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Sample records for nigerian native beer

  1. Word Stress in Cameroon and Nigerian Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobda, Augustin Simo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the strategies used by Cameroonians and Nigerians to cope with the notorious complexity of English word stress. Stress placement is similar among these two groups, but differs significantly from what obtains in traditional native English speech, received pronunciation (RP), for example. Some of the stress…

  2. Foaming in stout beers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. T.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them several properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless, the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibers, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for investigating the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. We also consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer can with cellulose fibers.

  3. Prepositional Intraference in ESL and Its Teaching: The Educated Nigerian English Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic habit of "prepositional intraference" in Educated Nigerian English (ENE) with a view to establishing why and how Nigerians produce prepositional intraference variations and how the variations distinguish ENE morphosyntax from native English morphosyntax, particularly Standard British English (SBE).…

  4. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  5. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  6. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  7. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  8. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  9. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  10. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  11. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  12. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  13. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  14. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  15. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  16. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  17. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  18. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  19. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  20. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-07-01

    Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, beer is unique because it is unstable when in the final package. This instability can be divided into biological and nonbiological instability. Nonbiological stability of beer involves a wide range of chemical processes and can be considered in a number of categories: physical, flavor, light, foam, and gushing. It is the balance between flavanoid polyphenols (tannoids) and sensitive proteins that specifically combine with polyphenols to form haze that largely dictates physical stability. The flavor stability of beer primarily depends on the oxygen concentration of packaged beer but is influenced by all stages of the brewing process. Foam stability in a glass of beer reflects the quality of the beverage. The backbone of foam is hydrophobic polypeptides. Novel brewing processes such as high-gravity brewing result in a disproportionate loss of these polypeptides and have a negative effect on the foam stability of the resulting beer. Beer is light sensitive, especially in the 350 500 nm range. Beer exposed to this wavelength range in clear or green glass containers quickly develop nauseous skunky-like off-flavors resulting from the formation of 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Methods of enhancing all of these types of beer stability are discussed.

  1. Nigerian Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Nigeria and describes the origin and development of present-day social studies instruction. Concludes that while Nigerian social studies instruction appears to be changing from the traditional passive approach to modern activity methods, instruction continues to be organized by traditional disciplines and motivated by…

  2. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  3. Bubble nucleation in stout beers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. T.; McKechnie, J. S.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Bubble nucleation in weakly supersaturated solutions of carbon dioxide—such as champagne, sparkling wines, and carbonated beers—is well understood. Bubbles grow and detach from nucleation sites: gas pockets trapped within hollow cellulose fibers. This mechanism appears not to be active in stout beers that are supersaturated solutions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. In their canned forms these beers require additional technology (widgets) to release the bubbles which will form the head of the beer. We extend the mathematical model of bubble nucleation in carbonated liquids to the case of two gases and show that this nucleation mechanism is active in stout beers, though substantially slower than in carbonated beers and confirm this by observation. A rough calculation suggests that despite the slowness of the process, applying a coating of hollow porous fibers to the inside of a can or bottle could be a potential replacement for widgets.

  4. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption. PMID:23802910

  5. Physics of Beer Tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  6. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis. PMID:26398285

  7. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  8. A Sociolinguistic Study of Meaning-Making in a Nigerian Linguistic Landscape: The Example of Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Akinbiyi

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has gone into the sociolinguistics of the linguistic landscape (space for and language of public signs) in the "peripheral," non-native contexts of English Language use and users, none has been specifically devoted to a Nigerian context. This dissertation is intended to fill this wide gap. Focusing on the Ibadan…

  9. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  10. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  11. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  12. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  13. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  14. Making a Better Beer Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, Alan R.

    1982-01-01

    A class activity is detailed in which alternative designs for glasses are examined. The goal is to design a glass which is built tilted, so that beer can be poured in without creating a foam problem. The activity is viewed as one leading to interesting questions. (MP)

  15. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. PMID:27542484

  16. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  17. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  18. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  19. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  20. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  1. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  2. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  3. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  4. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  5. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  6. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  7. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  8. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  9. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  10. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  11. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  12. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  13. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  14. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  15. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  16. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  17. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  18. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  19. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  20. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  1. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  2. Third Generation Nigerian University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, A. T.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the development of Nigerian University libraries and the political factors that created them and continue to effect their development, with a focus on those established between 1980 and 1984. Users, governance, finance, buildings, staffing, collection development, services, cataloging and classification, and automation are described.…

  3. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years. PMID:19000606

  4. What is in a beer? Proteomic characterization and relative quantification of hordein (gluten) in beer.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    The suite of prolamin proteins present in barley flour was characterized in this study, in which we provide spectral evidence for 3 previously characterized prolamins, 8 prolamins with only transcript evidence, and 19 genome-derived predicted prolamins. An additional 9 prolamins were identified by searching the complete spectral set against an unannotated translated EST database. Analyses of wort, the liquid extracted from the mashing process during beer production, and beer were undertaken and a similar suite of prolamins were identified. We have demonstrated by using tandem mass spectrometry that hordeins are indeed present in beer despite speculation to the contrary. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry was used for the rapid analyses of hordein in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) beer. A selection of international beers were analyzed and compared to the results obtained with hordein deletion beers. The hordein deletion beers were brewed from grains carrying mutations that prevented the accumulation of either B-hordeins (Risø 56) or C-hordeins (Risø 1508). No intact C-hordeins were detected in beer, although fragments of C-hordeins were present in wort. Multiple reaction monitoring analysis of non-barley based gluten (hordein)-free beers targeting the major hordein protein families was performed and confirmed the absence of hordein in several gluten-free commercial beers. PMID:21999962

  5. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. PMID:26489032

  6. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    PubMed

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  7. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  8. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  9. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  10. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  11. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  12. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  13. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  14. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  15. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  16. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  17. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  18. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  19. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  20. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  1. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  2. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  3. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  4. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  5. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  6. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  7. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  8. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  9. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  10. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  11. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  12. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  13. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  14. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  15. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  16. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  17. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  18. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  19. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  20. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 26.263 Section 26.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the certificate prescribed in § 26.205 covers beer, the beer tax will be collected on the basis of the number of barrels...

  1. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Record of beer transferred..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred...

  2. Instrumental analysis for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Voica, Cezara; Dragan, Felicia; Georgiu, Monica

    2013-11-01

    A representative selection of 5 different beers commercially available were measured spectrophotometrically in UV-Vis spectral region and by fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to determine qualitative differentiation due to the mainly iso-R-acids (with a five member ring) originating from R-acids present in hops. Minerals and trace elements analysis were also performed by ICP-MS method. The determination of the bitter organic acids in beers and of the content in metallic ions can be used as indicators for differentiation of beers and evaluation of beer ageing.

  3. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. PMID:26661797

  4. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  5. Stature estimation formulae for Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Didia, Blessing C; Nduka, Ethelbert C; Adele, Okechukwu

    2009-01-01

    In stature estimation, long limbs and the stature formula of Trotter and Gleser easily come to mind. In the recent past, a lot of workers have established formulae specific to their populations using whole length of limbs, fragmented bones, circumference of long bones, and even length of the vertebrae. We have in this work used tibia length, height of subjects, and the regression models to establish formulae specific to Nigerians. We measured height and tibia length of 200 (96 male and 104 female) adult Nigerians. The tibia length was measured from upper limit of the medial condoyle to the tip of medial malleolus using a measuring tape calibrated in meters while the height of individuals were also measured using meter scales. All measurements were made by one person, to avoid interobserver error, and repeatedly until a constant value is obtained. We obtained general formulae for males and females which compares favorably with that of Duyar and Pelin, and can be relied upon. PMID:19018931

  6. Nike Twins Seven Seven: Nigerian Batik Artist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Betty

    1987-01-01

    Chronicles the personal and professional life of Nike Twins Seven Seven (born 1951), a Nigerian batik artist, and her husband, Twins Seven Seven, a musician-artist, both of whom have received international acclaim. (BJV)

  7. Preformed volatile nitrosamines in some Nigerian foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Maduagwu, E N; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1993-11-01

    Some common Nigerian foodstuffs were assessed for their content of preformed volatile nitrosamine by chemiluminescence detection following gas chromatographic separation. Nitrosodimethylamine levels of between 0.4 and 4.6 ppb were detected in 75% of the samples analysed. The highest value was found in Brassica oleraceae, while Vernonia amygdalina contained the lowest detectable level. These data suggest that Nigerians may be exposed to chronic but very low levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines in their foods. PMID:8258415

  8. Beer and health: preventive effects of beer components on lifestyle-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiji

    2004-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the light-to-moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality. While the inverse association between red-wine consumption and cardiovascular risk is globally recognized as the French paradox, many epidemiological studies have concluded that beer and red wine are equally beneficial. Moderate alcohol intake improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether additional health benefits associated with the non-alcohol components in beer may be expected. This article summarizes the results of the latest studies on the health benefits of beer while referring to our recent results, which demonstrate the preventive effects of beer and its components on lifestyle-related diseases. A series of studies using animal models have shown that beer may prevent carcinogenesis and osteoporosis; beer provides plasma with significant protection from oxidative stress; and isohumulones, the bitter substances derived from hops, may prevent and improve obesity and type-2 diabetes, improve lipid metabolism, and suppress atherosclerosis. Further studies are needed to clarify the components in addition to isohumulones that are responsible for these beneficial effects of beer, and the underlying mechanisms must be addressed. PMID:15630301

  9. Becoming a beer expert: is simple exposure with feedback sufficient to learn beer categories?

    PubMed

    Lelièvre-Desmas, Maud; Chollet, Sylvie; Abdi, Hervé; Valentin, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Category learning is an important aspect of expertise development which had been little studied in the chemosensory field. The wine literature suggests that through repeated exposure to wines, sensory information is stored by experts as prototypes. The goal of this study was to further explore this issue using beers. We tested the ability of beer consumers to correctly categorize beers from two different categories (top- and bottom-fermented beers) before and after repeated exposure with feedback to beers from these categories. We found that participants learned to identify the category membership of beers to which they have been exposed but were unable to generalize their learning to other beers. A retrospective verbal protocol questionnaire administrated at the end of the experiment indicates that contrary to what was suggested in the wine literature, prototype extraction is probably not the only mechanism implicated in category learning of foods and beverages. Exemplar-similarity and feature-frequency models might provide a better account of the course of learning of the categorization task studied. PMID:26355240

  10. Beer constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    Gerhäuser, Clarissa

    2005-09-01

    Beer is a complex alcoholic beverage made from barley (malt), hop, water and yeast. Phenolic constituents of beer are derived from malt (70-80%) and hop (20-30%). Structural classes include simple phenols, benzoic- and cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarins, catechins, di-, tri- and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, (prenylated) chalcones and flavonoids as well as alpha- and iso-alpha-acids derived from hop. Compounds belonging to different structural classes have distinct profiles of biological activity in in vitro test systems, and in combination might lead to enhanced effects. Scientific evidence has accumulated over the past 10 years pointing to the cancer preventive potential of selected hop-derived beer constituents, i.e., prenylflavonoids including xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, and hop bitter acids. Chemopreventive activities observed with these compounds relevant to inhibition of carcinogenesis at the initiation, promotion and progression phases, as well as results from in vivo studies on metabolism, bioavailability and efficacy are summarised in this review. PMID:15953717

  11. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved. PMID:21401094

  12. Thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Oluwatosin O.; Odeniyi, Ifedayo A.; Iwuala, Sandra; Olopade, Oluwarotimi B.; Fasanmade, Olufemi A.; Ohwovoriole, Augustine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid autoimmunity is a recognized disorder in pregnancy and is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: This study set out to determine the relationship between pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity in Nigerian women. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary hospital in South Western Nigeria with a total study population of 108 pregnant and 52 nonpregnant women. Subjects and Methods: Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) were quantitatively determined using enzyme linked immuno-assays. Pregnant women were grouped into three categories (<14 weeks, 14–28 weeks and > 28 weeks). The relationship between pregnancy and thyroid autoimmunity was determined using Spearman correlation. Analysis of variance was used in comparison of means, Chi-square test used in analyzing proportions while P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The mean age of the pregnant women was 30.4 ± 6.0 years while the mean gestational age of all pregnant women was 20.6 ± 9.6 weeks. The mean TPO-Ab of 11.58 IU/ml in the pregnant was significantly higher than that of the controls of 7.23 IU/ml (P < 0.001). Out of 108 pregnant women, 27 (25%) had elevated TPO-Ab as against about 2% of the nonpregnant women levels P < 0.001. The number of pregnant women with elevated TPO-Ab levels decreased from 33.3% in the first group to 25.6% and 15.2% in the second and third groups. Conclusion: Thyroid autoimmunity expressed by the presence of TPO-Ab is high among pregnant Nigerian women and the frequency of autoimmunity appears to decline with advancing gestational age. PMID:26425470

  13. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  14. Beer Potomania--An Unusual Cause of Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Kujubu, Dean A; Khosraviani, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    The first case of severe hyponatremia, since referred to as beer potomania, in a heavy beer drinker patient was reported in 1972. Excessive consumption of beer in particular, which has a low solute content, may result in severe hyponatremia. We report a case of severe hyponatremia that occurred in a patient who, owing to his underlying colon cancer, was drinking beer and ingesting little food. PMID:26176571

  15. An Analysis of the Thematic Content of Televised Beer Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Edward

    After summarizing the widespread occurrence and male orientation of television beer advertising, this paper describes a study of the thematic content of beer commercials. Two-hundred and six beer advertisements which appeared on WTBS, the USA Network, and ESPN between September 1983 and September 1985 were studied. Event-specific ads and those in…

  16. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  17. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  18. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  19. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  20. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  1. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  2. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  3. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  4. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  5. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  6. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  7. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  8. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  9. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  10. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  11. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  12. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  13. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  14. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  15. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  16. The level of MXR1 gene expression in brewing yeast during beer fermentation is a major determinant for the concentration of dimethyl sulfide in beer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jørgen; Bruun, Susanne V; Bech, Lene M; Gjermansen, Claes

    2002-05-01

    DMS (dimethyl sulfide) is an important beer flavor compound which is derived either from the beer wort production process or via the brewing yeast metabolism. We investigated the contribution of yeast MXR1 gene activity to the final beer DMS content. The MXR1-CA gene from Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (synonym of Saccharomyces pastorianus) lager brewing yeast was isolated and sequenced, and found to be 88% identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MXR1. Inactive deletion alleles of both genes were substituted for their functional counterparts in S. carlsbergensis. Such yeasts fermented well and did not form DMS from dimethyl sulfoxide. Overexpression in brewing yeast of MXR1 from non-native promoters with various strengths and transcription profiles resulted in an enhanced and correlated DMS production. The promoters of MXR1 and MXR1-CA contain conserved Met31p/Met32p binding sites, and in accordance with this were found to be co-regulated with the genes of the sulfur assimilation pathway. In addition, conserved YRE-like DNA sequences are present in these promoters, indicating that Yap1p may also take part in the control of these genes. PMID:12702301

  17. Beer, Bread and the Seeds of Change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research continually seeks to understand what processes might render a system unsustainable or in a more positive light, what innovations might truly transform society. The book Beer, Bread and the Seeds of Change, by Thomas R. Sinclair and Carol J. Sinclair, delivers a thought-provokin...

  18. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  19. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  20. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  1. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  2. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  3. Drosophila and Beer: An Experimental Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvink, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a popular organism for studying genetics and development. Maintaining Drosophila on medium prepared with varying concentrations of beer and evaluating the effects on reproduction, life cycle stages and other factors is one of the exercises that is versatile and applicable to many student levels.

  4. Mycotoxins and fermentation--beer production.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Along with food safety issues due to mycotoxins, the effects of Fusarium infections on malt and beer quality can be disastrous. While some of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxins, such as DON, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods for reducing the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods exist for inhibiting mold growth in grain. Irradiation is a promising means for preventing Fusarium growth during malting, but its effects on malt quality and mycotoxin production in surviving mold need to be evaluated in more detail. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which do not leave chemical residues in beer, also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality require further investigation. In addition, storage studies are needed to determine the effect of biological control on Fusarium viability and malt quality. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of mycotoxins present in wort. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain. PMID:11922090

  5. Shotgun proteome analysis of beer and the immunogenic potential of beer polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Addeo, Francesco; Camarca, Alessandra; Vocca, Immacolata; Gianfrani, Carmen; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2012-10-22

    The majority of beer proteins originate from barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is used for brewing. Barley is known to contain celiacogenic gliadin-like prolamins (hordeins) along with other immunogenic proteins which endure malt proteases and the harsh conditions of brewing. In addition, a multitude of peptides that may retain or even amplify the immune-stimulating potential is released in beer because of proteolysis. The comprehensive annotation of the beer proteome is challenged both by the high concentration range of the protein entities and by a severe degree of processing-induced modifications. Overcoming the pitfalls of the classical two-dimensional electrophoresis approach coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), the gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis expanded the current inventory of a popular Italian beer to 33 gene products, including traces of intact B- and D-hordeins and 10 proteins from Saccharomyces spp. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray MS/MS peptidomic analysis of the low-molecular weight beer components disclosed a panel of hordein-derived peptides that encrypt gluten-like sequence motifs, potentially harmful to celiacs. The presence of antigliadin IgA-immunoresponsive prolamins was assayed by Western and dot blot using sera of N=4 celiac patients. Gliadin-reactive T-cell lines isolated from the intestine of N=5 celiacs activated an IFN-γ response when challenged with deamidated beer polypeptides. PMID:22868252

  6. Selenium in commercial beer and losses in the brewing process from wheat to beer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, S; Young, S D; Cook, D; Wilkinson, S; Clegg, S; Bailey, E H; Mathers, A W; Broadley, M R

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing interest in enhancing the micronutrient composition of cereals through fertilization. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the Se concentration of commercial beers retailing in the UK, and (2) to test if the transfer of Se, from biofortified grain to final beer product, is <10% under UK cultivation conditions, as seen previously under Mediterranean conditions. The Se concentration of 128 commercial beers was measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The selenium content of commercial beers varied 6.5-fold, with beers originating from America having higher Se concentrations than those from Europe. Laboratory-scale brewing trials with isotopically-enriched (77)Se wheat, sampled from UK field-sites, showed that most (77)Se losses in the brewing process occurred during mashing (54%), with fermented beer containing ∼ 10% of the (77)Se initially present in the wheat grain. Total N values in wort and malt were positively correlated with the (77)Se content of the wheat grain. PMID:25842301

  7. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  8. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  9. Record Management in Nigerian Secondary School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakpodia, E. D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examined the usefulness of record management in Nigerian Secondary Schools. Record keeping is one of the administrative principles in secondary school administration and it cannot be overemphasized in any organisation. The continuity of any school organisation depends on availability of useful records of past activities. In a complex…

  10. New Directions in the Nigerian Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajeyalemi, Duro; Ogunleye, Ayodele O.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, the Nigerian educational system has witnessed some drastic reforms. This paper highlights some of the major reforms that have taken place especially in response to a number of international human rights instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right to all. The paper further discusses some of the challenges…

  11. Matriculation Related Wastage in Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Ojogwu, Chiaka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide substantial evidence on the rate of matriculation related wastage in Nigerian universities. Five federal universities were used for the study. The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) admission list and the university matriculation clearance documents of the 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 admission years…

  12. Synthetic particles as contaminants in German beers.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, Gerd; Liebezeit, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    A total of 24 German beer brands was analysed for the contents of microplastic fibres, fragments and granular material. In all cases contamination was found. Counts ranged from 2 to 79 fibres L(-1), from 12 to 109 fragments L(-1) and from 2 to 66 granules L(-1). The results show a high variability between individual samples and samples from different production dates. Possible sources of this contamination with foreign materials are discussed. PMID:25056358

  13. Enzymatic Removal of Diacetyl from Beer

    PubMed Central

    Tolls, T. N.; Shovers, J.; Sandine, W. E.; Elliker, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    Diacetyl removal from beer was studied with whole cells and crude enzyme extracts of yeasts and bacteria. Cells of Streptococcus diacetilactis 18-16 destroyed diacetyl in solutions at a rate almost equal to that achieved by the addition of whole yeast cells. Yeast cells impregnated in a diatomaceous earth filter bed removed all diacetyl from solutions percolated through the bed. Undialyzed crude enzyme extracts from yeast cells removed diacetyl very slowly from beer at its normal pH (4.1); at a pH of 5.0 or higher, rapid diacetyl removal was achieved. Dialyzed crude enzyme extracts from yeast cells were found to destroy diacetyl in a manner quite similar to that of diacetyl reductase from Aerobacter aerogenes, and both the bacterial and the yeast extracts were stimulated significantly by the addition of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Diacetyl reductase activity of four strains of A. aerogenes was compared; three of the strains produced enzyme with approximately twice the specific activity of the other strain (8724). Gel electrophoresis results indicated that at least three different NADH-oxidizing enzymes were present in crude extracts of diacetyl reductase. Sephadex-gel chromotography separated NADH oxidase from diacetyl reductase. It was also noted that ethyl alcohol concentrations approximately equivalent to those found in beer were quite inhibitory to diacetyl reductase. PMID:4315861

  14. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  15. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only...

  16. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  17. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  18. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  19. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  20. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only...

  1. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  2. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  3. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only...

  4. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  5. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only...

  6. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  7. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  8. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  9. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  10. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  11. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  12. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  13. 27 CFR 25.15 - Materials for the production of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... production of beer. 25.15 Section 25.15 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Definitions Standards for Beer § 25.15 Materials for the production of beer. (a) Beer must be brewed from malt or from substitutes for malt. Only...

  14. Low-alcohol Beers: Flavor Compounds, Defects, and Improvement Strategies.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A; Andrés-Iglesias, Cristina; Montero, Olimpio

    2016-06-10

    Beer consumers are accustomed to a product that offers a pleasant and well-defined taste. However, in alcohol-free and alcohol-reduced beers these characteristics are totally different from those in regular beer. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and determine the different flavor compounds that affect organoleptic characteristics to obtain a product that does not contain off-flavors, or taste of grass or wort. The taste defects in alcohol-free beer are mainly attributed to loss of aromatic esters, insufficient aldehydes, reduction or loss of different alcohols, and an indeterminate change in any of its compounds during the dealcoholization process. The dealcoholization processes that are commonly used to reduce the alcohol content in beer are shown, as well as the negative consequences of these processes to beer flavor. Possible strategies to circumvent such negative consequences are suggested. PMID:25118090

  15. Immunochemical determination of gluten in malts and beers.

    PubMed

    Dostálek, P; Hochel, I; Méndez, E; Hernando, A; Gabrovská, D

    2006-11-01

    The gluten content in different varieties of barley and malts, and in different types of beers, was determined by a 'sandwich' enzyme immunoassay (RIDASCREEN Gliadin kit). The gluten levels in barley wheat, rye and spelt malts ranged 18.8-45.0, 44.0-68.0, 41.6 and 21.2 g kg-1, respectively. When various types of beer were compared, the gluten concentration increased as follows: alcohol-free beer (<3.0), lager beers (<3.0-8.7 mg l-1), stouts (9.0-15.2 mg l-1) and wheat beers (10.6-41.2 mg l-1). When 10 Czech lager beers were analysed, using both sandwich and competitive ELISA, the results showed that the latter method provided values several times higher than the former. Gluten balance was carried out during the brewing process, starting from the raw materials and terminating at the final beer. Gluten levels decreased due to precipitation during the mashing process, primary and secondary fermentation and, lastly, as a result of adsorption during beer stabilization. The gluten content in beer is, thus, approximately three orders of magnitude lower than in the raw malt. PMID:17071509

  16. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    PubMed

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  17. Empowering Nigerian Pidgin: A Challenge for Status Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igboanusi, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the fact that Nigerian Pidgin (NP) is probably the language with the highest population of users in Nigeria, it does not enjoy official recognition and is excluded from the education system. It lacks prestige because it is seen by many Nigerians as a "bad" form of English and associated with a socially deprived set of people. This…

  18. An Appraisal of Globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifedili, Chika Josephine A.; Ojogwu, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines globalisation and Nigerian Educational Policies. Different Educational Policies that the Nigerian Government had previously embarked upon were assessed. The failures of various policies were looked into based on who originated the policies; drew up the policies; the budgetary allocation to education; other sources of funds…

  19. Academic Quality Control in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, E. O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, R. I.; Essien, M. I.; Timothy, A. Essien

    2014-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality control in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  20. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  1. Evaluating an Educational Program for Parents: A Nigerian Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoha, Dorothy; Saidu, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Despite the evidence pointing to its detrimental child outcomes, physical punishment remains one of the most commonly used techniques to discipline children in many Nigerian homes. Research has revealed that a majority of Nigerian parents are not aware of the negative consequences. They are also not aware of nonaversive ways to discipline…

  2. Academic Quality Assurance Variables in Nigerian Universities: Exploring Lecturers' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiekezie, Eucharia O.; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I.; Timothy, Alexander E.; Essien, Margaret I.

    2016-01-01

    The level of job performance, international comparability and competitiveness of Nigerian university graduates are burning issues. Consequently, the academic quality of Nigerian universities has come under severe criticism. Since university lecturers are key players in quality assurance in universities, this study explored their perceptions of…

  3. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  4. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer.

    PubMed

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  5. Identification of the lactogenic compound present in beer.

    PubMed

    Sawagado, L; Houdebine, L M

    1988-01-01

    Lyophylized beer and extracts of plants used to prepare beer have been administered orally to mature virgin rats and intravenously to ewe. After four days of treatment, beta-casein estimated by a radioimmunoassay was present in the mammary glands of the rats to which beer or barley extracts were given. Injections of lyophilised beer, barley or malt extracts triggered the release of prolactin in ewe whereas hop extracts were inactive. The active compound present in beer barley and malt, was insolubilized in 50% ethanol and it is in the aqueous phase in chloroform extraction. The active preparation contained essentially polysaccharides. This suggests that the lactogenic principle belongs to this class of macromolecule. PMID:3382062

  6. Determinants of journal choice among Nigerian medics

    PubMed Central

    Olusegun, Nwhator Solomon; Olayinka, Agbaje Maarufah; Modupe, Soroye; Ikenna, Isiekwe Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. Methods An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Results Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior

  7. Guilty or Not Guilty? How Nigerian Families Impede the Aspirations of Nigerian Girls for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onochie, Okeke Chinedu Ifedi

    2010-01-01

    The females' relatively low participation in higher education is discussed within the Nigerian society in a way that such issues are discursively placed in often contradictory, as well as extremely complicated contexts. Dominant discussions draw on the interplay between gender and students' performance across subjects, as well as on the influences…

  8. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. PMID:25996521

  9. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  10. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  11. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  12. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  14. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  15. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  16. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  17. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  18. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  19. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  20. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  1. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  2. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  3. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  4. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  5. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  6. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  7. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the...

  8. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  9. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  10. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  11. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  12. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  13. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  14. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  15. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  16. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  17. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  18. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  19. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  20. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the...

  1. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  2. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  3. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the...

  4. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the...

  5. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  6. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  7. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  8. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.152 Requirements as to wines and beer. Every wholesale dealer in liquors who receives wines, or wines and beer, and every wholesale dealer in beer must keep at the...

  9. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  10. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: a rapid tool for assessing beer composition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C Silva

    2011-02-18

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 °C), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC-MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achieving a threefold reduction of the chromatographic time. Although losing optimum resolution, rapid GC runs showed similar chromatographic profiles and semi-quantitative ability to characterize volatile compounds. To evaluate the variations on the global volatile signature (chromatographic profile and m/z pattern of fragmentation in each scan) of beer during thermal deterioration, a non-supervised multivariate analysis method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was applied to the GC-MS data. This methodology allowed not only the rapid identification of the degree of deterioration affecting beer, but also the identification of specific compounds of relevance to the thermal deterioration process of beer, both well established markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF), furfural and diethyl succinate, as well as other compounds, to our knowledge, newly correlated to beer aging. PMID:21227435

  12. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  13. Fate of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops to beer.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J F; Taylor, A W; Clawson, J E; Deinzer, M L

    1999-06-01

    The fate of three prenylated flavonoids of the chalcone type, xanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol, and 3'-geranylchalconaringenin, was monitored with LC/MS-MS from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) to beer in two brewing trials. The three prenylchalcones were largely converted into their isomeric flavanones, isoxanthohumol, prenylnaringenins, and geranylnaringenins, respectively, in the boiling wort. Losses of prenylflavonoids were due to incomplete extraction from the hops into the wort (13-25%), adsorption to insoluble malt proteins (18-26%), and adsorption to yeast cells (11-32%) during fermentation. The overall yield of xanthohumol, after lagering of the beer and largely in the form of isoxanthohumol, amounted to 22-30% of the hops' xanthohumol. About 10% of the hops' desmethylxanthohumol, completely converted into prenylnaringenins, remained in the beers. 3'-Geranylchalconaringenin behaved similarly to desmethylxanthohumol. Solubility experiments indicated that (1) malt carbohydrates form soluble complexes with xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol and (2) solubility does not dictate the isoxanthohumol levels of finished beers. PMID:10794646

  14. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24932634

  15. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. PMID:24932634

  16. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  17. Pattern of Retropharyngeal Abscess in Nigerian Children

    PubMed Central

    Ijaduola, Taiwo G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of cases of retropharyngeal abscess in Nigerian children was carried out. It occurred most commonly in children under the age of 6 months and in more male children than female in a ratio of 5:3. Most children seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital were brought in late with the upper airway already obstructed. A diagnostic tool of soft-tissue x-ray examination of the neck is not foolproof. In fact, 22.58 percent of soft-tissue x-ray examinations of the neck in this study produced false-positive results. Factors contributing to these results are discussed. Bacteriology showed the main organisms to be Hemophilus influenzae (45.84 percent) and Streptococcus pyogenes (33.33 percent). All cases were found to be secondary to upper respiratory tract infection. PMID:3950981

  18. Cytotoxic activity of selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A; van de Venter, M; Baatjies, L; Koekemoer, T

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most prominent human diseases which has stimulated scientific and commercial interest in the discovery of new anticancer agents from natural sources. The current study investigates the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of sixteen Nigerian plants used locally for the treatment of cancer using the MTT assay on the HeLa cell line. Sapium ellipticum leaves showed activity comparable to the reference compound Cisplatin and greater cytotoxic activity than Combretum paniculatum, Celosia trigyna, Drymaria cordata, Cyathula achyranthoides and Cyathula prostata. Justica extensa, Pupalia lappacea, Hedranthera barteri leaves, Alternanthera sessilis, Ethulia conyzoides leaves, Combretum zenkeri root, Sapium ellipticum stembark and Lannea nigritana stembark showed very low activity while Combretum molle, Adenanthera parvoniana and Lannea acida showed no activity. The results justify the use of Sapium, Combretum, Celosia, Drymaria and Cyathula in traditional treatment of cancer. PMID:20606772

  19. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  20. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (−1.1%), AB (−1.0%) and NAB (−1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (−3.9%) and AB (−3.7%), plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (−0.9%) and NAB (−1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise. PMID:27338452

  1. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na⁺ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (-3.9%) and AB (-3.7%), plasma K⁺ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (-0.9%) and NAB (-1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise. PMID:27338452

  2. Study of lip print types among Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Adamu, L H; Taura, M G; Hamman, W O; Ojo, S A; Dahiru, A U; Sadeeq, A A; Umar, K B

    2015-12-01

    Lip prints in a narrow sense are normal lines and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of transition of lips. The aims of this study were to determine the types and association of lip prints as well as the role of the lip print as genetic marker in ethnic differentiation in multi-ethnic population of Nigeria. A total of 820 individuals (414 males and 406 females) participated. The study sample was drawn from different ethnic groups of Nigeria. The three major ethnic groups were identified and the minor groups were lumped together. This was to provide clear evidence on the ethnic differentiation based on lip print types among Nigerians. The lip prints were collected on microscopic glass slides and developed using carbon black powder. Each print was then divided into 10 compartments and analyzed using a magnifying lens. Chi-squared test was used for association between ethnicity and lip print types; p<0.05 was set as a level of significance. The result of the study showed the following lip print pattern in Nigerian population where Type V (31.39%) was predominant, followed by Type III (24.18%), Type IV (18.70%), Type I (14.87%), Type II (10.29%) and least frequent was Type I' (0.57%). Statistically significant association (p<0.05) of lip print types with ethnicity was found in upper left lateral compartments (ULL). It was concluded that lip prints show ethnic differences. Hence, they may hold potential promise as a supplementary tool in ethnic differentiation and in personal identification. PMID:26421606

  3. Wine, beer, alcohol and polyphenols on cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Sara; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Medina-Remón, Alex; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-07-01

    Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits) on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol) or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols). Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day) is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer's lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols. PMID:22852062

  4. Influencing factors of hydrogen bonding intensity in beer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yin, Xiangsheng; Li, Qi; Gu, Guoxian

    2014-11-01

    The hydrogen bonding was prone to be formed by many components in beer. Different sorts of flavor substances can affect the Chemical Shift due to their different concentrations in beer. Several key factors including 4 alcohols, 2 esters, 6 ions, 9 acids, 7 polyphenols, and 2 gravity indexes (OG and RG) were determined in this research. They could be used to investigate the relationship between hydrogen bonding intensity and the flavor components in bottled larger beers through the Correlation Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed that ethanol content was the primary influencing factor, and its correlation coefficient was 0.629 for Correlation Analysis. Some factors had a positive correlation with hydrogen bonding intensity, including the content of original gravity, ethanol, isobutanol, Cl(-), K(+), pyruvic acid, lactic acid, gallic acid, vanillic acid, and Catechin in beer. A mathematic model of hydrogen bonding Chemical Shift and the content of ethanol, pyruvic acid, K(+), and gallic acid was obtained through the Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis , with the adjusted R(2) being 0.779 (P = 0.001). Ethanol content was proved to be the most important factor which could impact on hydrogen bonding association in beer by Principal Component Analysis. And then, a multiple non-linearity model could be obtained as follows: [Formula: see text]. The average error was 1.23 % in the validated experiment. PMID:26396290

  5. Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedović, Viktor A.; Manojlović, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

    Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedović 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

  6. Native Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benningfield, Damond

    2001-03-01

    People native to North America practiced their own version of astronomy. They tracked the motions of the Sun to help them decide when to plant crops, move their camps, and stage sacred rituals. Some tribes built great circles of stones to help them predict the changing seasons. Others built great mounds of earth to reflect the patterns they saw in the heavens and to align their ceremonial centers with the Sun and the Moon.

  7. Captain Cook's beer: the antiscorbutic use of malt and beer in late 18th century sea voyages.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brett J

    2003-01-01

    The custom of allowing British seamen the regular use of fermented liquor is an old one. Ale was a standard article of the sea ration as early as the fourteenth century. By the late eighteenth century, beer was considered to be at once a food (a staple beverage and essential part of the sea diet), a luxury (helping to ameliorate the hardship and irregularity of sea life) and a medicine (conducive to health at sea). In particular, beer and its precursors, wort and malt, were administered with the aim of preventing and curing scurvy. This paper examines the use of malt and beer during late eighteenth century British sea voyages, particularly their use as antiscorbutic agents, focusing on James Cook's three voyages during the period 1768-1780. Cook administered sweet wort (an infusion of malt), beer (prepared from an experimental, concentrated malt extract), and spruce beer (prepared mainly from molasses), among many other items, in his attempts to prevent and to cure scurvy. Despite the inconclusive nature of his own experiments, he reported favourably after his second voyage (1772-1775) on the use of wort as an antiscorbutic sea medicine (for which purpose it is now known to be useless). Cook thereby lent credibility to erroneous medical theories about scurvy, helping to perpetuate the use of ineffective treatments and to delay the discovery of a cure for the disorder. PMID:12810402

  8. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  9. Metabolism of zearalenone in the course of beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-02-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to β-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process. PMID:22069701

  10. Fate of mycotoxins during beer brewing and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains, and breweries need, therefore, to pay close attention to the risk of contamination in beer made from such grains as barley and corn. The fate of 14 types of mycotoxin (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone) during beer brewing was investigated in this study. Malt artificially spiked with each mycotoxin was put through the mashing, filtration, boiling and fermentation processes involved in brewing. After brewing, the levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone were found to have decreased to less than 20% of their initial concentration. They had been adsorbed mainly to the spent grain and removed from the unhopped wort. Additionally, as zearalenone was known, patulin was metabolized to the less toxic compound during the fermentation process. The risk of carry-over to beer was therefore reduced for half of the mycotoxins studied. However, attention still needs to be paid to the risk of trichothecene contamination. PMID:23832360