakzinierten Tieren überwiegend gegen virale Epitope gerichtete CD4 und CD8-T-Zellen detektiert wurden. Die Wirksamkeit der pCI-DNA-Vakzine spricht für die Weiterentwicklung in weiteren präklinischen Mausmodellen, beispielsweise unter Verwendung von MUC1 oder HLA-A2 transgenen Mäusen. Die Methoden zur Detektion Tumorantigen-spezifischer CTL in 96-Loch-Mikrotiterplatten können dabei zur systematischen Suche nach im Menschen immundominanten T-Zell-Epitopen im Muzin-Molekül genutzt werden. Der durchgeführte Vergleich der auf den Vektoren pCI und MVA basierenden Vakzinen und die Analyse neuerer Publikationen führen zu dem Ergebniss, daß vor allem DNA-Vakzinen in Zukunft eine wichtige Rolle bei der Entwicklung von aktiven Tumorimpfstoffen spielen werden. Rekombinante MVA-Viren, eventuell in Kombination mit DNA- oder anderen Vektoren, haben sich dagegen in zahlreichen Studien als wirksame Impfstoffe zur Kontrolle von durch Pathogene hervorgerufenen Infektionserkrankungen erwiesen. In this study, tumor vaccines based on the plasmid pCI, the attenuated vaccinia virus strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and MVA-infected dendritic cells were constructed and characterized by sequencing, Western blot and flow cytometric analysis. The efficiency to induce tumor immunity in vivo was compared in several C57BL/6 mouse tumor models. Naked DNA Vaccination based on the eukaryotic expression vector pCI did induce very effective, antigen-specific and long-term protection against tumor cell lines expressing mucin, CEA or

  11. Self-image and perception of mother and father in psychotic and borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Armelius, K; Granberg

    2000-02-01

    eine mangelnde Separation von ihren Müttern und eine geringe Differenzierung zwischen Autonomie und Kontrolle. Es wird außerdem diskutiert, wie die Ergebnisse auf die realen Beziehungen der Patienten zu anderen Menschen Einflus nehmen könnten. Des patients psychotiques et Borderline ont évalué leur image d'eux-mêmes et leur perception de leur mère et père à l'aide du modèle de l'Analyse Structural du Comportement Social (SASB. Les patients Borderline avaient des imagess plus négatives d'eux-mêmes et de leurs parents, surtout de leur père, que les patients psychotiques et les sujets normaux, alors que les patients psychotiques se jugeaient à peine différemment des sujets normaux. L'image de soi était en relation avec les images des deux parents pour les patients Borderline et pour les sujets normaux, alors que pour les patients psychotiques, seulement l'image de la mère jouait un rôle pour leur image. En plus, les patients psychotiques ne différenciaient pas entre les pôles de contrôle et d'autonomie dans l'image de soi introjectée. Nous en avons conclu que les patients Borderline se caractérisent par un attachement négatif, et les patients psychotiques par une faible séparation de la mère ainsi qu'une différenciation modeste entre autonomie et contrôle. L'influence de ceci sur les relations des patients avec les autrs est discutée dans cet article. Pacientes limítrofes y psicóticos evaluaron su autoimagen y la percepción que tenían de sus padres usando el modelo de Análisis estructural del comportamiento social (SASB). Los pacientes limítrofes registraron imágenes más negativas de sí mismos y de sus progenitores, especialmente de su padre, que los pacientes psicóticos y los normales, mientras que las evaluaciones de los pacientes psicóticos no difirieron mucho de las de los sujetos normales. La autoimagen tuvo relación con la imagen de ambos progenitores tanto en el caso de los pacientes limítrofes como de los sujetos normales

  12. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  13. Comparative study of gene expression during the differentiation of white and brown preadipocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, Stéphane

    2002-08-01

    by different expression levels of several genes. These results draw attention to interesting candidate genes for the determination of white and brown preadipocytes (necdin, vigilin and others) and furthermore indicate that potential importance of several functional groups in the differentiation of white and brown preadipocytes, mainly the complement system and extracellular matrix. Einleitung Säugetiere haben zwei verschiedene Arten von Fettgewebe: das weiße Fettgewebe, welches vorwiegend zur Lipidspeicherung dient, und das braune Fettgewebe, welches sich durch seine Fähigkeit zur zitterfreien Thermogenese auszeichnet. Weiße und braune Adipozyten sind beide mesodermalen Ursprungs. Die Mechanismen, die zur Entwicklung von Vorläuferzellen in den weißen oder braunen Fettzellphenotyp führen, sind jedoch unbekannt. Durch verschiedene experimentelle Ansätze konnte gezeigt werden, daß diese Adipocyten vermutlich durch die Differenzierung zweier Typen unterschiedlicher Vorläuferzellen entstehen: weiße und braune Preadipozyten. Von dieser Hypothese ausgehend, war das Ziel dieser Studie, die Genexpression weißer und brauner Preadipozyten auf Unterschiede systematisch zu analysieren. Methoden Die zu vergleichenden Zellen wurden aus primären Zellkulturen weißer und brauner Preadipozyten des dsungarischen Zwerghamsters gewonnen. "Representational Difference Analysis" wurde angewandt, um potentiell unterschiedlich exprimierte Gene zu isolieren. Die daraus resultierenden cDNA Fragmente von Kandidatengenen wurden mit Hilfe der Microarraytechnik untersucht. Die Expression dieser Gene wurde in braunen und weißen Fettzellen in verschiedenen Differenzierungsstadien und in braunem und weißem Fettgewebe verglichen. Ergebnisse 12 Gene, die in braunen und weißen Preadipozyten unterschiedlich exprimiert werden, konnten identifiziert werden. Drei Komplement Faktoren und eine Fettsäuren Desaturase werden in weißen Preadipozyten höher exprimiert; drei Struktur Gene

  14. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  15. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces (Met & Props 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei-En

    2014-03-01

    ''. Besides the inspiring scientific arrangements, I encourage you to taste Taiwan's wonderful gourmet cuisine, and to explore the beauty of the sweet-potato-shaped island. I wish you a joyful, fruitful and memorable stay. Victor TY Lin, PhD Chairman Local Organizing Committee Met & Props 2013 International Programme Committee Professor Mohamed El Mansori (Arts et Metiers ParisTech, France) Professor H Zahouani (Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France) Professor B-G Rosen (Halmstad University, Sweden) Professor Tom R Thomas (Halmstad University, Sweden) Professor Liam Blunt (University of Huddersfield, UK) Professor Richard Leach (National Physical Laboratory, UK) Professor Chris Brown (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA) Dr Jia-Ruey Duann (Center for Measurement Standards, ITRI, Taiwan) International Scientific Committee Professor H Zahouani (Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France) Dr Rolf Krüger-Sehm (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany) Professor Pawel Pawlus (Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland) Professor B-G Rosen (Halmstad University, Sweden) Professor Tom R Thomas (Halmstad University, Sweden) Professor Liam Blunt (University of Huddersfield, UK) Professor Derek Chetwynd (University of Warwick, UK) Professor Jane Jiang (University of Huddersfield, UK) Professor Richard Leach (National Physical Laboratory, UK) Professor Paul Scott (University of Huddersfield, UK) Dr Andrew Yacoot (National Physical Laboratory, UK) Professor Chris Brown (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA) Dr Chris Evans (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA) Professor Jay Raja (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA) Dr Ted Vorburger (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) Dr Andrew Baker (National Measurement Institute, Australia) Professor David Lee Butler (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) Dr Benny Cheung (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China) Professor Yetai Fei (Hefei University of Technology, China) Dr Kazuya Naoi (National Metrology Institute

  16. Book Review:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, E.

    2006-09-01

    and researchers should turn to in order to get a complete and accessible education in radiation reaction? My answer is that while the book does indeed contain a lot of useful material, it is not a very accessible source of information, and it is certainly not a student-friendly textbook. Instead, the book presents a technical account of the author's personal take on the theory, and represents a culminating summary of the author's research contributions over more than a decade. The book is written in a fairly mathematical style (the author is Professor of Mathematical Physics at the Technische Universitat in Munich), and it very much emphasises mathematical rigour. This makes the book less accessible than I would wish it to be, but this is perhaps less a criticism than a statement about my taste, expectation, and attitude. The presentation of the classical theory begins with a point particle, but Spohn immediately smears the charge distribution to eliminate the vexing singularities of the retarded field. He considers both the nonrelativistic Abraham model (in which the extended particle is spherically symmetric in the laboratory frame) and the relativistic Lorentz model (in which the particle is spherical in its rest frame). In Spohn's work, the smearing of the charge distribution is entirely a mathematical procedure, and I would have wished for a more physical discussion. A physically extended body, held together against electrostatic repulsion by cohesive forces (sometimes called Poincaré stresses) would make a sound starting point for a classical theory of charged particles, and would have nicely (and physically) motivated the smearing operation adopted in the book. Spohn goes on to derive energy momentum relations for the extended objects, and to obtain their equations of motion. A compelling aspect of his presentation is that he formally introduces the 'adiabatic limit', the idea that the external fields acting on the charged body should have length and time

  17. FOREWORD: International determination of the Avogadro constant International determination of the Avogadro constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Enrico; Nicolaus, Arnold

    2011-04-01

    daily work. Special thanks are addressed to Peter Becker, to whom this issue is dedicated on the occasion of his retirement from work at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. In 1974, young Peter joined the PTB's Avogadro group which, under the direction of Peter Seyfried, followed Bonse's work and improved the measurements of the lattice parameter and the Avogadro constant [5, 6]. In 2004, Peter proposed and backed this project by taking on his shoulders the risks, the management burden and the coordination of the many relevant activities. References [1] Egidi C 1963 Phantasies on a natural unity of mass Nature 200 61-2 [2] Bonse U and Hart M 1965 An x-ray interferometer Appl. Phys. Lett. 6 155-6 [3] Deslattes R D et al 1974 Determination of the Avogadro constant Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 463-6 [4] Zosi G 1983 A neo-Pythagorean approach towards an atomic mass standard Lett. Nuovo Cimento 38 577-80 [5] Becker P et al 1981 Absolute measurement of the (220) lattice plane spacing in a silicon crystal Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1540-3 [6] Seyfried P et al 1992 A determination of the Avogadro constant Z. Phys. B 87 289-98

  18. Electrical quantum standards and their role in the SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-12-01

    power of the rf irradiation, or both, do not change the voltage). The value of this quantized Josephson voltage is equal to nfh/2e, where n is the quantum step of the current-voltage characteristic curve. In this special feature there are three papers on dc Josephson voltage standards. Solve and Stock review the programme conducted by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) to perform on-site comparisons of Josephson voltage standards, and give a comprehensive analysis of the possible sources of errors of such comparisons. Behr et al summarize the developments of Josephson voltage standards at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and their applications in dc voltage and other areas of metrology. Finally, Georgakopoulos et al report a reduction, by a factor of a thousand, in the smallest voltage that can be generated by dc Josephson voltage standards. Although dc voltage standards are well established, significant challenges exist when extending this extremely precise technology to ac. There are two approaches to producing accurate ac voltages using the inverse Josephson effect: the programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) and the pulse-driven ac voltage standard. The PJVS contains an array of Josephson junctions, organized into independently biased segments. By biasing chosen, binary-related, segments on the first quantum step (positive or negative) or zero, the array can be made to behave as a quantum digital to analogue converter. The PJVS approach can produce stepwise approximated sine waves with rms values of some volts, but it suffers from parasitic capacitances and inductances distributed in the different parts of the system and, more importantly, the voltage is not quantized during the finite transition time between successive voltage levels. Hence the output frequency of PJVS-based systems is limited to a few kilohertz. In this special feature, Jeanneret et al review the Josephson locked synthesizer, a PJVS-based system where the effect

  19. Optische und schwingungsspektroskopische Hochdruckuntersuchungen von Ladungsträgereigenschaften in herkömmlich und nach der Template-Methode synthetisierten leitfähigen Polypyrrolschichten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikat, Jürgen E. R.

    2001-07-01

    . Das Ladungsträger-gleichgewicht verschiebt sich dadurch mit steigendem Druck zu Zuständen mit höherem Anteil an polaronischen Ladungsträgern. Die Template-Synthese bewirkt gegenüber herkömmlich synthetisierten Proben einen höheren Anteil an Polaronen bereits bei Normaldruck, und eine Lage des Systems näher bei einem Isolator-Metall-Übergang. Die Dissoziationsrate der Bipolaronen ist für Template- und herkömmlich synthetisierte Proben vergleichbar groß und unabhängig vom Initialzustand nach der Synthese. Dieses Verhalten der Ladungsträger wird weitergehend im Rahmen eines Modells untersucht, bei dem der Einfluß benachbarter Polymerketten und der Dotandionen berücksichtigt wird. Dementsprechend können sich die Wellenfunktionen der Ladungsträger unter bestimmten Bedingungen auch auf benachbarte Ketten erstrecken (transversale Polaronen bzw. Bipolaronen). Eine solche Ausdehnung der Wellenfunktionen unter Mitwirkung der Dotandionen wurde in den untersuchten Proben nicht festgestellt. Die Wellenfunktionen der Ladungsträger besitzen demnach hauptsächlich Komponenten entlang der Polymerkette (longitudinale Polaronen bzw. Bipolaronen). Aus der Änderungsrate druckabhängiger spektraler Charakteristiken lassen sich Aussagen über den Ordnungszustand der Probe ableiten. Diese auf experimentellem Wege gefundenen Ergebnisse liefern somit Hinweise für die bisher kontrovers diskutierte Koexistenz der beiden Ladungsträgerarten Polaronen und Bipolaronen und die Größe ihrer jeweiligen Bindungsenergien. Druckerhöhung und Template-Synthese bewirken analoge Änderungen der Polymerstruktur. Sowohl höherer Druck wie auch die Template-Synthese lassen sich mit einem höheren Ordnungsgrad in den Template-Proben korrelieren. Der Ladungstransport in den Proben kann durch ein Mott Variable Range Hopping-Modell mit druckabhängiger charakteristischer Dimension beschrieben werden. Die Erhöhung des Drucks bewirkt einen Anstieg der Dimension, eine bessere Überlappung der

  20. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    basierend auf klinischer Symptomatik, positiven Intradermaltests und positiver Serologie auf Flohallergen diagnostiziert worden waren. Methoden Eine offene, nicht kontrollierte Studie, in der alle Hunde mit topischem Indoxacarb in 4 wöchigen Intervallen, drei Mal über einen Zeitraum von 12 Wochen behandelt wurden. Ergebnisse Vierundzwanzig Hunde beendeten die Studie. Eine gänzliche Abheilung der klinischen Anzeichen von FAD wurde in 21 Fällen beobachtet (87,5%), bei nahezu völligem Verschwinden oder einer deutlichen Verbesserung in den restlichen drei Fällen. Die durchschnittlichen klinischen Werte (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) waren in der zwölften Woche um 93,3% reduziert. Die durchschnittlichen, von den BesitzerInnen beurteilten, Juckreizwerte waren in der zwölften Woche um 88% reduziert. Die durchschnittliche Anzahl an Flöhen war in den Wochen 8 und 12 um 97,7 bzw 100% reduziert. Schlussfolgerungen und klinische Bedeutung Indoxacarb, welches topisch alle 4 Wochen 12 Wochen lang ohne begleitende juckreizstillende Behandlung oder einer Behandlung von Ektoparasiten verabreicht wurde, milderte die Flohinfestationen bei allen Hunden und die mit FAD auftretenden klinischen Symptome in einer großen Proportion dieser Hundepopulation, die in einer schwierigen Umgebung mit hohem Flohvorkommen, lebten. PMID:24797425

  1. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2009 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Since 1991, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of this journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. The current breadth of topical areas that are covered by MST has made it advisable to expand the recognition of excellent publications. Hence, since 2005 the Editorial Board have presented 'Outstanding Paper Awards' in four subject categories: Fluid Mechanics; Measurement Science; Precision Measurements; and Sensors and Sensing Systems. This year also saw the introduction of a new category—Optical and Laser-based Techniques. 2009 Award Winners—Fluid Mechanics Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) robust phase correlation Adric Eckstein and Pavlos P Vlachos Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA This paper [1] represents a valuable improvement to the phase-only correlation technique (first proposed by Wernet in this journal in 2005 (Wernet M 2005 Symmetric phase-only filtering: a new paradigm for DPIV data processing Meas. Sci. Technol. 16 601-18) for particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) measurements of fluid flow. The authors establish a sound theoretical foundation and clearly describe the working principle of their robust phase correlation method. The methodology for assessing performance is excellent. Detailed results on several internationally recognized PIV test cases are presented. The robust phase correlation method is of general applicability and therefore can be expected to have substantial impact in this very active area of fluid-mechanics measurements. 2009 Award Winner—Precision Measurement A nanonewton force facility and a novel method for measurements of the air and vacuum permittivity at zero frequencies V Nesterov Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany This paper [2] describes a

  2. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2009-05-01

    I Kalfas and Reza S Abhari Laboratory for Energy Conversion, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece The paper [2] describes the development of a probe for measuring time-resolved entropy fluctuations. The technique was developed for use in turbomachinery applications where knowledge of the unsteady entropy in the wake of a rotating blade row can provide significant insight into the loss (dissipation) generation mechanisms. There is no direct method to measure entropy; hence the authors use an approach where the stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature are measured on the same probe. The stagnation, or 'total', pressure has been the subject of several of the authors' papers in the last few years. The more significant challenge was the time-resolved measurement of total temperature. The high Mach numbers present in the flows of interest lead to significant temperature gradients in the probe itself which contaminate this type of measurement. The paper describes a novel probe design along with a detailed heat transfer calculation and uncertainty analysis. The fluid mechanics members of the MST Editorial and Advisory Boards—T Fansler, J Foss, M Koochesfahani, I Marusic, S Morris, K Okamoto, F Scarano, E Tomita and M Wernet—considered all papers in the Fluid Mechanics section and the others that related to fluid mechanics. In the final analysis, the strengths of this paper strongly recommended it for the Award. 2008 Award Winners—Precision Measurement Self-calibration of divided circles on the basis of a prime factor algorithm R Probst Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany This paper [3] describes a new method for the self-calibration of divided circles, which may be widely used for angle calibration of circular scales, precision polygons, indexing tables and angle encoders. In

  3. Entwicklung von Landnutzungsszenarien für landschaftsökologische Fragestellungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Uta

    2002-04-01

    ächen befinden, deren Schutz positive Folgen für das Leistungsvermögen der Landschaft haben kann, werden in diesem Teilmodell schützenswerte Ufer- und Auenbereiche auf derzeit landwirtschaftlich genutzten Flächen ausgewiesen. Die Gröe der Schutzgebietsfläche orientiert sich an der Morphologie der umgebenden Landschaft. Die drei Teilmodelle wurden hinsichtlich der implizierten Hypothesen mit vielen unterschiedlichen Ansätzen validiert. Das Resultat dieser intensiven Analyse zeigt für jedes Teilmodell eine zufriedenstellende Tauglichkeit. Die Modellierung der Landnutzungsänderungen wurden in drei mesoskaligen Flusseinzugsgebieten mit einer Fläche zwischen 100 und 500 km² durchgeführt, die sich markant in ihrer Landnutzung unterscheiden. Besonderer Wert wurde bei der Gebietsauswahl darauf gelegt, dass eines der Gebiete intensiv landwirtschaftlich genutzt wird, eines dicht besiedelt und eines vorwiegend bewaldet ist. Im Hinblick auf ihre Relevanz für die vorliegende Fragestellung wurden aus bestehenden Landnutzungstrends die Szenarien für (1) die prognostizierte Siedlungsfläche für das Jahr 2010, (2) die möglichen Konsequenzen des EU-weiten Beschlusses der Agenda 2000 und (3) die Novelle des Bundesnaturschutzgesetzes aus dem Jahr 2001 abgeleitet. Jedes Szenario wurde mit Hilfe des Modells auf die drei Untersuchungsgebiete angewendet. Dabei wurden für die Siedlungsausdehnung in allen drei Gebieten realistische Landnutzungsmuster generiert. Einschränkungen ergeben sich bei der Suche nach Grenzertragsstilllegungsflächen. Hier hat unter homogenen Gebietseigenschaften die zufällige Verteilung von Flächen für die Stilllegung zu einem unrealistischen Ergebnis geführt. Die Güte der Schutzgebietsausweisung ist mageblich an die aktuelle Landnutzung der Aue und die Morphologie des Geländes gebunden. Die besten Ergebnisse werden erzielt, wenn die Flächen in den Ufer- und Auenbereichen mehrheitlich unter derzeitiger Ackernutzung stehen und der Flusslauf sich in das

  4. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    cultural advantages of the city of Berlin with its concerts, opera and museums. Although I have been fortunate to be able to take my family to live in many beautiful and interesting places such as Göttingen, Jülich and Berlin, it has always been Paris and France that we remembered with the greatest fondness, probably because it was the first of our travel ventures and because our children were very young when we first went and they did a large part of their growing up there. So it was a real pleasure to have the opportunity to return to Paris for an extended summer visit in 2007, this time not at Saclay, but at the Université de Paris-Sud in its Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moléculaires (LCAM). Several times in the preceding years I had discussed and corresponded with Hocine Khemliche of that laboratory about their experiments on the scattering of ions and neutral atoms and molecules from surfaces. They had just published a paper that had attracted considerable attention on the diffraction of very fast atoms from the corrugated surface of lithium fluoride, and our discussions eventually led to an invitation to come and work with him and his colleague, Philippe Roncin. It was a real pleasure for my wife and I to return to the Paris area and to re-experience some of the things that we had done there two decades earlier, to observe the changes in culture and lifestyles that had occurred since, and to experience a whole new set of adventures. The following summer of 2008 I was Guest Professor at the Donostia International Physics Center in San Sebastian, Spain. This institute was created and is directed by Pedro Echenique and it was a great honor to be able to work in that environment and enjoy the company and discussions with all the prominent scientists there, the many guests as well as the permanent staff. In the spring and summer of 2009 I was Guest Professor in the Institut für Experimentalphysik of the Technische Universität Graz in Austria, the

  5. Soybean (Glycine max L.) N-Turnover Effects on Sustainable Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    . (1878): Die Sojabohne. Ergebnisse der Studien und Versuche über die Anbauwürdigkeit dieser neu einzuführenden Culturpflanze. Gerolds' Sohn. Wien. Hinson, K.-Hartwig, E.E. (1977): Soybean production in the topics. FAO. Rome. 680 p. Kádár, I.-Márton, L. (1999): Mineral nutrient cycle of soya. Agroch. and soil science. 48: 50-67. Kurnik, E.-Szabó, L. (1987): A szója. Magyarország Kulturflórája, III. kötet, 18. füzet. Akadémiai Kiadó. Budapest. Marcus-Wyner, L.-Rains, D.W. (1983): Patterns of ammonium absorption and acetylene deduction during soybean developmental growht. Physiol. Pl. 59. K., 1. sz. 79-82. Copenhagen. Márton, L.-Kismányoky, T.-Kádár, I. (1990): Testing the N-supply and N-turnover of soyabean in lysimeters. Plant production. 39: 55-64. Márton, L.-Fazekas, M.-Chrappán, Gy. (1998): Egy új pillangós. Magy. Mezőgazdaság. 53. 9. 22. Márton, L.-Szüts, G.-Kádár, I. (1998): Effect of N supplies on the protein and amino acid contents of soya flour. Plant production. 47: 417-422. Márton, L.-Kádár, I. (1999): N-mütrágyázás hatása a szója levelének klorofill és karotinoid tartalmára, valamint hozamára. Agrokémia és Talajtan. In press. Márton, L.-Kádár, I. (1998): Effect of nitrogen supplies on the yield components of soya. Plant production. 47: 677-687. Mengel, K.-Kirkby, E.A. (1982): Principles of plant nutrition. Int. Potash Inst. Bern. 655 p. Németh, T. (1995): Talajaink szervesanyag-tartalma és nitrogénforgalma. MTA Talajtani és Agrokémiai Kutató Intézete. Budapest. Norman, A. (1963): The soybean genetics, breeding, physiology, nutrition management. Acad. press. NY. 239 p. Walter, O.S.-Samuel, R.A. (1980): Modern soybean production. Champ, Illinois. USA. 192 p. Table 1. Effect of N-fertilization on the yield of soybean. Lysimeter trial, Keszthely, 1986-88. Air-dried weight, kg/ha at harvest. N kg/ha Main root Stalk Foliage Pod Grain Total At the and of August 1986. 0 672 1870 2448 750 1814 7554 40 790 2406 3952